Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...
Shiller, Robert J. (Yale)
In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.
Full Text Available Animal spirits*. How human psychology drives the economy and why it matters for global capitalism helps us understand how the economic systems operate on the economic theory crisis background. The message of the book is recognizing the importance of irrationality factors in formulating the economic theory. The paper calls for reconsidering the economy fundamentals and principles, presenting a new way of understanding the significant economic phenomena that standard economic science cannot explain or accurately interpret. In this respect, a new way to revolutionize the economic thinking which might change the approach of the economic crises, unemployment, poverty, economic fluctuations and the like, is open. * The “animal spirits” collocation (coming from Latin spiritus animalis, where animus pertains to the soul or means to animate refers to that nervous fluid presently covering the psychological and emotional motivation factors. In a broad sense, the animal spirits refer to vivacity, to the natural state of a healthy animal, acting as an intermediary between the body and soul. In an economic context, Keynes speaks about the people’s strength and vitality determining them to make bold decisions and to invest money, effort and time in business initiatives. From an economic perspective, the animal spirits cover an element of anxiety and inconsistency present in the economy, the people’s unusual ambiguity and insecurity which sometimes paralyse them, while otherwise stimulate them overcome fear and hesitation.
Locke, John L; Flanagan, Catherine M
Van de Vliert embraces a "supply side" model of human needs, underplaying a "demand" model whereby individuals, motivated by psychological needs, develop coping strategies that help them meet their personal goals and collectively exert an influence on social and economic systems. Undesirable climates may inflate the value of financial capital, but they also boost the value of social capital.
The article considers the content and the structure of human capital. The term “human capital” is viewed as people’s abilities toparticipate in the production process in order to make use of their potential skills. A particular attention is paid to the meaning ofsocial capital and its role in the formation of human capital. It is proven that there is not much research on the connection betweenhuman and social capital. Human development index in Ukraine and 20 leading counties of the global ra...
Rodolfo E. Manuelli
Perhaps no question has attracted as much attention in the economics literature as “Why are some countries richer than others?” In this article, the author revisits the “development problem” and provides some estimates of the importance of human capital in accounting for cross-country differences in output per worker. His results suggest that human capital has a central role in determining the wealth of nations and that the quality of human capital varies systematically with the level of deve...
Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan
Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.
Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan
Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in hu...
Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.
To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…
Just as postsecondary schooling serves as a dividing line between the advantaged and disadvantaged on outcomes like income and marital status, it also serves as a dividing line between the healthy and unhealthy. Why are the better educated healthier? Human capital theory posits that education makes one healthier via cognitive (skill improvements)…
Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...
HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER
Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...
Julio César Ponce Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Psychological Capital has to do with individual psychological resources available to people in an organization which are useful for dealing with adversity. In this work, a practice with an intervention program to develop psychological capital is evaluated. The effect of practice in a sample of students in a Venezuelan public university (N = 15 were studied. Research and theory support the relationship of Psychological Capital components of hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience, with positive results in organizations both individually and organizational scope. Hence exploring the feature of malleability in CapPsi and therefore its developed capability it is interesting. There have been proven intervention models to develop CapPsi showing positive results. Practice to develop CapPsi (PCP shown in this paper is based on these initial models. Through an experimental design with pre- and post-test the effects of PCP on CapPsi levels is evaluated. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that through a concentrated training with a short practice, you can develop and improve levels of CapPsi.
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results and suggest a reinterpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because o...
Sequeira, Tiago; Santos, Marcelo,; Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra
The determinants of human capital have been studied sparsely in the literature. Although there is a huge literature on the determinants of schooling linked with the quality of schooling, there are not many contributions that explore the deep determinants of investment in, quantity and quality of human capital. This paper investigates the relationship between human capital and the ancestral genetic diversity of populations. It highlights a strong hump-shaped relationship between genetic divers...
.... This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps...
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
Using Danish registry data covering the population of Danish workers, we provide new and robust evidence with external validity on the importance of the breadth of human capital for top management appointments, and support/enrich the human capital theory of corporate leadership by Gibbons and Wal...
Yvonne Du Plessis; Nicolene Barkhuizen
Scholars argue that to address the social, economic and political challenges facing South Africa since 1994, organisational managers/leaders should adopt a positive approach, based on sound organisational behaviour. This study administered the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) to determine whether human resources practitioners (N=131) as custodians of change and positive behaviour in organisations in South Africa embrace core elements of Positive Organisational Behaviour (POB). Explor...
Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.
Le Grange, L.
In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…
Chen, Qishan; Wen, Zhonglin; Kong, Yurou; Niu, Jun; Hau, Kit-Tai
We investigated the relationships between leaders' and their followers' psychological capital and organizational identification in a Chinese community. Participants included 423 followers on 34 work teams, each with its respective team leader. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) were used in the analyses to delineate the relationships among participants' demographic background (gender, age, marital status, and educational level), human capital, and tenure. The results revealed that leaders' psychological capital positively influenced their followers' psychological capital through the mediation effect of enhancing followers' organizational identification. The implications of these findings, the study's limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:29075218
Chen, Qishan; Wen, Zhonglin; Kong, Yurou; Niu, Jun; Hau, Kit-Tai
We investigated the relationships between leaders' and their followers' psychological capital and organizational identification in a Chinese community. Participants included 423 followers on 34 work teams, each with its respective team leader. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) were used in the analyses to delineate the relationships among participants' demographic background (gender, age, marital status, and educational level), human capital, and tenure. The results revealed that leaders' psychological capital positively influenced their followers' psychological capital through the mediation effect of enhancing followers' organizational identification. The implications of these findings, the study's limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available We investigated the relationships between leaders' and their followers' psychological capital and organizational identification in a Chinese community. Participants included 423 followers on 34 work teams, each with its respective team leader. Hierarchical linear models (HLM were used in the analyses to delineate the relationships among participants' demographic background (gender, age, marital status, and educational level, human capital, and tenure. The results revealed that leaders' psychological capital positively influenced their followers' psychological capital through the mediation effect of enhancing followers' organizational identification. The implications of these findings, the study's limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
Yvonne Du Plessis
Full Text Available Scholars argue that to address the social, economic and political challenges facing South Africa since 1994, organisational managers/leaders should adopt a positive approach, based on sound organisational behaviour. This study administered the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ to determine whether human resources practitioners (N=131 as custodians of change and positive behaviour in organisations in South Africa embrace core elements of Positive Organisational Behaviour (POB. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model for the PCQ, renamed the Potential South African PsyCap (PSA-PsyCap instrument. All dimensions displayed acceptable reliabilities. Statistically significant differences exist in the POB of demographic groups, relating to age, marital status, home language, seniority and qualifications. This research reveals that South African HR practitioners and managers should fully embrace psychological capital to effectively create caring workplaces taking cognizance of the broader economic and social issues affecting employees and their performance.
Full Text Available The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013 show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress or loneliness, which can impact their level of wellbeing and performance. Beyond Savoirs [knowledge], Savoir Faire [knowing what to do], the role of Savoir Être [knowing how to be] referring to a set of emotional competencies, is crucial in sustaining human capital in a broad sense, personal development and health (Gendron 2004. During the Initiatives d'Excellence en Formations Innovantes (IDEFI Programme, [Initiatives of Excellence in Innovative Training] 132 first year university students of education underwent an intervention (a minimum of six workshops of four hours aimed at developing their emotional capital. Using two approaches PIA2 (European Management and Project Management Methodology and ACT Training derived from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT the objective was to develop trainees’ social and personal emotional competencies such as self-esteem, self-knowledge, empathy and conflict management. Using an interdisciplinary approach drawing on educational theory, theory of human resources and positive psychology, the results show that emotional capital, developed using positive psychology tools, can improve wellbeing and contribute to a holistic personal development.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of psychological capital intervention on the depressed patients. Method: 62 patients with depression were randomly divided into control group and experimental group. Control group was taken with drug treatment, experimental group was taken with drug treatment and psychological capital intervention. Two groups of patients had been evaluated by psychological capital questionnaire (PPQ and depression self rating scale (SDS , before and after treatment. Results: After treatment, the two groups of patients’ scores of PPQ and SDS both dropped significantly. The treatment results of the experimental group was better than the control group. Conclusion: In conventional drug treatment with psychological intervention of capital at the same time, can efetively improve the patients’ level of psychological capital, significantly alleviate symptoms of depression.
Full Text Available In modern age, positive psychological capital is as important as financial capital for organizational development and sustainability. Efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience are the dimensions of positive psychological capital. Emotional labor is defined by Hochschild as control of self emotions at work by workers who have a high degree of contact with coworkers within the organization or with external clients, so as to create an expression, voice or body gesture which is acceptible to the clients. Emotional labor is analysized under three components: surface acting, deep acting and naturally felt emotions. This study is aimed to investigate the impact of positive psychological capital on emotional labor. So a research is conducted with the aim of exploring the relationship between the sub-dimensions of psychological capital and emotional labour.
Sen Amartya Kumar
Full Text Available En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse simplemente como un incremento del PIB sino como la expansión de la capacidad humana para llevar una vida mas libre y mas digna.In this article the relationships and the differences between the concept of 'human capital' and the concept of 'human capability' are examined. The concept of human capital is more limited since it only conceives human qualities in relation to economic growth, whereas the concept of capabili ties puts emphasis on the expansion of human freedom to live the kind of life that people judge valuable. Whenthis broader vision is adopted, the process of development cannot be seen as simply an increase in the GNP, but rather as the expansion of the human capability to live a more free and worthy life.
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital
How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.
How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187
Schultz, T Paul
A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.
Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD describes human capital as “knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic wellbeing.”* It follows from this interpretation that investment in human capital includes the sum of all costs that allow a new being to reach economic autonomy. In this paper we analyze the family and social dimensions of human capital and discuss how decisions on human capital formation are taken and how its associated costs are shared. The discussion leads us to identify an important paradox underlying human capital formation, namely the fact that while families are its main contributors the benefits of such investment go primarily to society as a whole. This paradox and its consequences are central to two very important current issues. The first issue, one that is common to many developed countries, is low female fertility which is the source, in particular, of population aging. The second issue, affecting chiefly developing countries, is the inequality of opportunities, a problem lying at the root of underdevelopment. Two options are discussed to respond to this dilemma, one based on redistributive programs and another on market solutions. The paper discusses the limits inherent to redistributive programs and goes on to present at length the alternative market solution. In a nutshell this consists of securitizing the human capital of individuals so as to finance the expenses leading to their upbringing, from birth to adulthood. In addition to describing this scheme the paper analyzes its advantages as well as the difficulties associated with its implementation. It concludes by exploring possible interpretations of the scheme and feasible routes for its adoption.
Sharon A Munyaka; Adré B Boshoff; Jacques Pietersen; Robin Snelgar
Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit. Research purpose...
Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...
Verhoglyadova N. I.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to researching the nature of human capital, its internal structure, comparative characteristics of human capital and other economic categories; factors of its forming under present conditions of transformations in the economy of Ukraine.
To evaluate the relationship between work engagement and psychological capital (PsyCap) levels reported by registered nurses. PsyCap is a developable human resource. Research on PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement in nurses is needed. A convenience sample of 137 registered nurses participated in this quantitative cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires measured self-reported levels of work engagement and psychological capital. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. There was a statistically significant correlation between work engagement and PsyCap scores (r=0.633, p<0.01). Nurses working at band 5 level reported statistically significantly lower PsyCap scores compared with nurses working at band 6 and 7 levels. Nurses reporting high levels of work engagement also reported high levels of PsyCap. Band 5 nurses might benefit most from interventions to increase their PsyCap. This study supports PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement.
Ioana Julieta Josan
Full Text Available The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the increased acting globally competition. Currently, companies that succeed are the ones that integrate in their business strategy, an important component of development and valuation human capital. The paper aims to analyze and highlight the importance of human capital in the new organizational strategies, focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and excellence.
Kubin, Ingrid; Zörner, Thomas
We augment a model of endogenous credit cycles by Matsuyama et al.(2016) with human capital to study the impact of human capital on the stability of central economic aggregates. Thus we offer a linkage between human capital formation and credit market instability on a macrolevel combined with an analysis of functional income distribution. Human capital is modelled as pure external effect of production following a learning-by-producing approach. Agents have access to two different investment p...
Human capital wordt door diverse auteurs gezien als een ‘value driver’. Er is echter weinig bekend over de wijze waarop ondernemingen human capital meten en sturen en hoe beleggers op de kapitaalmarkt reageren op human capital informatie die door ondernemingen wordt verstrekt. In dit artikel wordt
Sharon A. Munyaka
Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit.Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample.Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector.Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling.Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving
Rene van Wyk
Full Text Available This qualitative documentary analysis examines Nelson Mandela�s defence statement at the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court, on 20 April 1964. The defence document is analysed through the psychological capital lens, depicting themes that support the constructs of hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism. Psychological capital characteristics played a major role in the initial non-violent policies of negotiation. The inevitable establishment of Umkhonto we Sizwe followed, as a result of the increased restrictions and unwillingness of government to negotiate and collaborate. Mandela showed a determined spirit to unite the country. The discussion gives insight into Mandela�s authentic psychological capital leadership under difficult political and personal circumstances. Some implications are indicated in adopting Mandela�s psychological characteristics for personal reform.
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear and non-linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heterogenous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also
Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological capital (PsyCap is a relatively novel construct measured with the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24. Only one published South African study on the instrument exists, providing inconsistent psychometric results, when compared with other United States of America (USA and non-USA studies.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the internal validity (construct and discriminant validity, reliability and external validity (relationship with theoretically relevant variables, namely stress, burnout and work engagement of the PCQ-24.Motivation for the study: Multiple studies have underscored the value of PsyCap within the workplace. In order to harness the full potential of the construct in the South African environment, sound measurement thereof, evidenced by a psychometrically sound instrument, is needed.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of employees at managerial and non-managerial levels, from a medium-sized construction company in the Western Cape, South Africa. In addition to PsyCap, perceived stress, work-related burnout and work engagement were measured.Main findings: The results provided preliminary evidence of construct and discriminant validity, reliability and significant relations with external theoretically relevant variables.Practical/managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the PCQ-24 to measure the construct of PsyCap and investigate relations with workplace outcomes in the South African environment, informing human relations practices.Contribution/value-add: Preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the PCQ-24, which measures the construct of PsyCap (consisting of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism on a South African sample, was provided in this study.
Despite a longstanding belief that education importantly affects the process of immigrant assimilation, little is known about the relative importance of different mechanisms linking these two processes. This paper explores this issue through an examination of the effects of human capital on one dimension of assimilation, immigrant intermarriage. I argue that there are three primary mechanisms through which human capital affects the probability of intermarriage. First, human capital may make i...
This study examined teachers' perceptions of principals' authentic leadership and the relationship of authentic leadership to teachers' psychological capital in Taiwan. A total of 1,429 elementary and secondary school teachers were surveyed. The results showed that teachers perceived their principals' authentic leadership as moderate and that the…
Information about the labour market should improve while government policy should favour labour mobility. There should be regular interaction of planners, employers and builders of human capital to facilitate the process of meaningful national development. (Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology: 2001 ...
Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.
literature consulted revealed that government contribution to education and human capital development is ..... developed human capital, entrepreneurship abilities and successes would not develop and grow and Nigeria ... From the review of literature, it was obvious that education and human resource development is at ...
Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp
This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying...... within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....
Potelienė, Simona; Tamašauskienė, Zita
According to human capital theory, knowledge and skills incorporated in the individual can be referred to as capital and all activities with which the present input makes future yields while the productivity of the individual grows can be interpreted as an investment. This research considers higher education as an investment decision and presents empirical evidence on the private return on this investment. We calculate the private net present value of higher education (i.e. human capital) and...
Oosterbeek, H.; Groot, W.J.N.
In this paper the authors extend the standard human capital model with the probability of becoming unemployed and uncertainty about future earnings. Their analysis deviates from earlier human capital uncertainty models in assuming risk neutral decisionmakers. This allows a straightforward comparison
Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin
The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…
Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian
Based on a general framework for computing the aggregate human capital stock under heterogeneity across population cohorts, the paper derives aggregate human capital stocks in the whole population and in the labor force, and relates these variables to average years of schooling and average work...
Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera
Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…
Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.
We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…
Mustafa Kemal TOPCU
Full Text Available Employees’ contribution to organizations to be succesfull and to reach objectives are considered great. As a natural result, organizations has exponentially started to invest in human capital. By adapting positive psychology to organizational field, it is believed that the happier employees are the more porductive they work. In fact, psychology of employees at workplace has a great significance on organizational attitudes and behaviors towards the job itself, organization, co-workers, and customers. In particular, the effects on job satisfaction, which is a sum of emotions at workplace, is continously attached more attraction by researchers. Nonetheless, relations among variables are studied at organizations having a normal life cycle. On the other side, extreme cases like moving, downsizing, restructuring are rarely studied. To this end, this study aims at determining the effects of psychological capital and emotional labor on job satisfaction of employees working in a moving bank headquarters. Findings indicate that there is no significant effect of psychological capital and emotional labor on job satifaction due to organizational climate whilst psychological capital has a positive effect on emotional labor.
Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars; Hansen, Ronnie Fibæk
capital appears to be equally important for economic development in low-tech industries and, second, that the divide between the large urban regions, especially Copenhagen, and the rest of the country plays the primary role in explaining the geography of human capital. These findings stress the relevance......An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however......, the influence of human capital on the development of low-tech industries is yet to be analysed. This paper provides such an examination of low-tech industries based on an analysis of employment data within manufacturing industries in Denmark in the period 1993–2006. The findings highlight, first, that human...
Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.
Johannes J. de Waal
Full Text Available Orientation: It is of theoretical and practical interest to establish the sequential relationship between work engagement and positive organisational behaviour, as represented by the psychological capital (PsyCap construct.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to conceptualise and investigate the causal relationship and temporal order in the relationship between PsyCap and engagement by means of longitudinal data.Motivation for the study: The rationale for establishing the sequence of engagement and psychological capital lies in the fact that training interventions to enhance the organisational well-being of employees may need to be focused on either one or the other.Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal study with a cross-lagged panel design was conducted; data was gathered by means of a survey that was constructed for the purpose of the study. The survey contained the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, and a measure of PsyCap. All employees within a chemical factory (N = 1003 were approached to provide data; 163 employees participated.Main findings: Results revealed that PsyCap at Time 1 (T1 did not significantly predict engagement at Time 2 (T2. Evidence does however exist that initial levels of employee engagement predict subsequent PsyCap.Practical/managerial implications: Results suggest that employee interventions aimed at protecting and fostering employee engagement may have implications for subsequent employee psychological capital.Contribution/value-add: As an empirical, longitudinal study to address the temporal order between PsyCap and work engagement, this study makes a contribution especially to theory, but also with practical implications by indicating that engagement precedes employee psychological capital.
Full Text Available Theories of human capital are becoming an increasingly common reference in both newer pedagogical theories as well as political documents, outlining the plans for reforms of science and education. As a part of broader ideology of knowledge society, human capital theories represent ideological legitimation of neoliberal trends in science and education policies. Increased investment in human capital on both social and individual level is supposed to increase the competitiveness of the economy as a whole as well as employability and welfare of individuals. In the first part of the article, we sketch the intellectual history and the socio-political context of the development of theories of human capital. Second part is dedicated to a critique of characteristically neoliberal equalization of labor with capital and of a theory, according to which investment in human capital brings profits to individual workers. In the third part, we outline a general socio-historical dynamics of the development of high-tech capitalism and show that “investments in human capital” and economic innovations do not bring about increased social welfare. In the fourth, final part, we analyze in detail how current educational reforms impact the learning process and working conditions at public universities.
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the
Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0
Sukarno, Gendut; Nirawati, Lia
Penilaian kinerja Perusahaan berbasis human capital merupakan hal menarik yang perlu dikembangkan oleh Perusahaan. Human capital merupakan salah satu komponen utama dari intellectual capital (intangible asset) yang dimiliki Perusahaan. Selama ini, penilaian terhadap kinerja Perusahaan lebih banyak menggunakan sumber daya yang bersifat fisik (tangible asset). Human capital di dalam organisasi memiliki potensi penuh untuk membangun orientasi pasar bagi konsumennya. Jika kompetensi pegawai di da...
Østergaard, Annemarie; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova
for entrepreneurial success and ultimately, for business growth and development. The increasing literature debating human capital confirms the relevance of locating and refining the factors for entrepreneurial success. Consequently, this paper improves the roadmap of Entrepreneurship Ecosystems by adding the innate......Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes......, aspirations and activities when dealing with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Along these lines, this paper focuses on an in-depth investigation of the domain of human capital in Isenbergs Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. It captures the entrepreneurial mindset of the highly complex individual as a requisite...
J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); I. Zilcha (Itzhak)
textabstractThe paper studies the determinants of income distribution and growth in an overlapping generations economy with heterogenous households. Our framework has the following main features: heterogeneity of consumers with respect to wealth and parental human capital; intergenerational
Bowen, Jr., Stuart W; Nash, William L
...) Human Capital Management, (2) Contracting, and (3) Program and Project Management. In each subject area, SIGIR gathers information through research and interviews, collating and distilling the results into a white paper...
Østergaard, Annemarie; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova
Since Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes, aspirations...... and activities when dealing with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Along these lines, this paper focuses on an in-depth investigation of the domain of human capital in Isenberg's entrepreneurship ecosystem. It captures the entrepreneurial mindset of the highly complex individual as a requisite...... for entrepreneurial success and ultimately, for business growth and development. The increasing literature debating human capital confirms the relevance of locating and refining the factors for entrepreneurial success. Consequently, this paper improves the roadmap of entrepreneurship ecosystems by adding the innate...
Aguero, Jorge; Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Maldonado, Stanislao; Ñopo, Hugo
How do resource booms affect human capital accumulation? We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodity boom across local governments in Peru to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation. We explore the effect of both mining production and tax revenues on test scores, finding a substantial and statistically significant effect for the latter. Transfers to local governments from mining tax revenues are linked to an increase in math test scores of aroun...
European Report on Development Brain Circulation between the European Union (EU) and Sub-Saharan Africa is a crucial ingredient in Human Capital formation in the latter. A major constraint to African development is the very low base of skilled and highly educated workers and professionals. The production of skilled workers has been low, and only recently has seen a dramatic increase. Recent papers by many authors have indicated that a channel for human capital growth has been, ...
Full Text Available Measurement of human capital is not an easy to do because it is dynamic and always changing in accordance with the changing circumstances. Determination of dimensions and indicators of measurement needs to consider various factors such as situations and also the research scopes. This article has objectives to review the concepts, dimensions and measurement models of human capital. The research method used was literature study with a major reference source from current journal articles that discuss the measurement of human capital. Results of the study showed that basically the definition set forth in any dimension containing either explicitly or implicitly. In addition, the result indicated that there are three main categories of equality among researchers regarding the definition of human capital which emphasizes on: economic value/productivity, education, and abilities/competencies. The results also showed that the use of definitions, dimensions, and indicators for measurement of human capital depends on the situation, the scope of research, and the size of the organization. The conclusion of the study indicated that the measurement model and determination of dimensions and indicators of human capital measurement will determine the effectiveness of the measurement, and will have an impact on organizational performance.
Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.
The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…
We examine the human capital status of 123 countries by employing factor analysis on various national human capital indicators for the period 2000–2008 to construct two new measures. The first measure is based on advanced human capital, while the second is based on basic human capital. Our measures
Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob
We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…
Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data diketemukan bahwa 1 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap customer capital. 2 Customer capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya, 3 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya.
Wan Fadzilah Wan Yusoff
Full Text Available Independent studies conducted on the impact of human capital, structural capital and social capital on firm performance have shown that a significant positive relationship can be established between each of them and performance. This study examined if each of these components of intellectual capital would show more significant relationships if they were to interact with each other, whether in a two-way or three-way interactions. Results provided by a sample collected from 298 business units of firms in the Malaysian financial services industry is consistent with the suggestion that the key driving forces in the contemporary business environment has moved from the management of tangible resources to the exploitation of intangible resources and differential outcome can be expected from the interactive nature of the components.
Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.
Full Text Available This article investigated the impact of human capital and technology on economic growth in Nigeria. We employed annual time series data for the period of 35 years (1975-2010 and applied autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration to examine the relationship between human capital, technology, and economic growth. Two proxies of human capital (secondary and tertiary school enrollments were used in two separate models. The cointegration result revealed that all the variables in the two separate models were cointegrated. Furthermore, the results of the two estimated models showed that human capital in form in secondary and tertiary school enrollments have had significant positive impact on economic growth. More so, technology also shows significant positive impact on economic growth. In a nutshell, both human capital and technology are important determinants of growth in Nigeria. Therefore, improvement of the educational sector and more funding for research and development (R&D to encourage innovations are needed to facilitate Nigeria’s sustained economic growth.
Abstract. The study examines education and human capital development through appropriate utilisation of information services. The paper is essentially a descriptive analysis of the state of education and human development in. Delta state and assesses the readiness of Delta state government on the development of ...
