Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.
This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Miville, Marie L; Constantine, Madonna G
Sociocultural variables of acculturation, enculturation, cultural congruity, and perceived social support were used as predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes and behaviors among 162 Mexican American college students. Multivariate multiple regression analyses indicated that higher cultural congruity, lower perceived social support from family, and higher perceived social support from significant others were significant predictors of positive help-seeking attitudes. In addition, higher acculturation into the dominant society, lower perceived social support from family, and lower perceived social support from friends were significantly predictive of greater help-seeking behavior. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…
Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.
Purpose: Accessibility and availability of mental health care services are necessary but not sufficient for people to seek help for psychological problems. Attitudes and stigma related to help seeking also determine help seeking intentions. The aim of this study is to investigate how cross-national
Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…
Yeh, Christine J.
Self-esteem, age, and gender were used to assess attitudes towards seeking psychological services among secondary school and college students. Self-esteem and gender significantly predicted students help-seeking attitudes. A counselor's knowledge of cultural perspectives of self-esteem, as they relate to help-seeking behaviors, will help with…
Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Brewer, Jacqueline L
.... Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress...
vandenBrink, RHS; Wit, HP; Kempen, GIJM; vanHeuvelen, MJG
The aim of the present study was to investigate help-seeking for hearing impairment in the elderly, and to compare groups showing dissimilar help-seeking on their attitude toward hearing loss and hearing aids. Attitude factors were based on a revised version of the Health Belief Model, and included
Sun, Shufang; Hoyt, William T; Brockberg, Dustin; Lam, Jaime; Tiwari, Dhriti
Psychological services are culturally encapsulated for dominant cultural groups, and racial minorities underutilize treatment even though they suffer from more severe psychological distress. Sociocultural factors such as acculturation (one's adaptation into mainstream group) and enculturation (one's adherence to culture of heritage) are hypothesized to affect minorities' attitudes toward seeking psychological services. This meta-analysis examined 3 methods to assess acculturation/enculturation-unidimensional acculturation, bidimensional acculturation, and bidimensional enculturation as predictors of help-seeking attitudes (HSAs)-both positive and negative attitudes-among racial and ethnic minorities in 207 samples drawn from 111 research reports. The omnibus correlations between acculturation/enculturation variables and HSAs were quite small, but in the predicted direction. Moderator analyses suggested a more nuanced understanding of the association between bidimensional enculturation and positive HSAs: This association was significant (r = -.14 95% CI[-.18, -.09]) for Asians and Asian Americans, but very close to zero and nonsignificant for other racial minority groups (African Americans, Latino Americans, and others). In addition, the domain of acculturation/enculturation assessed was predictive of effect size, with enculturation measures containing a higher proportion of cognitive items (e.g., items that assess cultural values and beliefs) showing stronger (more negative) associations with positive HSAs. Post hoc analyses indicated that certain Asian cultural values, including emotional self-control, conformity to social norms, and collectivism, showed especially high negative associations with positive HSAs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder. Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53 in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02. There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required.
Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.
The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…
Barnard, Jordan D.
Given that there is evidence that college student-athletes may be at risk for psychological disturbances (Pinkerton, Hintz, & Barrow, 1989), and possibly underutilizing college mental health services (Watson & Kissinger, 2007), the purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward mental illness and help seeking among college…
Kai Sing Sun
Full Text Available The stepped care model for psychological distress has been promoted in recent years, leading to the enhancing roles of primary care professionals and alternative sources of help. However, most of the research findings come from Western countries. This study investigates help-seeking behaviours of Chinese patients among different types of professional and alternative sources for psychological distress in Hong Kong.A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1626 adult primary care attenders from 13 private and 6 public clinics, 650 (40.0% reported that they had ever experienced psychological distress. Their help-seeking behaviours, demographic background and current distress level (measured by GHQ-12 were analysed.Among the respondents with experience of psychological distress, 48.2% had sought help from professional and/or alternative sources for their distress [10.2% from professionals only, 12.6% from alternative sources only, and 25.4% from both]. Those who had sought help from professionals only were more likely to be less educated and with lower income. In contrast, those using alternative sources only were more likely to be younger, better educated, and have higher income. Allowing multiple responses, psychiatrists (22.3% was reported to be the most popular professional source, followed by primary care physicians (17.5%, clinical psychologists (12.8% and social workers/counsellors (12.0%. Family members/friends (28.6% was the top alternative source, followed by exercise/sports (21.8%, religious/spiritual support (16.9% and self-help websites/books/pamphlets (8.9%.While psychiatrists remain the most popular professional source of help to the Chinese patients in Hong Kong, primary care professionals and alternative sources also play significant roles. Distressed patients who are younger, better educated and have higher income are more likely to use alternative sources only. The outcomes need further research.
The present study examined the help-seeking behavior that Chinese college students used to cope with stressful events and the roles that gender, previous counseling experience, and help-seeking attitudes played in predicting informal and formal help-seeking behavior. Nine hundred ninety-five first-year Chinese college students at a private…
ATİK, Gökhan; YALÇIN, İlhan
The current study examined the influences of personality traits, gender, previous counseling or therapy experiences, and knowledge about the psychological services provided on campus on the help-seeking attitudes of Turkish undergraduate students and their initial preferences for help sources. The students (N Foo Fatt Mee 2017-06-01 Full Text Available This study aims to measure the latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes. The respondents were 327 married graduate students from a research university in Malaysia. An online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The respondents completed the Almost Perfect Scale- Revised, Dyadic Almost Perfect Scale, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examined the instruments and the results indicated that construct validity were achieved. The latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes were tested using multigroup invariance analysis. The respondents with negative attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 159 reported a higher latent mean in perfectionism but a lower latent mean in marital satisfaction compared to those with positive attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 168. The implications of these findings for counseling services are discussed. Kim, Paul Youngbin; Lee, Donghun 2014-01-01 The present study examined cultural factors underlying help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students (N = 106). Specifically, we explored internalized model minority myth as a predictor of help-seeking attitudes and tested an intrapersonal-interpersonal framework of Asian values as a mechanism by which the two are related. Results indicated that internalized model minority myth significantly predicted unfavorable help-seeking attitudes, and emotional self-control mediated this relationship. Interpersonal values and humility were nonsignificant mediators, contrary to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that the investigation of internalized model minority myth in help-seeking research is a worthwhile endeavor, and they also highlight emotional self-control as an important explanatory variable in help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students. Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C. 2015-01-01 Background A significant proportion of suicidal persons do not seek help for their psychological problems. Psychological help-seeking is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. However, different studies showed that negative attitudes and stigma related to help-seeking are major barriers to Koc, Selma; Liu, Xiongyi 2016-01-01 This study explored graduate students' help-seeking preferences, attitudes and experiences based on the online classes they took at a Midwestern higher education institution. The findings indicated that the majority of the students used self-regulatory strategies in their help-seeking process striving for independent mastery of learning. Thematic…
Foo Fatt Mee
Full Text Available This study aims to measure the latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes. The respondents were 327 married graduate students from a research university in Malaysia. An online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The respondents completed the Almost Perfect Scale- Revised, Dyadic Almost Perfect Scale, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examined the instruments and the results indicated that construct validity were achieved. The latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes were tested using multigroup invariance analysis. The respondents with negative attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 159 reported a higher latent mean in perfectionism but a lower latent mean in marital satisfaction compared to those with positive attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 168. The implications of these findings for counseling services are discussed.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Lee, Donghun
The present study examined cultural factors underlying help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students (N = 106). Specifically, we explored internalized model minority myth as a predictor of help-seeking attitudes and tested an intrapersonal-interpersonal framework of Asian values as a mechanism by which the two are related. Results indicated that internalized model minority myth significantly predicted unfavorable help-seeking attitudes, and emotional self-control mediated this relationship. Interpersonal values and humility were nonsignificant mediators, contrary to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that the investigation of internalized model minority myth in help-seeking research is a worthwhile endeavor, and they also highlight emotional self-control as an important explanatory variable in help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students.
Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.
Background A significant proportion of suicidal persons do not seek help for their psychological problems. Psychological help-seeking is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. However, different studies showed that negative attitudes and stigma related to help-seeking are major barriers to
Koc, Selma; Liu, Xiongyi
This study explored graduate students' help-seeking preferences, attitudes and experiences based on the online classes they took at a Midwestern higher education institution. The findings indicated that the majority of the students used self-regulatory strategies in their help-seeking process striving for independent mastery of learning. Thematic…
The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…
Knisely, J E; Northouse, L
A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship between the level of social support, the level of psychological distress, and the extent of help-seeking behavior in a nonprobability sample of 53 hospitalized adult psychiatric patients. The subjects completed the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and a researcher-designed Help-Seeking Behavior Questionnaire. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients and t test were used to analyze the data. No significant correlation was found between the level of psychological distress and either the level of social support or the extent of help seeking. Social support and help seeking were highly correlated. These results have an implication for nursing practice pertaining to the focus of patient treatment both during hospitalization and in postdischarge planning.
Gould, Madelyn S.; Velting, Drew; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lucas, Christopher; Thomas, John Graham; Chung, Michelle
Objective: To identify youths' attitudes about coping and help-seeking strategies for suicidal ideation/behavior and examine their demographic and clinical correlates. Method: A self-report survey was completed by high school students (N = 2,419) in six New York State schools from 1998 through 2001. The relationship between suicide attitudes and…
Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia
This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…
This study investigated the relationships among personality variables, counseling expectations, and help-seeking attitudes. Participants (N = 411) completed the Revised NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to New Experiences) Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Expectations About Counseling Questionnaire-Brief Form (Tinsley,…
Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy
This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
Perceptions of depression, attitudes toward depression treatments, help-seeking preferences, and perceived barriers to care were examined in a sample of 56 Latino immigrant men recruited from a primary health care clinic. Each participant was presented a vignette depicting an individual with major depression. Men described the vignette as a…
Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…
Pattyn, Elise; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet
Individuals in need of psychiatric treatment often avoid seeking help because of stigma. This study examined the impact of two stigma dimensions on help-seeking attitudes. Perceived public stigma refers to discrimination and devaluation by others, and anticipated self-stigma refers to internalization of negative stereotypes about people who seek help. Data were from the 2009 Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study, in which face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of the general Belgian population. The study reported here included 728 respondents who received a vignette depicting major depression or schizophrenia. Perceived public stigma and anticipated self-stigma were measured with validated instruments. Respondents' attitudes toward help seeking were measured by the importance they assigned to care from formal and informal providers: general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, family members, or friends. Multiple linear regression models were estimated. Respondents with higher levels of anticipated self-stigma attached less importance to care provided by general practitioners or psychiatrists, and those with higher levels of perceived public stigma rated informal help seeking as less important. The gender and the ethnicity of the person and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics had relatively little effect on help-seeking attitudes. Anticipated self-stigma and perceived public stigma appeared to have a differential impact on attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking. Internalization of negative stereotypes was negatively associated with the perceived importance of care from medical providers (general practitioners and psychiatrists). Awareness of stereotypes held by others deterred respondents from acknowledging the importance of informal care.
Galbraith, Niall D; Brown, Katherine E; Clifton, Elizabeth
Globally, stress in student nurses may have serious implications for health, absenteeism, and attrition. Despite this, there is scant research on student nurses' attitudes toward help seeking. To examine student nurses' attitudes toward stress and help-seeking. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey design was employed to gather data from 219 student nurses at two large U.K. universities. Two-sample chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyze categorical associations between responses. Most had experienced stress before, believed the incidence within the profession was high, and would disclose their own stress to family/friends rather than to colleagues or professional institutions. The most popular outpatient treatment choice was social support; few would choose formal advice. The most common factor influencing inpatient treatment choice was confidentiality; for many, this factor would also lead them to seek distant rather than local inpatient care. Encouragingly, most would not lose confidence in a stressed colleague. Negative attitudes toward stress and help seeking may be entrenched even before training and may have a marked influence on how/whether students seek help. Nurse employers and educators should foster more supportive and accepting attitudes toward stress in order to tackle its unwanted consequences. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mendoza, Hadrian; Masuda, Akihiko; Swartout, Kevin M.