Albats, Ekaterina; Bogers, Marcel; Podmetina, Daria
Universities are widely acknowledged as an important source of knowledge for corporate innovation, and collaboration with universities plays an important role in companies’ open innovation strategy. However, little is known about the human capital components required for collaboration...... building, relationship building, IPR management and negotiation for the context of collaboration with universities. Our research has revealed an importance of expectation management skills for university-industry collaboration (UIC) context. We found that human capital for UIC is to be continuously...... developed and contracted by engagement in various relationships with academia. Our research helps in filling the research gap on human capital components required from the company specifically for collaboration with academia. It also serves practitioners with a profile of a general (archetype) UIC manager....
Lilleør, Helene Bie
Lack of primary schooling among rural children in developing countries is often attributed to credit constraints and household demand for child labour, implying that direct and indirect costs of schooling are high. Surprisingly few studies have considered the importance of parents' expected returns...... of investing in their childrens human capital, despite the fact that most parents rely on their children for old-age support and subsistence. In this paper, I propose an alternative model for human capital investment based on the household, rather than the individual child, incorporating the fact that parents...... bear the costs of educating all their children and face uncertainty about the level and share of future returns. This uncertainty can make it optimal for parents to ensure a certain degree of human capital diversification within the household. The model implications allow me to test whether...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was a critical analysis of the concept of positive psychological capital (PsyCap and an indication of ts applicability in organizations that implemented participatory management. Methodology: The study was based on the review and comparative analysis of literature. The theoretical foundations of the concept and its practical translation into organization reality, as well as the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of PsyCap on employee attitudes, behavior and performance, was presented. The limitations of this concept in the context of participatory management were also indicated. Findings: Conducted debate supported the conclusion that the development of employee self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience can contribute to strengthening participatory attitudes among workers, and thus enhancing the efficiency of the entire organization. However under several conditions, employee positive psychological states were treated not as organizational resources but as an integral part of themselves. Employees felt responsible for their personal development and development of their own PsyCap was optional. Originality: The study dealt with the relatively new issue of a psychological capital management in organizations that could provide an alternative to the classical human capital management. Its implementation in organizations with participatory management has not yet been discussed in the management literature.
Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox
Full Text Available Orientation: The management context is dynamic; this is especially evident in human capital as the primary source of value creation as opposed to physical and natural resources. In response, measurement methodologies have moved from a transactional approach (strategy implementation to a transformational approach (human capital contribution paradigm, as well as diverging into different purposes. To date, there has been little overlap on recent domains to consider in managing and measuring the contribution of the human resource function and employees, and how to unlock and add value.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and describe changing domains within human capital management to be managed and measured.Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of changing measurement domains to aid practitioners to manage and measure the contribution of the human resource function and employees, in order to unlock and add value and ultimately contribute to the success of an organisation.Research design, approach and method: Unstructured, in-depth interview data of purposively selected cases from a selected panel of human resource practitioners specialising in human capital measurement was thematically analysed in this exploratory-descriptive investigation.Main findings: Findings suggested that seven domains should be managed and measured. These domains highlight new areas of impact and levels of management. In addition, crossdomain relationships in measurement allow for an understanding of the impact and potential value on which to capitalise.Practical/managerial implications: New domains to manage and measure focus the attention of practitioners beyond the transactional performance management paradigm to a transformational approach to influence the business strategy. Higher education institutions need to develop students’ cognitive skills to facilitate systems thinking.Contribution: This study suggests a new
Estiri, Mehrdad; Nargesian, Abbas; Dastpish, Farinaz; Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi
The role of nurses in providing high quality healthcare to patients is so important that creating a desirable working environment to enhance their overall performance is unavoidable. This paper aimed to explore the impact of psychological capital on mental health by investigating the mediating effects of job burnout on this relationship. The data used in this research was obtained via a survey conducted among selected Iranian nurses in public hospitals. In total, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 384 were completed and returned. Collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between psychological capital, job burnout and mental health; also, there is a significant negative relationship between psychological capital and job burnout, and a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and mental health. The results have several important practical implications for human resource management in Iranian public hospitals. According to the results of this study, reducing job burnout is an important factor in enhancing psychological capital and can positively enhance nurses' mental health.
Bissessar, Charmaine S.
Teachers who possess high levels of psychological capital and collective self-esteem are better able to cope with the spate of school violence, student/student bullying, and other current issues confronting the education system globally, regionally, and nationally. A teacher psychological capital high in hope, optimism, self-efficacy, resilience,…
Prof. Dr. Adem KALÇA
Full Text Available By means of the free movements of production factors in the world economy, countries can easily reach the production factors which their economies lack. Having aroused as an additional factor besides the production factors especially in today’s age, and being regarded as an important production factor by many academics, information has been an important factor for increasing the growth rate of both developing and developed countries. This enables countries to develop without being dependent on their own production factors. However, developing countries have difficulties in sustaining their growth acceleration because of the problems they have in both finding qualified labor power and accessing technology and capital. For this reason, many developing countries search alternative ways for solving this problem and sustaining their growth trend. When the countries which have reached high growth rates and sustain these rates despite the economical crises are analyzed, it can be observed that many of these countries have based their growth economies on information technologies, and benefit from their Diasporas for developing these technologies. It can easily be seen from the studies that while the countries, especially China and India, which have made important economical progresses in the last 10-15 years, they have get fundamental befits from their diasporas. Many developing countries need humane capital as much as they do capital. While these countries benefit from foreign investors for the capital they need, they cannot find a foreign resource that can provide them with labor power necessary for humane capital. Within this respect, the countries (China, India and South Korea etc. having Diasporas with qualified labor power, try to provide the humane capital they need from these groups. Many Asian and European countries such as China, India and Israel, have tried to meet their humane capital need by getting benefit from Diaspora members who have
production”, e.g., factories and machines: one can invest in human capital (via education, training) and one's outputs depend partly .... skill or ability, a personal characteristic, or a cluster of two or more of these attributes. Competencies are the building blocks of work performance. The performance of most tasks requires the.
Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…
Madsen, Erik Strøjer
. However, the quality of education varies a lot across universities and business schools as well as across student within an education institution. The high variations in grades among students reflect the heterogeneity in human capital among students and this study verify how this heterogeneity...
digital signals in multimedia format using information technology. -. New economy is interested in strategic alliances like Public Private Partnership. (PPP) or team work. While, Eboh (2009) affirmed that today, knowledge is the key driving factor in social and economic progress of nations. The Place of Human Capital in ...
Wan, Hooi Lan
Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…
progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...
Groot, Wim; Oosterbeek, Hessel
Extends the standard human capital model by investigating the effects of uncertainty about future earnings and the probability of becoming unemployed on the optimum amount of schooling, assuming that lifetime earnings are maximized. Greater earnings dispersion by schooling level reduces the returns to schooling. (21 references) (MLH)
Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.
Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)
Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope. Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism. They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results.
Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars
Contemporary studies in urban and regional development stress the importance of large city-regions as key places in modern capitalism taking the form of agglomerations of economic activities by industries, firms and highly skilled people. In this article, we challenge the strong focus on academic...... categories ranging from the urban to the peripheral, we conclude that there is a strong spatial distinction of educational structures with an urban bias, and that educational categories other than academic human capital can make an important contribution to our understanding of what drives employment growth...
Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.
We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human
Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.
We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human
Atle Mikkola Kjøsen
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to interrogate Marx’s analysis of the circulation of capital through the ‘new materialist’ communications and media theory of Friedrich Kittler. It explores the connections between Marx’s commodity fetish and how Kittler posits human beings as components of an information system alongside technologies and institutions. The article ask whether a ‘non-human’ Marxist theory is possible, i.e. if it is possible to remove the human being from its privileged position in Marx’s political economy. Specifically the paper argues that human beings are programmable human matter that serves to aid the communication of value through capital’s circuit. This stance necessitates adopting the point of view of capital and the fetish, bracketing the social and moving away from categories such as labour, production and class consciousness in favour of the value form, circulation and programmability.
Dwi Ari Setyo Nugroho
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between psychological capital with work engagement employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang. Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development and is characterized by self- efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Then, work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. This study used proportional sampling technique. The subjects were all employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang which have staff levels (N=73. The research instrument was psychological capital scales with 28 items (α = 0.953 and work engagement scales with 29 items (α = 0.938. The results by simple regression analysis obtained rxy = 0.716, with p value = 0.000 (p <0.05. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between psychological capital and work engagement. The higher psychological capital was higher work engagement. Coefficient of determination by 51,3, it meaning that psychological capital effectively contributed for 51,3 % of work engagement. The remaining 48,7 % determined by other factors that are not revealed in this study, for example: job resources and job demands. Keywords: Psychological capital, work engagement, employee
K K Tang; Lim, A. S. K
This paper develops an improved measure of human capital. Using a Mincer specification of human capital, the improved measure takes into consideration rates of returns to schooling, education quality, and school dropouts. The paper applies the improved measure to evaluate national and global human capital inequality and compares them with education inequality. Human capital Kuznets curves are evident when relative inequality measures are used while education Kuznets curves are found when abso...
The authors propose organizational and analytical support for the diagnosis of human capital, which aims to create a procedure, that is, the established order, the carrying out of diagnostics. The main goals of organizational and analytical support of the diagnosis of human capital should include the following: diagnosis; determination of prospects of development of human capital as a diagnosis; development of programs, strategies, and concepts for the development of human capital based on di...
Blackburn, M L; Bloom, D E; Neumark, D
This theoretical model posits that women who delay child bearing will be more likely to invest in human capital (training that enhances productivity but is costly). This investment is conditioned by a greater discount rate than an economy-wide growth rate of wages for non-human capital investor women. The aim of the model is to present a more unified view of relationships between wages and fertility timing identified in earlier research. The empirical analyses, using ordinary least squares techniques, was based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-82 annually, for a sample of 1817 White working women aged 28-38 in 1982. Data were available for wages, education, work experience, age, number of children, and the percentage in occupations (manager, professional, administrative, service, and blue collar). First wages of women not in school and without a first birth were obtained for 991 women in the sample. Descriptive statistics revealed that the average early wage of late child bearers was 37% higher than the average early wage of early child bearers and 43% higher for 1982 wages. Childless women, compared to early child bearers, experienced a growth in wages from 31-38%. The assumptions in the theoretical model were 1) that all women were equally productive in the labor market in the beginning; 2) that women bore only one child; 3) that women worked continuously for a period of time, except for time out for child bearing; 4) that all women had the option of investing in one type of human capital, which cost the same for all women; 5) that the only source of income was the woman's own earnings; and 6) that a woman's lifetime utility was a function of the present value of her lifetime income and the intervening time period for child birth. Differences in education, experience, tenure, and wages were strongly associated with differences in fertility timing. The results revealed that wages were higher for delayed child bearers, primarily
Janet C. Simons
Full Text Available Orientation: The development of psychological capital amongst call centre employees could have an impact on positive work-related attitudes and behaviour; such as work engagement and organisational commitment.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the relationship between psychological capital, work engagement and organisational commitment amongst call centre employees; and further, to determine whether psychological capital and work engagement hold predictive value for the organisational commitment of call centre employees.Motivation for the study: There is a gap in research in understanding and enabling positive resource capacities in highly stressful work contexts such as call centres.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A sample of 106 call centre employees from a South African organisation participated in the research. The measuring instruments included a demographic questionnaire, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ.Main findings: Significant positive relationships were found between psychological capital, work engagement and organisational commitment. The results showed work engagement as being the only significant predictor of organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Call centre employers need to develop and implement workplace interventions that would increase the psychological capital of call centre employees.Contribution/value-add: The research findings will benefit both call centre employees and management. The study highlighted the importance of the role of optimism as a subdimension of psychological capital in developing work engagement and organisational commitment amongst call centre employees.
Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul
An individual’s human capital affects their choice to become and entrepreneur and also their likely success as a nascent entrepreneur. This paper explores how hybrid employment—entrepreneur opportunities impact these dynamics. Drawing on insights from decision theory, we argue that an individual......’s human capital influences entrepreneurial pursuits as a two stage process, first shaping whether nascent entrepreneurship and/or employment enters an individual’s consideration set when they are facing a career transition and second influencing the outcomes of entrepreneurial pursuits. Using a novel...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...
Full Text Available The human capital represents the most important investment made both by state and companies and also individually for the education and development of skills, knowledge, qualifications and capabilities of individuals, in order to obtain various incomes from certain economic activities. Both the expenses made for education and long term benefits influence the value of the investment in education. The analysis performed on the Romanian economy shows that between the educational level and the income, there is a positive relationship as the one, that numbers are showing with no doubt, between the manpower occupancy and the education period (the amount of investments in human capital. Therefore, the analysis of the Romanian labor market shows that the most affected by unemployment are the individuals with a modest education level while persons with a university degree suffer less from this phenomenon.
Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo
This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...... for girls. Given these findings, it appears that household entrepreneurship may contribute to decreasing the severe child labour problem in Tanzania, but resolving the problem of low school attendance rates will require a different strategy....
Jung Hyun Choi; Richard K. Green
This paper examines the magnitude of human capital spillovers on unemployment. Using bothindividual and metropolitan level data, we find that the adult population share of collegegraduates is negatively associated with the unemployment rate. More specifically, we find thatthose who reside in MSAs with higher shares of college graduates are more likely to beemployed, even after controlling for individual, MSA and state level factors including individualâ€™sown education level. The likelihood o...
Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Ross, Karen E.; Jeanne Ringel
In this paper we examine the relationship between marijuana use and human capital formation by examining performance on standardized tests among a nationally representative sample of youths from the National Education Longitudinal Survey. We find that much of the negative association between cross-sectional measures of marijuana use and cognitive ability appears to be attenuated by individual differences in school attachment and general deviance. However, difference-in-difference estimates ex...
Storper, Michael; Scott, Allen J.
Do jobs follow people or do people follow jobs? A number of currently prominent approaches to urbanization respond to this question by privileging the role of individual locational choice in response to amenity values as the motor of contemporary urban growth. Amenities, it is often said, have an especially potent effect on the migration patterns of individuals endowed with high levels of human capital. However, these approaches raise many unanswered questions. Theories that describe urban gr...
Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...
Florentina MOISESCU; Madalina Cosmina MANOLE; Cristina Georgiana DASCALEANU
The human capital represents the most important investment made both by state and companies and also individually for the education and development of skills, knowledge, qualifications and capabilities of individuals, in order to obtain various incomes from certain economic activities. Both the expenses made for education and long term benefits influence the value of the investment in education. The analysis performed on the Romanian economy shows that between the educational level and the in...
Han, J.; Han, J; Brass, D.
We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team-level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents
Mark Huggett; Greg Kaplan
This paper examines the value of an individual’s human capital and the associated return on human capital using U.S. data on male earnings and financial asset returns. We find that (1) the value of human capital is far below the value implied by discounting earnings at the risk-free rate and (2) the stock component of the value of human capital is smaller than the bond component at all ages. The stock component averages less than 35 percent of the value of human capital at each age.
Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...
Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C
This article examines the effects of organizational embeddedness on employees' activities to build social capital and human capital. To test a latent growth model, we collected data from 375 managers at multiple points over an 8-month period. We found that the more embedded employees perceived themselves to be at Time 1, the more likely they were to show declines in social capital development behaviors over time. In addition, declines in social capital development behavior were directly related to declines in human capital development behavior over time. These findings highlight the potential negative consequences embeddedness can have on employees' career development activity.
Full Text Available Every company is constructed through two kinds of capital, which is financial capital and intellectual capital. If the company's capital is described as a tree, the human capital, an essential part of intellectual capital, is the resin. Resin allows the tree grows, and only the human capital that enables organizations to grow and develop. Considering the strategic position of human capital, it is a compulsion for a company to develop it. The problem is how to build human capital effectively? This study aimed to identify the factors that determine the development of human capital in an organization. There are 2 (two major factors that hypothetically influence human capital, which is leadership and organizational commitment. Leadership does not directly affect human capital. Leadership influence human capital through organizational commitment. In other words, organizational commitment is an intervening variable for the relationship or the influence of leadership on human capital. This hypothesis is based on a 'fact' that the function of leadership is oriented and intended to obtain or build the commitment of each personnel. Only committed personnel will provide their best for the organization. Only through the best contributions of every personnel, human capital can be built and developed. Leadership is useless if it can not obtain and create commitment. Personnel are useless, no matter how many and how skilfull they are, if they do not contribute the best for the organization. The presence of personnel without their comitment will be the same with their absence; even they may actually be detrimental to the organization.
2016 ix ix ABSTRAK Pengaruh Human Capital Dan Structural Capital Terhadap Kinerja Sumber Daya Manusia Pada Pt. Semen Tonasa Pangkep Sulawesi Selatan The Effect of human capital and structural capitalto performance of human resourceson employee of PT. Semen Tonasa Pangkep south Sulawesi Abdullah Nurdjannah Hamid Ria Mardiana Yusuf Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh human capital dan structural capi...
Tatarko, A. N.
Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of
Wang, Yang; Chang, Ying; Fu, Jialiang; Wang, Lie
Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse' burnout is important to improve nurses' health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24) scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses' burnout.
Ackerman, Marc Bernard
The economics of dental practice are changing. The author reflects on the loss of a long-term, highly effective, and dedicated assistant in an orthodontic practice. Changes in technology, numbers of dentists, expected benefit levels, and a competitive workplace environment are combining to put pressures on the traditional model of oral health care. Whatever the solution turns out to be, the profession should take the lead in actively developing alternatives, and these will necessarily involve development of human capital in the dental practice.
Full Text Available The paper proposes sythesizing the most important correlations between the dimensions of human capital, in order to provide a better theoretical basis for assessing realistic valence motivated human resources sustainable development of society. In terms of conceptual work based on the fundamental role of health capital and the neglect that often has its problems, especially in developing countries. Based on the review abstract theory of human capital, research establishes correlations between dimensions. It shows the importance of ethical component in professionalism and existence of moral capital rooted in medical ethics. Specific breakdowns of health capital, referring to the health of the population and medical services. The research findings highlight the profound connection between morality and productivity seemingly nonexistent (customized to the case of medical services, about joint economic approaches ignored. It also means that the moral, professional and medical staff working in social capital formation influence the health of a nation.
Aurora Amélia Castro Teixeira
Full Text Available This study examines the conditions under which the demand for human capital is as (or more important than the simple availability of educated or skilled human resources. The perspective taken is that it is the conscious and intentional attitude of firms, dependent, to a large extent, on respective strategies, that determines the demand for human capital, thereby conditioning the role of the latter in their performance. The automatic and linear character that many studies within the mainstream human capital theory assume is rejected here. Results, based on an in-depth study of fourteen Portuguese textile firms, reveal the "congruence" between firms behaviour towards human capital accumulation, characteristics of productive process and markets, and the omnipresent "fission" risk. New hirings of top skilled and educated individuals are seen as small contributors to firms (current innovation capabilities. In contrast, existing top skilled and educated individuals are regarded as critical in this context.Este estudo analisa as condições em que a procura por capital humano é tão (ou mais importante do que a simples disponibilidade de recursos humanos qualificados. É tomada a perspectiva de que é a atitude consciente e intencional das empresas, a qual depende em grande medida das suas estratégias, que determina a procura por capital humano, condicionando o seu desempenho econômico. Rejeita-se aqui o caráter automático e linear presente na maioria dos estudos associados à teoria do capital humano. Os resultados, baseados num estudo detalhado de 14 empresas têxteis portuguesas, revelam a “congruência” entre o comportamento destas relativamente à acumulação de capital humano, as características dos seus processos produtivos e mercados e a onipresença do risco de “cisão”. As novas contratações de indivíduos altamente qualificados são vistas como contribuindo pouco para as competências de inovação correntes das empresas. Em
Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara
Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…
Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara
Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…
Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…
Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra
Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen
Drawing from the positive psychology, organizational leadership and organizational behavior literature, this study explores the relationship between positive leadership behaviors, psychological capital (PsyCap), employee work engagement, as well as destructive workplace deviant behavior in Australian firms. Data were collected from Australian organizations across different industries (n=441). In the first model, the relationship between servant leadership and employee engagement as mediat...
Simsek, Eylem; Sali, Jale Balaban
How Internet addiction affects happiness of university students in terms of their cognitive and emotional resources was not adequately investigated. One of the inner resources of life satisfaction and happiness is defined as psychological capital (PsyCap), under the paradigm of positive psychology. PsyCap consists of four main sub-factors: hope,…
Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…
Lahlum, Nils Ivar
This is a study on the main causes of urban youth unemployment in Iran. It argues that, based upon structural and classical explanations of unemployment, urban youth unemployment in Iran is caused by deficiencies in human capital development. Based in the two approaches to human capital development, the study uses empirical findings obtained through interviews, surveys and statistics in Iran to discuss earlier studies on the phenomenon, and to see whether investments in human capital developm...
Damiano Kulundu Manda; Germano Mwabu; Mwangi S. Kimenyi
We use survey data of full-time workers in Kenya to analyse the effect of human capital externalities on earnings and private returns to education. The estimation results show that education human capital generally associates with positive externalities, indicating that an increase in education benefits all workers. However, the results reveal that men benefit more from women's education than women do from men's schooling. The effects of human capital externalities on private returns to schoo...
Is it true that communist countries had well-developed human capital, or is it just a myth? What were human capital stocks at the beginning of transition to market economy? What happened to human capital formation during the transition? We attempt to answer these questions using evidence from Bulgaria. This is also a story about how a communist government had coped with labour market problems in a small closed economy. Unfortunately, during communism, there had been quite insufficient public ...
Sheidaei , Zahra; Tash, Mohammadnabi Shahiki
This article studies the controversial relationship between human capital and growth through different channels using a cross-country panel approach applied for 104 countries, including 79 developing...
This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the environmental and individual factors contributing to male nurses' psychological well-being and to explore the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between nurses' practice environment and work engagement, thereby presenting the implications for nurse managers. Methods: A total of 161 male nurses from three tertiary first-class hospitals in Changsha City in China participated in the study. We collected the data using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Results: Scores of male nurses' practice environment (2.88Â Â±Â 0.31, psychological capital (4.42Â Â±Â 0.62, and work engagement (3.17Â Â±Â 1.39 were all above the midpoint; however, the subscales âthe nursing staffing and resources adequacyâ (2.72Â Â±Â 0.48, âhopeâ (4.33Â Â±Â 0.72, and âdedicationâ (2.96Â Â±Â 1.61scored lowest. Nurses' practice environment and psychological capital positively predicted nurses' work engagement; psychological capital fully mediated the influence of nurses' practice environment on work engagement. Conclusions: Creating a supportive nursing practice environment can increase male nurses' work engagement by developing their psychological capital. Nurse managers can then provide reasonable workload and pathways for male nurses to achieve goals, thereby fostering their hope. Keywords: Male nurses, Nurses' practice environment, Psychological capital, Work engagement
This paper presents Human Capital Index Rankings for 20 Asia and Pacific Countries. The Human Capital Index (HCI) developed by the (World Economic Forum) assesses 122 countries, representing over 90% of the world’s population. The Human Capital Index (HCI) measures the countries on their ability to develop and deploy healthy, educated and able workers through 4 pillars: education, health & wellness, workforce & employment and enabling environment. The Index consists of 51 indicators in total,...
Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin
Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.
Edle von Gaessler, Anne; Ziesemer, Thomas
We modify a Lucas-type endogenous growth model to contain endogenous labour supply, imperfect international capital movements, and estimated interest and education time functions. Solutions based on realistic calibrations show that (i) the rate of human capital depreciation through ageing has a much
Meier, Kenneth J.; Favero, Nathan; Compton, Mallory
Do internal (administrative human capital) and external (social capital) resources work to reinforce the effects of each other? Work from multiple disciplines has approached this question, and we advance this literature with a theory of social and administrative resources as potential substitutes
von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke
We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…
Full Text Available Nowadays, in the age of the economy focused on knowledge and science, the process of formation and development of the employees is considered as a very important investment, inspiration and a tool to efficiency creating, success and first of all, the strategic potential of the company. Indeed, it is people who are the key and the path to success and on them, the strength, the power and the success of any business should be built. The aim of this elaboration is to highlight and emphasize the importance of investment in human capital and show fluctuations, as one of the barriers that can disrupt this development, what in general also may be caused by lack of adequate systems of employees motivation.
This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...
Rutkauskas, Aleksandras Vytautas; Gruževskis, Boguslavas; Danileviciene, Irena
Often the perspective of human capital is drawn with different colours: from its growing importance to the possibility of changing it with current technical and information management tools. This usually happens when analysing the human capital education and corporate problems in the context of companies and other activity-organising units. In…
Goedhuys-Degelin, M.D.L.; Sleuwaegen, L.
This paper focuses on the occurrence of high-growth firms in relation to human capital and innovation. High-growth firms are rather exceptional and temporary phenomena and occur in the upper tail of the conditional firm growth distribution. Using quantile regression we study how human capital and
Full Text Available The link between human capital and economic growth still remains unexplained because of the measurement issues connected to the human capital stock. This study investigates the link between human capital stock and economic growth using inclusive wealth index and ratio of engaged to actively disengaged employees as proxy for human capital stock. Data from the global workplace and inclusive wealth reports are used in order to provide an international comparison of the link between human capital and inclusive wealth. Cross country comparison show human capital largerly contribute to the inclusive wealth formation. Formal education is important but also motivating working environment is needed to achieve sustainable economic growth. The finding further indicates that standard human capital growth model should be revised taking into the account variables addressing sustainable growth (not just growth and environmental variables (work conditions affecting human capital stock. Countries encouraging investments in the development of individuals both through formal education and inspiring work environments achieve higher sustainable economic growth
J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); I. Zilcha (Itzhak)
textabstractThe paper studies the effects of cross-country differences in the production process of human capital on income distribution and growth. Our overlapping gen- erations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogenous with respect to parental human capital and wealth; (2)
Perepelkin, Vyacheslav A.; Perepelkina, Elena V.; Morozova, Elena S.
The relevance of the researched problem is determined by transformation of the human capital into the key economic resource of development of the postindustrial society. The purpose of the article is to disclose the content of evolution of the human capital as a scientific concept and phenomenon of the economic life. The leading approach to the…
de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.
In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential
Some major reasons for this unemployment challenges have been hinged on the level of human capital development as well as other socio-economic issues. Using the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, a quantitative analysis of the effect human capital in stimulating employment or otherwise was ...
This paper critically examined how human capital development could be a strategy or a catalyst for sustainable development in the Nigerian education system. The presentation by necessary implication involved an examination of the concepts of human capital development, sustainable development, quality education and ...
Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.
In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…
Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya
Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…
Gimpelson, V. E.
It is generally accepted that human capital is an important factor in economic growth, but its impact on growth depends on the demand for education and skills on the labor market. Demand for human capital is largely determined by the institutional environment that governs the basic conditions for economic activity. The author expresses ten doubts…
Ruse, Donald; Jansen, Karen
Human capital planning is an important tool in predicting future talent needs and sustaining organizational excellence over the long term. This article examines the concept of human capital planning and outlines how institutions can use HCP to identify the type and number of talent needed both now and in the future, recognize and prioritize talent…
Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.
Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…
Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita
Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Cozzolino, Philip J
Research suggests that in modern Western culture there is a positive relationship between the equality of resources and the formation of trust and cooperation, two psychological components of social capital. Two studies elucidate the psychological processes underlying that relationship. Study 1 experimentally tested the influence of resource distributions on the formation of trust and intentions to cooperate; individuals receiving a deficit of resources and a surplus of resources evidenced lower levels of social capital (i.e., trust and cooperation) than did individuals receiving equal amounts. Analyses revealed the process was affective for deficit participants and cognitive for surplus participants. Study 2 provided suggestive support for the affective-model of equality and social capital using proxy variables in the 1996 General Social Survey data set. Results suggest support for a causal path of unequal resource distributions generating affective experiences and cognitive concerns of justice, which mediate disengagement and distrust of others. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Culbertson, Satoris S; Fullagar, Clive J; Mills, Maura J
This study seeks to determine the relationship between psychological capital and an employee's eudaimonic and hedonic well-being. Panel data were collected from 102 extension agents over a 2-week interval. In addition, daily surveys were collected from 67 of the participants. Results from the panel data indicated that the relation between psychological capital and hedonic well-being, measured two weeks later, is mediated by eudaimonic well-being. Results from the daily surveys found that daily eudaimonic work well-being was significantly associated with both daily positive mood and daily life satisfaction and that variance in eudaimonic work well-being was predicted by one's psychological capital. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Novak, Dario; Kawachi, Ichiro
Social capital has been shown to have positive effects on multiple health outcomes among young people (i.e., obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases). Studies are suggesting that social capital is an important asset for the health and wellbeing of children and adolescents, including for their mental health. We sought to examine the influences of different domains of social capital - in the family, in the neighbourhood, and at school - on levels of psychological distress among high school students in Croatia. Cross-sectional survey of 3427 high school students (1688 males and 1739 females), aged 17-18 years, was carried out in the 2013/14 school year (response rate: 93.8%). Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of family, neighbourhood and school social capital on the risk of high psychological distress, measured by the Kessler-6 scale. Adjusting for age, school, gender, body mass index, self-perceived socioeconomic status, self-rated health and physical activity, high family support in school (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.27-0.51), high neighbourhood trust (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.53-0.73), high teacher-student interpersonal trust (OR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and high student interpersonal trust (OR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97) was each associated with lower odds of psychological distress. When all of the social capital variables were entered simultaneously, higher social capital in each domain was inversely associated with psychological distress. Family support in school, neighbourhood trust, teacher-student interpersonal trust and student interpersonal trust were significantly inversely associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as means of mental health promotion among youth.
Full Text Available The issue of human capital is increasingly attracting the attention of both theorists and practitioners, because at present human resources play a decisive role in the creation of competitive economies and business entities. Human capital and knowledge are becoming key factors in the area of entity competitiveness. Consequently, human capital is currently being analysed in a multi-faceted way in the context of numerous economic theories. The aim of this study is to summarize, analyse, and synthesise the information published on the subject of the theory of human capital and to present new theories and scientific paradigms. The theories presented in this study show that employees constitute the basic capital of modern organizations. One of the contemporary paradigms of modern management is the concept of knowledge-based economy and the paradigm of information technology. This article is based on literature studies and theoretical reflections of the author.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse’ burnout is important to improve nurses’ health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24 scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35% became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Results Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Conclusion Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout.
Roxana Loubet-Orozco; Adela Morales-Parra
.... In that sense, the concept of human capital and its impact on economic growth, the possibilities of the state are analyzed to transform the development of human resources in high stock that promotes...
Crook, T. Russell; Todd, Samuel Y.; Combs, James G.; Woehr, David J.; Ketchen, David J., Jr.
Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we…
Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.
Osvaldo Javier López-Ruiz
Full Text Available This paper discusses the dilution of the conceptual border between “consumption” and “investment.” We argue that it is a key element for the understanding of capitalism in its current stage and the values guiding contemporary society. Some concepts created by Human Capital Theory – an economic theory from the 1960s – are widely viewed today as values that guide the behavior of individuals. This yields to a conceptual–axiological shift from consumption to investment that allows unusual forms of “delaying satisfaction by consuming now.” The diffuse area that is created between “consumption” and “investment” helps to understand how the Protestant work ethic is recreated as an “ethic of entrepreneurial work,” that is, of work understood in terms of “individual enterprise”.
Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna
Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization.
Simsek, Eylem; Balaban Sali, Jale
How Internet addiction affects happiness of university students in terms of their cognitive and emotional resources was not adequately investigated. One of the inner resources of life satisfaction and happiness is defined as psychological capital (PsyCap), under the paradigm of positive psychology. PsyCap consists of four main sub-factors: hope, resilience, self-efficacy, and optimism. The major purpose of this study is to examine the role of Internet addiction and social media membership on...
Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev
In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.
Lee, Hsing-Ming; Chou, Mei-Ju; Chin, Chia-Hui; Wu, Ho-Tang
The purpose of this research mainly lies in exploration of influence of psychological capital of preschool teachers on professional commitment, and moderation effect of their working years on the influential relationship between psychological capital and professional commitment. 400 Taiwan preschool teachers took part in this research as the…
Palermo, Tia M; Dowd, Jennifer B
The prevalence of childhood obesity has tripled in the United States over the last 25 years, and in addition to increased risks of many chronic diseases, obesity may also be linked to lower skill attainment, poor social competency, and poorer labor outcomes. Any causal links between obesity and human capital accumulation could have important consequences for both health and economic well-being over the life course. We investigate the association of obesity and cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes among US children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 using the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics. We perform OLS and individual fixed effects regressions to address unobserved time invariant heterogeneity in the relationship between overweight/obesity and abilities. Results provide limited support for the hypothesis that obesity negatively affects non-cognitive but not cognitive outcomes and suggest that discrimination rather than a biological mechanism contributes to negative outcomes found in the literature on adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity–quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters. PMID:20495605
Full Text Available Orientation: The South African call centre industry is growing as call centres are increasingly used as a means of service delivery to customers. Positive psychologists posit that psychological capital could lead to positive outcomes such as organisational commitment of call centre staff.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment and intended to determine whether psychological capital and job demands predict call centre employees’ organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: The study aimed to explore potential links between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of call centre employees. It is premised on previous research that call centre job demands may be related to commitment to the organisation.Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study sampled 117 call centre employees from Durban, South Africa, and used a biographical questionnaire, psychological capital questionnaire, the job-demands-resources scale and the organisational commitment questionnaire to collect data.Main findings: Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between psychological capital and work overload, as well as a practically and statistically significant relationship (medium effect between psychological capital and continuance organisational commitment. The results showed that psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Organisations can develop initiatives to enhance positive psychological states and address this relationship.Contribution: The findings could be beneficial to management and employees in considering ways to boost psychological capital in order to improve organisational commitment.
The effect of social capital on improving productivity of human resources in the project of engineering, procurement and construction Bandar Abbas gas ... three minor hypotheses were formed,which evaluated the effect of social capital and its three-fold aspects (trust, solidarity and cooperation) on productivity, respectively.
Nureev, R. M.
In the broad sense of the word human capital is a specific form of capital that is embodied in people themselves. It consists of the individual's reserve of health, knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations that enable him to increase his labor productivity and give him an income in the form of wages, salaries, and other income. The structure…
Svetlana V. Panyukova
Full Text Available In the article an approach to introduction in the human capital management of new information technologies is offered. The analysis of a current state of the human capital in Russia, its mobility is carried out. Results of using social networks services for creation of a web portfolio of the student and the teacher in higher education institution are presented. The main directions of using cloudy technologies in Russian human capital management, in the solution of the problems connected with graduate’s employment are formulated.
Yalçin, Sinan; Isgör, Isa Y.
This study, which investigated the relationship between teachers' professional life qualities and positive psychological capital, was designed in a relational screening pattern in the quantitative research method. Teachers, who worked in primary, secondary and high school in Erzincan city centre of Turkey in 2014-2015 academic year, participated…
Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.
Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…
The method of the research was defined as the descriptive survey model since it was aimed to test whether the personality traits of teachers are a significant predictor of their psychological capital levels in this study. 416 teachers (60.3% female, 39.7% male) who were teaching in the schools of Ministry of National Education in Istanbul and were…
Rehman, Saif ur; Qingren, Cao; Latif, Yasir; Iqbal, Pervaiz
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact and interrelation between positive psychological capital and occupational burnout among faculty associates of technical and professional training institutions. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 282 faculty members from 17 technical institutions were selected from the province of…
In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…
Gendron, Bénédicte; Kouremenou, Eleni-Sofia; Rusu, Carmen
The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013) show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress…
Bénédicte Gendron; Eleni-Sofia Kouremenou; Carmen Rusu
The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013) show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress or loneliness), which can impact their level of wellbeing and performance. Beyond Savoirs [knowledge], Savoir Faire [knowing what to do], the r...
Sheidaei , Zahra
Full Text Available This article studies the controversial relationship between human capital and growth through different channels using a cross-country panel approach applied for 104 countries, including 79 developing countries and 25 developed countries (OECD during 1980-2011. The analysis yields important insights into the relationship between human capital and growth. Firstly, we find a significant relationship between high levels of human capital and technology adoption Secondly, considering the levels of human capital directly as a innovation component in the productivity function shows that there is a non-linear relationship between this factor and growth. The results provide a new understanding of this relationship and to some extent contradict some earlier studies.
Abdul Ghani Kanesan Abdullah; Aziah Ismail
The aim of this study was to identify the differences of human capital development aspects that have been emphasized in academic programmes offered by Malaysian Public Universities in order to produce high quality human capital. The data was obtained using questionnaires from 16 Malaysian public universities (namely, 3 Research Universities, 3 Comprehensive Universities, and 10 Focused Universities) in 2009. A set of questionnaire consisting of 110 items using the five likert scales were answ...
Heckman, James Joseph; Jacobs, Bas
Trends in skill bias and greater turbulence in modern labor markets put wages and employment prospects of unskilled workers under pressure. Weak incentives to utilize and maintain skills over the life-cycle become manifest with the ageing of the population. Policies to promote human capital formation reduce welfare state dependency among the unskilled and offset inefficiencies in human capital formation. Skill formation features strong dynamic complementarities over the life-cycle. Investment...
E. D. Katulsky
Full Text Available Today, the progress of civilization becomes defined intellectual and educational power of man. Human capital because of its immensity become a major national resource. From the point of view of development, knowledge serves as a condition of social progress, as a prerequisite for public self-reflection, which in turn determines the level of the social system. The article discusses the theoretical aspects of the development of human capital in terms of the knowledge economy.
This article has two main objectives: The first one is to review the most commonly used methods of measuring human capital in the macroeconomic analysis. Here, a summary of methods considering educational characteristics of population and labour force is presented, such as usage of literacy rate, enrollment rates, educational attainment, labor income and quality of education. A challenge in front of human capital measuring is solving the problems related to its depreciation as well as those r...
Rosenzweig, Mark R.
Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...
This dissertation presents three empirical studies on how to improve human capital in the public sector. In reverse chronological order, the essays ask who is attracted to public sector jobs (Paper 3); consider who can actually get a public sector job (Paper 2); and evaluate how current civil servants can be more effective at doing their job (Paper 1). In doing so, the dissertation presents tools that public managers can use to improve human capital within the constraints of government. P...
Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm
The purpose of this paper is to address selected aspects of human capital in association with the entrepreneurial process in technology-based new ventures. Until recently, research investigating the founding of new businesses has mainly focused on the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs...... of a newly founded venture. Furthermore, the dimensions of human capital, experience and previous employment, seem to be essential in building the networks that help secure both the early as well as a continuous pool of finance for the ventures....
Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations need energetic and dedicated employees to enhance the quality of their services and products continuously. According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, it is possible to increase work engagement of employees by improving their personal resources.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an improvement in psychological capital, as a personal resource, might enhance work engagement of employees in the public sector.Motivation for the study: This study was developed to investigate how and to what extent interventions aiming at fostering higher work engagement through the enhancement of psychological capital were certainly effective.Research design, approach and method: To improve psychological capital, a new resource-based intervention programme (FAMILY intervention was developed and applied, in which six dimensions – namely framing, attitudes, meaningfulness, identity, leading self and yoked together – were improved. A semi-experimental research design (pre-test and post-test was used to conduct this study. Participants were 54 employees working in an Italian public health administration. In the pre-test and post-test stages, data were collected by using the psychological capital and work engagement scales.Main findings: Results showed that there is a positive relationship between psychological capital and work engagement in the pre-test and post-test stages, considered separately. In addition, comparing pre-test and post-test results revealed that the intervention programme significantly improved both psychological capital and work engagement. This shows that an improvement in psychological capital is consistent with an increase in work engagement.Conclusion: Together, these findings prove that psychological capital can be considered as a set of personal resources which lead to increased work engagement.Contribution/value-add: This study bridged the gap found in the
... Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer AGENCY: Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Chief Human Capital... Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. DATES: Effective Date: October 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER...
Full Text Available This study investigates the specific role of burnout as a mediator in the relationship between psychological capital and psychological well-being (PWB in direct support staff of specialist autism services. A time lagged design with three data-collection points was conducted to survey 56 professionals (direct support staff who work at a Spanish center specialized in autism. Participants completed measures of psychological capital, burnout and PWB. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. Our findings show that psychological capital has a significant main effect on PWB. The results also show that psychological capital in the work environment should result in lower burnout which in turn, should lead to higher degrees of PWB in the direct support staff of autism services. Our results support that psychological capital is a key variable in the working life of the direct support staff of autism services. The findings suggest the need of implementing programmes which strengthen each individual's psychological capital in order to prevent burnout and achieve a greater PWB.
Gretzinger, Susanne; Lemke, Sarah; Matiaske, Wenzel
of incentives on retention management and therewith implicates that retention management is significant for the process of developing and fostering a MNCs intellectual capital. To improve their human-resource based intellectual capital MNCs have to adapt their initiatives to the cultural background......From a strategic management perspective human capital and the embedded knowledge can be viewed as intellectual capital and became inevitably important for companies in general as well as for multinationals. While national companies just have to (re-)combine resources within a homogeneous...... if culturally differentiated incentive systems are necessary for optimised retention management? In the empirical part of this study it was made us of data from 32 countries. The research results reveal a moderating impact of cultural dimensions and therefore a cultural dependency for the effectiveness...
Full Text Available Theory of human capital views education as a specific production factor and as a specific sort of capital. Besides this theory, alternative concepts of education were developed. Philter theory which is interested in a selective function of education and created a different point of view of economic analysis phenomena in education. Signal equilibrium states for better or worse according to Pareto´s concept of efficiency and according to higher or lower difference between private and public educational returns.
Full Text Available This research starting from the professionalism accountants as human capital at accountant firm as a service company. This research is intended to study the effect of human capital on auditor performance at KAP in Bandung to propose the hypothesis that human capital has positive influence on auditors performance, either partially or simultaneously. Some dimensions of the sub-variables that make up the human capital that will be studied is represented by the factors individual capability, individual motivation, leadership, the organizational climate, and workgroup effectiveness. The auditor’s performance is measured by three factors that make up the performance: (1 individual factor, (2 psychology factor, and (3 organization factor. The research was conducted at the accounting firm located in Bandung. Of the number of samples taken at random population consisting of senior accountants and junior accountants as respondents. Technique of data collecting used questionnaire. In accordance with the measurement scale, the data has been collected tested the validity of the formula Spearman Rank correlation and reliability with Cronbach alpha. The data has been tested and found valid and reliable then analyzed by correlation and regression analysis. Based on the results of correlation and regression analysis to test hypotheses derived research findings that human capital simultaneously has a fairly close relationship with performance. While the multiple regression analysis known that each dimension contributes to the performance of the auditor's diverse and significant at p = 0.05, so the significance of test results, either partially or simultaneously can be concluded to accept the research hypothesis, namely human capital has positive influence on the performance of auditors.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...... that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social...... capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
Full Text Available The paper focuses on importance of human capital in development of industrial enterprises, issues of their management and methods of achieving balance between interests of owners and employees. Difference between such concepts as human and labor potential as well as human and working capital is clarified. The special attention is paid to the fact that an effective system of motivation and incentivation of labor is to serve as means of rapprochement of human and labor capital. The authors point out the limited scope of the traditional forms of labor motivation and incentivation mechanisms and highlight the complexity of their encouragement for collective work results. The authors suggest using the cost-based approach to workforce management, which is based on assessment of market and intrinsic value of human capital in view of investment and quality characteristics. The proposed approach is attended by methodological support and operational calculations. The study states that the suggested human capital management model can be introduced into practice, as well as substantiates the necessity for boosting the performance of industrial enterprises and their cost by increasing production, stimulating the staff for selfrealization and self-improvement by bringing the owners’ corporate interests closer to the interests of the employees.
Falco, Di Salvatore; Bulte, Erwin
We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and
Di Falco, Salvatore; Bulte, E.H.
We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-rider’
Loyd Beal III; Jacqueline M. Stavros; Matthew L. Cole
Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB ser...
Purpose: The purpose of the study was a critical analysis of the concept of positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and an indication of ts applicability in organizations that implemented participatory management. Methodology: The study was based on the review and comparative analysis of literature. The theoretical foundations of the concept and its practical translation into organization reality, as well as the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of PsyCap on employee attitudes, be...
Jovi Sulistiawan, Nurtjahja Moegni,
The intensity of high competition among organization could be overcome if the organization has competitive advantage(s). One of the drivers of competitive advantage can be obtained from the employees who have innovative work behavior. This study examined the effect of employees' psychological capital towards innovative work behavior with procedural fairness as a moderator variable. The data were collected from 119 employees in Airlangga University. The result showed that the effect of p...
Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola
The purpose of this paper is to develop a Human Capital Report focused on the competency profile of the key employees. Employing the case study of Biomedical Branch of University of Florence, we have designed a strategy map centred on key stakeholders: students, university, didactic and research....... This study contributes to the previous literature, describing how university institutes can measure the human capital readiness....... centres, businesses. Furthermore, we have designed a model for the management of human resources, integrating two different approaches: individual and organic. On the basis of this model, semi-structured interview was carried out to obtain rich data on the current competences of key employees, divided...
Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva
Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…
de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.
In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human
Enyonam Canice Kudonoo; Victoria Tsedzah
In this article, we propose ways for organizations in Anglophone West African (AWA) countries to tackle their human capital challenges in order to attain a competitive edge and globally position themselves. Human capital is critical to an organizationâ€™s survival. While organizations in advanced countries are focusing their attention on building their human capital for the sustenance of competitive advantage, those in AWA countries lag behind, leading to poor service delivery and low product...
present an overview of the issue of work with human capital in an environment of Czech companies with an emphasis on comprehensive development of human capital, not only through education. METHODS: To identify the bases for the comprehensive development of human capital, we chose the Delphi method of research. A group of experts was selected among economists and managers, experts in promoting physical activity, experts in work psychology among academic staﬀ and professional consultants for multinational companies. RESULTS: Conceptual approach to the development of human capital for the company is necessary and beneficial. It is necessary to develop a component according to the individual needs of the job and the employee. On the basis of a single enterprise is desirable individual approach and analysis of the specific needs and preferences of the company and its employees. Eﬀect of the form of benefits is insufficient, positively must use other forms of employee motivation. The Czech company is not space to work with human capital sufficiently exploited. CONCLUSIONS: It must be developed not only knowledge and skills of individuals, but also key skills, physical and mental health staﬀ loyalty to the employer, positive and healthy atmosphere in the company. The starting point for the optimal approach to the devel
Brunetto, Yvonne; Xerri, Matthew; Farr-Wharton, Ben; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Trinchero, Elisabetta
The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, plus specific safety interventions (managerial safety priorities, safety training satisfaction), on nurses' in-role safety performance. Most hospitals in industrialized countries have adopted selective (often the least costly) aspects of safety, usually related to safety policies. However, patient safety remains a challenge in many countries. Research shows that training can be used to upskill employees in psychological capital, with statistically significant organizational and employee benefits, but this area is under-researched in nursing. Data were collected using a survey-based, self-report strategy. The emerging patterns of data were then compared with the findings of previous research. Quantitative survey data were collected during 2014 from 242 nurses working in six Australian hospitals. Two models were tested and analysed using covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling. Psychological capital and safety training satisfaction were important predictors of nurses' in-role safety performance and as predictors of nurses' perceptions of whether management implements what it espouses about safety ('managerial safety priorities'). Managerial support accounted for just under a third of psychological capital and together, psychological capital and managerial support, plus satisfaction with safety training, were important to nurses' perceptions of in-role safety performance. Organizations are likely to benefit from upskilling nurses and their managers to increase nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, which then will enhance nurses' satisfaction with training and in-role safety performance perceptions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available O artigo aborda a retomada do conceito de capital humano nas últimas décadas no contexto da hegemonia de organismos multilaterais mais diretamente vinculados ao pensamento e aos interesses norte-americanos na área educacional, e de demandas que resultam da reestruturação produtiva e sociocultural na Nova Era Capitalista. Ressalta a amplitude das noções metafóricas dele derivadas (Bourdieu e outros e indica o trecho dos Grundrisse em que Marx refere-se ao homem como sendo o próprio capital fixo criado pelo desenvolvimento de suas capacidades no tempo livre.The article treats the retaking of the concept of human capital in recent decades in the context of the hegemony of the multilateral organizations more directly linked to the North American thinking and interests in the educational area and the demands which have resulted from the productive, social and cultural restructuring of the New Age of Capitalism. It highlights the breadth of the metaphorical notions derived from it (Bourdieu and others and cites the excerpt from the Grundrisse in which Marx refers to humans as fixed assets created by the development of their abilities in their free time.
Using the concepts of human, social and cultural capital this paper will review the literature on these theories and evaluate their application to nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK). Each concept will be explored before considering the impact and application within nurse education. Issues of sponsorship via mentoring and increased skills and contribution to the knowledge economy alongside the delivery of quality care by nursing students will be discussed with reference to theory and current policy drivers. As nursing education moves to a graduate profession in the UK this paper evaluates the drivers of human, social and cultural capital that affect this development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper investigates how family size affects children's human capital, comparing Italy and France. We tested the dilution effect in these countries, starting with the assumption that the higher the number of siblings, the fewer parental resources are available for each child, and the lower the probability that each child will successfully pursue his/her educational career. We find a negative correlation between the number of siblings and human capital. However, when the analysis is developed with a causal approach, the strength of the dilution effect weakens in Italy and disappears in France.
Attanasio, Orazio; Meghir, Costas; Nix, Emily; Salvati, Francesca
In this paper we use high quality data from two developing countries, Ethiopia and Peru, to estimate the production functions of human capital from age 1 to age 15. We characterize the nature of persistence and dynamic complementarities between two components of human capital: health and cognition. We also explore the implications of different functional form assumptions for the production functions. We find that more able and higher income parents invest more, particularly at younger ages when investments have the greatest impacts. These differences in investments by parental income lead to large gaps in inequality by age 8 that persist through age 15.
Full Text Available Despite accumulating evidence, previous studies have not clearly separated the contribution of community-level social capital on mental health from that of individual-level social support. We examined the association between community-level social capital and psychological distress in a sample of older Japanese individuals, taking into account the effects of individual-level social capital and social support. We collected data via a cross-sectional survey among all residents aged ≥65 in three rural municipalities in Okayama Prefecture. We measured two components of social capital in the questionnaire: perceptions of trust and reciprocity in the community. Community-level social capital was obtained by aggregating individual responses and calculating the proportion of subjects reporting mistrust and lack of reciprocity. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler Psychological Distress scale. We calculated rate ratios [corrected] (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for psychological distress using two-level Poisson regression models (9,761 individuals nested within 35 communities. The prevalence of psychological distress was 39.8%. Low community-level social capital was associated with psychological distress, even after controlling for individual-level social support, age, sex, educational attainment, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass index, marital status, socioeconomic status, and number of cohabiters. The adjusted RRs per 10% increase of the proportion of mistrust and lack of reciprocity in the communities were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.01-1.51 and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.24, respectively. Lower levels of community-level social capital are associated with psychological distress among the Japanese elderly population, even after adjusting for individual-level perceptions of social capital and social support.