The study examined whether mental health stigma and self-concealment are uniquely related to various dimensions of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological services (i.e., help-seeking attitudes) in Latina/o college students. Data from 129 Latina/o undergraduates (76% female) were used in the analysis. Results revealed that mental…
Alinne Z. Barrera
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine attitudes and beliefs related to help-seeking for depression among an international sample of pregnant women, a majority of whom were Spanish-speakers residing in Latin America. METHODS: More than 6 000 (n = 6 672 pregnant women met eligibility criteria and consented to participate between 15 January 2009-12 August 2011. Of these, 1 760 with a Latino/Hispanic background completed a baseline survey as part of a larger study. Group comparisons analyzed attitudes and behaviors related to seeking help for depression, while a logistic regression was conducted to identify demographic characteristics related to help-seeking support. RESULTS: Of the participants, three-fourths reported experiencing depression during or after their current or past pregnancies. The majority of participants did not seek help, and generally reported ambivalence about their depressive symptoms and uncertainty as to the helpfulness of others. However, 44.8% did seek help, mostly by speaking to family or partners and reported feeling fear, shame, and embarrassment about their symptoms. A current major depressive episode and an income less than or equal to US$ 10 000 were significant predictors of help-seeking behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this study suggest that when feeling sad or depressed, perinatal Latinas tend to seek emotional support first from family and friends and may underutilize mental health services when needed. The Internet is an effective means for reaching perinatal women, especially those in areas of the world where there may be barriers to accessing psychological resources.
Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow
This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.
Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Klingbeil, David A; Meller, Sarah J
While the ultimate goal of adolescent suicide-prevention efforts is to decrease the incidence of death by suicide, a critical intermediary goal is directing youths toward effective sources of assistance. To comprehensively review the universal prevention literature and examine the effects of universal prevention programs on student's attitudes and behaviors related to help-seeking. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed help-seeking outcomes including prevention efforts utilizing (1) psychoeducational curricula, (2) gatekeeper training, and (3) public service messaging directed at youths. Of the studies reviewed, 17 studies evaluated the help-seeking outcomes. These studies were identified through a range of sources (e.g., searching online databases, examining references of published articles on suicide prevention). The results of this review suggest that suicide-prevention programming has a limited impact on help-seeking behavior. Although there was some evidence that suicide-prevention programs had a positive impact on students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, there was also evidence of no effects or iatrogenic effects. Sex and risk status were moderators of program effects on students help-seeking. Caution is warranted when considering which suicidal prevention interventions best optimize the intended goals. The impact on adolescents' help-seeking behavior is a key concern for educators and mental-health professionals.
Masuda, Akihiko; Goodnight, Bradly L.; Ng, Stacey Y.; Ward Schaefer, L.; Tully, Erin C.; Chan, Wing Yi; Drake, Chad E.
Help-seeking stigma is considered a major obstacle to seeking professional psychological services in Asian American college women. Informed in part by objectification theory and the psychological flexibility model of behavior change, the present cross-sectional study examines the role of disordered eating cognition and psychological inflexibility…
Logan, Shanna; Steel, Zachary; Hunt, Caroline
Previous research has demonstrated the importance of intercultural willingness to interact; however, these investigations have yet to be applied to a health context or to compare an ethnic minority with a majority sample. Consequently, the current study sought to better understand engagement with health services by investigating both attitudes towards seeking psychological help and intercultural willingness to interact within an ethnic minority South East Asian population, relative to an Anglo Australian sample. As predicted, negative attitudes towards seeking psychological help were higher in the South East Asian sample, with this relationship persisting across generations, despite significant differences in acculturation. In contrast, intercultural willingness to interact was not associated with ethnicity status but was associated with higher anxiety, uncertainty, ethnocentrism and help-seeking, consistent with current empirical and theoretical literature. The current study also sought to examine factors associated with help-seeking attitudes and found that ethnocentrism was a significant predictor, when accounting for previous health experience.
Walters, Kate; Buszewicz, Marta; Weich, Scott; King, Michael
There is much debate over when it is appropriate to intervene medically for psychological distress, and limited evidence on patients' perspectives about a broad range of possible treatment options. It is currently unclear whether preferences may differ for those patients with milder symptoms compared to those experiencing more severe distress. To determine patient preferences for professional, informal, and alternative help for psychological distress in primary care, and the impact of their current mental state on these. Cross-sectional survey in seven general practices across suburban/urban London. Participants were 1357 consecutive general practice attenders aged 18 years and over. The main outcome measure was the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version and a questionnaire on help-seeking preferences. Overall, only 47% of participants reported wanting 'some help' if feeling stressed, worried, or low and it was affecting their daily life. Those currently experiencing mild-to-moderate distress preferred informal sources of help such as friends/family support, relaxation/yoga, exercise/sport, or massage along with general advice from their GP and talking therapies. Self-help (books/leaflets or computer/internet) was not popular at any level of distress, and less favoured by those with mild-to-moderate distress (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.70). Those experiencing severe distress were much more likely to want talking therapies (OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.85 to 4.14), tablets (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.00 to 4.71), and support groups (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.72 to 5.47). People with mild-to-moderate distress appear to prefer informal sources of help and those involving human contact, compared to medication or self-help. This has implications for the implementation of potential interventions for psychological distress in primary care.
Knipscheer, J.W.; Kleber, R.J.
The authors explored help-seeking behaviors and attitudes regarding psychosocial problems of Surinamese people in the Netherlands. Data of Surinamese citizens in the general population (n = 292) and of Surinamese (n = 96) and native Dutch (n = 89) outpatients in mental health care were collected.
Holt, Laura J.
Although numerous studies have documented an association between parent attachment and college student adjustment, less is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relation. Accordingly, this short-term longitudinal study examined first-year college students' attitudes about academic help-seeking as one possible mechanism. As predicted,…
Knipscheer, J.W.; Kleber, R.J.
The authors explored help-seeking behaviors and attitudes regarding psychosocial problems of Surinamese people in the Netherlands. Data of Surinamese citizens in the general population (n = 292) and of Surinamese (n = 96) and native Dutch (n = 89) outpatients in mental health care were collected. Results suggest length of residence in the Netherlands to be an important predictor of both behavior and attitudes, with the more recently migrated most in need of education on the utility of Dutch m...
Wei, Yifeng; Hayden, Jill A; Kutcher, Stan; Zygmunt, Austin; McGrath, Patrick
Conduct a systematic review for the effectiveness of school mental health literacy programs to enhance knowledge, reduce stigmatizing attitudes and improve help-seeking behaviours among youth (12-25 years of age). Reviewers independently searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, grey literature and reference lists of included studies. They reached a consensus on the included studies, and rated the risk of bias of each study. Studies that reported three outcomes: knowledge acquisition, stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking behaviours; and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, and controlled-before-and-after studies, were eligible. This review resulted in 27 articles including 5 RCTs, 13 quasi-experimental studies, and 9 controlled-before-and-after studies. Whereas most included studies claimed school-based mental health literacy programs improve knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking behaviour, 17 studies met criteria for high risk of bias, 10 studies for moderate risk of bias, and no studies for low risk of bias. Common limitations included the lack of randomization, control for confounding factors, validated measures and report on attrition in most studies. The overall quality of the evidence for knowledge and help-seeking behaviour outcomes was very low, and low for the attitude outcome. Research into school-based mental health literacy is still in its infancy and there is insufficient evidence to claim for positive impact of school mental health literacy programs on knowledge improvement, attitudinal change or help-seeking behaviour. Future research should focus on methods to appropriately determine the evidence of effectiveness on school-based mental health literacy programs, considering the values of both RCTs and other research designs in this approach. Educators should consider the strengths and weaknesses of current mental health literacy programs to inform decisions regarding possible
Economou, Marina; Bergiannaki, Joanna Despina; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Karayanni, Ismini; Skalkotos, George; Patelakis, Athanasios; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Stefanis, Costas
The financial crisis has yielded adverse effects on the population worldwide, as evidenced by elevated rates of major depression. International recommendations for offsetting the mental health impact of the recession highlight the need for effective treatment, including reduction in the stigma attached to the disorder. This study endeavoured to explore lay attitudes to depression and psychiatric medication during a period of financial crisis and to identify their correlates. Furthermore, it investigated their link to help-seeking intentions. A random and representative sample of 621 respondents from Athens area participated in the study (Response Rate = 81.7%). The telephone interview schedule consisted of the Personal Stigma Scale, a self-constructed scale tapping attitudes to psychiatric medication and one question addressing help-seeking intentions. The preponderant stigmatising belief about depression pertains to perceiving the disorder as a sign of personal weakness. In addition, stereotypes of unpredictability and dangerousness were popular among the sample. Nonetheless, stigmatising beliefs are much stronger with regard to psychiatric medication; perceived as addictive, capable of altering one's personality, less effective than homeopathic remedies and doing more harm than good. Help-seeking intentions were predicted by education, unemployment and attitudes to psychiatric medication solely. Research on the mental health effects of the global recession should encompass studies investigating the stigma attached to mental disorders and its implications. © The Author(s) 2016.
Although social psychology has always had an interest in helping behavior, only recently has the full complexity of helping relations begun to be researched. Help seeking and receiving in the educational setting raise many issues regarding the use and effectiveness of the help itself. Central to all helping relations is the seeking/receiving…
Hui, Alison; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-wa
Background A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. Objective The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhan...
Winter, Rachel I; Patel, Rakesh; Norman, Robert I
Medical students are at high risk of experiencing psychological distress at medical school and developing mental ill-health during professional practice. Despite efforts by faculty to raise awareness about this risk, many students choose to suffer in silence in the face of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore drivers that prompted help-seeking behavior and barriers that prevented individuals prioritizing their well-being around the time of high-stakes assessment at medical school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-seven students who failed high-stakes assessment at two UK medical schools, exploring their experience of academic difficulty and perceptions about causes. A thematic analysis of twenty transcripts that met inclusion criteria was completed to identify key factors that influenced participants' decisions around seeking help for their psychological distress, and in some cases, mental health problems. Twenty participants who specifically described a deterioration in their mental health around the time of assessment were included in this study. Barriers to seeking help in these instances included: normalization of symptoms or situation; failure to recognize a problem existed; fear of stigmatisation; overt symptoms of mental distress; and misconceptions about the true nature of the medical school, for example beliefs about a punitive response from the school if they failed. Drivers for seeking help appropriately included: building trust with someone in order to confide in them later on, and self-awareness about the need to maintain good mental health. There are various drivers and barriers for students' help seeking behaviors when experiencing psychological distress around the time of assessment, particularly self-awareness about the problem and prioritisation of well-being. Students who fail to recognize their own deteriorating mental health are at risk of academic failure and medical schools need to develop
Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J
American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.
Coppens, E.C.; van Audenhove, C.; Scheerder, G.; Arensman, E.; Coffey, C.; Costa, S.; Koburger, N.; Gottlebe, K.; Gusmão, R.; O'Connor, R.; Postuvan, V.; Sarchiapone, M.; Sisask, M.; Székely, A.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.
Background Stigmatizing attitudes toward depression and toward help-seeking are important barriers for people with mental health problems to obtain adequate professional help. This study aimed to examine: (1) population attitudes toward depression and toward seeking professional help in four
ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Vilagut, G.; Kovess, V.; Alonso, J.
To investigate the prevailing attitudes towards mental health help-seeking in Europe, their correlates, and whether these attitudes are associated with actual service use for mental health problems. Data were derived from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a survey
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia
Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…
This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to…
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
There is a high prevalence of depression among college students, which is linked to lower levels of help-seeking intentions. However, there has been a lack of research examining variables that may help explain this relationship. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining whether psychological resources (optimism and self-esteem)…
Tariq Mahmood Hassan
Conclusions: At the level of residency training, psychiatrists are reporting barriers to disclosure and help-seeking if they were to experience mental illness. A majority of psychiatry residents would only disclose to informal supports. Those with a history of mental illness would prefer formal treatment services over informal services.
Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Menec, Verena H; Bailis, Daniel S
Socioemotional selectivity theory posits that changes in time perspective over the lifespan are associated with distinct goals and motivations. Time perspectives and their associated socioemotional motivations have been shown to influence information processing and memory, such that motivation-consistent information is more likely to be remembered and evaluated more positively. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of motivation-consistent mental health information on memory for and evaluations of this information, as well as help-seeking attitudes and intentions to seek mental health services. We randomly assigned an Internet-based sample of 160 younger (18-25) and 175 older (60-89) adults to read a mental health information pamphlet that emphasized time perspectives and motivations relevant to either young adulthood (future-focused) or late adulthood (present-focused). Participants completed measures assessing their time perspective, memory for and subjective evaluation of the pamphlet, and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. The time perspective manipulation had no effect on memory for pamphlet information or help-seeking attitudes and intentions. There was, however, a significant interaction between time perspective and pamphlet version on the rated liking of the pamphlet. Although motivation-consistent information only affected perceptions of that information for present-focused (mostly older) individuals, this finding has important implications for enhancing older adults' mental health literacy.
Hui, Alison; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-Wa
A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhance mental health literacy in Hong Kong. The second aim was to examine click-through behaviors by varying the affective facial expressions of people in the Facebook advertisements. Potential participants were recruited through Facebook advertisements, using either a happy or sad face illustration. Volunteer participants registered for the study by clicking on the advertisement and were invited to leave their personal email addresses to receive educational content about depression. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (campaign or control), and over a four consecutive week period, received either the campaign material or official information developed by the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. Pretests and posttests were conducted before and after the campaign to measure the differences in help-seeking attitudes and mental health literacy among the campaign and control groups. Of the 199 participants that registered and completed the pretest, 116 (55 campaign and 62 control) completed the campaign and the posttest. At the posttest, we found no significant changes in help-seeking attitudes between the campaign and control groups, but the campaign group participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in mental health literacy (P=.031) and a higher willingness to access additional information (PFacebook advertisement attracted more click-throughs by users into the website than did the sad face advertisement (P=.03). The present study provides evidence that an online
Background A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. Objective The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhance mental health literacy in Hong Kong. The second aim was to examine click-through behaviors by varying the affective facial expressions of people in the Facebook advertisements. Methods Potential participants were recruited through Facebook advertisements, using either a happy or sad face illustration. Volunteer participants registered for the study by clicking on the advertisement and were invited to leave their personal email addresses to receive educational content about depression. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (campaign or control), and over a four consecutive week period, received either the campaign material or official information developed by the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. Pretests and posttests were conducted before and after the campaign to measure the differences in help-seeking attitudes and mental health literacy among the campaign and control groups. Results Of the 199 participants that registered and completed the pretest, 116 (55 campaign and 62 control) completed the campaign and the posttest. At the posttest, we found no significant changes in help-seeking attitudes between the campaign and control groups, but the campaign group participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in mental health literacy (P=.031) and a higher willingness to access additional information (Padvertisement attracted more click-throughs by users into the website than did the sad face advertisement (P=.03). Conclusions The present
Shin, Jinah K; Poltavskiy, Eduard; Kim, Tae Nyun; Hasan, Abdullah; Bang, Heejung
To investigate patterns of and factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or serious psychological distress (SPD). The analysis was conducted with the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012 of 40,803 adults. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between the multiple facilitating/preventing factors and outcome, guided by the Andersen's Health Care Utilization Model. The prevalence of DM and SPD were 10.9% and 3.4%, respectively, among participants in the survey. The participants with DM were more likely to experience SPD than those without DM (OR 1.46, 95% CI=1.11-1.91, p=0.006). Participants with combined DM and SPD, the most underserved, were less likely to perceive the need for mental health services and less likely to seek help, compared to those with only SPD. Need factors (SPD status and perceived need) were significantly associated with help-seeking behaviors for mental health, along with predisposing factors (age, gender, obesity, race, and employment), and enabling factors (insurance, English proficiency). Perceptions about need for seeking help seem to play an important role in receiving mental health services in addition to other predisposing or enabling factors. Identification of these factors may improve clinical outcomes related to DM and SPD. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Bedah, Eman A; Kadri, Hafni Mahmud; Sehwail, Mahmud A
This study is the first to use identical data collection processes and instruments in Egypt, Kuwait, Palestine, and Israeli Arab communities regarding help-seeking behaviors and attitudes towards perceived cultural beliefs about mental health problems. Data is based on a survey sample of 716, undergraduate students in the 4 countries, 61% female and 39% male. Results indicate that respondents within the various countries, based on nationality, gender and level of education, vary in terms of recognition of personal need, beliefs about mental health problems (i.e. stigmatization), and the use of traditional healing methods versus modern approaches to psychiatric therapy. The conclusion discusses differences between our respondents' expectations and prevailing mental health service provision and delivery.
Kohls, Elisabeth; Coppens, Evelien; Hug, Juliane; Wittevrongel, Eline; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Koburger, Nicole; Arensman, Ella; Székely, András; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich
Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking behaviour are important factors influencing depressed people to obtain professional help and adequate treatment. OSPI-Europe is a multi-level suicide prevention programme including a public awareness campaign. It was implemented in four regions of four European countries (Germany, Hungary, Ireland and Portugal). This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the campaign, including its visibility and effects of the campaign on stigma associated with depression and help-seeking behaviour. A representative general population survey (N=4004) including measures on personal stigma, perceived stigma, openness to help, perceived value of help, and socio-demographic variables was conducted in the four intervention and four control regions in a cross-sectional pre-post design. The public awareness campaign was considerably more visible in Germany and Portugal compared to Ireland and Hungary. Visibility was further affected by age and years of schooling. Personal stigma, perceived stigma and openness toward professional help varied significantly across the four countries. Respondents in the intervention regions showed significantly less personal depression stigma than respondents in the control regions after the campaign. Respondents of the intervention region who were aware of the campaign reported more openness toward seeking professional help than respondents who were unaware of it. The OSPI-Europe awareness campaign was visible and produced some positive results. At the same time, it proved to be difficult to show strong, measurable and unambiguous effects, which is in line with previous studies. Public awareness campaigns as conducted within OSPI-Europe can contribute to improved attitudes and knowledge about depression in the general public and produce synergistic effects, in particular when the dissemination of awareness campaign materials is simultaneously reinforced by other intervention levels of a multi
Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R
Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc
This study examined help-seeking in career counseling by investigating factors that influence students' intention to consult a career counseling center. Nine hundred and eighteen participants were given the Attitudes toward Career Counseling Scale (ATCCS), an information brochure about the career counseling center; the Intention to Consult a…
Makara Fuller, Kara; Karabenick, Stuart
Teachers work within a network of teachers at their school whose members can be an important source of advice and help, yet they must seek help from their colleagues in order to benefit from this network. This study employs social network analysis to examine how help-seeking patterns among teachers are related to teachers’ curricular domain, years of experience, and gender. Additionally, we examined how help-seeking beliefs (instrumental, expedient, and perceived threat) are related to help-s...
Edson Duarte Moreira Junior
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the usual frequency of sexual activity and how older individuals cope with sexual problems. The objective was to study sexual activity, prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among middle-aged and older men and women in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population survey, by Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. METHODS: Interviews were held with 1,199 Brazilians aged 40-80 years (471 men and 728 women. The standardized questionnaire investigated demographics, general health, sexual behavior, attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Overall, 92.6% of men and 58.3% of women had had sexual intercourse during the preceding year. More than half of the men and women had done so more than once a week. Early ejaculation (30.3% was the commonest male sexual problem, followed by inability to reach orgasm (14.0%, erectile difficulties (13.1% and lack of sexual interest (11.2%. For women, the commonest sexual problems were lubrication difficulties (23.4% and lack of sexual interest (22.7%. Depression was a significant correlate of sexual problems, for men and women. More women than men had sought help for sexual problem(s from a healthcare professional. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of encouraging greater use of available healthcare services, including consultation with a medical doctor regarding sexual health. This should not only enable men and women to maintain satisfactory sexual function well into their later years, but may also result in overall improvement in the quality of healthcare.
Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J
Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Payakachat, Nalin; Gubbins, Paul O; Ragland, Denise; Norman, Sarah E; Flowers, Schwanda K; Stowe, Cindy D; DeHart, Renee M; Pace, Anne; Hastings, Jan K
Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university.Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest.Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior.Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members.
Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Norman, Sarah E.; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.; DeHart, Renee M.; Pace, Anne; Hastings, Jan K.
Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university. Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest. Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior. Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members. PMID:23459559
Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma
Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified
Stein, Bradley D; Elliott, Marc N; Jaycox, Lisa H; Collins, Rebecca L; Berry, Sandra H; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A
This article examines the evolution of psychological and behavioral reactions following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in a nationally representative sample, and describes where people turned for support, information, and counseling. From November 9 to November 28, 2001, we resurveyed 395 (71%) of the original 560 adults 19 years or older within the United States who participated in our national random-digit-dialing telephone survey conducted on September 14 to September 16, 2001, about their terrorism-related psychological distress and behavior. Sixteen percent of adults had persistent distress, reporting one or more substantial distress symptoms in both September and November. Adults with persistent distress reported accomplishing less at work (65%); avoiding public gathering places (24%); and using alcohol, medications, or other drugs to relax, sleep, or feel better because of worries about terrorism (38%). Seventy-five percent talked with family and friends; however, 43% reported sometimes feeling unable to share their terrorism-related thoughts and feelings with others because it made others uncomfortable. Few reported receiving counseling or information about psychological distress from general medical providers (11%). These findings suggest that a significant number of adults across the country were continuing to experience terrorism-related distress and disruption of their daily lives approximately 2 months after September 11; many turned to family and friends for support, but at times many felt uncomfortable doing so, and few used clinicians as a source of information or support. Clinicians and policymakers should consider how the healthcare system and other community organizations might provide a coordinated community-wide response for individuals needing information and counseling following terrorist events.
Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.
This study examined the relationship between social-cognitive factors (e.g., attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), psychological distress, and help-seeking intentions for a sample of 111 international and African American college students. The results of this study showed that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)…
Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Lubell, Keri; Kleinman, Marjorie; Parker, Sarah
During the past decade there has been increased interest in help-seeking behavior among adolescents. This reflects the recognition that while many psychiatric problems increase markedly during adolescence, the majority of disturbed teenagers do not receive mental health services. Nearly half of all adolescents have reported using the Internet to…
Skinner, Barbara; Madden, Mary Catherine
An examination of literature on the issue of help seeking (HS) has revealed a common theme: students will not always ask for help, even when they are aware that help is needed. The purpose of this action research study was to examine HS and help avoidance in the context of setting tasks in two types of English language-learning environment: a…
Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; Atkinson, Donald R.
This study examined the relationships between Mexican acculturation, cultural values, gender, and help-seeking intentions among Mexican American community college students. Findings suggest that as Mexican Americans lose their culture of origin and increase their generational status, their attitudes toward help seeking become less favorable. This…
Geller, Dvora; Bamberger, Peter A.