Full Text Available This study is based on the importance of accountant professionalism as human capital in accounting firm as a service company. This research is intended to study the effect of human capital on the performance of auditors in KAP in Bandung by proposing research hypothesis that, human capital have positive effect on auditor performance, either partially or simultaneously. Several dimensions as sub-variables that form human caputals to be studied are represented by individual capability, individual motivation, leadership, the organizational climate, and workgroup effectiveness factors. The auditor's performance is measured by three factors that make the performance are (1 individual factors, (2 psychological factors, and (3 organizational factors. The study was conducted at an accounting firm located in Bandung. From the number of population taken random sample consisting of senior accountant and junior accountant as respondent. Data collection technique used is by using questionnaire. In accordance with the measurement scale, the data that have been collected tested the validity of Rank Spearman correlation formula and reliability with Alpha Cronbach. Data that have been tested and declared valid and reliable are then analyzed by correlation and regression analysis. Based on the results of correlation and regression analysis to test the hypothesis obtained findings of research results that human capital simultaneously have a fairly close relationship with its performance. While from multiple regression analysis it is known that each dimension gives various contribution to auditor performance and significant at p = 0,05, so from result of significance test, either partially or simultaneously can be concluded to accept research hypothesis, that is human capital have positive effect to auditor performance
Studies in strategic human resource management emphasize the contribution of human and human resource management to organizational performance achievement. Human and organizational capitals are strategic capability and mechanism to create value in an organization.This paper seeks to identify an interactive relationship between human and organizational capital in strategic human resource management theoretically, which so far, have not got adequate attention, particularly in a systemic relatio...
Studies in strategic human resource management emphasize the contribution of human and human resource management to organizational performance achievement. Human and organizational capitals are strategic capability and mechanism to create value in an organization.This paper seeks to identify an interactive relationship between human and organizational capital in strategic human resource management theoretically, which so far, have not got adequate attention, particularly in a systemic relatio...
Wawire, Nelson W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.
Despite economic theory postulating that increases in investment in human capital and physical capital leads to increase in economic growth, in the Kenyan case, this has not been true. This paper empirically examines the contribution of human capital and physical capital to economic growth in Kenya. Measures to be undertaken by higher education…
This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…
The role of human capital in the growth process of any nation is crucial. It is a major tool for poverty reduction. The main aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation on the relationship between investment in education, health and economic growth in Nigeria, using time series data from 1982 to 2011. This paper ...
This research aims to examine the existence of the human capital management through competencies and knowledge management approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based economy. The study was applied to the case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria, such as: (CREAD, CRSTRA, CDTA, ...
African Research Review ... Abstract. The paper is aimed at examining the poverty profile of Nigeria and its consequences on access to health care services and human capital development in the country. ... Apart from looking at the theoretical milieu, the paper also examined the nature and dimensions of poverty in Nigeria.
Abstract. The paper is aimed at examining the poverty profile of Nigeria and its consequences on access to health care services and human capital development in the country. It is a startling paradox that about two – thirds of Nigerians are poor despite living in a country with vast potential wealth. Apart from looking at the ...
Graf, Christina M
Currently, approximately 16% of associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates acquire baccalaureate or higher degrees. Human capital analysis demonstrated negative to minimal average returns on investment (ROI) in BSN education. Increasing the ROI may influence ADNs to pursue baccalaureate education and can be an effective strategy for meeting the projected need for BSN-prepared nurses.
This study analyzes the relationship between entrepreneur human capital endowments and minority enterprise profitability. In addition to fostering industrial diversity by creating and expanding firms in heavy construction, manufacturing, and skill-intensive services, the better-educated entrepreneur group is found to be utilizing effectively both…
Hai, Rong; Heckman, James J
This paper investigates the determinants of inequality in human capital with an emphasis on the role of the credit constraints. We develop and estimate a model in which individuals face uninsured human capital risks and invest in education, acquire work experience, accumulate assets and smooth consumption. Agents can borrow from the private lending market and from government student loan programs. The private market credit limit is explicitly derived by extending the natural borrowing limit of Aiyagari (1994) to incorporate endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, psychic costs of working, and age. We quantify the effects of cognitive ability, noncognitive ability, parental education, and parental wealth on educational attainment, wages, and consumption. We conduct counterfactual experiments with respect to tuition subsidies and enhanced student loan limits and evaluate their effects on educational attainment and inequality. We compare the performance of our model with an influential ad hoc model in the literature with education-specific fixed loan limits. We find evidence of substantial life cycle credit constraints that affect human capital accumulation and inequality. The constrained fall into two groups: those who are permanently poor over their lifetimes and a group of well-endowed individuals with rising high levels of acquired skills who are constrained early in their life cycles. Equalizing cognitive and noncognitive ability has dramatic effects on inequality. Equalizing parental backgrounds has much weaker effects. Tuition costs have weak effects on inequality.
Ilya I. Rodin
Full Text Available The present state of human capital management (HCM in Russia is considered in the article. A statistical data is provided. The author examines Russian government policy concerning HCM and describes its methods and tools. The strategies and tactics of HCM are investigated considering a certain select organization.
Panel data on MBA graduates is used in an attempt to empirically distinguish between human capital and signaling models of education. The existence of employment observations prior to MBA enrollment allows for the control of unobserved ability or selection into MBA programs (through the use of individual fixed effects). In addition, variation in…
The four studies presented here pertain to an often neglected characteristic of educational investments in human capital literature: its unpredictability and how individuals account for and respond to it. The first study elicits, from a sample of Dutch high school students, the level of information
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper explores how the specification of the earnings function impacts the optimal tax treatment of human capital. If education is complementary to labor effort, education should be subsidized to offset tax distortions on labor supply. However, if most of the education is enjoyed by
Diminishing state support for higher education threatens human capital development. This quantitative study undertook to determine the state factors that influence higher education funding and to what degree they do so, what level of funding is required to satisfy higher education expenditure need, and what can help to ensure that those funding…
Educational practices based on human capital theory are unlikely to alleviate social inequities because the theory views people as isolated materialists driven by desire for goods and security. It assumes an educational meritocracy in which socioeconomic status is limited only by educational investment, and more educated people are presumed to be…
Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen
Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…
Most recently a number of school districts, with support from growing numbers of philanthropic foundations, have been honing in on the strategic management of human capital(SMHC)--which has been defined as "the acquisition, development, performance management and retention of top talent." Granted, over the last two decades policymakers and…
Keywords: Human Resource Management, Domestic Airlines, Foreign Airlines, Nigeria. Introduction ... entry or exit into any city air market was high, new entrants into the industry were controlled, fares were fixed and ..... capital involvement practice in the FAs context, but for the DAs on 40 per cent believed that quality could ...
Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
home country and in the new host country. Such dual embeddedness may have a reinforcing or a countervailing impact on the benefits of human and social capital for innovation. Using a sample of 3,593 Chinese entrepreneurs in China and 177 Chinese entrepreneurs residing abroad, we examine the benefits...
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
of residence does not impact entrepreneurial intention. Human and social capital benefits entrepreneurial intention, as expected. Furthermore, the place of residence has moderating effects on the relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention, but not on the relationship between education...
Human capital development (HCD) is a critical tool to transform employees in an organisation into valuable assets that can help the organisation achieve its objectives cost-effectively and improve organisational effectiveness. University sport departments face huge challenges characterised by increased competition which ...
We study the recursive relationship between the ability of Dutch cities to attract recent graduate human capital to their labour—or housing markets and a city’s skills structure, using a comprehensive dataset and a novel operationalisation strategy. We disentangle production and consumption
The study assessed the human capital development in Technical Colleges in Imo State of Nigeria. All the Technical Colleges in the State participated in the study. Results showed low enrollment in the Colleges. There was gender inequity in the enrollment as only 59 females (1.97%) enrolled in the Technical Colleges.
Никита Сергеевич Иванов
Full Text Available Issues connected with particularities and mechanisms of human capital management are considered in the article; appropriateness of investments into it in the conditions of modern production is assessed. Motivation system to encourage high labor productivity, working experience, skills and the level of education, health – all this must be reflected in the wage size and facilitate formation of human capital in the process of company management. Education and activity aimed for health care include current costs for the sake of future benefits. Individuals and the companies differ by a degree of readiness to make such long-term investments. Proper use of natural abilities of a man as a function of human capital management is its integral part. It can be illustrated in such a way: natural abilities of a man to some extent are like lease of land which brings profit. The key factor here is investments into growth of human capital and its quality.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-13
Dentoni, D.; Blok, V.; Lans, T.; Wesselink, R.
This essay discusses 1) the current agri-food firms’ need of interacting with multiple stakeholders to undertake sustainable strategies effectively, 2) the relationship between human capital and firm capabilities to effectively interact with multiple stakeholders and 3) a list of competencies
The driving force for a nation's development and growth has shifted from natural endowment to knowledge economy. Countries without abundant resources have been excelling because of the emphasis on human capital that propels knowledge economy. This paper therefore, has emphasized the need for Nigeria to move ...
Smits, Coco C. A.; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø
of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy...
This study articulates the development thrust of the Nigerian government, (1999 – 2003), in the area of human capital information and poverty reduction. The policies to achieve its objectives and the gains of such policies to the common man in Nigeria. To achieve its objectives, the government emphasized, macroeconomic ...
Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.
Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…
Despite the enormous interest in human capital analytics (HCA), organizations have struggled to move from operational reporting to HCA. This is mainly the result of the inability of analytics teams to establish credible internal HCA and demonstrate its value. In this article, we stress the import...
Palmer, Teresa M.
An exploratory study examined what the largest and most successful manufacturing and service companies in the United States are doing to address human capital needs through training and development. A questionnaire was sent to 168 firms from the service sector and 165 from the manufacturing sector, as identified by "Fortune"; 81 responded.…
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060
Ramlan, Jorah; Ahmed, Elsadig Musa; Pointon, Leo
This paper finds that the contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Malaysian economic growth is the highest at an average of 13 percent for the period 1966 to 2005 against 4.7 percent for Total Factor Productivity (TFP), 9.7 percent for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 9.6 percent for capital, and 3.0 percent for labour. The decomposition of human capital growth indicates that the contribution for ICT intensity at 14 percent is highest in the sub-period of 1987 to 2005, ...
Full Text Available Innovation is essential for economic growth in developed countries. One of the most important sources of innovation is human capital. In this article, state of human capital in EU countries is investigated in order to show the relationship between human capital and national innovation performance. In the first part, theoretical assumptions of human capital importance for innovation processes are analysed. Secondly, measures of human capital are analysed and a measurement model is presented. This model is applied for investigation of state of human capital in 26 EU countries during 2002-2012. Results showed that quality of human capital is the most important factor for innovation performance. Quality indicators have even higher correlation with innovation in countries with low share of innovative enterprises (enterprises with high-level of new technology acceptance and usage. The aim of research is to analyse the theoretical importance of human capital investment for national innovation capability in EU countries, and to determine human capital aspects that foster innovation performance. Therefore, objectives are as follows: to analyse theoretical assumptions of human capital importance for innovation processes and to present the current state of research; to analyse available human capital measures and create a human capital measurement model; and to analyse state of human capital in EU countries as well as its relationship with national innovation capability.
Simon Appleton; Francis Teal
Health and education are both components of human capital and contributors to human welfare. Oneindex of human welfare, which incorporates income, education and health, shows that Africa’s level of‘human development’ is the lowest of any region in the world. In this paper we will frequently compareAfrica with South Asia. While Africa’s level of human development is lower than that of South Asia, itsper capita income is higher. Africa’s poor economic performance has been most marked in its gro...
Heather K. Spence Laschinger
Full Text Available The detrimental effects of burnout on nurses’ health and wellbeing are well documented and positive leadership has been shown to be an important organizational resource for discouraging the development of burnout. Intrapersonal resources also play a protective role against workplace stressors. This study investigated the influence of authentic leadership, an organizational resource, and psychological capital, an intrapersonal resource, on new graduate burnout, occupational satisfaction, and workplace mental health over the first year of employment (n = 205. Results supported the protective role of organizational and intrapersonal resources against burnout, job dissatisfaction, and mental health.
Motohashi, Kazuyo; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Koji; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Akira
Among life-style factors affecting mental health, dietary habits are becoming a public health concern in their relation to psychological distress and social capital. We examined associations between interest in dietary pattern, social capital, and psychological distress with a population-based cross-sectional study in rural Japan. A total of 16,996 residents of a rural town in northern Japan aged 30-79 years participated in this questionnaire survey. The questionnaire gathered data about socio-demographic variables, psychological distress, issues related to dietary habits, including interest in dietary pattern, and the social capital factors of reciprocity and sense of community belonging. Factors related to psychological distress were analyzed by using multiple logistic regression analysis. A high interest in dietary pattern was significantly associated with a high level of social capital. In addition, an association between interest in dietary pattern and frequencies of intake of vegetables and fruits was confirmed. The multiple logistic regression analyses showed significant associations between interest in dietary pattern, social capital, frequency of intake of vegetables, and psychological distress after adjusting for socio-demographic variables. Low interest in dietary pattern was positively associated with psychological distress after adjusting for socio-demographic variables (OR = 2.18; 95%CI: 1.69-2.81). Low levels of both reciprocity and sense of community belonging were associated with psychological distress after adjusting for socio-demographic variables (OR = 3.46 with 95%CI of 2.10-5.71 for reciprocity, and OR = 7.42 with 95%CI of 4.64-11.87 for sense of community belonging). Low interest in dietary pattern, low frequency of intake of vegetables, and low levels of social capital were significantly associated with psychological distress after adjusting for socio-demographic variables.
The paper highlights the role of education in the growth of economic competitiveness and efficiency of human capital, in accordance with the quality of education and investments in human resources, in order to enhance labour productiveness. The paper starts by a brief analysis of Romania’s educational system, by comparison with the EU countries, analysing the number of high school students / college students per teacher, the percentage of education expenditure in the GDP, the correlation betw...
Sahana Roy Chowdhury
This paper presents a two-step job ladder model where a skilled individual faces uncertainty in getting a skilled job and an inferior (unskilled) job down the job ladder is the alternative employment opportunity. When the probability of getting the skilled job is low enough, the model suggests the optimal policy to reach the social optimum is taxing rather than subsidizing human capital investment. The paper analyses the conditions when migration can act as a substitute for subsidizing human ...
Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox
Full Text Available Orientation: Physical and natural resources have been surpassed by human capital as aresource of wealth creation. As a result, senior management relies increasingly on appropriatepeople information to drive strategic change. Yet, measurement within the human resourcefunction predominantly informs decisions in support of efficiency and effectiveness. Consequently, dissimilar understanding of measurement expectations between these partieslargely continues.Research purpose: The study explored principles in selecting human capital measurements,drawing on the views and recommendations of human resource management professionals,all experts in human capital measurement.Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of selectingappropriate and strategic valid measurements, in order for human resource practitioners tocontribute to creating value and driving strategic change.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach, with purposively selectedcases from a selected panel of human capital measurement experts, generated a datasetthrough unstructured interviews, which were analysed thematically.Main findings: Nineteen themes were found. They represent a process that considers thecentrality of the business strategy and a systemic integration across multiple value chains inthe organisation through business partnering, in order to select measurements and generatemanagement level-appropriate information.Practical/managerial implications: Measurement practitioners, in partnership withmanagement from other functions, should integrate the business strategy across multiplevalue chains in order to select measurements. Analytics becomes critical in discoveringrelationships and formulating hypotheses to understand value creation. Higher educationinstitutions should produce graduates able to deal with systems thinking and to operatewithin complexity.Contribution: This study identified principles to select measurements and
Norhayati Mat Husin
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the extent of human capital (HC reporting among top Malaysian companies and introduce an HC reporting guideline that can be used by Malaysian companies and regulator. It begins by developing the HC framework based on previous intellectual capital (IC frameworks. This framework is then used to examine each of the top 100 Malaysian companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia in year 2008. Using the content analysis method, it reviews the annual reports of these companies to determine the extent of HC reporting. The findings of this paper highlight the need for the development of IC framework particularly on HC. HC differences were also identified between Malaysia and other countries such as Sri Lanka and Australia, and it is argued that these differences can be attributed to the social, economic, and political factors.
Inessa Alexandrovna Gurban
Full Text Available The paper outlines evolution of human capital theory. It provides a methodological approachfor measuringthe level of human capital development in the regions of Russian Federation. The approach suggested enables to determine the qualitative state of human capital in each region, to find out the reasons underpinning the current situation, to asses regions’ contribution to the overall national human capital, to develop someindividual approach to forming another quality human capital and its managing foreach territory. The methodology afforded theinstrumentwarebased on the qualimetricanalysis, whichuses the natural estimates (indicators of an object. A system of indicators simulating the human capital state puts forward the following modules: demographic, educational, labor, research and sociocultural. The tool offered allows differentiation of the Russian regions into the levels of human capital state. The 2011 rating of Russian regions according to the human capital state is given.
Office of Personnel Management — List of members of the Chief Human Capital Officers Council (CHCOC): Federal Chief Human Capital Officers (CHCOs) and Deputy CHCOs, as well as the council's chair,...
BACKGROUND: This article focuses on the question of nurturing human capital in a company environment with emphasis on developing human capital not only by education, but also by investing into a healthy life...
While the literature on economic growth provides mixed evidence on convergence across different countries and regions, a large number of studies point toward the widening income gap between rich and poor. In the development literature, a broader range of national welfare indicators beyond income per capita—health and education in particular—are considered important instruments for measuring progress in human development. This article examines education and other selective welfare indicators t...
We consider the possibility a draft increases the likelihood individuals will invest in human capital in the military. This possibility exists because those drafted have less time to reap the return from human capital investment. A draft is more likely to increase human capital investment in the military the larger the civilian return to human capital investment, the shorter the additional time one must spend in the military if one invests while enlisted, and the larger the cost to an individ...
Ten to twelve percent of the world population is identified as having one or more types of disability. This ecodeme has been historically known to be discriminated, marginalized, and disempowered by the lack of access to resources and to education. This article discusses the importance of adding special capital to the global human capital in the…
Roche, Maree; Haar, Jarrod M; Luthans, Fred
In today's highly competitive and extremely complex global economy, organizational leaders at all levels are facing unprecedented challenges. Yet, some seem to be handling the pressure better than others. Utilizing 4 samples of CEOs/presidents/top (n = 205), middle (n = 183), and junior (n = 202) managers, as well as 107 entrepreneurs, using Structural Equation Modeling we tested the direct effect that their level of mindfulness (heightened awareness) and the mediating effect of their psychological capital (i.e., hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism) may have on their mental well-being. In all 4 samples, mindfulness was found to be negatively related to various dysfunctional outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and negative affect of the managerial leaders and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism) of the entrepreneurs. For all 4 samples, the model with psychological capital mediating the effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional outcomes fit the data best. The study limitations, future research and practical implications of these findings conclude the article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Vakil Heidari sraban
Full Text Available Positive Psychological Capital is defined as the positive and developmental state of an individual as characterized by high self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the psychological capital effects on improvement of village farmer’s job satisfactions in the Ardabil County. The study sample consists of farmers in the Ardabil Province and 380 people were selected by convenience sampling. The sample size was determined based on Cochran's formula and the required data was collected through questionnaires. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires face and content validity were confirmed by professors and experts, and its reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha (0.71-0.82. For data analysis, the SPSS software was used. The results of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between all research variables and job satisfactions with the reliability of %95. Moreover, the variables of optimism, resiliency and self-efficacy contained %41 of dependent variables in linear multiple regression test. Finally, according to the results of analysis, practical suggestions are presented.
Full Text Available As a result of the competitive and customer-focused approach in the service sector, corporations expect their employees to demonstrate emotions necessitated by the service they provided during their employment period, in short to present their emotional labor along with their physical and intellectual contributions. In this study, it is aimed to examine the pos sible moderating effect of psychological capital in the relation between emotional labor and work alienation as well as in the participation of the employees in a corporation operating in the logistics sector, which is one of the prominent sectors in which the customer satisfaction plays key role. A web-based questionnaire form was sent to the employees via corporal intranet and the results gathered from 459 participants were analyzed. The relations and their effects among the variants were put forward by correlation and regression analysis and moderating effect were tested by the regression curve additionally. According to the evidences it is resulted that the increase in the employee’s labor intensity proportionally increases the alienation to their works.In addition to this, it is also derived that, the psychological capital of the employees plays a moderating role in the relation between their work alienation and emotional labor.
Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir
Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.
Brocheler, [No Value; Maijoor, S; van Witteloostuijn, A; Bröcheler, V.
This paper studies the relationship between auditor human capital and audit firm survival. Specifically, the effects are investigated of the human capital of auditors on the survival chances of newly established audit firms. Human capital is analyzed both at the time of entry of a new audit firm and
Okifo, Joseph; Ayo, Abel O.
The focus of this paper is on business teacher education, a panacea for human capital development in Nigeria. Human capital suggests that education, and training, health and standard of living raises the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime earning capacity. Therefore, BTE is a panacea for human capital development because the…
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Mpho D. Magau
Full Text Available Orientation: The methodologies employed for achieving two important goals of human resource (HR measurement, namely to enhance decisions about human capital and to connect HR and business strategy, are rarely empirically investigated.Research purpose: The aim of the present study was therefore to use the Human Capital (HC BRidgeTM framework to compare the views of HR practitioners with those of line management on HC solutions towards achieving strategic business objectives.Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study was to determine whether the HC BRidgeTM framework can create a useful platform for leveraging human capital solutions and for demonstrating HR value-add.Research design: A census-based survey was conducted on a target population of 787 supervisors and managers in specific categories in a mining company, which yielded 202 responses. The measuring instrument used was based on the HC BRidgeTM framework and on the company’s strategic objectives. Item intercorrelations on the subscales were followed by factor analyses and iterative item analyses.Main findings/results: The self-developed measuring instrument yielded an overall Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.97. Statistically significant differences were found between line management’s and HR practitioners’ views in respect of the three strategic business objectives.Practical/managerial implications: The results suggested that HR management was not yet fully aligned in respect of strategic business objectives and of becoming a strategic business partner.Contribution/value-add: The study therefore suggested that the HC BRidgeTM framework can be used as a method to connect human capital processes with business strategy to leverage business results and to demonstrate value-add.
Full Text Available There are a number of approaches to measure national competitiveness. However, in these reports human capital typically appears indirectly. The author's purpose is to uncover how human capital contributes to competitiveness of economies and to propose an approach to identify the most effective improvement opportunities for countries, illustrated on the example of Hungary. The analysis is based on the data of the Global Talent Index Report (2011 and the Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. The components of the Global Talent Index (GTI and their relation to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI were analyzed with a linear programming based similarity analysis method, component-based object comparison for objectivity (COCO. Based on the output of the analysis it was identified how sensitive the Global Competitiveness Index is to the components of the GTI. Hungary's position was analyzed further to quantify improvement opportunities and threats based on the step function resulted by the COCO analysis. The author concludes that the human resource of a country is a pivotal element of national competitiveness. By developing human capital of the country the overall competitive position may be improved. Areas of priorities may be identified and the level of intervention may be quantified specific to a country. This could help policy makers to decide in the allocation of resource to maximize effectiveness, leading to improve (or protect a country's overall competitive position in the global arena.
Western, like many other Federal agencies, will face significant and challenging human capital issues in the next decade. The Federal workforce is aging; baby boomers, with their valuable skills and experience, are drawing nearer to retirement and new employees joining the Federal workforce today have different career expectations from the generation that preceded them. The average age of Western’s workforce is approaching 48. Almost a third of the workforce is between 50 and 54 years and most will be eligible to retire in five years. Western has almost twice as many employees who are 55 and older as it has who are 35 and younger. As the workforce ages, the proportion of younger workers is shrinking. The U.S. Census Bureau says you can expect these developments for the next 20 years. The 45 to 65 year-old work group will grow by 54 percent but the 18 to 44 population will rise by only 4 percent. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics workers age 25 to 44 will decline by 3 million, dropping from 51 percent of the labor force in 1998 to 44 percent in 2008. Western employees who will retire include highly skilled workers in fields such as information technology, engineering, and craft occupations. Deregulation of the electric utility industry and the establishment of regional transmission organizations and independent system operators are also demanding new and different skill mixes than those currently available in Western. Changes in workforce demographic, in the education and skills that will be required in the future, and an increasingly competitive job market, will require flexible and responsive human capital tools to attract and retain talented employees. These trends were the reason for a comprehensive review of Western’s human capital programs to determine its readiness for the future. In July 2001, a team of managers conducted a comprehensive assessment of Western’s human capital needs. The team used the assessment to draft a framework that
Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with health, human capital and wealth accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one industrial, one health, and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of four main models in economic theory: Solow’s one-sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, Arrow’s learning by doing model, and Grossman’s growth model with health. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of health service and education are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth, health, human capital, economic structure, and time distribution among work, health caring, and education under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the propensity to consume health caring, the efficiency of producing health caring, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save.
Full Text Available The psychological capital (PsyCap, an individual’s positive psychological state of development, is characterized by four components. These four components are (1 Hope (commonly associated with one’s positive expectancy towards the future, (2 Self-efficacy (confidence to put in considerable effort to succeed at challenging task, (3 Resilience (individual’s capability to successfully cope with adverse circumstances, uncertainty and conflict and (4 Optimism (a cognitive process directed at positive outcomes or expectancies of a bright and prosperous future. The sample consists of 160 Khasi (75 boys and 85 girls selected from East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and 185 non-Khasi (100 boys and 85 girls selected from Kolkata district of West Bengal adolescents studying at high schools of East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and Kolkata district of West Bengal. Parental Authority Questionnaire and Psychological Capital Scale were used to assess the parenting style and positive PsyCap, respectively. The results revealed that dimensions of positive PsyCap vary with respect to culture and the effect of culture is prominent among adolescent boys. Non-Khasi adolescent boys are significantly higher on positive PsyCap dimensions than their Khasi counterparts. Adolescents who perceive their parents as high on authoritarian dimension display lower level of Positive PsyCap and its dimensions while those perceive their parents as high on authoritative style score higher on Positive PsyCap and its dimensions. Implications for parental practices and positive PsyCap in families and schools are discussed.
Schultz, T. Paul
This paper reviews the methods and empirical findings from economic analyses of women's contribution to social welfare and the determinants of their human capital. To understand better women's roles in agricultural households, three themes have gained prominence in the economics literature. First is the conceptualization of the unified family as coordinator of production and consumption over the lifecycle. Second is the role of separability of production and consumption decisions in the agric...
David Mayston; Juan Yang
University of York Beijing Normal University The efficiency of the process of investment in human capital through education is of considerable importance both to the individuals involved and to the wider economy. The paper develops an analytical framework in which issues of the efficiency of such investment can be considered alongside its interface with the operations of the labour market, and in which the risks posed by such educational investments when the labour market is less than fully e...
The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience a considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about ...
Erwan Quintin; John J Stevens
We use a unique data set on employee turnover by industry in Arizona to test competing theories of turnover. We find that industries with lower establishment survival rates have more employee turnover, even after controlling for differences in the distribution of employee tenure. This result is consistent with a model of turnover where employees choose how much firm specific human capital to accumulate, but it is inconsistent with job matching models.
integrated enterprise ” to describe the venture. The foundation of this enterprise is human capital and HR management (Boudreau 2011). Employees at IBM...development. If an officer deviates from this path, they risk non-selection for promotion. Additionally, branch managers can only see an officer’s...Carlisle, PA. Boudreau, John W. 2010. IBM’s Global Talent Management Strategy: The Vision of the Globally Integrated Enterprise . Alexandria, VA
BACKGROUND: This article focuses on the question of nurturing human capital in a company environment with emphasis on developing human capital not only by education, but also by investing into a healthy lifestyle, development of key competencies, social capital etc. Human capital development is usually interpreted as education. The bearer of knowledge, the employee, is often of secondary focus and not being taken into account. Increasing the efficiency of companies as well as the productivity...
Rayén Amanda Rovira Rubio
Full Text Available The present research aimed to know the significance of academic training experienced by postgraduate students who are pursuing their studies abroad under the context of a Training Program for Advanced Human Capital promoted by the Government of Chile. A feminist epistemology of situated knowledge was used as methodological framework, and narrative productions were used as technique of data collection. With this approach, the experiences of seven graduate students in Spanish universities, mostly of them beneficiaries of scholarships from Chile, were analyzed. The main findings were: the positive assessment of the experience of studying abroad, the divergent testimonies about these experiences, which based on previous educational trajectories and the socioeconomic level of the professional. These aspects influenced the identifications with the concept of Advanced Human Capital for Chile. Also, for some participants, the Advanced Human Capital is seen as an imposed concept which does not coincide with the real opportunities for the professional practice in the country. Therefore, the participants are sceptical about the possibilities of adequate job insertion in the return to Chile.
Yelena Mikhaylovna Avraamova
Full Text Available In the articles, the households’ educational strategies for school children are surveyed on the basis of sociological research. The significance attached to school education in connection with human capital accumulation is in the focus of attention. It is shown that the accumulation of human capital through mass obtainment of higher professional education appeared as the consequence of rather significant gap in salaries level of educated specialists and employees without higher education. The article reviews such problems as the role of education in the present-day world, its significance as the foundation of human capital accumulation. The goals that households set before the system of school education are revealed on the basis of sociological data. Educational strategies of school children in connection with their opportunities of successful overcoming of Unified State Examination are explored. The assumptions concerning educational strategies alterations are made on the basis of conducted analysis and statistic data, which revealed the tendency of converging salaries of employees who received higher education with salary level of employees who received secondary professional education.
Cordeiro, Ana Lúcia Arcanjo Oliveira; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; Mauricio, Maria Deolinda Antunes Luz Lopes Dias; Silva, Rosana Maria de Oliveira; Barros, Claudia Silva Marinho Antunes de; Romano, Cátia Maria Costa
To analyze how the components of human capital are used in the nursing management of hospital organizations. This was an exploratory and qualitative study. Data collection took place between October 2014 and May 2015 using semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed according to content analysis. Twelve nurse managers participated. The components of human capital used by the nurses in personnel management were: during the hiring process, when requiring specialized education in the field and prior professional experience; when retaining talents with promotion strategies; in building capacities of professionals through support and training; and in collective work to construct processes and outcome assessment. The components of human capital need to be managed strategically with a focus on professional skills and development, with the aim of transforming individual and collective knowledge into new technology. Analisar como os componentes do capital humano são utilizados na gestão de enfermeiras em organizações hospitalares. Estudo exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados ocorreu de outubro de 2014 a maio de 2015 com a utilização de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram analisados segundo a análise de conteúdo. Participaram 12 gestoras de enfermagem. Os componentes do capital humano utilizados pelas enfermeiras na gestão de pessoas foram: no processo admissional ao utilizar como critérios para contratação a exigência de especialização na área e experiência profissional prévia; na manutenção de talentos com estratégias de promoção; na capacitação de profissionais com apoio e treinamento; e no trabalho coletivo para a construção dos processos e avaliação dos resultados. Os componentes do capital humano precisam ser gerenciados estrategicamente com foco nas competências e no desenvolvimento do profissional, visando transformar os conhecimentos individuais e coletivos em novas tecnologias.
Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle
Seafaring is an inherently stressful environment. Because working time and leisure time is spent in the same confined environment for a prolonged period of time, many stressors present in seafaring can also be conceived of as chronic. We explored the effects of duration at sea, seafaring experience, environmental stressors, and psychological capital (PsyCap) on the sleep quality and fatigue of seafarers. PsyCap is a construct that draws upon ideas from positive psychology and positive organizational behavior, and is intended to capture an individual's psychological capacities that can be developed and utilized for performance improvements. We collected survey data from a sample of seafarers working in the offshore re-supply industry (n = 402) and a sample of seafarers working on board combined passenger and cargo ships (n = 340). PsyCap emerged as a robust predictor with statistically significant relations to fatigue and sleep quality in both samples. PsyCap also interacted with duration at sea in explaining fatigue in seafarers working on board the passenger and cargo ships. Seafarers on passenger and cargo ships also reported significantly higher levels of fatigue than those working in the offshore re-supply industry. Coupled with emerging research showing that PsyCap is trainable, our results suggest that maritime organizations could have much to gain by being cognizant of and developing routines for continually developing the PsyCap of their employees.
Barnes, Christopher M; Jiang, Kaifeng; Lepak, David P
The strategic human capital literature indicates the importance of human capital to work unit performance. However, we argue that human capital only aids performance when it is translated into actions beneficial to the unit. We examine a set of common human capital leveraging characteristics (including the use of extended shifts, night shifts, shift flexibility, norms for work as a priority over sleep, and norms for constant connectivity) as factors that enhance the effect of human capital on human capital utilization. We also draw from the 2-process model of sleep regulation to examine how these characteristics undermine employee sleep, and thus weaken the link between human capital and work unit performance efficiency. Overall, we propose that human capital leveraging strategies initially enhance the effect of human capital on work unit performance, but over time weaken the effect of human capital on work unit performance efficiency. Thus, strategies intended to enhance the beneficial effect of human capital on work unit performance can end up doing the opposite. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available In the knowledge economy human capital plays a crucial role in various economic processes and thus also in spatial development. But human capital is an economic resource that is distributed unequally in space. Some regions show a higher density of human capital than others. This paper discusses questions relating to the spatial concentration and specialisation of human capital in the German urban system. Due to an increasing interest in human capital the questions are asked, where is human capital located in the German urban system and how does the distribution change over time. The paper relates to geographical theories of concentration and specialisation. It will be shown that human capital is a heterogeneous category containing different occupational groups showing different spatial patterns. Some display increasing spatial disparities; others are fairly balanced over space.
Campion, Michael C; Ployhart, Robert E; Campion, Michael A
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-14296-001). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected.] This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Narula, Rajneesh; Marin, Anabel
spillovers accrue from MNE activity, and provide apreliminary understanding of why MNE spillovers remain somewhat ambiguous,particularly in developing countries, paying particular attention to human capitaldevelopment. Our analysis is supported by data from the Innovation Survey in Argentina.On the whole......It is nowadays generally accepted that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is crucialas a source of technological spillovers. One of the objectives of this paper is to review theevidence on the quantity and quality of human capital employed by domestic and foreignfirms. We examine whether...
Didem Rodoplu Şahin
Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.
Mello, James A.
The purpose of this single-site case study was to investigate the relationship between administrative personnel's reports of psychological capital (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) and their reports of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, two surveys, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Youssef, &…
Loyd Beal III
Full Text Available Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB, in which OCB served as an index for measuring positive organisational change.Motivation for the study: Little empirical research has investigated the application of positive organisational behaviour to government organisations undergoing organisational change. Organisations can use the study results to increase positive outcomes and reduce resistance in government organisations experiencing a holistic change intervention.Research design, approach and method: The data comprised a cross-sectional survey of 97 employees from a government organisation that provides life-cycle career management support. Employees completed the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire, the 16-item organisational citizenship behaviour scale and the 17-item resistance to change scale. Data analyses used a mixed methods approach to merge quantitative inferential statistics with qualitative thematic analysis.Main findings: The quantitative analysis yielded high levels of resistance to change that moderated the positive effect of PsyCap on organisational citizenship behaviour. The thematic analysis revealed that affective, behavioural and cognitive forms of resistance to change were prevalent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisational leaders should seek to reduce resistance and increase the resources that organisations need to effect positive organisational change.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about positive organisational behaviour in government
Liu, Chunqin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ping
Adjustment difficulties of college students are common and their school adjustment has gained wide concern in recent years. Negative life events and psychological capital (PsyCap) have been associated with school adjustment. However, the potential impact of negative life events on PsyCap, and whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment among nursing students have not been studied. To investigate the relationship among negative life events, PsyCap, and school adjustment among five-year vocational high school nursing students in China and the mediating role of PsyCap between negative life events and school adjustment. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted. 643 five-year vocational high school nursing students were recruited from three public high vocational colleges in Shandong of China. Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Checklist (ASLEC), the Psychological Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students scale (PCQAS), and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS) were used in this study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of PsyCap. Negative life events were negatively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment (interpersonal relationship adaptation, learning adaptation, campus life adaptation, career adaptation, emotional adaptation, self-adaptation, and degree of satisfaction). PsyCap was positively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment and negatively associated with negative life events. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment. Negative life events may increase the risk of school maladjustment in individuals with low PsyCap. Interventions designed to increase nursing students' PsyCap might buffer the stress of adverse life events, and thereby, enhance students' positive adjustment to school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo; Ma, Ruiyang; Sang, Jinyan
In this study, we investigated the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout as well as the potential mediation/moderation effects of psychological capital. Participants were 357 university teachers who completed a questionnaire packet containing a work-family conflict scale, psychological capital questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General survey. According to the results, work-family conflict and psychological capital were both significantly correlated with job burnout. In addition, psychological capital cannot mediate-but can moderate-the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout. Taken together, our findings shed light on the psychological capital underlying the association of work-family conflict and job burnout.
A. Baghban Baghestan
Full Text Available Aims: As a prevalent metabolic disease, diabetes can be followed by severe mental outcomes leading to problems affecting the daily life. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of acceptance and commitment-based intervention on illness perception and psychological capital in persons with type II diabetes. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 34 patients with type II diabetes were studied in the Diabetes Clinic of Chamran Hospital of Ferdows City in 2015. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control (n=17 persons and experimental (n=17 persons groups. Data was collected by short illness perception questionnaire (IPQ and Luthans’ psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ. Eight 60-minute acceptance and commitment-base intervention sessions were weekly conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using descriptive statistics and covariance analysis test. Findings: The pretest score having been adjusted, the acceptance and commitment-based intervention significantly increases the scores of illness perception and its sub-scales (p=0.0001 except the personal control sub-scale. In addition, it significantly increases the scores of the psychological capital and its sub-scales (p=0.0001 in patients with type II diabetes. Conclusion: The acceptance and commitment-based intervention can considerably improve the illness perception and the psychological capital in persons with type II diabetes.
Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social capital assessed in early adulthood in linking self-control in childhood with psychological and social functioning in middle age. Data collected at ages 8, 27, and 42 years were based on the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (159 females, 177 males).…
Kirikkanat, Berke; Soyer, Makbule Kali
The major purpose of this study was to create a path analysis model of academic success in a group of university students, which included the variables of academic confidence and psychological capital with a mediator variable--academic coping. 400 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in sophomore, junior…
Babenko, A I; Bravve, Iu I; Tomchuk, A L; Babenko, E A
The article substantiates the necessity to develop public health strategy considering the processes of demographic, social, economic progression of society. The core issue in these conditions is human capital and its component--health capital as an integral reflection of different characteristics of population. The definitions of these notions in a social hygienic aspect are presented. The main stages of development of the health strategy such as formation of strategic planning elements, human capital valuation, population health and health capital losses, evaluation of potential demand in medical technologies, medical organizational measures implementation and their input into development of human capital are considered. These positions are supported as determinants of effectiveness of health strategy.
Sushil Kumar Haldar
Full Text Available This study examines the time series behavior of investment in physical capital, human capital(comprising education and health and output in a co-integration framework, taking growthof primary gross enrolment rate and a dummy for structural adjustment programme (opennesswhich has been initiated in 1991 as exogenous variables in India from 1960 to 2006. Theresults suggest that physical capital investment has no long-run nor short-run effect butthe human capital investment has significant long-run effect on per capita GNP; the stockof human capital measured by primary gross enrolment rate (lagged by three years andopenness is found to have a significant effect on growth of per capita GNP. The GeneralizedImpulse Response Function confirms that the innovation in per capita GNP growth can onlyexplain the movements of the growth of per capita GNP (itself and investment in educationhuman capital positively and significantly only for a short period of time but does not explainthe movements of the investment in physical capital and health human capital. Moreover,the innovation in change in education human capital investment significantly and positivelyexplains the movement of the changes in education human capital investment (itself, healthhuman capital investment and growth of GNP per capita; the innovation in health humancapital investment significantly explains the changes of education and health human capitalinvestment only. This study may help towards policy modeling of economic growth in India,taking into account the relevance of endogenous growth.
Full Text Available Higher education has a very strategic position to determine the quality of human capital. Therefore, a higher education must always strive to provide quality assurance services to the interested parties. The more quality customer service is given, the more college customer will satiesfied that have an impact on the increasing investment of the human resources (Human Capital.Keywords: Higher Education, Human Capital
Biscaia, Ricardo; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Rocha, Vera
relevance of human capital for economic growth was also associated with the role of technology and its impact in enhancing the demand for more and better qualified workers. However, the capacity of societies to take advantage of those investments has been found to be more complex and uncertain than...... institutions at the regional level and we review the empirical findings on these issues in the context of Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain). Finally we provide a brief exploratory analysis of the potential association between the education of the population and the GDP per capita...
Donaher, Kathleen; Russell, Gail; Scoble, Kathleen B; Chen, Jie
Nurse managers play a vital role in healthcare delivery systems. Psychometrically sound measures of management practices grounded in empirical practice data are needed. An integrative review provided content domain for the Human Capital Competencies Inventory (HCCI). Analyses from nurse managers in one northeastern state revealed considerable consistency in performance of activities. There is validity and reliability for the HCCI with the sample used. There is early support for the Mastery Path as a competency-based model for developing nurses for management in healthcare organizations. Development and testing of four other management practices in the Mastery Path is ongoing.
Michael A. Leeds
In response to declining budgets, many school districts in the US have reduced funding for sports. In Europe, parents may respond to difficult economic times by spending less on sports clubs for their children. Such cuts are unwise if participating in sports is an investment good as well as a consumption good and adds to students' human capital. The value of sports is hard to measure because people who already possess the skills needed to succeed in school and beyond might be more likely to p...
Full Text Available In terms of the organization, the human capital theory and human resource management raises a number of issues, namely: human capital issues (they relate to attracting, maintaining, developing and rewarding human resources in order to create and maintain a skilled, dedicated and motivated personnel; issues related to the structural capital (with reference to the size and development of organizational structures that stimulate the processes of creating, capturing and sizing of knowledge; issues of organizational capital( those related to knowledge management. Therefore, organizational context, several questions arise: What knowledge do we have? What knowledge do we need now and in the future? How can we create an environment and a culture that encourages individual and organizational learning? How can we do so that both explicit and tacit knowledge to be captured stored and used judiciously? This paper focuses on human capital theory, but there will also be raised concepts associated to the human resources and knowledge management. Therefore, in this paper we try to identify ways in which human resources (HR specialists can support the KM strategy to drive value within organisation, by revising the practices in order to ensure the knowledge focus.
The making of human capital is increasingly seen as a principal function of higher education. A keyword in neoliberal ideology, human capital represents a subtle masking of social conflict and expresses metaphorically the commodification of human abilities and an alienating notion of human potential, both of which sit ill with the goals of…
Keck-Staley, Tracey Lavette
Student learning in the mathematics classroom is described as being both social and personal. Students' prior knowledge (human capital), attitudes (personal capital), and social skills and/or cultural values (sociocultural capital) are personal components they bring into the classroom. The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore (a)…
Fisher, William P
Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.
Gottardi, Piero; Kajii, Atsushi; Nakajima, Tomoyuki
We consider an economy where individuals face uninsurable risks to their human capital accumulation, and analyze the optimal level of linear taxes on capital and labor income together with the optimal path of government debt. We show that in the presence of such risks it is beneficial to tax both labor and capital and to issue public debt. We also assess the quantitative importance of these findings, and show that the benefits of government debt and capital taxes both increase with the magnit...
Dockner, Engelbert; Siyahhan, Baran
be observed during the R&D phase of the project. The exogenous value of the patent determines the firm’s decisions to invest in human capital, to abandon the project if necessary, and to invest in marketing the new product. We study the corresponding optimal stopping times, determine their value and risk......We consider a firm that employs human capital to make a technological breakthrough. Since the probability of success of the breakthrough depends on the current stock of human capital the firm has an incentive to expand its human capital stock. The present value of the patent is stochastic but can...... consequences, and derive optimal investment in the stock of human capital. While optimal investment in human capital is very sensitive to its productivity do increase the probability of a breakthrough it is insensitive to changes in the volatility of the present value of the patent. The value of the firm...
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; B. Folta, Timothy
The founder (team)'s human capital is a vital determinant of future firm performance. This is a stylized fact. Less is known about the effect of the human capital of the initial workforce hired by the founder(s). We study the performance consequences of a founder's choice of the initial workforce......'s human capital (quantity and quality), besides the human capital of the founder(s). The analysis is based on matched employer-employee data and covers about 5,300 startups in manufacturing industries founded by individuals coming from employment between 1992 and 2007. We acknowledge that initial hiring...... decisions are endogenous and correlated with the human capital of the founders and the ownership structure of startups (single founder versus team of founders). Given the stickiness of initial choices, human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible matter with significant...
Abu Bakar Siti Anis Nadia
Full Text Available The emergence of social business enterprises has been attributed to the increased demand for sustainability among the non-profit organisations (NPOs due to diminishing funding from traditional sources and increased competition for the scarce resources. To date, there is growing interest on social businesses (SBs as innovation in providing public services that contributes to the social wellbeing of community. This in turn can be linked directly or indirectly to economic development as the sustainability level of the country is measured specifically towards the development of human capital and solving the social problems rather than the economics alone. Indeed, having both economic and non-economic aims, SBs would be the potential solutions to address a range of societal issues and increase the efficiency and quality of public sector services that focus on equitable growth with ecological sustainability. Therefore, it is important to explore the relationship between capability of SBs and the social impact created. This paper explores on capability based on human capital management and social impact or value created through SBs. This is expected to provide some insights on the sustainability and credibility of SBs to support the government efforts in moving towards high nation income.
Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.
I Z Garafiev
Full Text Available This article analyzes the assessment of the effectiveness of investing into the innovative human capital by the students of Kazan. The effectiveness of investing into the human capital was estimated at two levels: potential and real. The results suggest an overestimation by the respondents of the potential level of investment: the students overestimate their readiness to work in their specialty, which adversely affects the formation of their criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of investing into their own human capital.
This paper investigates the framework for human capital development in Nigeria through a public-private partnership (PPP) approach. No doubt, population of a country determines the subsisted human capital resources and this in turn determines the economic status of such country. Therefore, human capital development becomes a mantra for economic development. Unfortunately, government spending on education and health is so negligible as to make any meaningful impact on Nigerian economy. It is...
Bc. Erika Smereková Strategy of Slovak Republic's Government to use higher education as an investment in human capital Abstract The Master thesis on the topic "Strategy of Slovak Republic's government to use higher education as an investment in human capital" presents results to the following research question: To what extent is it a part of strategy of Slovak Republic's educational policy to use higher education as an investment in human capital? The thesis specifically focuses on the idea o...
Full Text Available The paper highlights the role of education in the growth of economic competitiveness and efficiency of human capital, in accordance with the quality of education and investments in human resources, in order to enhance labour productiveness. The paper starts by a brief analysis of Romania’s educational system, by comparison with the EU countries, analysing the number of high school students / college students per teacher, the percentage of education expenditure in the GDP, the correlation between the labour force’s training level and insertion into the labour market. The paper also presents the EU countries’ ranking related to higher education and professional training, pointing out the importance of lifelong professional training at the place of work. The paper draws conclusions regarding the importance of the labour force training, as the operation of a modern economy requires the existence of a well-trained labour force, education representing one of the fundamental pillars of any society’s development.
Jose M Leon-Perez
Full Text Available Previous studies have found a negative association between intragroup conflict and both employees’ health and performance, including the quality of service that employees provide. However, some authors have indicated that such negative effects of intragroup conflict depend on how conflict is managed. In addition, at individual level, research is increasingly emphasizing the role of psychological strengths (i.e., psychological capital as predictors of health and performance. Thus, this research addresses both a main effect at individual level (psychological capital on burnout/quality of service and a moderated cross-level model (2-2-1: intragroup conflict, conflict management climate and burnout/quality of service in a cross-sectional survey study (N = 798 workers nested in 55 units/facilities. Results revealed a main effect of psychological capital on both burnout (r = -.50 and quality of service (r = .28. Also, there was an association between intragroup relationship conflict and burnout (r = .33. Finally, there was an interaction effect in which conflict management climate buffers the negative association between intragroup conflict and quality of service. Practical implications of these results for developing positive and healthy organizations that prevent potential psychosocial risks at group level while promote individual strengths are discussed.
Leon-Perez, Jose M; Antino, Mirko; Leon-Rubio, Jose M
Previous studies have found a negative association between intragroup conflict and both employees' health and performance, including the quality of service that employees provide. However, some authors have indicated that such negative effects of intragroup conflict depend on how conflict is managed. In addition, at individual level, research is increasingly emphasizing the role of psychological strengths (i.e., psychological capital) as predictors of health and performance. Thus, this research addresses both a main effect at individual level (psychological capital on burnout/quality of service) and a moderated cross-level model (2-2-1: intragroup conflict, conflict management climate and burnout/quality of service) in a cross-sectional survey study ( N = 798 workers nested in 55 units/facilities). Results revealed a main effect of psychological capital on both burnout ( r = -0.50) and quality of service ( r = 0.28). Also, there was an association between intragroup relationship conflict and burnout ( r = 0.33). Finally, there was an interaction effect in which conflict management climate buffers the negative association between intragroup conflict and quality of service. Practical implications of these results for developing positive and healthy organizations that prevent potential psychosocial risks at group level while promote individual strengths are discussed.
Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In this paper we analyze investments in human capital assets in a way which is standard for financial assets, but not (yet) for human capital assets. We study mean-variance plots of human capital assets. We compare the properties of human capital returns using a performance measure and by sing...... tests for mean-variance spanning. A risk-return trade-off is revealed, hich is not only related to the length of education but also to the type of education. We identify a range of educations that are efficient in terms of investment goods, and a range of educations that are inefficient, and may...