Drawing from achievement-goal theory and the social psychological literature on help seeking, we propose that it is the variance in the logic underpinning employees' help seeking that explains divergent findings regarding the relationship between help seeking and task performance. Using a sample of 110 newly hired customer contact employees, a…
Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen
Help-seeking behaviour for suicidality is low and the reasons for this have not systematically been examined. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between suicide stigma, suicide literacy and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. One thousand two hundred seventy-four Australian adults recruited via Facebook completed an online survey assessing a range of mental health outcomes. High suicide literacy and low suicide stigma were significantly associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and, among a subsample of 534, greater intentions to seek help. Attribution of suicide to isolation was associated with more positive attitudes toward help-seeking and greater intentions to seek help, while respondents experiencing suicidal ideation had more negative attitudes toward help-seeking and lower intentions to seek help. Lower depressive symptoms, older age and female gender were associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and higher help-seeking intentions. However, there were differential associations of specific suicide knowledge items and specific stigmatising attitudes with help-seeking outcomes; suggesting a nuanced approach may be required to promote help seeking for suicidality. Suicide knowledge and attitudes play an important role in the help-seeking process for suicide and should be carefully considered in the development of public awareness campaigns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao
This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…
Sullivan, Luke; Camic, Paul M; Brown, June S L
Men's reluctance to access health care services has been under researched even though it has been identified as a potentially important predictor of poorer health outcomes amongst men. Male gender role socialization and male development may be important in accounting for men's underutilization of mental health services in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional online survey was used to administer standardized self-report measures that were subject to regression analysis. Five hundred and eighty-one men from the UK general population completed the survey, and 536 participants formed the final regression analysis. Men who score higher on measures of traditional masculine ideology, normative alexithymia, and fear of intimacy reported more negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Normative alexithymia fully mediated the effect of fear of intimacy on attitudes towards professional help seeking. In the final regression model, education significantly accounted for a proportion of unique variance in men's help-seeking attitudes. Hypothesized consequences of male emotional and interpersonal development and male gender role socialization were associated with men's attitudes towards seeking psychological help. These are important factors which could help to improve help seeking and mental health outcomes for men. Limitations of this study and implications for future research are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Men are less likely to seek help for physical and psychological problems and have poorer health outcomes across nearly all major illness and injury. Men's reluctance to access health care services is believed to be a major contributory factor to poorer health outcomes for men. What does the study add? The study is a large-scale survey of UK men's attitudes towards professional psychological help seeking. Results provide evidence that hypothesized consequences of male gender role socialization and
Pham, Yen K; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Murray, Christopher
Existing measures of help-seeking focus on assessing attitudes and beliefs, rather than specific behaviors, toward help-seeking. This study described the development of a self-report measure of informal help-seeking behaviors (HSB). Participants were 228 high school students (148 males, 80 females) with disabilities from four states. Factor analyses revealed three underlying factors, each addressing a different source of help: parent, peer, and teacher. The HSB had good internal reliability and moderate validity. Results from regression analyses suggested that help-seeking behaviors toward parents and teachers contributed uniquely to students' self-ratings of school bonding, life satisfaction, and career outcome expectations. Help-seeking behaviors toward peers was a negative predictor of career outcome expectations. The value of the HSB as a research instrument was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kessels, Ursula; Steinmayr, Ricarda
This study seeks to understand boys' lower academic success by analysing the relationship between sex, gender role self-concept, help seeking attitudes, and school performance in a sample of 182 German 11th grade students (83 girls, 99 boys), age 16. Grades at two points in time, intelligence test data, help-seeking attitudes, gender role…
Schnyder, Nina; Panczak, Radoslaw; Groth, Nicola; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke
BackgroundMental disorders create high individual and societal costs and burden, partly because help-seeking is often delayed or completely avoided. Stigma related to mental disorders or mental health services is regarded as a main reason for insufficient help-seeking.AimsTo estimate the impact of four stigma types (help-seeking attitudes and personal, self and perceived public stigma) on active help-seeking in the general population.MethodA systematic review of three electronic databases was followed by random effect meta-analyses according to the stigma types.ResultsTwenty-seven studies fulfilled eligibility criteria. Participants' own negative attitudes towards mental health help-seeking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.88) and their stigmatising attitudes towards people with a mental illness (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) were associated with less active help-seeking. Self-stigma showed insignificant association (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.76-1.03), whereas perceived public stigma was not associated.ConclusionsPersonal attitudes towards mental illness or help-seeking are associated with active help-seeking for mental problems. Campaigns promoting help-seeking and fighting mental illness-related stigma should target these personal attitudes rather than broad public opinion. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Kauer, Sylvia D; Buhagiar, Kerrie; Blake, Victoria; Cotton, Sue; Sanci, Lena
To explore the feasibility of a dedicated online youth mental health help-seeking intervention and to evaluate using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) study design in order to identify any modifications needed before commencement of the full-scale RCT. A pilot RCT with 1:1 randomisation to either the intervention or comparison arm. An online study conducted Australia-wide. 18-25 year olds living in Australia were recruited via social media. Link is a dedicated online mental health help-seeking navigation tool that matches user's mental health issues, severity and service-type preferences (online, phone and face-to-face) with appropriate youth-friendly services. The comparison arm was usual help-seeking strategies with a link to Google.com. The primary outcome was the number of acceptability and feasibility criteria successfully met. Intervention and study design acceptability and feasibility were assessed by nine criteria. Secondary outcomes, via online surveys (at baseline, 1 week and 1 month) measured service use, help-seeking intentions, psychological distress, barriers to help-seeking, attitudes towards mental health help-seeking, mental health literacy, satisfaction and trust. Fifty-one participants were randomised (intervention: n=24; comparison: n=27). Three out of four of the intervention and two out of five of the study design criteria were met. Unmet criteria could be addressed by modifications to the study design. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that Link was useful to participants and may have increased their positive experiences towards help-seeking. There were no observable differences between arms in any outcome measures and no harms were detected. Generally, the Link intervention and study design were acceptable and feasible with modifications suggested for the four out of nine unmet criteria. The main trial will hence have shorter surveys and a simpler recruitment process, use positive affect as the primary outcome and will not link to
Stige, Signe Hjelen; Træen, Bente; Rosenvinge, Jan H
In this article we explore the process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma among women who were currently in treatment. We interviewed 13 participants from six treatment groups for clients exposed to human-inflicted traumas. Transcripts were analyzed using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. Help seeking was initiated after a prolonged period of time (13 to 58 years after first trauma exposure), during which participants relied heavily on a strategy of managing on their own. Self-management contributed to delays in help seeking, but was also an important resource. High levels of distress were reported prior to help seeking, often without help seeking being considered as an option. The participants sought help when encountering situational demands exceeding available resources, resulting in experiences of exhaustion and loss of control. We present a model of the help-seeking process, underlining the importance of respecting and exploring the individual process of seeking help when offering trauma-specific treatment.
Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana
Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.
Magaard, Julia Luise; Seeralan, Tharanya; Schulz, Holger; Brütt, Anna Levke
Psychological models can help to understand why many people suffering from major depression do not seek help. Using the ‘Behavioral Model of Health Services Use’, this study systematically reviewed the literature on the characteristics associated with help-seeking behaviour in adults with major depression. Articles were identified by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases and relevant reference lists. Observational studies investigating the associations between individual or contextual characteristics and professional help-seeking behaviour for emotional problems in adults formally diagnosed with major depression were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed, and factors associated with help-seeking behaviour were qualitatively synthesized. In total, 40 studies based on 26 datasets were included. Several studies investigated predisposing (age (N = 17), gender (N = 16), ethnicity (N = 9), education (N = 11), marital status (N = 12)), enabling (income (N = 12)), need (severity (N = 14), duration (N = 9), number of depressive episodes (N = 6), psychiatric comorbidity (N = 10)) and contextual factors (area (N = 8)). Socio-demographic and need factors appeared to influence help-seeking behaviour. Although existing studies provide insight into the characteristics associated with help seeking for major depression, cohort studies and research on beliefs about, barriers to and perceived need for treatment are lacking. Based on this review, interventions to increase help-seeking behaviour can be designed. PMID:28493904
Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.
Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael
Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…
Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.
Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…
Zhao, Fei; Manchaiah, Vinaya; St Claire, Lindsay; Danermark, Berth; Jones, Lesley; Brandreth, Marian; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Goodwin, Robin
The purpose of this paper was to highlight the importance of cultural influence in understanding hearing-help seeking and hearing-aid uptake. Information on audiological services in different countries and 'theories related to cross-culture' is presented, followed by a general discussion. Twenty-seven relevant literature reviews on hearing impairment, cross-cultural studies, and the health psychology model and others as secondary resources. Despite the adverse consequences of hearing impairment and the significant potential benefits of audiological rehabilitation, only a small number of those with hearing impairment seek professional help and take up appropriate rehabilitation. Therefore, hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake has recently become the hot topic for clinicians and researchers. Previous research has identified many contributing factors for hearing help-seeking with self-reported hearing disability being one of the main factors. Although significant differences in help-seeking and hearing-aid adoption rates have been reported across countries in population studies, limited literature on the influence of cross-cultural factors in this area calls for an immediate need for research. This paper highlights the importance of psychological models and cross-cultural research in the area of hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake, and consequently some directions for future research are proposed.
Liu, Zhenmi; Speed, Shaun; Beaver, Kinta
Encouraging the uptake of physical activity among a culturally diverse elderly population presents a challenge for health-care providers across the world. Little is known about the health-care needs of these populations, for example the increasingly ageing group of Chinese elders in many parts of the world who are now facing later life and increasing challenges to their health. This study aimed to explore behaviours and attitudes towards exercise among older Chinese immigrants in the UK to provide insights into the health of Chinese populations in the UK and elsewhere. A Grounded Theory approach using purposive and theoretical sampling with in-depth semi-structured interviews. Chinese elders were recruited from Chinese communities in the North West of England. Thirty-three participants were interviewed face-to-face and audio-recorded. Participants self-managed exercise based on cultural perceptions of health and ingrained Chinese values. Professional support and information was lacking and relied on folk norms rather than person-centred recommendations for healthy living. Inappropriate exercise regimes could act as a substitute for seeking health-related advice when exercise was often used as a self-monitored barometer to assess their perceived health status. Chinese elders may undertake inappropriate exercise, leading to high-risk situations, if appropriate professional information is not provided. Health-care practitioners should devote attention to understanding Chinese elders' attitudes towards exercise, as this may ultimately lead to successful health promotion activities. A person-centred approach that acknowledges and works with self-management practices is advocated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers.
Bianchi, Renzo; Verkuilen, Jay; Brisson, Romain; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric
We investigated whether burnout and depression differed in terms of public stigma and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors. Secondarily, we examined the overlap of burnout and depressive symptoms. A total of 1046 French schoolteachers responded to an Internet survey in November-December 2015. The survey included measures of public stigma, help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, burnout and depressive symptoms, self-rated health, neuroticism, extraversion, history of anxiety or depressive disorder, social desirability, and socio-demographic variables. The burnout label appeared to be less stigmatizing than the depression label. In either case, however, fewer than 1% of the participants exhibited stigma scores signaling agreement with the proposed stigmatizing statements. Help-seeking attitudes and behaviors did not differ between burnout and depression. Participants considered burnout and depression similarly worth-treating. A huge overlap was observed between the self-report, time-standardized measures of burnout and depressive symptoms (disattenuated correlation: .91). The overlap was further evidenced in a confirmatory factor analysis. Thus, while burnout and depression as syndromes are unlikely to be distinct, how burnout and depression are socially represented may differ. To our knowledge, this study is the first to compare burnout- and depression-related stigma and help-seeking in the French context. Cross-national, multi-occupational studies examining different facets of stigma are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Jason I; Romero, Gabriela D; Karver, Marc S
Despite mental health issues being widespread on college campuses, the majority of college students do not seek help. Prior research suggests several individual factors that may be related to mental health help-seeking including age, gender, and prior treatment experience. However, there has been little work considering the broader role of the college environment on person-level predictors of mental health help-seeking, specifically the relationship with perceived campus culture. Thus, informed by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived campus cultural perspectives on different personal processes, such as attitudes toward treatment, stigma, and treatment barriers that are believed to relate to mental health help-seeking intentions. Participants were 212 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. As hypothesized, we found a significant mediation relationship for personal attitudes in the relationship between perceived campus attitudes and help-seeking intentions. In contrast, analyses did not support mediation relationships for personal barriers or personal stigma. These findings suggest that perceived campus culture may serve an important role in personal mental health treatment beliefs. Campus mental health policies and prevention programming may consider targeting perceived campus culture as an important means for increasing personal positive beliefs toward mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Maekawa, Yumiko; Ramos-Cejudo, Juan; Kanai, Atsuko
Although using mental health services is an effective way to cope with work-related stressors and diseases, many employees do not utilize these services despite service improvements in recent years. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction effects of workplace climate and distress on help-seeking attitudes, and elucidate the reasons for mental health service underutilization in Japan. A questionnaire was distributed to 650 full-time male Japanese employees. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to investigate interaction effects of workplace climate and distress on help-seeking. Results showed that the association between workplace climate and help-seeking attitudes differed depending on employee distress level. For employees experiencing low levels of distress, openness to seeking treatment increased with a higher evaluation of the mental health services available at the workplace. However, the same did not hold true for employees experiencing high levels of distress. Instead, openness to seeking treatment decreased with perceived risk for career disadvantage for high distress employees. Additionally, negative values for seeking treatment in highly distressed employees decreased only when services were perceived as valuable, and the risk to their career was perceived as low. Overall, these findings indicate that distress distorts the perception of social support, which may lead to underutilization of available services. Assessing employees' distress levels and tailoring adequate interventions could facilitate help-seeking in male employees.