Odunayo Paul Salau; Hezekiah Olubusayo Falola; Ayodotun Stephen Ibidunni; Ebeguki Edith Igbinoba
...). [...]management of human capital in the selected universities has contributed in stimulating the skills, knowledge and aptitudes necessary to undertake required job efficiently and lessen physical risks...
Full Text Available The regularly-updated database “Human capital in Spain and its distribution by provinces” provides information about the accumulation of human capital in Spain over the last five decades. The human capital estimates included in this database contain a wide range of information on how education levels in Spain have evolved, classified according to the level of studies completed and other human capital indicators. The database includes information that has been updated until the second trimester of 2013. It can be accessed at http://www.ivie.es/en/banco/caphum/series.php.
Full Text Available We live today in a changing society based on the globalization and better valorisation of the human capital. The human capital is the central driver force for competitiveness and development of the new technology and patent and a necessary factor for their efficient use in the new society. In order to reach the competitiveness objective, the European Union member countries seek to develop their human capital value by increasing investment in education, science and technology development. Based on the panel econometrics techniques, this paper explores the statistical correlations between human capital components and national competitiveness within the EU economic context.
Odden, Allan R.
"Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education" offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital." Grounded in extensive research and examples of leading edge districts, this book shows how the entire human resource system in schools--from recruitment, to selection/placement,…
Olakulehin, Felix Kayode
The development of human capital has been identified as the most important component of all the factors employed in production economics. Since independence in 1960, Nigeria has placed great emphasis on training and education for human capital formation. However, the education process as the primary means of developing human resource has failed,…
Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань
Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given
Full Text Available As the Cold War was winding down, a new struggle began. Following a period of diverse versions of Keynesian-led relative redistribution in developed market economies, the United States became the point actor for a radical reshuffiing of capitalism. Key to this reshuffiing was expulsion - of people, places, and traditional economies (see Sassen 2014. While this is a socio-economic condition it is a critical, but invisible, element of the current political crisis. Measuring economic growth to understand whether government policies are working, or measuring political participation in terms of voting, excludes growing portions of our political economy - people, specific types of firms and economic circuits, and spaces. The Keynesian period was one of mass production and mass construction of suburban space: this brought with it an economic logic that valued people as workers and consumers, though not necessarily as human beings. The logic guiding the current phase of advanced capitalism does not value people as workers or as (mass consumers. Thus, in the last two decades there has been a sharp growth in the numbers of people that have been "expelled" from the economy in much of the world. The active expanding of a middle class in that earlier period has been replaced by the impoverishment and shrinking of the middle class.
This article presents an agentic theory of human development, adaptation, and change. The evolutionary emergence of advanced symbolizing capacity enabled humans to transcend the dictates of their immediate environment and made them unique in their power to shape their life circumstances and the courses their lives take. In this conception, people are contributors to their life circumstances, not just products of them. Social cognitive theory rejects a duality between human agency and social structure. People create social systems, and these systems, in turn, organize and influence people's lives. This article discusses the core properties of human agency, the different forms it takes, its ontological and epistemological status, its development and role in causal structures, its growing primacy in the coevolution process, and its influential exercise at individual and collective levels across diverse spheres of life and cultural systems. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.
The management of human capital in the framework of the theory of intellectual capital, a guide to indicators; La Gestion del capital humano en el Marco de la Teoria del Capital Intelectual. Una guia de indicadores
Tejiero Alvarez, M. M.; Garcia Alvarez, M. T.; Mariz Perez, R. M.
The study of the Intellectual Capital has a great importance in the last decade. In this context, Human Capital is established as a key variable to obtain sustainable competitive advantages in enterprises management. In this paper, we make a revision about the importance of Human Capital in the companies and we propose various indicators which allow to manage this concept. The objective is that the directives can choose the most suitable indicators in function of the characteristics of their enterprises, their management objectives and their strategies. (Author) 43 refs.
Homo sapiens is increasingly being studied within the evolutionary (adaptationist, selectionist) framework favoured by animal behaviour researchers. There are various labels for such work, including evolutionary psychology, human behavioural ecology and human sociobiology. Collectively, we call these areas 'human evolutionary psychology' (HEP) because their shared objective is an evolutionary understanding of human information processing and decision making. Sexual selection and sex differences have been especially prominent in recent HEP research, but many other topics have been addressed, including parent-offspring relations, reciprocity and exploitation, foraging strategies and spatial cognition. Many HEP researchers began their scientific careers in animal behaviour, and in many ways, HEP research is scarcely distinguishable from other animal behaviour research. Currently controversial issues in HEP, such as the explanation(s) for observed levels of heritable diversity, the kinds of data needed to test adaptationist hypotheses, and the characterization of a species-typical 'environment of evolutionary adaptedness', are issues in animal behaviour as well. What gives HEP a distinct methodological flavour is that the research animal can talk, an ability that has both advantages and pitfalls for researchers. The proper use of self-reports and other verbal data in HEP might usefully become a subject of future research in its own right. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
BABA Ryota; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
Entrepreneurship activities are low in Japan, and it is often discussed that possible reasons are the lack of venture capital and a rigid labor market. However, it is rare to find a study that analyzes the human capital aspect of entrepreneurs based on a large scale sample survey. In this study, the characteristics of the human capital of entrepreneurs, such as education and job experience, are analyzed based on a survey of entrepreneurs conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade a...
BABA Ryota; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
Entrepreneurship activities are low in Japan, and it is often discussed that possible reasons are the lack of venture capital and a rigid labor market. However, it is rare to find a study that analyzes the human capital aspect of entrepreneurs based on a large scale sample survey. In this study, the characteristics of the human capital of entrepreneurs, such as education and job experience, are analyzed based on a survey of entrepreneurs conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade a...
In countries, there is a consensus, that parts of the level of government investment include also the need for investment in educational services, governments undoubtedly playing a central role in directing the formation and development of human capital. We need to invest in human capital, doubly so as that the investment in education is a profitable one, the rate of capitalization of the investment in education ranging from 5-30%, according to OECD statistics.
Rocha, Vera; Brymer, Rhett Andrew
) early hiring choices affect new venture performance. This gap is surprising, since hiring soon after a firm founding is especially critical to sustained success. We propose that pipeline hiring – i.e., repeated hiring from various source organizations – might be a strategy considered by startups...... of this hiring practice will beget improved firm performance. Using a sample of about 8,300 new ventures founded in Denmark, and over 150,000 employees joining these firms, we find broad support for our theory. We then explore the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions for the positive relationship...... determine how a firm orchestrates the accumulation of one of its most critical resources – its human capital. However, research to date has not considered the effect of founding team characteristics on staffing strategies specifically, neither has prior literature advanced our knowledge on how (certain...
Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian
This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of home computers on child and adolescent outcomes by exploiting a voucher program in Romania. Our main results indicate that home computers have both positive and negative effects on the development of human capital. Children who won a voucher to purchase a computer had significantly lower school grades but show improved computer skills. There is also some evidence that winning a voucher increased cognitive skills, as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. We do not find much evidence for an effect on non-cognitive outcomes. Parental rules regarding homework and computer use attenuate the effects of computer ownership, suggesting that parental monitoring and supervision may be important mediating factors. PMID:22719135
Rogelio Varela Llamas
Full Text Available The aim of this document is to estimate two models econometrics on the determination of the wages in Mexico for the period 2000–2009. There is in use information of the National Survey of Urban Employment and of the National Survey of Occupation and Employment of the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (inegi. The impact is analyzed on the wage income of variables of offer of work as labor experience and human capital. In contrast, variables of demand are in use as size of company, sector of activity and other attributes of sociodemographic character. The results indicate that the wage differences by degree of education are marked, but they are also by type of establishment and economic activity.
We propose a network-based method for measuring worker skills. We illustrate the method using data from an online freelance website. Using the tools of network analysis, we divide skills into endogenous categories based on their relationship with other skills in the market. Workers who specialize in these different areas earn dramatically different wages. We then show that, in this market, network-based measures of human capital provide additional insight into wages beyond traditional measures. In particular, we show that workers with diverse skills earn higher wages than those with more specialized skills. Moreover, we can distinguish between two different types of workers benefiting from skill diversity: jacks-of-all-trades, whose skills can be applied independently on a wide range of jobs, and synergistic workers, whose skills are useful in combination and fill a hole in the labor market. On average, workers whose skills are synergistic earn more than jacks-of-all-trades. PMID:29133397
Woolliscroft, Paul; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš; Šefčíková, Miriam; Kamenova, Joana Valery
The globalisation phenomenon has been prevalent since the last decade of 20th century and remains a significant factor influencing both organisations and individuals today. Within a globalised business environment the effective management of multicultural aspects and differences has become imperative to ensure success. It is increasingly evident there is a need to develop a clear understanding of multicultural competencies in order to fully develop a strategic approach to human capital management (HCM). The adoption of a strategic approach is necessary to ensure a focus on the issues critical to success and competitive advantage including multicultural management, professional skills and knowledge management. This paper aims to identify the importance of intercultural management and the impact of globalisation upon international business.
Rodrigo J. Raad
Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model for parental behavior regarding land inheritance, accounting for consumption and savings strategies. We identify two types of modeling: one with, and another without, strategic behavior. In the first model, we assume that children do not act strategically towards their parent. We find that the child with the highest return to human capital is more likely to receive a larger share of the land if the difference in offspring’s returns is large. In the second model, we allow for each child to influence parent’s optimal choice of bequest by providing services to the latter. We illustrate that the child’s strategy for service provision is sufficient to assure that the one providing more assistance will receive a larger share of the bequest in a Nash equilibrium. We conclude by illustrating our theoretical model with some empirical analysis using longitudinal data for the rural Brazilian Amazon.
Full Text Available Today firms advocate buy a business improvement depends on proper reach staff selection considering the level of commitment, work attitude, skills and competencies of each person in the performance of the functions of the various fees and jobs. This research proposes a module occupational competency (CL that would strengthen the Human Capital Management (GCH. The proposal may encourage national institutions and increase their productivity sustained employment success for the country. For the realization of the solution was carried out the study of business processes and methods of multicriterial decision-making. Following the completion of the design, the solution was implemented and the identified components were integrated, the results of the data obtained showed the feasibility of the contribution to the solution of the problem.
Kochanowski, Yvonne J
Faced with high levels of senior civil servant retirement in the coming years and limited by civil service requirements, government organizations often struggle to maintain the knowledge base of previous processes and results while promoting people who are truly interested in being leaders in an agency. Upcoming generations of public sector workers do not share the same motivation and workplace characteristics of current exiting civil servants, further complicating smooth transitions of leadership. Government personnel systems for the most part are inflexible and slow to hire, and retention methods for workers do not encourage succession planning. Against this backdrop, a five-phased human capital management system, using some of the best practices found in both public and private sector organizations, is proposed as a solution for replacing government retirees with workers who are prepared for their leadership and management roles.
Yongqing Ding; Yanjie Yang; Xiuxian Yang; Tiehui Zhang; Xiaohui Qiu; Xin He; Wenbo Wang; Lin Wang; Hong Sui
Background Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. Methods A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMB...
Woo, Chung Hee; Park, Ju Young
Ideally, college majors should be chosen to achieve self-realization and correspond to self-concept. However, some students select a major based on extrinsic factors, rather than aptitude or interests, because of a lack of employment opportunities. If they have negative college experiences with an unsatisfactory major, they might not engage fully in their occupation following graduation. This study aimed to identify factors affecting specialty satisfaction in preclinical practice nursing-college students. A cross-sectional descriptive survey. A nonprobability convenience sample of 312 nursing-college students at colleges in Deajeon City, South Korea. The survey questionnaire was distributed to those who agreed to participate. Freshmen and sophomore nursing students (n=312). Participants were 312 students at colleges in Deajeon City. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analyzed using SPSS/WIN. Positive psychological capital and nursing professional values were positively correlated with specialty satisfaction. Significant predictors for specialty satisfaction included hope and optimism (as components of positive psychological capital), the roles of nursing service and originality of nursing (as nursing professional values), and aptitude/interests and job value (as motives for selecting a major). The findings suggested that nursing students' specialty satisfaction was partially linked to positive psychological capital and professional values. Therefore, the promotion of positive factors should be useful in enhancing specialty satisfaction in preclinical-practice nursing-college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmet Gökçe Akpolat
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the long-run impact of physical and human capital on GDP by using the panel data set of 13 developed and 11 developing countries over the period 1970–2010. Gross fixed capital formation is used as physical capital indicator while education expenditures and life expectancy at birth are used as human capital indicators. Panel DOLS and FMOLS panel cointegrated regression models are exploited to detect the magnitude and sign of the cointegration relationship and compare the effect of these physical and human capital variables according to these two different country groups. As a consequence of panels DOLS and FMOLS models, the impact of physical capital and education expenditures on GDP in the developed countries is determined as higher than the impact in the developing countries. On the other hand, the impact of life expectancy at birth on GDP is determined as higher in the developing countries.
Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie
.... This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap...
Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.
Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…
Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Zun
Many studies conducted on the Higher Education Students Loans Board (HESLB) have mostly concentrated on its success, sustainability and effectiveness on loans issuance and repayment. None had focused on its performance towards human capital investment. This study sought to explain and analyze HESLB's performance in human capital investment, which…
Goedhuys - Degelin, Micheline; Sleuwaegen, L.
We provide evidence that both human capital and R&D increase the likelihood that a firm will be a high-growth firm in the industry. However, different from human capital, being an R&D active firm also increases the probability of substantial decline or failure, underscoring the risky nature of
Batabyal, A.; Nijkamp, P.
We provide the first theoretical analysis of the effects of human capital use, innovative activity, and patent protection, on economic growth in a model with many regions. In each region, consumers have constant relative risk-aversion preferences, there is no human capital growth, and there are
Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank
This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.
Cartiglia (1997) shows that trade increases human capital investment in developing countries unless there are credit markets for individuals. In this paper, when households can borrow the education cost from a market, a trade-induced decrease in the skilled wage leads to less human capital investment in developing countries.
Gowan, Mary A.; Lepak, David
The authors examined the relationship between an individual's human capital profile--knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics--and compensation before and after a job loss. The results of this study show that the types of human capital that predicted pre-job-loss salary differ from the types that predict reemployment salary. The…
Chan, Wing Kit; Ngok, Kinglun
Since 1999, the expansion of higher education has been viewed as an important step in accumulating human capital for China that was to gradually open its domestic sectors to the global market at a turbulent time at the turn of the century. Recent studies suggest that the improvement of human capital has succeeded in preparing China with a solid…
Dina Maria Luţ
.... This paper presents some aspects regarding the role and importance of lifelong education and training in human capital development, as a major factor for continued and sustained growth. It also shows how the priorities on human capital are reflected in the policies of Romania's economic and social development, after EU accession.
Human Capital development through education is a long time investment made by the state to enhance the well being of her citizenry. By investing in education, well educated individuals bring to bear their talents, knowledge, skills and experiences as they function in the various sectors of the economy. Human Capital development is therefore a…
Lex van Teeffelen; Lorraine Uhlaner; Martijn Driessen
This study focuses on the transfer process and the importance of human capital and succession planning as firm resource from the seller’s perspective. It further differentiates amongst two types of human capital - specific and generic - to predict the transfer duration, obtained price and
Full Text Available In the article the role of human capital usage in innovative economy growth, the role of modern higher education in this process are analyzed together with the approaches to the educational environment forming on the basis of the human capital development.
Broersma, Lourens; Edzes, Arjen J. E.; Van Dijk, Jouke
Investments in human capital are essential themes in many policy programmes. Besides the direct private returns of education, there is evidence of positive human capital externalities at the level of regions and firms. The results in this paper show that both production and consumption externalities
The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process.......The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process....
This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…
This study examines the role of human and social capital in the economic performance of immigrants. It improves upon previous research in several ways. First, it distinguishes between human capital acquired in the country of origin and destination. Second, it focuses not only on immigrants’ contacts
Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…
Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet
Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…
Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard
We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human capital present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with local stocks of human capital,…
White, Carla; Adams, Jennifer
The 2015-2017 AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, therefore the interim update from the Taskforce. A full report will be provided in 2017 in the form of a white paper for academic pharmacy on diversifying our investment in human capital.
van der Merwe, Alex
A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…
Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.
Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between human capital efficiency and firm’s performance in Malaysian technology industry. Using accounting data, this study reviewed annual reports of all technology companies listed under Main Market and Ace Market of Bursa Malaysia in year 2009. The study applied Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM methodology developed by Ante Pulic to measure human capital efficiency. The results showed that there was not much difference in terms of human capital efficiency between the Main Market and Ace Market. Results from correlation analysis indicate that human capital efficiency has significant and positive relation with firm’s performance. Findings from this study may be useful to companies’ managers to make better decision pertaining to the proper deployment of their strategic asset, namely human capital.
Full Text Available The role of the human capital in the economy is highlighted in several studies of human capital, endonegneous growth and macroeconomic literature. A special part of this literature is dedicated to the mechanism and the various channels through wich human capital influences economic growth. As expression of the macroeconomic performance, the labour productivity depends on the accumulation of human capital in the economy. To analyze and discuss this dependency is essential for appropriate human capital policies aiming to stimulate the human capital accumulation in the economy and the enhancement of the labour productivity. The paper explores the link between labour productivity and the estimates of the human capital stock in the EU countries. Human capital theory explains the labour productivity level by the workers' level of educational attainment level. Four different effects of human capital on labour productivity can be found in economic literature: worker, allocative, difusion and research. Other researchers used a production function to estimate the productivity impact of changes in educational attainment. Research on the impact of human capital on productivity at the country level encountered many difficulties over the years. The main methodological issue is how to measure skills and human capital investment and to model possible channels of skills of influence the economic performance. The UNESCO attainment levels and enrollment series and other data sets, constructed by researchers, have been used in a large number of empirical studies of the link between education and productivity. What is innovative in the present study is the estimation of human capital stock based on educational costs by level(primary, secondary, tertiary weighted by the proportion of labour force with corresponding educational attainment and the testing of linear regression model for the dependency of labour productivity on human capital stock. The assumption of the
This article addresses educational practice as a site for the development of human capital theory. The article considers metaphysical constructions that are broadly typical of educational thought, and shows how they are amenable to economic analysis. Using different Marxist and feminist methods, it discusses pedagogy and the family as kinds of…
Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between work-family conflict and burnout, and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in the relation between work-family conflict and burnout, among Chinese doctors. This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September/October 2010. A questionnaire that comprised work-family conflict assessed by the work-family conflict scale, PsyCap assessed by the PCQ-24 scale and burnout assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), as well as age and gender, was distributed to 1,300 doctors in Liaoning Province, China. A total of 1,011 effective respondents became our final study subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed by using SPSS 17.0 to explore the mediating role of PsyCap in the relation between work-family conflict and burnout. Both work interfering family conflict (WIF) and family interfering work conflict (FIW) were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism among both male and females doctors. However, WIF was positively related with professional efficacy only among male doctors, whereas FIW was negatively related with professional efficacy among both male and female doctors. PsyCap partially mediated the relation between WIF and professional efficacy among male doctors and partially mediated the relations of FIW with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy among female doctors. Work-family conflict was associated with burnout among Chinese doctors. PsyCap was a mediator between work-family conflict and burnout. PsyCap might be a positive resource to reduce the negative effect of work-family conflict on burnout of doctors, especially female doctors, in China.
Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj
Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...
Carlos M. F-JARDON
Full Text Available Human capital is a source of competitive advantage, since it helps to build core competencies which position the company above its competitors. Core competencies are dynamic competencies of superior hierarchy, which integrate, build and reconfigure internal and external factors of business to create value. Core competencies are competitive advantages when an organization gets better performance than competitors. Human capital is source of competitive advantage but it possibly does not directly affect to performance. It needs to associate with other elements in core competencies. These associations are not well known. That is the goal of this paper: to determine how human capital affects the organizational performance through core competencies. We argue that human capital needs other intellectual capital-based elements to constitute core competencies which finally improve and yields above average performance.
Ginsburg, Carren; Beguy, Donatien; Augusto, Orvalho; Odhiambo, Frank; Soura, Abdramane; White, Michael J; Bocquier, Philippe; Afolabi, Sulaimon; Derra, Karim; Otiende, Mark; Zabre, Pascal; Collinson, Mark A
BACKGROUND Education, as a key indicator of human capital, is considered one of the major determinants of internal migration, with previous studies suggesting that human capital accumulates in urban...
Tsuchiya, Naho; Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Narita, Akira; Kogure, Mana; Aida, Jun; Tsuji, Ichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tomita, Hiroaki
Social capital has been considered an important factor affecting mental-health outcomes, such as psychological distress in post-disaster settings. Although disaster-related house condition and displacement could affect both social capital and psychological distress, limited studies have investigated interactions. This study aimed to examine the association between social capital and psychological distress, taking into consideration the interaction of disaster-related house condition after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using data from 3793 adults living in Shichigahama, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, we examined the association between social capital measured by generalized trust and psychological distress measured by the Kessler 6 scale. We conducted stratified analysis to investigate an interaction of house destruction and displacement. Multivariate analyses taking into consideration the interaction were performed. In the crude analysis, low social capital (odds ratio [OR] 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.27-6.07) and large-scale house destruction (OR 1.96; 95%CI, 1.47-2.62) were significantly associated with psychological distress. Stratified analyses detected an interaction with house destruction and displacement (P for interaction = 0.04). Multivariate analysis with interaction term revealed that individuals with low social capital, large-scale house damage, and displacement were at greater risk of psychological distress, corresponding to adjusted OR of 5.78 (95%CI, 3.48-9.60). In the post-disaster setting, low social capital increased the risk of psychological distress, especially among individuals who had large-scale house destruction. Among the participants with severe disaster damage, high social capital would play an important role in protecting mental health. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few
Background Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive- and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18–85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital—specifically with low tangible social support—had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed. PMID:24593256
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investment in human capital as an essential element for ensuring organizational performance. Human capital investments may be direct, more focused on professional training, as well as indirect, more oriented towards the health of employees and the purchase of equipment for their development. In Moldovan organizations investments in human capital are more oriented towards training and professional development of employees. At the same time, in the recruitment and selection of candidates’ process, organizations are trying to attract people that have a high level of professional knowledge and skills, which contribute to increasing the value of their human capital. In order to assess the involvement level of the organizations from Republic of Moldova in terms of human capital development investment, a sociological research that included 152 organizations was conducted. The result of investigations have shown us that human capital value into an organization depends, in the first instance, on the selection tools and techniques that allow election of candidates with an intellectual and professional potential at higher level. Human capital value within organizations increases provided that their staff participates in various professional training programs.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.
Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen
Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…
This paper presents new estimates of the stock of human capital in the Netherlands between 1800 and 1913. The estimates of human capital are derived from data on primary, secondary and tertiary schooling. It is argued that the measure of human capital presented here is conceptually better than
Kalkbrenner, Erin Lee
Researchers have calculated the relationship between human capital development and economic output by various means of econometric modeling and by use of numerous indicators under the context of an assortment of human capital theory. This study was conducted to identify new interpretations of the expansion of human capital in the form of tertiary…
Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.
Full Text Available The potential for big data to contribute to the US intelligence mission goes beyond bulk collection, social media and counterterrorism. Applications will speak to a range of issues of major concern to intelligence agencies, from military operations to climate change to cyber security. There are challenges too: procurement lags, data stovepiping, separating signal from noise, sources and methods, a range of normative issues, and central to managing these challenges, human capital. These potential applications and challenges are discussed and a closer look at what data scientists do in the Intelligence Community (IC is offered. Effectively filling the ranks of the IC’s data science workforce will depend on the provision of well-trained data scientists from the higher education system. Program offerings at America’s top fifty universities will thus be surveyed (just a few years ago there were reportedly no degrees in data science. One Master’s program that has melded data science with intelligence is examined as well as a university big data research center focused on security and intelligence. This discussion goes a long way to clarify the prospective uses of data science in intelligence while probing perhaps the key challenge to optimal application of big data in the IC.
Anderson, Katharine A
We propose a network-based method for measuring worker skills. We illustrate the method using data from an online freelance website. Using the tools of network analysis, we divide skills into endogenous categories based on their relationship with other skills in the market. Workers who specialize in these different areas earn dramatically different wages. We then show that, in this market, network-based measures of human capital provide additional insight into wages beyond traditional measures. In particular, we show that workers with diverse skills earn higher wages than those with more specialized skills. Moreover, we can distinguish between two different types of workers benefiting from skill diversity: jacks-of-all-trades, whose skills can be applied independently on a wide range of jobs, and synergistic workers, whose skills are useful in combination and fill a hole in the labor market. On average, workers whose skills are synergistic earn more than jacks-of-all-trades. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Robitschek, Christine; Woodson, Shelley Janiczek
At several points in the history of their field, counseling psychologists have emphasized that fostering human strengths is part of their mission. Vocational psychology is an area of counseling psychology that has focused consistently on human strengths. In keeping with the Major Contribution's theme, this article examines the following: (a)…
Kessels, Joseph; Poell, Rob F.
The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…
Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…
Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang
Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…
Smith, William C.; Ikoma, Sakiko; Baker, David P.