Wong, Li Ping; Awang, Halimah; Jani, Rohana
In the present study, researchers explored attitudes toward midlife crises, experience with midlife crises, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic Malaysian women. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 89 Malaysian women of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Women expressed concern over physical aging and decline in their physical functional health. Having a midlife crisis was frequently reported. Issues that were frequently reported to trigger a midlife crisis, such as empty nest syndrome, impact of aging on sexual and reproductive function, extended parenthood, caring for aging or ill parents, and career challenges were noted by the study participants (listed here in order of most to least frequently reporting of these themes across the group discussions). Overall, these issues were associated with attitudes about aging. A comparatively less open attitude toward sexual attitudes and help-seeking for sexual problems were found among the Malay and Indian women. This may imply that intervention to increase positive attitudes concerning both sexuality and help-seeking intentions should be culturally specific. The use of religious coping for comfort and consolation was frequently reported; therefore, those providing midlife crisis prevention and intervention programs should consider involving faith-based interventions in the Malaysian setting.
Full Text Available The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. “Being healthy” (the core category with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders’ concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non–help seeking and “self” rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.
Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun
The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. "Being healthy" (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders' concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non-help seeking and "self" rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.
Full Text Available Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one’s identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma towards seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university.Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493.Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service.Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus.
Liu, Fenge; Zhou, Nan; Cao, Hongjian; Fang, Xiaoyi; Deng, Linyuan; Chen, Wenrui; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Huichun
Based on cohort data obtained from 13,085 college freshmen’s (2005 to 2011) SCL-90 (the Symptom Check-List-90) reports and their subsequent 4-year psychological counseling help-seeking records, this study examined the association between college students’ mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors across four college years. Female students’ mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors increased from the 2005 to the 2011 cohorts and no changes emerged for male students across cohor...
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Yaser, Anisa; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Mannan, Haider; Smith, Caroline A.; Mond, Jonathan M
Background Psychological trauma, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are highly prevalent among resettled refugees. However, little is known regarding the mental health status and associated help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia. Methods A sample of 150 resettled Afghan refugees (74 males; mean age 32.8?years, SD?=?12.2) living in Adelaide, South Australia were recruited. Self-reported measures of PTSD, depression, exposure to traumat...
Taraneh eMojaverian; Takeshi eHashimoto; Kim, Heejung S.
Previous research has found cultural differences in the frequency of support seeking. Asians and Asian Americans report seeking support from their close others to deal with their stress less often compared to European Americans. Similarly, other research on professional help seeking has shown that Asians and Asian Americans are less likely than European Americans to seek professional psychological help. Previous studies link this difference to multitude of factors, such as cultural stigma and...
Selkirk, Mhairi; Quayle, Ethel; Rothwell, Neil
Research indicates that service utilization rates in migrant groups are low, although levels of distress appear high when compared with host populations. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative literature on factors associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help among working age migrants. Data were extracted from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science Direct and SAGE databases. Eight quantitative studies and 16 qualitative studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (67%). Although results of quantitative studies were heterogeneous, stronger identification with host than heritage culture, fluency in host country language, psychological attributions of distress, higher educational levels, higher socioeconomic status, female gender, and older age were associated with more favourable attitudes toward help-seeking in some migrant groups. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative literature: logistical barriers, cultural mismatch between service providers and participants, and preferences for other sources of assistance.
Feldman, Lisa; Wilcock, Jane; Thuné-Boyle, Ingela; Iliffe, Steve
This study investigated the effects of carer attributions on help-seeking behaviour for people with dementia using interviews with 84 carers recruited through general practice. Memory loss was the most commonly reported first symptom but psychological and behavioural symptoms were also common at onset. In over a third of individuals help-seeking was delayed for a mean of 25 months (range 6-69, SD 19.3). Help-seeking between those who attributed symptoms to dementia, or to unknown causes, and those who attributed symptoms to personality, ageing, life events or other illnesses was statistically significant ( p characteristics were found. There is a need to raise public awareness about the range of symptoms suggestive of dementia. Assumptions that age and other conditions may be the likely cause of an individual's cognitive decline needs to be challenged by practitioners. Attribution of symptoms to characteristics other than dementia delays help-seeking.
Shechtman, Zipora; Vogel, David L.; Strass, Haley A.; Heath, Patrick J.
Stigma associated with seeking help has been found to be a key help-seeking barrier, however its role is less clear for: (a) adolescents, (b) groups outside the United States and (c) different types of therapy. This study addresses these omissions by examining the relationships between perceptions of public stigma of mental illness and the…
Nelson-Le Gall, Sharon
Peer relations, academic competence, and help-seeking behaviors of Black elementary school children were examined. Results indicated that, in comparison to boys, girls were preferred more as helpers, were perceived to be more academically competent, and sought help from peers more often. The distribution of boys and girls across different peer…
The presentation of alcohol, cannabis, opioid, benzodiazepine, ecstasy, cocaine and inhalant dependency at general practitioners, private psychiatrists, treatment centres and non-prescribing therapists was compared. Different patterns of help seeking for substance dependence from the various professional groups were ...
Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others
Examined the help-seeking behaviors of college students needing assistance with personal problems. Using attribution theory and the learned helplessness paradigm, found that race and sex differences but not causal attribution (seeing problems as caused by internal or external factors) were related to seeking out assistance. Discusses the recurrent…
Togo, Fumiharu; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Purpose Being bullied is associated with the manifestation of suicidal feelings, which sharply increase in middle(-late) adolescence. Whether or not bullied middle(-late) adolescents with suicidal feelings seek help is therefore a critical issue, given that help-seeking plays a key role in the prevention of suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of bullying, suicidal feelings and the interaction between these two factors on help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Methods Japanese middle(-late) adolescents (aged 15–18 years; n = 9484) were studied using self-report questionnaires. The rate of adolescents who actually sought help was examined for bullying status and suicidal feelings. Results The rate of adolescents who sought help was significantly higher when they were bullied (psuicidal feelings (psuicidal feelings. In the case of adolescents who were bullied, however, having suicidal feelings significantly decreased the rate of help-seeking (OR = 0.47, psuicidal feelings, respectively). The decrease was remarkable when suicidal feelings were serious. Specifically, the decrease was significant in seeking help from peers and family members, who are the most frequent source of the help for adolescents, when they had serious suicidal feelings (OR = 0.21, pSuicidal feelings may interfere with help-seeking behavior, which could be critical in suicide prevention in bullied middle(-late) adolescents. PMID:25188324
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Yaser, Anisa; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Mannan, Haider; Smith, Caroline A; Mond, Jonathan M
Psychological trauma, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are highly prevalent among resettled refugees. However, little is known regarding the mental health status and associated help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia. A sample of 150 resettled Afghan refugees (74 males; mean age 32.8 years, SD = 12.2) living in Adelaide, South Australia were recruited. Self-reported measures of PTSD, depression, exposure to traumatic events, functional impairment, self-recognition of PTSD symptomatology and help-seeking behaviours were completed. Multivariate analysis of variables associated with help-seeking was conducted. Forty-four percent of participants met criteria for clinically significant PTSD symptoms and all but one participant reported being exposed to 1 or more traumatic and/or conflict related events, such as 'losing your property and wealth'. Moreover, 14.7% of participants had symptoms suggestive of clinically significant depression. General practitioners were the most common source of help in relation to mental health problems, with very few participants (4.6%) seeking help from specialist trauma and torture mental health services. Self-recognition of having a PTSD related mental health problem and functional impairment levels were both found to be independent predictors of help-seeking ( p ≤ .05). The findings provide further evidence for high rates of PTSD symptomatology and low uptake of mental care among resettled refugees. Poor self-recognition of the presence and/or adverse impact of PTSD symptoms may need to be targeted in mental health promotion programs designed to improve "mental health literacy" and thereby promote early and appropriate help-seeking where this is needed.
Chan, Wen I; Batterham, Philip; Christensen, Helen; Galletly, Cherrie
The purpose of this study was to measure levels of suicide literacy and stigma amongst Australian medical students in comparison to a general university population, and to assess medical students' help-seeking intentions. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 165 currently-enrolled Australian National University (ANU) postgraduate medical students and 54 final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Adelaide. These samples were compared to another sample of 676 general members of the ANU, undertaken six months earlier. Final year postgraduate and undergraduate students had significantly higher levels of mental health literacy (measured using the Literacy of Suicide Scale) than other medical students or general university staff and students. Suicide stigma (measured using the Stigma of Suicide Scale) was comparable across the samples. Less exposure to suicide was associated with greater stigma and increased intentions of informal help seeking. Students who normalised suicide had significantly lower intentions of seeking help for thoughts of suicide. The findings indicate that exposure to suicidal people through clinical experience may improve knowledge about suicide but may lead to more negative attitudes toward informal help-seeking. The suicide prevention curriculum should aim to raise mental health literacy levels, reduce stigmatising attitudes and limit the normalisation of suicide.
Mak, Hio Wa; Davis, J Mark
This study tested the efficacy of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining intention to seek mental health services and compared the traditional TPB model with a TPB partial mediation model. It also aimed to understand factors related to intention to seek mental health services in Macao to inform local policies. The present study consisted of two phases: (a) a pilot study to develop belief-based measures used in the main study, and (b) a cross-sectional study to investigate the application of TPB in understanding help-seeking intention. In the main study, 337 Macao residents (age range 18-65) participated in a survey conducted in the community. The TPB partial mediation model was better than the traditional TPB model in explaining help-seeking intention in Macao. The model also suggested that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were all significant predictors of help-seeking intention. However, symptom severity, prior help-seeking, and gender did not significantly directly predict help-seeking intention. Preference for the TPB partial mediation model may be culturally relevant. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the salient beliefs about help-seeking. Limitations and recommendations for future research are provided.
Arria, Amelia M; Winick, Emily R; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Wilcox, Holly C; O'Grady, Kevin E
This study examined help seeking among 158 college students with a lifetime history of suicide ideation. Students were interviewed about episodes of psychological distress, formal treatment, and informal help seeking during adolescence and college. Of the 151 students reporting any lifetime episodes of distress, 62% experienced the first episode in adolescence, and 54% had episodes in both adolescence and young adulthood. Overall, 87% received informal help, 73% received formal treatment, and 61% received both. Among the 149 who ever sought help or treatment, the most commonly reported sources of help were family (65%), friends (54%), psychiatrists (38%), and psychologists (33%). Of the 94 individuals who experienced suicide ideation in college, 44% did not seek treatment during young adulthood. Treatment barriers reflected ambivalence about treatment need or effectiveness, stigma, and financial concerns. Most students had some contact with treatment, but family and friends might be important gatekeepers for facilitating treatment access.
Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Vicencio, Claudia P
Persons with potentially harmful sexual interests such as attraction to minors are unlikely to seek or receive treatment before a sexual offense has been committed. The current study explored barriers to help-seeking in a sample of 372 individuals in treatment for sexual offending. Results revealed that the shame and secrecy resulting from stigma associated with pedophilic interests often prevented our respondents from seeking professional counseling, and only about 20% tried to talk to anyone about their sexual interests prior to their arrest. Barriers to seeking and receiving psychological services included concerns about confidentiality, fears of social and legal consequences, personal shame or confusion about the problem, affordability, and challenges finding competent therapists who were adequately equipped to help them. Understanding and ultimately reducing obstacles to help-seeking can improve the quality of life for people with harmful sexual interests and potentially prevent sexual abuse of children or other vulnerable individuals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.
Nesset, Merete Berg; Rustad, Ase-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Almvik, Roger; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon
Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.
Wong, Y Joel; Tran, Kimberly K; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Van Horn Kerne, Valerie; Calfa, Nicolina Ann
Guided by a culturally informed illness representation self-regulation model (CIRSRM), this study analyzed the relations among 223 Asian Americans' lay beliefs about depression, enculturation to Asian values, and their likelihood of seeking professional help for depression. Participants' lay beliefs were assessed through an analysis of written responses to open-ended questions about depression. Enculturation as well as beliefs in biological causes, situational causes, and a short duration of depression were significantly related to the likelihood of professional help seeking. In addition, enculturation moderated the association between several lay beliefs and the endorsement of professional help seeking. The findings are discussed in light of how clinicians can incorporate mental illness lay beliefs in their work with Asian Americans. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fleming, C J Eubanks; Resick, Patricia A
This study examined individual behavioral predictors of help-seeking using the frameworks of the Andersen model and the theory of planned behavior in a sample of help-seeking female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews were conducted with 372 women (Mage = 34.41 years, 66% African American). Results indicated that variables suggested by the Andersen model, including age, depression, psychological aggression, and posttraumatic stress-related arousal symptoms, were significant predictors of help-seeking. Variables suggested by the theory of planned behavior, including perceived helpfulness of resource and perceived controllability of the violence, were also significantly related to help-seeking. However, a combined model including variables from both theoretical approaches accounted for the most variance in help-seeking behavior. Overall, results suggest that these models are useful conceptualizations of help-seeking in an IPV population and that it is important to consider personal characteristics, need-based variables, and cognitive factors in outreach efforts.
Wen, Cheng; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Ding, Li-Jun; Feng, Lei; Wong, John Chee-Meng; Kua, Ee-Heok
The aim of this study is to examine the association between suicidal behavior and mental health status of south Chinese people, and explore the mediating effect of help-seeking behaviors. The study participants were 10,757 persons aged 18 years and older from the mental health survey of Xiamen city. Data on suicidal behavior and help-seeking behavior were collected by trained psychiatric nurses through face-to-face interviews. Mental health status was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multiple logistic regression and general linear model were used in statistical analysis. In the entire study sample, 236 study participants reported suicide ideation (2.19%, 95% CI: 1.92-2.47%), and 59 reported at least one suicide attempt (0.55%, 95% CI: 0.41-0.69%). Individuals with suicide attempt and suicide ideation had higher GHQ scores than those without suicidal behavior. The majority of study participants with suicide ideation or suicide attempt did not seek any help (77.5% and 79.7%, respectively). Among participants with suicidal behavior, seeking help from mental health professional was associated with a better mental health status (OR = 4.04, 95%CI: 1.17-10.16). Only a small proportion of individuals with suicide behavior in south China had ever sought help. Seeking help was associated with a better mental health status. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Batten, Lesley; Dutton, Jane
Help-seeking is an active process used by people of all ages to obtain assistance to solve problems. This research sought to investigate a component of help-seeking related to health concerns. A health related help-seeking model, was adapted to frame questions for an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Seventy-five students aged between 16 and 24 years responded and data were analysed using content and descriptive statistical techniques. Findings indicated that young people perceived the need to seek advice when unwell, needing support or information, are resourceful, and were motivated to seek help from a variety of sources. Parents and whānau formed one usual source of advice, but young people reported one of the best sources of advice as General Practice nurses and doctors. Barriers to seeking advice included distrusting sources, and concerns about confidentiality. Unsurprisingly, many respondents used the Internet for health information, although some mistrusted that information. Nurses need to be aware of the sources of health advice and support that young people choose to use. Motivations for selecting services, providers, or sources clearly replicated what young people hold as important--sources with which they feel comfortable, have a relationship, trust, and which they perceived as maintaining confidentiality.
Tenjović Lazar R.
Full Text Available Two components of the attitude towards mathematics were examined on the groups of psychology and ethnology freshmen using the Attitude to Mathematics Questionnaire by L. Aiken: Enjoyments in mathematics and Value of Mathematics. The means of the psychology students on the two components of the attitude towards mathematics were almost in the middle between those of the civil engineering students on the one side, and those of the ethnology students on the other side. However, considering the markedly asymmetric result distributions on specific components of the attitude towards mathematics, with a view of more real positioning of the psychology students compared with the remaining two groups according to their relation to mathematics, all the subjects were clustered pursuant to their answers to the respective Questionnaire items. The cluster analysis results lead to the conclusion that in their attitude towards mathematics most of the psychology freshmen are closer to the students of those faculties who use mathematics as basic ''tools'' than to the students freshly enrolled in other fields traditionally not employing mathematical ''tools'' in their work. Likewise, a positive attitude towards mathematics prevails in the psychology freshmen.
Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Gulliver, Amelia; Bauer, Stephanie; Griffiths, Kathleen M
To systematically review the literature on perceived barriers and facilitators of help-seeking for eating disorders. Three databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane) were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (N = 3493) were double screened and relevant papers (n = 13) were double coded. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included if they reported perceived barriers and facilitators towards seeking help for eating disorders. Barriers and facilitators were extracted from the included papers and coded under themes. The most prominent barriers and facilitators were determined by the number of studies reporting each theme. Eight qualitative, three quantitative, and two mixed-methods studies met the inclusion criteria for the current review. The most prominent perceived barriers to help-seeking were stigma and shame, denial of and failure to perceive the severity of the illness, practical barriers (e.g., cost of treatment), low motivation to change, negative attitudes towards seeking help, lack of encouragement from others to seek help and lack of knowledge about help resources. Facilitators of help-seeking were reported in six studies, with the most prominent themes identified as the presence of other mental health problems or emotional distress, and concerns about health. Programs targeting prevention and early intervention for eating disorders should focus on reducing stigma and shame, educating individuals about the severity of eating disorders, and increasing knowledge around help-seeking pathways for eating disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:9-21). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Liu, Fenge; Zhou, Nan; Cao, Hongjian; Fang, Xiaoyi; Deng, Linyuan; Chen, Wenrui; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Huichun
Based on cohort data obtained from 13,085 college freshmen's (2005 to 2011) SCL-90 (the Symptom Check-List-90) reports and their subsequent 4-year psychological counseling help-seeking records, this study examined the association between college students' mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors across four college years. Female students' mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors increased from the 2005 to the 2011 cohorts and no changes emerged for male students across cohorts. Overall, male students reported higher levels of mental health problems than did female students in the first college year, whereas female students reported more help-seeking behaviors than did male students in the following four college years. College students' mental health problems was associated positively with help-seeking behaviors. College students were more likely to seek help from the college psychological counselling center when they experienced relatively few or quite a lot of mental health issues (i.e., an inversed U shape). Implications for future studies and practices are discussed.
Youth suicide is an issue of international concern and the college population may have a considerably higher rate of suicidal behaviour than the general population, yet seeking help for suicidality is uncommon. This research sought to understand college students' knowledge of suicidal behaviour and attitudes to help-seeking, in a New Zealand…
Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Kennedy, Kerry John; Moore, Phillip John; Shan, Peter Wen-jing; Leung, Shing On
This article aims to investigate reasons underpinning academic help-seeking behaviours of Chinese students in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Data were collected from 23,563 secondary students. The study found significant differences both in attitudes and reported behaviour among secondary school students from the three locations, however, the effect…
Ulaş, Halis; Binbay, Tolga; Kırlı, Umut; Elbi, Hayriye; Alptekin, Köksal
There is no report on various patterns of alcohol drinking and related impairment, help-seeking in Turkey. We investigated the 12-month prevalence and correlates of drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in the general population of Izmir-Turkey, with further analyses on role impairment and help-seeking. A multi-stage clustered area probability sample of adult household residents in the Izmir Metropolitan Area was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (n = 4011). Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of 12-month drinking pattern and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders. The 12-month drinking pattern included groups of non-regular users, regular non-heavy drinkers, regular heavy drinkers, and alcohol abuse disorder and alcohol dependence. All respondents were questioned about receiving 12-month treatment for any psychological complaints, the route of help-seeking, and were assessed with Short Form-36 for functional impairments. Multinomial logistic regression was used for underlying associations between the covariates and the drinking patterns. The rate of lifetime alcohol abstinence was 52.3% while the prevalence of past-year users was 14.8%. The 12-month prevalence estimates of regular heavy drinkers, and alcohol abuse disorder and dependence were 2.5%, 3.2 and 1.6%, respectively. Any of the drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders was associated with male gender, and higher levels of education, monthly income and socioeconomic status. Alcohol dependence was associated with mental health impairment but not with physical impairment. The 12-month rates of help-seeking in alcohol abuse and dependence were 11.6 and 16.5%. Although alcohol use disorders are lower than estimates of Western countries, alcohol use constitute a major reason of disability with prominent treatment gap.
Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Batterham, Philip J; Morse, Alyssa R; Forbes, Owen; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Fisk, Martin
Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and suicide among male secondary school students. This study is a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled trial that will compare the Silence is Deadly program to a wait-list control condition. Eight Australian high schools will be recruited to the trial, with male students in grades 11 and 12 (16 to 18 years of age) targeted for participation. The program is an innovative male-tailored suicide prevention intervention, comprising a presentation that emphasises role-modelling and legitimises help-seeking for personal and emotional problems, and a brief video that features celebrity athletes who counter existing male norms around help-seeking and encourage communication about personal and emotional issues. The program also includes a discussion of how to help a friend in distress and ends with a question and answer session. The primary outcome measure for the current study is help-seeking intentions. Secondary outcomes include help-seeking behaviour, help-seeking attitudes, help-seeking stigma, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Data will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Primary analyses will compare changes in help-seeking intentions for the intervention condition relative to the wait-list control condition using mixed-effects repeated-measures analyses that account for clustering within schools. If proven to be effective, this targeted help-seeking intervention for adolescent males, which is currently only delivered in
Alison L. Calear
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and suicide among male secondary school students. Methods This study is a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled trial that will compare the Silence is Deadly program to a wait-list control condition. Eight Australian high schools will be recruited to the trial, with male students in grades 11 and 12 (16 to 18 years of age targeted for participation. The program is an innovative male-tailored suicide prevention intervention, comprising a presentation that emphasises role-modelling and legitimises help-seeking for personal and emotional problems, and a brief video that features celebrity athletes who counter existing male norms around help-seeking and encourage communication about personal and emotional issues. The program also includes a discussion of how to help a friend in distress and ends with a question and answer session. The primary outcome measure for the current study is help-seeking intentions. Secondary outcomes include help-seeking behaviour, help-seeking attitudes, help-seeking stigma, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Data will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Primary analyses will compare changes in help-seeking intentions for the intervention condition relative to the wait-list control condition using mixed-effects repeated-measures analyses that account for clustering within schools. Discussion If proven to be effective, this targeted help-seeking intervention for
Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham
Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking.