Education and health are both capital investments in national development, often viewed as independent factors on a country's labor force supply and productivity. This study uses the 2010-2011 Third Integrated Household Survey in Malawi to propose an Education-enhanced Health Human Capital (EHHC) model where education influences labor force supply…
E. P. J. Kleynhans
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of human capital in the competitive platform of South African industries and to determine the ability of their human capital to address the challenges of modern technology and globalisation. Attention is given to the competitive strengths and investment opportunities, including the quality and availability of human resources, labour cost, level of education and skills, vocational and industry related training facility, work ethics, produ...
Siyahhan, Baran; Engelbert, Dockner
of the firm is driven by fixed labor costs that occur until the breakthrough is made, the call option to invest in human capital and market the product, and the put option to abandon the project. These options together with labor costs’ based operating leverage determine the risk dynamics. Risk varies non...... and risk consequences, and derive optimal investment in the stock of human capital. While optimal investment in human capital is very sensitive to its productivity do increase the probability of a breakthrough it is insensitive to changes in the volatility of the present value of the patent. The value...
Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.
Workers with longer job tenure are paid more, on average, than those with shorter tenure. This paper re-opens the debate about whether individual financial returns to tenure are due to firm-specific human capital accumulation or sorting according to unobserved individual productivity heterogeneity...... firms to distinguish between firm-specific human capital and worker heterogeneity. Although the proportion of tenure returns due to firm-specific human capital is smaller than that found in the US, it has increased from 10% in 1980 to 30% in 1998 in Denmark. This change coincides with decentralisation...
This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt) and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview) which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.
Adenike Mosunmola Osoba
Full Text Available Various studies have focused on the relationship between human capital and economic growth all over the world. However, there is still a missing gap on the joint influence of human capital investment components on economic growth particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore examines the interactive effects of the relationship between human capital investment components and economic growth in Nigeria for the period of 1986 – 2014. The study employed secondary annual data on education expenditure, health expenditure, real gross domestic product and gross capital formation obtained from the Central Bank Statistical bulletin, 2014. The data were analyzed using Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS technique. The results of the study showed that there was positive and significant relationship between the interactive effects of human capital components and growth in Nigeria. The study concluded that the interactive effect of the human capital variables was also in conformity with the theoretical proposition that increase in human capital will enhance growth as stipulated in the modified Solow growth model by Mankiw, Romer & Weil (1992.
Full Text Available Orientation: A large body of research evidence indicates that both sex role identity (SRI and psychological capital (PsyCap may have critical implications for individual and organisational well-being. As SRI is constituted of sex-based personality traits it is possible that SRI may have implications for individuals’ PsyCap.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SRI and the positive psychological construct of PsyCap.Motivation for the study: Research on SRI and PsyCap has been explored independently of one another with a lack of research exploring the relationship between these two constructs. In addition, much of the previous research on SRI and organisational outcomes has only examined positive sex role identities, focusing almost exclusively on ‘positive’ or ‘socially desirable’ sex role identities. More recently, researchers have noted that this approach is theoretically and methodologically flawed, as it fails to account for negative traits or socially undesirable traits that may be contained within individuals’ SRI and which may have a number of deleterious implications for organisational outcome variables. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research within the South African context, which explores the adoption of positive and negative sexbased behavioural traits and their implications for PsyCap.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was conducted using a crosssectional design and a convenience sampling method to explore the relationship between SRI and PsyCap. Four hundred and seventy-eight respondents, all currently working in South African organisations, participated in this research. The composite questionnaire utilised for this research included a demographic questionnaire, The Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire-Revised (EPAQ-R, and the PCQ-24 which measures PsyCap in terms of self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism.Main findings
This paper analyses inclusive growth that focuses on the creation of opportunities for all. Inclusive growth allows people to contribute to and benefit from economic growth, while pro-poor growth approaches focusing on welfare of the poor only to reduce inequality. Recently, economics literature incorporates social capital for explaining regional disparities. Economic development of country depends on the impact of social capital which includes social culture, norms and regulations that promo...
Bao, Yue; Miao, Qi; Liu, Ying
aimed at assisting returnee entrepreneurs. Based on a survey of Chinese returnees and returnee entrepreneurship from 2011 to 2012, this paper examines how human capital and perceptions of domestic institutional quality affect entrepreneurial activity among highly skilled returnees. We find...
Ali Altiner; Yilmaz Toktas
.... New approaches to economic growth have been developed since 1980s. In this context, according to endogenous growth theory, it is stated that the most important determinant of economic growth is the human capital stock...
Liana BADEA; Angela ROGOJANU
... – "A country is rich if it has rich/educated individuals", we reason, based on the literature review, that between higher education, human capital and competitiveness there is an indestructible link...
ADINA POPOVICI (BĂRBULESCU)
The paper underlines and analyses the role of human capital, as well as some issues related to higher education and research in Romania, both in figures and from a humanistic perspective of regarding...
Todd, Hal M; Parten, Douglas S
.... This study investigated current DoD Human Capital Management (HCM) strategies for attracting, developing, retaining, and managing competencies and intellectual resources for science and engineering talent within the shipbuilding industry...
Carla White; Jeannine M Conway; Paula K Davis; Arcelia M Johnson-Fannin; Jeffrey G Jurkas; Nanci L Murphy; W Thomas Smith; Margarita Echeverri; Sharon L Youmans; Katie C Owings; Jennifer L Adamsk
The 2015-2017 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, due to the rigors and complexities of its charges...
Full Text Available This paper treats quality, human capital and competitiveness concepts in order to determine in which measure the Human Capital quality influences the competitiveness of a firm. The human capital theory is a relatively new approach, the first valuable approach being that of Garry Becker which, subsequent of the modern management theoretical views, puts human capital into scientific frame. This present paper relates deeply on this theoretical frame as it is considered that, besides financial or tangible resources that allows and generate long term benefits for an enterprise, there is also another source that consists in an intangible form: the human capital. This resource is based on education and health, indirectly generating additional benefits for the individual as for the organization and is calculated as instruction, education and health insurances costs. That implies that this capital is an asset for the worker itself and that the worker cannot be distinguished from the knowledges, capacities, his health or his values. From this perspective, the worker is actively present in any activity a firm operates: from defining and executing process, operational planning, monitoring and control, research and development, human resources, etc. The hypothesis of this present paper will be explored with the examples of Jeff Bezos ( Amazon or Steve Jobs ( Apple as human capital is considered to be the most important component for the competitive advantage of IT enterprises. The quality level of the human capital represents the main source for long term sustainability of this competitive advantage and, given the best case practices, it’s impact on firm’s effect indicators is obvious. The paper will also emphasize the role of values and health as they are also the main issues on an IT enterprise. The article is structured in two parts. One is the theoretical frame that encompass the influence of the human capital on the competitiveness of the firm. The
Full Text Available This paper examines issues related to urbanization with labour migration. The main departures from the traditional approaches to dynamics of economic structures are that the paper uses an alternative approach to consumer behaviour and introduces human capital accumulation via learning by doing. The model describes dynamic interactions among agricultural and industrial production, rural and urban amenities, distribution of production factors and preferences with endogenous capital and human capital accumulation. We show that the dynamic system may have either a single or multiple equilibrium points, depending upon returns to scale in the two sectors. We also examined effects of changes in some parameters.
AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY WHERE HAVE OUR PEOPLE GONE? SEQUESTRATION’S EFFECTS ON DOD HUMAN CAPITAL by...reduction combined with decreased funding allocated for training is having hazardous effects on the human capital of the DOD. The quantitative data...consequences that sequestration would have on the DOD and described them as dangerous to the ability of the DOD to carry out their missions.3 With the
The paper explores the effects of foreign direct investments on the human capital accumulation in the case of the Romanian economy. Using data for 1995-2010, the study shows that it is strong relation between FDI flow and the share of the tertiary educated people in the population aged 2024. This is suggesting that there is a beneficial effect of the FDI flow in the economy, stimulating the demand for a high quality human capital.
Campaign 10.2 Maximize Traditional Shipbuilding Media Outlets 10.1 Engage Non-traditional Shipbuilding Media Outlets 10.1.1 Engage Videogame Industry ...APPROACH TO ADDRESS HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY by Hal M. Todd Douglas S. Parten September 2008...Address Human Capital Management Issues in the Shipbuilding Industry 6. AUTHOR(S) Todd, Hal M.; Parten, Douglas S. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING
Michael S. Christian
This study updates Christian's (2010) human capital account for the United States to the year 2009, refining the underlying data and putting the account into international context by reviewing applications in the rest of the world. It also measures the sensitivity of human capital measures to alternative assumptions about income growth rates, discount rates, the treatment of taxes, smoothing and imputation of labor force and school enrollment data, and the valuation of non-market time. It con...
This study analyzes the development of human capital strategy in go-public manufactur-ing companies, examining the several effects of variables, and also the effect of interven-ing variables on the development of human capital. The population consists of 151 go-public manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange. The purposive sampling method was used and 12 companies were taken in which 10 of respondents from each company consisting of managers and staff, and the data were analyzed u...
This thesis is composed by three distinct chapters. They are related by their common theme: the economic analysis of the process of human capital formation. The first chapter distills and extends the recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It critically analyzes the literature on the role of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills with emphasis on the importance of critical and sensitive investments periods in influencing skill development. It develops economic models that rationalize the empirical evidence on treatment effects of social programs and on family influence. It investigates the empirical support of recent claims, made by part of the literature, on the relevance of credit constraints in limiting skill development. It shows how credit constraints are not a major force explaining differences in the amount of parental and self-investments in skills and how untargeted income transfer policies to poor families do not significantly boost child outcomes. The second chapter compares the performance of maximum likelihood and simulated methods of moments in estimating dynamic discrete choice models. It presents a structural model of education and shows how it can be used to estimate heterogeneous returns from schooling choices which account for their continuation values. Continuation values have a large impact on returns, but are ignored in the measures commonly used to assess the value of schooling choices. The estimates from the model are used to compute a synthetic dataset. This is used to assess the ability of maximum likelihood and simulated methods of moments to recover the model parameters. It finally proposes a Monte Carlo exercise to gain confidence on the performance of a simulated method of moments algorithm. The last chapter proposes a method to assess long run impacts on earnings of early interventions even in absence of long-term data collection on earnings histories for program participants. It
Singer, Dani; Hunter, Myra
... Psychological therapy and counselling with individuals and families after donor conception Sharon A Pettle Chapter 9 182 Policy development in third party reproduction: an international perspective...
Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to explore the assumption if the lack of skilled and well-educated workforces (human capital holds a potential of a binding constraint to economic growth of the Macedonian economy. Not neglecting growth econometrics’ insights for the investigation of the relationship between human capital and economic growth, the work is primarily based on a growth diagnostic approach. The empirical techniques used in this paper are: growth accounting decomposition production method; macro and micro assessment of the return rate on investment in human capital; and, comparative benchmark analysis concerns with regard to unemployment distribution according to education and age structure and companies’ perceptions about the quality of workforce. The estimated results indicate an important contribution of human capital to economic growth (its relative contribution in terms of growth rate composition is approximately 22 percent. The macro and micro assessment of the rate of return on investment in human capital shows that the rate of return to higher education is significantly superior to corresponding returns to secondary education. Finally, the international benchmark analysis helps in comparative human capital impact analysis (educational structure of labor force in the wider region. Predominantly, it is based on educational structure, unemployment distribution and the companies’ perception about the quality of the workforce.
Suhonen, Marjo; Paasivaara, Leena
To explore factors of human capital related to project success that employees expect from nurse managers. Human capital refers to those resources that managers working with projects possess, such as abilities, knowledge and qualities of character. The data were collected by open interviews (n=14) with nurses, public health nurses and nurse managers working in primary health care and a hospital. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The main factors of human capital related to project success proved to be as follows: (1) management of enthusiastic project culture, (2) management of regeneration and (3) management of emotional intelligence. Future research is needed on the kind of means nurse managers use in human capital management in projects and how they see their possibilities in managing human capital. Human capital management skills should be underlined as an important competence area when recruiting a nurse manager. The success of health care projects cannot be improved only through education or by training of nurse managers; in addition, projects need nurse managers who understand workplace spirituality and have high emotional intelligence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Using anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, and the results from studies conducted in space analog environments on Earth and in the actual space environment, this book broadly reviews the various psychosocial issues that affect space travelers. Unlike other books that are more technical in format, this text is targeted for the general public. With the advent of space tourism and the increasing involvement of private enterprise in space, there is now a need to explore the impact of space missions on the human psyche and on the interpersonal relationships of the crewmembers. Separate chapters of the book deal with psychosocial stressors in space and in space analog environments; psychological, psychiatric, interpersonal, and cultural issues pertaining to space missions; positive growth-enhancing aspects of space travel; the crew-ground interaction; space tourism; countermeasures for dealing with space; and unique aspects of a trip to Mars, the outer solar system, and interstellar travel. .
Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, A.G. van der
Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants' self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of
Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, T. van der
Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of
Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)
Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)
Taking Human Capital Seriously: Talented Teachers in Every Classroom, Talented Principals in Every School. Principles and Recommendations for the Strategic Management of Human Capital in Public Education
Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2009
The Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education Project was founded in 2008 with one goal: to improve student achievement dramatically in the 100 largest urban school districts. Unless teaching quality and principal leadership improve significantly, lasting education improvement is impossible. In policy terms, without "strategic management"…
Davies, Peter; Qiu, Tian; Davies, Neil M.
This study examines ways in which economic and sociological explanations of higher education (HE) choices may intersect through student's use of information. We find substantial positive associations between intention to go to university in England and each of: (i) parents' education; (ii) cultural capital; and (iii) expectations of the size of…
Cook, Karen Schweers
Networks of trust relations often emerge under conditions of uncertainty or risk to facilitate social exchange. Under some conditions, such networks represent a form of social capital that can be mobilized in support of general social cooperation in the society. Under other conditions, however, such networks may have negative effects on the degree…
Full Text Available This study analyzes the development of human capital strategy in go-public manufactur-ing companies, examining the several effects of variables, and also the effect of interven-ing variables on the development of human capital. The population consists of 151 go-public manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange. The purposive sampling method was used and 12 companies were taken in which 10 of respondents from each company consisting of managers and staff, and the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. It shows that the first, the external environment has positive and significant effect on the planning and management of human resources, education and training, and the development of human capital, but has no significant effect on improving employees, employee performance and recognition, and employee satisfaction. Second, the internal environment has a positive and significant impact on the planning and management of human resources, employee improvement, education and training, employee performance and recognition, employee satisfaction, and the development of human capital. Third, planning and human resource management, employee improve-ment, education and training, employee performance and recognition, and employee satisfaction have a significant and positive effect on the development of human capital.
A model of the human visual system is investigated for psychological correlates. A priori hypotheses from the model concerned with human...identification of defocused letters as well as identification of rotated letters have been validated with the computer model. Gestalt principles of similarity...is also psychologically correlated. It is further postulated that the human perceptual space is the image domain from spatially filtered transforms of
Full Text Available Even in industrialised emerging economies, the value-generating competencies of a workforce, known as its human capital efficiency, are a key resource for commercial success. The objective of this research is to empirically investigate the relationship between human capital efficiency (as measured by value-added human capital and the financial and market performance of companies listed on the Main Board and Alternative Exchange (ALT-X of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Return on assets, revenue growth and headline earnings per share were used as financial performance indicators; while market-to-book ratio and total share return were used to measure market performance. Multivariate regressions were performed, with panel data covering 390 companies in the financial, basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, industrial and technology industries from 2001 to 2011. First, human capital efficiency was found to have no effect on the market performance of listed companies in South Africa. Secondly, higher human capital efficiency was found to result in the extraction of greater returns from both tangible and intangible assets in all industries. Thirdly, higher profitability was found to be associated with higher human capital efficiency in almost every industry in South Africa, with the exception of the technology industry, where human capital efficiency was found to be independent of headline earnings per share. Finally, higher revenue growth was found to be positively associated with human capital efficiency in those industries which are not consumer-driven. In the consumer-driven industries, human capital efficiency contributes to bottom line profitability even though it is not a driver for revenue growth. Overall, the results of this study confirm that human capital efficiency enhances a company’s financial performance, whether it be through a greater capacity for production and service delivery, tighter cost controls or better use of
Faris Nasif ALSHUBIRI
Full Text Available The revolution of globalization, computerization and information technology has entered to Jordanian market. This phenomenon requires company's attention of human element and the acquired knowledge, experience and the development of the so-called concept of intellectual capital.(IC In this study I used only the human capital as a part of IC. This study aims to exploring the relationship between human capital investment (HCI, and corporate financial performance. This study used an 11 industrial sectors listed of Amman Stock Exchange from 2005to 2011. Correlation analysis tests used in this study and the results indicate the high positive significant relationship between HCI and corporate financial performance related to, ROE , PTBV , log of sales , log of assets , DPS and ICR but no significant relationship between HCI and WCTO. The researcher recommends industrial companies to strengthen and stimulate the concept of human capital in the companies and the need for develop administrative innovation program. For future analysis may be used more sectors listed in market in addition used the all parts of intellectual capital related to structural and physical capital with corporate financial performance.
Martina Dwi Puji Astri Ongkorahardjo
Full Text Available Human capital is of the intellectual capital components owned by a company. This study evaluates if individual capability and organizational climate affect business performance partially and simultaneously. We use public accounting firms as our subjects.. Our study shows that individual capability and organizational climate respectively influence performance in public accounting firms. Additionally, these two factors simultaneously affect performance. Overall individual capability shows stronger relationship to performance compared to organizational climate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Human capital sebagai salah satu komponen utama dari intellectual capital (intangible asset yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan obyek kantor akuntan publik Penelitian ini berusaha menguji apakah individual capability dan the organizational climate yang merupakan komponen dari human capital memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja perusahaan kantor akuntan publik baik secara individual (parsial maupun secara simultan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertama, individual capability berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Kedua, the organizational climate berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Ketiga, individual capability dan the organizational climate berpengaruh signifikan secara bersama-sama terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Pengujian juga membuktikan bahwa individual capability adalah variabel yang mempunyai pengaruh paling besar terhadap kinerja kantor akuntan publik. Kata kunci: Human capital, individual capability, the organizational climate.
Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock
Nonhuman animals are ubiquitous to human life, and permeate a diversity of social contexts by providing humans with food and clothing, serving as participants in research, improving healing, and offering entertainment, leisure, and companionship. Despite the impact that animals have on human lives and vice versa, the field of psychology has barely touched upon the topic of human-animal relations as an important domain of human activity. We review the current state of research on human-animal relations, showing how this body of work has implications for a diverse range of psychological themes including evolutionary processes, development, normative factors, gender and individual differences, health and therapy, and intergroup relations. Our aim is to highlight human-animal relations as a domain of human life that merits theoretical and empirical attention from psychology as a discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Lee, Joseph; Theol, M
Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.
Fenichel, E. P.; Abbott, J.; Fujitani, M.
The idea that geological and biological natural resources provide ecosystem services and that the physical geological and biological stocks, referred to as ecological stocks, are forms of capital is not new, but has attracted increased attention since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was released in 2005. Yet, the exact meaning of these terms, the connection between natural capital and ecosystem services, and the broader links between biophysical science and economics is often vague. The conceptual connection between ecosystem services and natural capital is that ecosystem services are the flow of goods and services that people receive from natural resources, and these flows are generated by an endowment of ecological stocks. While individuals derive benefits from a flow of services, the extent that people value the underlying natural capital asset depends on institutional arrangements in addition to the ecological properties of the stocks, because the value of capital relates to the future flow of services. A coupled human-natural systems modeling approach can help understand the value of natural capital in addition to helping scientist and policy makers better manage earth's resources. The value of a capital asset is the net present value of the flow of service, often calculated by the NPV rule. The NPV rule almost always assumes perfectly functioning markets for services and capital, but for many important ecosystem services such markets simply do not exist. The NPV rule can be derived by maximizing the net present value of capital. Indeed, the NPV rule comes from the adjoint condition of an optimal control problem where the flow of services from the capital asset are the benefits, and the dynamics of the capital stock are the constraints. Yet, trying to apply the traditional NPV rule to ecosystem services and natural capital can be frustrated by not knowing where pieces of the puzzle fit. We compare the standard NPV rule with a modified NPV rule derived by
Psychology of Women, 1977, _2, 187-190. 16. Wlrtenberg, J. Review of Humanness: An exploration into the mythologies about women and men edited by...aggression shows sex differences (Summary of paper presented by R. P. Rohner at the Easter Psychological Association Meeting, 1976). Behavior Today
Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana
Although traditionally applied independently, this study combines two theoretical perspectives – the intellectual capital theory and the consumer perspective – to uncover value-creating configurations of human resource management (HRM) service providers' and workers' knowledge resources. We examined
Frank, Richard G.; Meara, Ellen
Recent models of human capital formation represent a synthesis of the human capital approach and a life cycle view of human development that is grounded in neuroscience (Heckman 2007). This model of human development, the stability of the home and parental mental health can have notable impacts on skill development in children that may affect the…
Dauda, Rasaki Stephen
West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques. Four measures of HIV/AIDS and 2 human capital measures were used in the study. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS pandemic had negative and significant impact on human capital in West Africa. However, the statistical significance was more pronounced on life expectancy (a measure of human capital), while the negative impact on school enrolment (another human capital measure) was not significant. It is therefore recommended that the spread of HIV/AIDS disease in West Africa should be effectively controlled, while the number of infected persons undergoing antiretroviral therapy in the subregion should be increased to a near 100% coverage. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
O M Stepanova
Full Text Available Recognition of man's supreme role in social production is an undoubted accomplishment of the human capital theoreticians. This theory became wide spread in the West and won a great number of supporters in our country due to the fact that the conception focuses on the basic factor of social-economic development - the human factor, in its new quality. The interpretation of the human capital in terms of reproduction makes it possible to identify its fundamental nature, as well as the contradictions arising in the course of the formation, functioning and development of the human capital on its different levels of objective reality: family, corporate and national levels and on the level of the world economy as a whole.
E. P. J. Kleynhans
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the role of human capital in the competitive platform of South African industries and to determine the ability of their human capital to address the challenges of modern technology and globalisation. Attention is given to the competitive strengths and investment opportunities, including the quality and availability of human resources, labour cost, level of education and skills, vocational and industry related training facility, work ethics, productivity, workplace regulations, as well as efficiency of the civil service; including productivity and competitiveness indexes. The study found that the level of human capital in South African industries is much higher than the general perception and not the worst element of South Africa’s competitive platform. The findings also indicated challenges, like absentees due to AIDS and other factors, a shortage of artisans and proficiency towards modern technology and innovation, which limits competitiveness.
Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.
Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to
Guo, Wenchen; Xiao, Hongjun; Yang, Xi
Human capital plays an important part in employability of knowledge workers, also it is the important intangible assets of company. This paper explores the correlation between human capital and career success of knowledge workers. Based on literature retrieval, we identified measuring tool of career success and modified further; measuring human capital with self-developed scale of high reliability and validity. After exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that human capital contents four dimensions, including education, work experience, learning ability and training; career success contents three dimensions, including perceived internal competitiveness of organization, perceived external competitiveness of organization and career satisfaction. The result of empirical analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between human capital and career success, and human capital is an excellent predictor of career success beyond demographics variables.
Full Text Available Employees play a relevant role in firm competitiveness due to their personal competencies and the human capital they constitute for the organisation. The objective of this paper is to assess whether different strategic contexts condition the emergence of different employees competencies. Moreover, accordingly with the strategy chosen, we analyse to what extent these competencies explain the differences in terms of value and uniqueness of the human capital. A set of proposed hypotheses is tested by means of structural equation models considering a sample of manufacturing firms. Results support the finding that prospectors favour proactive and customer-oriented competencies, while defenders foment competencies much more results-oriented. We also observe that the competency of customer orientation explains the value of human capital in prospectors, whilst this human capital dimension is explained by means of results oriented competencies in defender firms. Finally, regarding the uniqueness of human capital, it is explained by proactive competencies in prospectors but we do not find any significant result for defenders.
Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Thongbunjob, Krid
Community diagnosis and approach has shifted from a professional focus to a community focus. The information system has also been developed to reflect socio-cultural information. This new system has been established throughout the country and is being recorded in the computer system. However these data still lack human capital information to promote community mobilization. The present study aims to develop a process which reflects human capital from the insider and outsider points of view and which builds on the existing work system of primary care service, family medicine, and community medicine. The present study applies the participatory action research design with mixed methods including community grand-tour, household survey socio-metric questionnaire and focus group discussion in order to gather insider view of human capital. A key instrument developed in the present study is the socio-metric questionnaire which was designed according to the community grand tour and household survey results. The findings indicate that the process is feasible and the insider point of view given a longer evidence based list of the human capital. The model enhanced a closer relationship between professional and community people and suggested the realistic community mobilizer name list. Human capital identification process is feasible and should be recommended to integrate in the existing work process of the health staff in family and community practice.
Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu
To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Behan, James W; Kim, Steve S; Dorey, Frederick; De Filippo, Roger E; Chang, Andy Y; Hardy, Brian E; Koh, Chester J
Robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an emerging, minimally invasive alternative to open pyeloplasty in children for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The procedure is associated with smaller incisions and shorter hospital stays. To our knowledge previous outcome analyses have not included human capital calculations, especially regarding loss of parental workdays. We compared perioperative factors in patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty at a single institution, especially in regard to human capital changes, in an institutional cost analysis. A total of 44 patients 2 years old or older from a single institution underwent robotic assisted (37) or open (7) pyeloplasty from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the charts to collect demographic and perioperative data. The human capital approach was used to calculate parental productivity losses. Patients who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty had a significantly shorter average hospital length of stay (1.6 vs 2.8 days, p human capital gains, eg decreased lost parental wages, and lower hospitalization expenses. Future comparative outcome analyses in children should include financial factors such as human capital loss, which can be especially important for families with young children. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Orientation: Currently no integrative model exists that can explain the phenomena contributing to agent performance in the South African contact centre industry.Research purpose: The primary focus of this article was to develop a theoretically derived human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO based on a review of current empirical research literature.Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by the need for a human capital predictive model that can predict agent and overall business performance.Research design: A nonempirical (theoretical research paradigm was adopted for this study and more specifically a theory or model-building approach was followed. A systematic review of published empirical research articles (for the period 2000–2009 in scholarly search portals was performed.Main findings: Eight building blocks of the human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres were identified. Forty-two of the human capital contact centre related articles are detailed in this study. Key empirical findings suggest that person– environment fit, job demands-resources, human resources management practices, engagement, agent well-being, agent competence; turnover intention; and agent performance are related to contact centre performance.Practical/managerial implications: The human capital predictive model serves as an operational management model that has performance implications for agents and ultimately influences the contact centre’s overall business performance.Contribution/value-add: This research can contribute to the fields of human resource management (HRM, human capital and performance management within the contact centre and BPO environment.
Full Text Available Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship.A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11% from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI, the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24, the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect.Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization.PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses' burnout. Hence, in order to avoid negative coping style
Liu, Li; Wen, Fengting; Xu, Xin; Wang, Lie
This study aimed to examine the potential effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on combating depressive and anxious symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS) scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), which measure depressive and anxious symptoms, POS and PsyCap were distributed to 2,500 underground coal miners (1,925 effective respondents). Hierarchical linear regression was performed to examine the associations of POS and PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism) with depressive and anxious symptoms and the moderating roles of PsyCap and its components. The mediating roles of PsyCap and its components were examined using asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean levels of depressive and anxious symptoms were 19.91 and 49.69, respectively. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience, optimism and POS × PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. POS, PsyCap, resilience, POS × PsyCap and POS × resilience were negatively associated with anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism partially mediated the association between POS and depressive symptoms. PsyCap and resilience partially mediated the association between POS and anxious symptoms. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism could be effective resources for reducing depressive and anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism act as moderators and mediators in the associations of POS with depressive and anxious symptoms. Managers should promote supportive settings and investment in PsyCap to improve workers' mental health.
Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong
Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect. Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization. PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses' burnout. Hence, in order to avoid negative coping style, improve skill
Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong
Background Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. Methods A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect. Results Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization. Conclusion PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout. Hence, in order to
Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya
This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.
Arabsheibani, G. Reza; Galrão Carneiro, Francisco; Henley, Andrew
The authors undertake an empirical examination of rates of return to human capital for men in Brazil, through the period of macroeconomic stabilization and trade liberalization, using data from the 1988, 1992, and 1998 Brazilian household surveys (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domic�os, PNAD). The authors estimate simultaneous quantile equations to gain an insight on the impact of human...
ADINA POPOVICI (BĂRBULESCU
Full Text Available The paper underlines and analyses the role of human capital, as well as some issues related to higher education and research in Romania, both in figures and from a humanistic perspective of regarding them as fundamental investments in the future of nations, preservers of the supreme values of the humanity.
Adedeji, A. O.; Adepoju, O. O.
The greatness of nations appears to be based on the level of their human capital development as the world continues its march in the knowledge economy. It has become imperative for Nigeria to remain competitive in the comity of nations in the production, transfer and utilisation of knowledge. The realisation of the importance of human capital…
Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev
Full Text Available In the article, the current demographic situation that has developed in Russia and can be described as a demographic crisis is analysed. One of its most important characteristics is the negative qualitative changes that occur in the population. Modern information technology contributes a lot to this process. The negative qualitative changes in the population, which have begun in the second half of the 1980s and have increased in present-day Russia, prevent the development of human capital in the country. In addition to that, the authors give their own interpretation of the concept of "human capital". The purpose of the paper is to justify the primacy of the demographic factor in the formation and development of human capital. Migration in the form of a brain drain also has a negative impact on the development of human capital in Russia and its regions. The human development index calculated for the country as a whole and for its regions confirms the above-mentioned. In the paper, the methods of demographic analysis, the demographic indicators and indexes, which can serve to analyse the qualitative characteristics of the population, are utilized. The authors arrive at the conclusion that at the present stage, it is impossible to develop human capital without solving the demographic problems. This is especially true for some regions of Russia. Awareness of this will contribute to the more efficient management of demographic processes, which, in turn, will guarantee the positive development of human capital, strengthening and development of the Russian economy and society as a whole.
Back, Kurt W.
A course of study in social psychology should progress from the personal to the social. It should be organized around the study of four topics: (1) the boundaries of the self; (2) the relation between individuals; (3) communication between individuals; and (4) leadership and social power. (Author/RM)
Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have been reported to be more at risk of developing mental illness than the general population. A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate psychological symptoms of PLWHA. A total of one hundred and thirteen persons living with HIV/AIDS (M= 43, F=70) with an age range of ...
Nielsen, Ingrid; Newman, Alexander; Smyth, Russell; Hirst, Giles; Heilemann, Barbara
The influence of instructor support, family support and psychological capital (PsyCap) on the subjective well-being of postgraduate business students, including whether PsyCap mediates the proposed support--well-being relationship were examined in this study. It was further investigated whether family support moderates this proposed mediated…
Martín Ramírez Urquidi
Full Text Available This work aims at understanding the structure of human capital and learning in low value added microenterprises of Baja California and to determine the role of such factors in microenterprise performance, in order to establish a diagnosis on their contribution and get some public policy implications for the sector. The results confirm the importance of human capital on the performance of these businesses, since there is a relationship between human capital and performance as measured in different ways. The results also account for the heterogeneity in the distribution of microenterprise human capital among locations, sectors, types of business and sex.
Between World War I and World War II, psychology adopted a direction open to human sciences; I. Meyerson was the main organizer of this choice. Leading the Societe de Psychologie and the Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique, he tried to construct an individual and collective psychology that reflected not only the scientific preoccupations of his masters and friends but also their political choices: They had been the founders of the Human Rights League at the end of the 19th century. Behind Durkheim and Seignobos, with Mauss, Levy-Bruhl, and Blondel, Meyerson answered the new historians' call for a unified science of "mentalities," a historical psychology of collective representations. Meyerson offered to sociologists, anthropologists, linguists, and historians several forums to debate in which psychology was the unifying science. But at the end of the World War II, his psychology was marginalized, and a postivistic and behavioristic way was preferred. Meyerson's historical psychology disappeared from academic psychology, but historians have preserved its legacy.
Lindstrom, Martin; Mohseni, Mohabbat
This study investigates the association between political trust (an aspect of institutional trust) in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized (horizontal) trust in other people into account. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne in Southern Sweden is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study that was answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 yielding a 59% response rate. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust and self-reported psychological health adjusting for possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress and generalized trust in other people i.e. horizontal trust). We found that 13.0% of the men and 18.9% of the women reported poor psychological health. A total of 17.3% and 11.6% of the male and female respondents, respectively, reported that they had no trust at all in the national parliament, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported that their political trust was not particularly high. Respondents in younger age groups, born abroad, with high education, high levels of economic stress, low horizontal trust and low political trust had significantly higher levels of self-reported poor psychological health. There was a significant association between low political trust and low horizontal trust. After adjustments for age, country of origin, education and economic stress, the inclusion of horizontal trust reduced the odds ratios of self-reported poor psychological health in the "no political trust at all" category compared to the "very high political trust" category from 1.6 to 1.4 among men and from 1.7 to 1.4 among women. It is concluded that low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be significantly and positively associated with poor mental health.
Lindström, Martin; Giordano, Giuseppe N
The global financial crisis of 2008 was described by the IMF as the worst recession since the Great Depression. This historic event provided the backdrop to this United Kingdom (UK) longitudinal study of changes in associations between social capital and psychological wellbeing. Past longitudinal studies have reported that the presence of social capital may buffer against adverse mental health outcomes. This study adds to existing literature by employing data from the British Household Panel Survey and tracking the same individuals (N = 11,743) pre- and immediately post-crisis (years 2007-09). With longitudinal, multilevel logistic regression modelling, we aimed to compare the buffering effects of individual-level social capital (generalised trust and social participation) against worse psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12) during and immediately after the 2008 financial crisis. After comparing the same individuals over time, results showed that stocks of social capital (generalised trust) were significantly depleted across the UK during the crisis, from 40% trusting others in 2007 to 32% in 2008. Despite this drop, the buffering effect of trust against worse psychological wellbeing was pronounced in 2008; those not trusting had an increased risk of worse psychological wellbeing in 2008 compared with the previous year in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.34-1.65). Levels of active participation increased across the timeframe of this study but were not associated with psychological health. From our empirical evidence, decision makers should be made aware of how events such as the crisis (and the measures taken to counter its effects) could negatively impact on a Nation's trust levels. Furthermore, past research implies that the positive effects of trust on psychological wellbeing evident in this study may only be short-term; therefore, decision makers should also prioritise policies that restore trust levels to improve the psychological wellbeing of the
Full Text Available The research aims to analyse the role played by the human capital investment in shaping international migration trends and influencing socio-economic development for the EU New Member States during the last decade. Our analysis is based on developing double-log macro-econometric models that combine cross-sections and time series in a panel structure, by using a set of indicators specific for the migration process, as well as for the economic activity and education, as main explanatory variables. Furthermore, the study focuses on a comparative approach for New Member States, our random and fixed effects models using several quantitative and qualitative proxies in order to highlight the relationship and interdependence between emigration, human capital investment and socio-economic development.
Absalyamova, Svetlana; Absalyamov, Timur; Khusnullova, Asiya; Mukhametgalieva, Chulpan
The article explains the use of the human capital sustainable development index (HCSDI) to assess the quality of the reproduction of human capital. The paper provides the algorithm for calculating HCSDI and its components. Authors estimated cross-country differences of HCSDI and developed econometric model of the impact of corruption on HCSDI. The use of this model has allowed to reveal the mechanism and assess the impact of corruption on HCSDI and its components. The results of econometric analysis revealed a negative multiplier effect: an increase in the corruption of the socio-economic system of the state by 1% caused HCSDI reduce by more than 1%. The results and conclusions may be proxy-assessments of the socio-economic consequences of violations of the stability of reproduction of human capital in the conditions of the growth of corruption in the country
Full Text Available Based on human capital theory, initiated by some representatives of the new school in Chicago in the second half of the twentieth century (Th. W. Schultz, G. Becker and G. Stigler, we see that there is a theoretical vein-slogan: "Man is the most precious wealth of a country," and if we corroborate this slogan with an adaptation of what Adam Smith stated in the eighteenth century – "A country is rich if it has rich/educated individuals", we reason, based on the literature review, that between higher education, human capital and competitiveness there is an indestructible link, influencing, in its turn, the economic growth and development. This paper aims to highlight the main elements describing the link existing between higher education, human capital and competitiveness, bringing to the fore the Romanian reality.
Mohammad Javad Razmi
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of social capital on human development in Iran. For this purpose, Iran society in the period 1984 to 2009 by using time series data and Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL technique has been studied. Due to the quality of social capital variable two variables i.e. the number of judicial cases related to nonsufficient fund checks and embezzlement, bribery and forgery, and elections' participation rate have been used to measure the effect of social capital. The results suggest that there is a negative and significant effect of judicial cases on human development index (HDI level and elections' participation index statistically has not significant effect on Iran's human development index.
McAlpine, Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.
Tarkhov, P V; Matsenko, A M; Krugliak, A P; Derkach, Zh V
To reach normal competitiveness in world division of labour, investment projects should stimulate development of human capital towards advance of modern technologies and organizational development of all types of labour. At present time there are only separate calculations of certain types of people's health damage and completely disparate matters of damage compensation exceptionally for chemical contamination effects. The purpose of the paper is development of algorithms to provide hygienic welfare of human capital in investment projects. For this purpose in investments assessment and hygienic examination it is necessary to apply complete and comprehensive (systematic) evaluation of all factors that influence human capital welfare and practical hygienic and research institutions should be focused on systematic elimination of possible dangers and risks of investment projects.
Papi, Ahmad; Mosharraf, Zahra; Farashbandi, Firoozeh Zare; Samouei, Rahele; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Bibliotherapy is defined as using dynamic interaction along with reading a book in order to help the people to increase their cognitive understanding. This study aims to investigate the effect of bibliotherapy on the psychological capital of the employees of the Department of Management and Medical Informatics of Isfahan University of Medical Science. This is an applied study using a semi-empirical method. The statistical population consists of all nonfaculty employees of the target department (70 people). Twenty eight people were randomly selected and divided into experiment and control groups and answered the psychological capital questionnaire. The data gathering tool was the psychological capital questionnaire of Luthans. The experiment group underwent six 2-h sessions of bibliotherapy where the control group underwent no interference. Both groups answered the questionnaire again 1-month after the final bibliotherapy session. The information was analyzed using descriptive (average and frequency distribution) and analytical (independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney U-test) with the help of SPSS 20 software. The findings showed no meaningful distinction average scores of the physiological capital of both groups before interference. However, the average physiological capital score and an average score of each factor in the experiment group was meaningfully higher than that of the control group after the bibliotherapy sections. The results showed that bibliotherapy is a suitable method for increasing the psychological capital of the employees of different organizations which will in turn provide both the employees themselves and the organization with material and spiritual gains.
Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard
Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508
Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.
Kehinde Oladele Joseph
Full Text Available Global economies around the world have experienced the most traumatic moments in the last one-decade. The crisis has been described by scholars, as perhaps been the worst financial crisis since the great economic depression of the 1930s. This paper lucidly examines the effects of global economic recession on the development of human capital with reference to Nigeria nation. The objectives of the paper among others are (i To establish the level of the impact of global economic recession on development of skills of human capital in Nigeria (ii To examine if there is any significant relationship between global economic recession and the motivation of human capital development in Nigeria among others. The paper uses survey method with two research hypotheses. Questionnaires were administered among academic staff of two Nigerian universities in the southwest part of Nigeria. Findings showed that the global economic recession has great impact on the development of skills of human capital in Nigeria. Findings also revealed that there exists a positive relationship between global economic recession and training and development of human capital in Nigeria. The paper offers useful policy recommendations, which include the need for government and appropriate agencies to put in place policies such as enabling environment that will lead to the growth and development of human capital in Nigeria. Government needs to put forward policies that minimize cost at all levels, maximize efficiency of output, training and retraining of goods hands; and that there is need to encourage better motivation of workers at every sector of the economy amongst others.
Full Text Available Background: International research has shown that workers have a rather low level of financial literacy. Financial literacy is associated with lifetime planning and saving for retirement. This article focuses on the role of financial literacy in the demand for human capital and on-the-job training among older workers in Japan. Workers with higher levels of financial literacy are more likely to demand human capital, plan to enter training programs, and desire to work after retirement. Objective: Does financial literacy affect the demand for additional human capital among older Japanese workers? How does the level of financial literacy affect the age of retirement and plans for working after retirement from a career job in Japan? Methods: This paper analyzes data from a national survey of Japanese employees. We estimate the effect of financial literacy on the demand for additional human capital to remain competitive for promotions and for finding employment after retirement. Results: Higher levels of financial literacy are associated with greater demand for additional human capital and for participation in on-the-job training programs among older workers in Japan. Conclusions: Given the rapid aging of the Japanese population and the decline in the total population, providing employment opportunities for older workers (ages 60 and older is a key to sustaining economic growth and per capita income. The analysis indicates that greater levels of financial literacy are associated with a desire for more training and human capital. Thus, enhancing the level of financial literacy among older workers may be a key to maintaining economic wellbeing.
Full Text Available Within the framework of bureaucratic and human capital theories, an eclectic approach, the study examines the nexus between academic staff recruitment in Nigerian tertiary institutions and human capital development as well as service delivery with specific reference to universities. It is generally agreed that higher education is a sine-qua-non for human capital development and efficient service delivery. Higher education is a prerequisite for the production of highly competent experts, which in turn, contributes to the development of organizations and the economy at large. For these to be achieved, the right content and academic staff must be in place to perform this varied function. However, over the years the quality of human capital coming out of Nigerian universities and its impact on service delivery has become a source of concern to employers of labour and all stakeholders. Inferential opinions have traced the problem to the recruitment of incompetent academic staff. To investigate the issues raised, the study relied heavily on primary and secondary data and multi stage sampling was used to select the sample population. The data collected was presented in pie chart and simple percentage. Similarly, in order to test the hypotheses and establish the degree of dependence or independence of the variables under investigation, the chi-square statistical technique was used. The findings of the study revealed among others, that Nigerian universities do not employ merit, qualification and competency in the academic staff recruitment. It also established that there is a significant relationship between merit, qualification and competency based academic staff recruitment and human capital development and service delivery. To enhance human capital development and service delivery in Nigerian universities, the study recommends among others, that an independent body like the National University Commission (NUC should be given the responsibility of
Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke
As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, pspace visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper analyses the extent to which gender differences in human capital contribute to explaining the observable wage differential in favour of men and its reduction since the mid-eighties among West German full-time employees in the private sector. Based on a simple analytical framework, the analysis shows that if a large part of the gender wage gap can be attributed to women?s relative deficit with respect to human capital endowment, an equally large part stems from the fact that female ...
P Eko Prasetyo
Full Text Available In the process of developing economy in a whole and continuously, the macro economy stability of acountry is an essential prerequisite for producing a quality economic growth. For achieving the qualityeconomic growth, there should be a continuous capital human investment and the use of continuousscience and technology (IPTEK. The process of developing economy will be able to transform thesociety condition from vicious circle to virtuous circle condition if the growth of economy is qualified..Keywords: Quality of growth; human capital, technology and virtuous circle.
Full Text Available The paper Empirical reflections on migration phenomenon. Major effects of migration on the human capital analyzes the migration flows of the workforce (as part of the human capital globally/regionally, especially the highly qualified workforce migration. The qualified manpower processes of attracting on the work market have not been always well understood and, in some cases, have generated a series of difficulties. This is the reason why we will focus on the „waste of brains” phenomenon, which appears when highly qualified individuals are neither employed in the source-country nor in the target country; and, if they are, their job is below their qualifications.
Cinnirella, Francesco; Streb, Jochen
nineteenth-century with county-level data on literacy, craftsmanship, secondary schooling, and income tax revenues to explore the complex relationship between various types of human capital, innovation, and income. We find that the Second Industrial Revolution can be seen as a transition period when it comes...... to the role of human capital. As in the preceding First Industrial Revolution, “useful knowledge” embodied in master craftsmen was related to innovation, especially of independent inventors. As in the subsequent twentieth century, the quality of basic education was associated with both workers’ productivity...
Full Text Available This study is intended to establish relationships among a borrower's attributes, the likelihood of loan approval, and the effect of lender's human capital in the SME loan-granting process. A conjoint analysis has been used as the main analytical tool. The results showed that: (1 a borrower's attributes are all positively related to the likelihood of loan approval on different levels, (2 officers place different weights on a borrower's attributes, and (3 human capital factors do not have significant roles in the SME loan-granting process.
Cawein, Andrea; Emini, Emilio; Watson, Michael; Dailey, Joanna; Donnelly, John; Tresnan, Dina; Evans, Tom; Plotkin, Stanley; Gruber, William
Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A W
By modelling the distribution of percentage income gains for movers in Sweden, using multinomial logistic regression, this paper shows that those receiving large pecuniary returns from migration are primarily those moving to the larger metropolitan areas and those with higher education, and that there is much more variability in income gains than what is often assumed in models of average gains to migration. This suggests that human capital models of internal migration often overemphasize the job and income motive for moving, and fail to explore where and when human capital motivated migration occurs.
Bråd Nielsen, Lars
knowledge and skills, thus requiring continuous updating of employee competences. This paper develops a two-period agency model to show how the threat of layoff (outsourcing of job tasks to a third party supplier) can help a company trigger or ease employee investments in .firm-speci.c human capital......Investments in fi.rm-speci.c human capital have come to play a central role in the value creation for most companies and organisations as job tasks have become ever more complex and demanding to carry out. Today successful performance of essential job tasks often necessitates highly specialised...
Christiansen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
on type and level of education enables us to focus on the shared features between human capital and stock investments. An innovative finance-labor approach is applied to study the educational asset market. A risk-return trade-off is revealed which is not directly related to the length of education.......Like the stock market, the human capital market consists of a wide range of assets, i.e. educations. Each young individual chooses the educational asset that matches his preferred combination of risk and return in terms of future income. A unique register-based data set with exact information...
Tsuboya, Toru; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawachi, Ichiro
Research on the longitudinal association of workplace social capital and mental health is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of social capital in the workplace with mental distress, measured by K6, adjusting for individuals factors as well as workplace-related factors among employees in Japan. The participants included 6387 men and 1825 women from 12 private companies in Japan. Questionnaires, inquiring about workplace social capital, K6, job strain and effort-reward imbalance were administered at the baseline survey between October 2010 and December 2011 (response rate=77.4%). At 1-year follow-up, social capital and K6 were assessed again (follow-up rate=79.5%), and a generalised linear model was used to estimate the association between changes in workplace social capital and change in K6. After adjusting for baseline demographic characteristics and workplace-related factors (Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ)), increased workplace social capital between waves was associated with improved psychological distress (β=-0.2327, psocial capital may promote mental health in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Liu, Chuan; Wang, Lie; Zhao, Qun
Psychiatry has been considered as one of the most stressful medical specialities, and psychiatrists are likely to experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies are available in regard to related factors of HRQOL among psychiatrists in China. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HRQOL of psychiatrists and explore its predictive factors, especially the effects of occupational stress and psychological capital. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey was conducted among psychiatrists from different regions of Liaoning province, China, during August 2013-April 2014. Self-administrated questionnaires including the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Chinese version Psychological Capital Questionnaire, effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) scale and participants' basic characteristics were distributed to 500 psychiatrists from 10 psychiatric hospitals of 8 major cities in Liaoning province. Overall, 373 psychiatrists became our final research objects. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the predictors of psychiatrists' HRQOL. The mean (SD) scores of PCS and MCS among psychiatrists were 79.78 (16.55) and 71.50 (19.24) respectively. The mean (SD) of ERR were 0.777 (0.493), and 89 (23.9%) had ERR scores above 1 (ERR > 1). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that, psychiatrists' basic characteristics that significant correlated with PCS and MCS were educational level, turnover intention, and exercise; age, weekly working hours were associated with MCS; psychiatrists' experienced occupational stress (both ERR and overcommitment), and PsyCap were significant predictors for PCS and MCS. Chinese psychiatrists experienced relatively good physical QOL but impaired mental QOL, and they experienced high level of occupational stress. For the sake of psychiatrists' HRQOL, the reduction of occupational stress should be implemented. The enhancement of PsyCap could be a new intervention
Full Text Available Orientation: The role of traits as a determinant of states has resulted in researchers closely examining their potential for enhancing work behaviour. This is achieved through the examination of the trait and state perspectives.Research purpose: This research sought to determine the relationship between work locus of control (WLOC and psychological capital (PsyCap, with the objective of increasing alertness on the trait and state approach.Motivation for the study: The current study investigated the role of traits and states in contributing to the positive psychology arena within the recruitment industry.Research approach, design and method: This longitudinal research design involved 425 middle managers at Time 1 (T1, at both supervisory and specialist levels, and 190 middle managers at supervisory levels at Time 2 (T2. This longitudinal study used a biographical, WLOC and PsyCap questionnaires.Main findings: The findings indicated that WLOC has predictive value for PsyCap: a statistically significant and practical relationship was established between WLOC and PsyCap at T1 and T2. However, the multiple regression analysis results were not consistently demonstrated over time.Practical managerial implications: Understanding the role of personality traits and psychological states can provide managers with additional means of increasing employee efficiency through improving work processes such as recruitment and selection.Contributions/value-add: The recruitment and other industries are encouraged to utilise a strength-based approach to enhance work performance through selection processes that incorporate traits and states to further increase organisational competitiveness.
Reports an error in "Using Recruitment Source Timing and Diagnosticity to Enhance Applicants' Occupation-Specific Human Capital" by Michael C. Campion, Robert E. Ployhart and Michael A. Campion (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Feb 02, 2017, np). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-04566-001.) This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph
School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the
Lo Bianco, Joseph
This booklet discusses some consequences of internationalization for national training systems from the standpoint of the following two broad approaches often taken by international organizations: (1) the human capital ideology, which assumes human capital is an appropriate basis for education policy; and (2) the human rights and human development…
This paper analyzes the human capital training strategies adopted between the 1850s and 1930s by railroad companies in Mexico and Chile. These two countries enable one to contrast the different routes taken by the same type of firm, technology and labor force. A propos of this, we suggest that because of its complexity, capital intensity and new work methods, railway technology had a positive impact on human capital training in the cases studied. During the period when railways were the main ...