Fonseca, Ana; Gorayeb, Ricardo; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
This study aims to characterize the help-seeking behaviours of women who were screened positive for perinatal depression, to investigate its sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and to characterize the perceived barriers that prevent women from seeking professional help. Cross-sectional internet survey. Participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and forums that focused on pregnancy and childbirth. 656 women (currently pregnant or who had a baby during the last 12 months) completed the survey. Participants were assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and were questioned about sociodemographic and clinical data, help-seeking behaviours and perceived barriers to help-seeking. Different pathways of help-seeking were found, with only 13.6% of women with a perinatal depression seeking help for their emotional problems. Married women, currently pregnant women, and women without history of psychological problems had a higher likelihood of not engaging in any type of help-seeking behaviour. The majority of women who had not sought professional assistance identified several barriers to help-seeking, particularly knowledge barriers. Strategies to increase women׳s help-seeking behaviours should be implemented, namely improving mental health literacy, introducing screening procedures for mental health problems in pre/postnatal health care settings, and offering women innovative opportunities (e.g., web-based tools) that allow them to overcome the practical barriers to help-seeking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neilson, Erika K; Mar, Marissa Y; Torchalla, Iris; Werker, Gregory R; Laing, Allison; Krausz, Michael
Approximately 28 percent of Canadians begin to experience a mental health issue during their youth. In this article, we explore patients' perceptions of their mental healthcare experiences within a sample of youth who reported anxiety or depressive symptoms and past suicidal ideations. The study data is taken from in-depth interviews with 23 youth in British Columbia. Interview topics included support systems, help-seeking behavior and healthcare experiences. Our findings indicate that participant experiences were most positive when experiences were neither dismissive nor stigmatizing. Important factors for participants were respect, acknowledgement, information and choice. Our results generated the concept that treatment perceptions for youth with suicidal behaviours can be placed on a theoretical spectrum, which may be a useful tool for self reflection for those who support individuals with mental health conditions professionally or personally.
Erika K. Neilson
Full Text Available Approximately 28 percent of Canadians begin to experience a mental health issue during their youth. In this article, we explore patients' perceptions of their mental healthcare experiences within a sample of youth who reported anxiety or depressive symptoms and past suicidal ideations. The study data is taken from in-depth interviews with 23 youth in British Columbia. Interview topics included support systems, help-seeking behavior and healthcare experiences. Our findings indicate that participant experiences were most positive when experiences were neither dismissive nor stigmatizing. Important factors for participants were respect, acknowledgement, information and choice. Our results generated the concept that treatment perceptions for youth with suicidal behaviours can be placed on a theoretical spectrum, which may be a useful tool for self reflection for those who support individuals with mental health conditions professionally or personally.
Gold, Jessica A; Johnson, Benjamin; Leydon, Gary; Rohrbaugh, Robert M; Wilkins, Kirsten M
The authors characterize medical student help-seeking behaviors and examine the relationship with stress, burnout, stigma, depression, and personal health behaviors. In 2013, the authors administered an electronic survey of all enrolled students at Yale School of Medicine (183 responders, response rate=35 %), inquiring about students' primary medical and mental health care, personal health behaviors, support systems, and help-seeking behaviors. Students completed the Attitudes to Mental Health Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, and a modified Maslach Burnout Inventory. The authors analyzed the results with logistic regression, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, or a test for significance of Kendall rank correlation. Most students reported having a primary care provider (PCP), yet few reported seeking care when sick (33 %). Nineteen percent of students reported having a mental health provider, fewer than reported having a PCP (pstudents reported increased mental health needs since beginning medical school, and these students were more likely to agree that their needs were untreated. The majority of students endorsed stress, which correlated with increased and unmet mental health needs (pBurnout peaked in second- and third-year students and correlated with stress and increased and untreated needs. Most students reported comfort with asking for academic help; those uncomfortable were more likely to have mental health needs for which they did not seek treatment (p=0.004). Mental health stigma was low. Medical students had a significant unmet need for health care, influenced by barriers to accessing care, stress, burnout, and depression. Academic help seeking and supportive faculty relationships appear related to mental health treatment seeking. Targeted interventions for stress and burnout reduction, as well as incorporation of reflective practice, may have an impact on overall care seeking among medical students. Future studies should
Jones, Norman; Keeling, Mary; Thandi, Gursimran; Greenberg, Neil
The relationship between mental health symptoms, stigmatising beliefs about mental health and help seeking is complex and poorly understood. 1636 UK Armed Forces personnel provided study data immediately after deployment (T1) and approximately 6 months later (T2). Stigmatising beliefs were assessed using an eight-item scale previously used in studies of UK military personnel. Symptoms of probable common mental disorder, probable post-traumatic stress disorder and subjective stressful, emotional, relationship and family problems were evaluated at T1 and T2. Help seeking during deployment was assessed at T1 and post-deployment help seeking at T2. Alcohol use and subjective alcohol problems were assessed at T2 only. Reporting a probable mental health disorder or potentially harmful alcohol use following deployment was both significantly associated with higher levels of stigmatising beliefs. The reported degree of stigma was associated with changes in mental health symptom levels; compared to those who were never classified as a probable mental health disorder case, recovered cases experienced significantly lower levels of stigmatisation, whereas new onset cases reported significantly higher levels. The way that individuals report mental health stigmatisation is not static; rather stigma fluctuates in proportion to the frequency and severity of psychological symptoms. These results suggest that public health stigma-reduction strategies which aim to promote engagement with mental health services should be focused towards people who are experiencing worsening mental health. Our results suggest that willing volunteers who have recovered from a mental-ill-health episode may be well placed to assist in the delivery of such a strategy.
Lynch, Louise; Long, Maggie; Moorhead, Anne
International research has identified young men as reluctant to seek help for mental health problems. This research explored barriers and solutions to professional help seeking for mental health problems among young men living in the North West of Ireland. A qualitative approach, using two focus groups with six participants each and five face-to-face interviews, was conducted with men aged 18 to 24 years (total N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven key themes of barriers to professional help seeking were identified: "acceptance from peers," "personal challenges," "cultural and environmental influences," "self-medicating with alcohol," "perspectives around seeking professional help," "fear of homophobic responses," and "traditional masculine ideals." Five key themes of solutions to these barriers included "tailored mental health advertising," "integrating mental health into formal education," "education through semiformal support services," "accessible mental health care," and "making new meaning." Interesting findings on barriers include fear of psychiatric medication, fear of homophobic responses from professionals, the legacy of Catholic attitudes, and the genuine need for care. This study offers an in-depth exploration of how young men experience barriers and uniquely offers solutions identified by participants themselves. Youth work settings were identified as a resource for engaging young men in mental health work. Young men can be encouraged to seek help if services and professionals actively address barriers, combining advertising, services, and education, with particular attention and respect to how and when young men seek help and with whom they want to share their problems.
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.
The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…
Amelung, Till; Kuhle, Laura F; Konrad, Anna; Pauls, Alfred; Beier, Klaus M
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is considered an effective strategy in sexual offender treatment. However, the evidence base concerning its effects on sexual arousal control is limited. Past research has focused almost exclusively on men in forensic contexts. The present retrospective observational study provided data on ADT in a sample of self-identifying, help-seeking pedohebephilic men applying for a one-year group therapy program. Factors possibly influencing the readiness to take up or discontinue ADT were presented. Effects of a combination of ADT and group psychotherapy program on changes in paraphilic sexual behavior and associated psychological factors were examined. The proportion of men having taken up ADT was rather small (n=15). Greater awareness of potentially risky situations to commit child sexual offenses and self-rated uncontrollability of sexual urges were identified as characterizing men resorting to ADT. Additionally, these men were initially more open to include medical treatment. Examination of the effects of ADT and psychotherapy was limited to a sample of six men providing complete data sets. Descriptive data demonstrated a reduction of paraphilic sexual behaviors, an increase of risk-awareness and self-efficacy, and a decrease of offense-supportive cognitions and self-esteem. The present study underlined the importance of careful education and monitoring of self-identifying, help-seeking pedohebephilic patients interested in ADT concerning the effects and side effects of the treatment in a clinical context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A large proportion of adolescents experience significant psychological distress, but a vast majority never obtain needed mental health services. The availability of school-based mental health services has increased immensely in recent years, but ongoing challenges impact students’ utilization of these services. Research on mental health help seeking pathways for adolescents suggests that mental health literacy (MHL), stigma towards seeking help, and context-specific barriers to care are key...
Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T; Msetfi, Rachel M; Surgenor, Paul W G
Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support...
Full Text Available Orientation: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology.Research purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics (SATS-36 for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students’ attitudes.Motivation for study: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS-36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa.Main findings: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics.Practical implications: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well.Contribution: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students.
Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Nabors, Laura A.; Merianos, Ashley L.
Stigma is recognized as a potential barrier to seeking help for a mental health disorder. The present study assessed college students' perceived benefits and barriers to obtaining mental health treatment and stigma-related attitudes via a four-page survey. A total of 682 students at one Midwestern university participated in the study. Findings indicated that females perceived a greater number of benefits to having participated in mental health services and held significantly lower stigma-related attitudes than did males. Students who had ever received mental health services reported significantly more barriers to treatment than did students who had never received services. Health professionals should target students with educational programs about positive outcomes related to receiving mental health services and work with treatment centers to reduce barriers for receiving services. PMID:25750831
Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A.; Nabors, Laura A.; Merianos, Ashley L.
Stigma is recognized as a potential barrier to seeking help for a mental health disorder. The present study assessed college students' perceived benefits and barriers to obtaining mental health treatment and stigma-related attitudes via a four-page survey. A total of 682 students at one Midwestern university participated in the study. Findings indicated that females perceived a greater number of benefits to having participated in mental health services and held significantly lower stigma-rela...
Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (χ2 1=28.3, Pgambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; χ2 1=14.3, Pgambling help by problem Internet
Melissa K. Hyde, PhD
Conclusion: The TPB has utility as a theoretical framework to understand prostate cancer survivors' sexual help-seeking decisions and may inform development of more effective interventions. Masculine beliefs were highly salient. Men who were more emotionally self-reliant and attributed greater importance to sex formed stronger help-seeking intentions. Subjective norm contributed most strongly to help-seeking intentions suggesting that health professionals/partners/peers have a key role as support mechanisms and components of psycho-sexual interventions.
Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Wong, Gloria H Y; Chang, W C; Chan, Sherry K W; Lee, Edwin H M; Chen, Eric Y H
Delay in receiving treatment in psychosis may lead to adverse consequences. We examined the predictors for help-seeking duration in adult-onset psychosis Chinese patients in Hong Kong. We hypothesized that factors which are more related to the illness manifestation would be predictive of waiting time before any help-seeking initiation, and factors which are more related to one's knowledge about mental health services would be predictive of help-seeking duration. First-episode patients with psychosis were recruited from the Jockey Club Early Psychosis project. They were asked to report retrospectively all help-seeking behaviors involved since their first occurrence of psychotic symptoms until receipt of effective psychiatric treatment. Baseline characteristics, pre-morbid functioning and traits, and mode of illness onset were assessed. Help-seeking pattern was analyzed in 360 patients who had subsequently reached the psychiatric services. They had an average of 2.5 help-seeking contacts. Nearly half of the first help-seeking process was initiated by family members. Only 1 % approached priests or traditional healers as the first step in help-seeking. Whereas a gradual mode of onset was significantly associated with longer waiting time to first help-seeking initiation, more premorbid schizoid and schizotypal traits and a migrant status were related to longer help-seeking duration. Current findings suggested that family members were the key decision makers in initiating help-seeking. Longer help-seeking duration in migrants has significant implications to both local and global mental health policy.
Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H
To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…
Zwaanswijk, M.; Ende, J. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.
OBJECTIVE: To devise and test a model describing the process of help-seeking for child psychopathology in professional and informal service settings. METHOD: Using structural equation modeling, associations between several help-seeking stages, and the influence of child, family, and context
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Ende, J. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.; Verhulst, F.C.
Objective: To devise and test a model describing the process of help-seeking for child psychopathology in professional and informal service settings. Method: Using structural equation modeling, associations between several help-seeking stages, and the influence of child, family, and context
Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.
This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…
Lim, HanNa; Heckman, Stuart J.; Letkiewicz, Jodi C.; Montalto, Catherine P.
Financial stress and self-efficacy are examined in relationship to college students' financial help-seeking behavior utilizing Grable and Joo's (1999) framework. A cognitive approach is taken by focusing on the moderating role of financial self-efficacy on the relationship between financial stress and financial help-seeking. Data from the 2010…
Goodwin, Renee D.; Mocarski, Michelle; Marusic, Andrej; Beautrais, Annette
The association between thoughts of self-harm and help-seeking among youth with symptoms of depression was examined. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior of School-aged Children Study ("n" = 15, 686), a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Analyses focused on comparing help-seeking behaviors among youth…
Full Text Available Background: There are few studies in Indian context on factors affecting generalized help-seeking behaviors in the relatives of persons with mental illness. Hence, the present study was undertaken. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, purposive sampling, comparative study. Sociodemographic profile, illness details, treatment, compliance, reactions to mental illness scale, and cope inventory scores were compared between the low and high help-seeking groups on General Help-seeking Questionnaire divided on the lower 25th and upper 75th quartiles, respectively, for the groups. The data were statistically analyzed on SPSS-17. Results: Out of a total of 100 patients, 25 and 28 subjects in the low and high help-seeking groups, respectively, were included in the study. In the low help-seeking group, drug compliance was good and caregivers' education level was higher compared to the high help-seeking group. High help-seeking group was characterized by higher scores of hope and compassion on reactions to mental illness scale and the coping mechanisms of humor, denial, use of instrumental and emotional support, acceptance, and planning were frequently used. Conclusions: There is a need to develop awareness about mental illness in the general population and improve the available social support systems to the patients with mental illness and their family members. The help-seeking behaviors could be improved by training the personnel at primary health centers about the treatment of mental illness and importance of drug compliance and regular follow-up.
Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige
Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…
Hao, Qiang; Barnes, Brad; Wright, Ewan; Branch, Robert Maribe
This study investigated the online help-seeking behaviors of computer science students with a focus on the effect of achievement goals. The online help-seeking behaviors investigated were online searching, asking teachers online for help, and asking peers or unknown people online for help. One hundred and sixty-five students studying computer…
Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…
Staiger, Tobias; Waldmann, Tamara; Rüsch, Nicolas; Krumm, Silvia
Unemployed people with mental health problems often do not use mental health services and therefore do not benefit from available therapies. As unemployed individuals outside the healthcare system are a hard-to-reach group, barriers to and facilitators of mental health service use are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking and service use based on experiences of unemployed people with mental health problems. Fifteen qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with unemployed persons who reported mental health problems. Interview topics included individual experience with help-seeking and mental health service use with a focus on barriers and facilitators. Transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis and major themes were identified. Participants reported being treated as "different" within their social environment as well as by health care professionals because of their mental health problems, which resulted in a lack of self-esteem and avoidance of help-seeking. Interviewees associated negative attributes with help-seeking such as helplessness and weakness. They equated psychiatric medication with illegal drugs and worried about the risk of addiction. However, social support and a desire for change on the other hand increased the motivation to search for help. Employment agency staff were mostly perceived as supportive by individuals seeking mental health services. Unemployed individuals with mental health problems faced barriers and facilitators when seeking help on three different levels: (1) mental health literacy; (2) stigma and discrimination; and (3) structures and conditions of health care. Awareness and attitudes of health care professionals concerning mental health issues should be improved. Stigmatisation of people with mental illnesses should be reduced in health care settings. Training for employment agency staff concerning mental health problems and
Liu, Fenge; Cao, Hongjian; Fang, Xiaoyi; Deng, Linyuan; Chen, Wenrui; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Huichun
Based on cohort data obtained from 13,085 college freshmen’s (2005 to 2011) SCL-90 (the Symptom Check-List-90) reports and their subsequent 4-year psychological counseling help-seeking records, this study examined the association between college students’ mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors across four college years. Female students’ mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors increased from the 2005 to the 2011 cohorts and no changes emerged for male students across cohorts. Overall, male students reported higher levels of mental health problems than did female students in the first college year, whereas female students reported more help-seeking behaviors than did male students in the following four college years. College students’ mental health problems was associated positively with help-seeking behaviors. College students were more likely to seek help from the college psychological counselling center when they experienced relatively few or quite a lot of mental health issues (i.e., an inversed U shape). Implications for future studies and practices are discussed. PMID:29040266
Salaheddin, Keziban; Mason, Barbara
Despite the high prevalence and burden of mental health problems among young people, studies have suggested that they infrequently seek professional help. Understanding the barriers to help-seeking is an important step towards facilitating early access to mental health services and improving psychological wellbeing. To investigate why young adults may choose not to seek any support for an emotional or mental health difficulty. A cross-sectional online survey of young adults aged 18-25 from the general UK population. The survey consisted of an anonymous questionnaire that measured psychological distress, help-seeking preferences, and barriers to accessing help, which included the Barriers to Access to Care Evaluation (BACE) scale and an open-ended question to explore reasons for not seeking help in the past. Qualitative feedback was analysed using thematic analysis. Overall, 35% of participants (n = 45) who reported having an emotional or mental health difficulty did not seek any formal or informal help. The thematic analysis revealed that stigmatising beliefs, difficulty identifying or expressing concerns, a preference for self-reliance, and difficulty accessing help were prominent barrier themes among responders. Young adults experiencing psychological distress may struggle to access help from others. Stigma and negative perceptions surrounding mental health and help-seeking may explain why young people are reluctant to approach others for help. Improving public awareness of the services and resources that are available, as well as screening for psychological distress in primary care services, may be necessary to improve mental wellbeing among young adults. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Topuzoğlu, Ahmet; Binbay, Tolga; Ulaş, Halis; Elbi, Hayriye; Tanık, Feride Aksu; Zağlı, Nesli; Alptekin, Köksal
Subclinical and clinical depression is common, widely distributed in the general population, and usually associated with role impairment and help-seeking. Reliable information at the population level is needed to estimate the disease burden of depression and associated care needs in Turkey. The cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of subthreshold (SubD) and clinical major depressive disorder (MDD) in Izmir, Turkey. In the 5242 eligible households, a total of 4011 individuals were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 76.5%. Prevalence estimates of MDD and SubD depression were formed by using the responses to the questions of the CIDI section E. Short Form 36 (SF-36) to assess health status and functional impairments in eight scaled scores during the last four weeks. All respondents were questioned about receiving 12-month treatment for any psychological complaints, the route of help-seeking, as well as prescribed medicines and any hospitalization. The one year prevalence estimate for CIDI/DSM IV MDD was 8.2% (95% CI, 7.4-9.1). Less educated, low income, uninsured, low SES, unemployed/disabled and housewives, slum area residents had higher one year MDD prevalence. Determined prevalence of help seeking from mental health services of SubD and MDD cases were 23.6%, 30.6% respectively. Only 24.8% of clinically depressive patients received minimally adequate treatment. Cross sectional design. Higher MDD prevalence correlates with younger ages, female gender, unemployment, less education, lower monthly income, lower SES and uninsurance. Help seeking from mental health services were low. There are treatment gap and impairment in depressive group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kanukollu, Shanta N.; Mahalingam, Ramaswami
In this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary framework to study perceptions of child sexual abuse and help-seeking among South Asians living in the United States. We integrate research on social marginality, intersectionality, and cultural psychology to understand how marginalized social experience accentuates South Asian immigrants' desire to…
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex Myles Thomas; Gainsbury, Sally Melissa; Blaszczynski, Alex
Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (χ(2) 1=28.3, P<.001, φ=0.21), younger (t616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (χ(2) 1=5.4, P=.02, φ=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (χ(2) 4=228.5, P<.001, φ=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (χ(2) 1=6.9, P<.001, φ=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends
Breslin, F C; Borsoi, D; Cunningham, J A; Koski-Jännes, A
A pilot study assessed the utility of the Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to collect information on help seeking. Using the TLFB method, 34 clients (26 men) who had attended at least one session of an outpatient alcohol treatment program reported on treatment contacts, including any supplemental services (e.g., psychiatric care). TLFB reports of help seeking at that agency were compared with agency records of treatment contacts. Clients reported on their help-seeking behavior for a period of approximately 8 months after they had completed an initial assessment for the outpatient treatment. With regard to the number of outpatient sessions they attended, intraclass correlations and equivalence testing showed that the TLFB data were comparable to the agency records of treatment contacts. Analysis of week-to-week correspondence of the presence or absence of help-seeking episodes showed good agreement between TLFB and the agency records for most participants, although there was substantial variation. Degree of correspondence was not associated with the length of the recall period or individual differences (e.g., drinking pattern). Older participants, however, tended to have lower week-to-week concordance than did younger participants. These data provide preliminary support for the utility of a help-seeking TLFB instrument to assess addiction- and mental health-related contacts. This instrument may be especially useful in research in which collecting temporal patterns of help seeking is of interest (e.g., in studies examining factors influencing the delay in help seeking after relapse).
Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Schneider, Matthew E; Joiner, Thomas E
Research has demonstrated that military service members are at elevated risk for a range of psychiatric problems, and mental health services use is a conduit to symptom reduction and remission. Nonetheless, there is a notable underutilization of mental health services in this population. This systematic review aimed to identify and critically examine: (1) rates of service use; (2) barriers and facilitators to care; and (3) programs and interventions designed to enhance willingness to seek care and increase help-seeking behaviors among current military personnel (e.g., active duty, National Guard, Reserve). Overall, 111 peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion. Across studies, the rate of past-year service use among service members with mental health problems during the same time frame was 29.3% based on weighted averages. Studies identified common barriers to care (e.g., concerns regarding stigma, career impact) and facilitators to care (e.g., positive attitudes toward treatment, family/friend support, military leadership support) among this population. Although programs (e.g., screening, gatekeeper training) have been developed to reduce these barriers, leverage facilitators, and encourage service use, further research is needed to empirically test the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing rates of service utilization. Critical areas for future research on treatment engagement among this high-risk population are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.
Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu
Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure and delay in initial treatment contact for mental disorders has been recognized as an important public health problem. According to the concept of mental health literacy, recognition of symptoms is crucial to making decisions to seek or not seek professional help. The aims of this study were to investigate the types of health problems for which Japanese adults intend to seek help, their preferred sources of help, and the factors associated with help-seeking intentions. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in June 2014 among Japanese adults aged 20–59 years. A total of 3308 eligible respondents were included in this study. Help-seeking intentions were measured by listing potential sources of help (including ‘would not receive help’ and asking which ones would be chosen in four health conditions indicated by irritability, dizziness, insomnia, and depressed mood, respectively. Results In the case of dizziness, 85.9 % of the participants reported a positive help-seeking intention and 42.7 % gave first priority to seeking help from formal sources. These percentages were smaller in the cases of insomnia (75.4 and 25.0 %, depressed mood (74.9 and 18.7 %, and irritability (72.9 and 0.9 %. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors significantly associated with help-seeking intentions were almost identical across the four health problems. In particular, perception of family and friends regarding help-seeking, psychiatric history, contact with people with mental illness, better health literacy, and neighborhood communicativeness were significantly associated with the overall help-seeking intention and also the help-seeking intention from formal sources for all the problems of dizziness, insomnia, and depressed mood. Conclusions The majority of participants indicated their intentions to seek help, but psychological problems (insomnia and depressed mood were less likely to
Suka, Machi; Yamauchi, Takashi; Sugimori, Hiroki
Encouraging help-seeking for mental illness is essential for prevention of suicide. This study examined the relationship between individual characteristics, neighbourhood contexts and help-seeking intentions for mental illness for the purpose of elucidating the role of neighbourhood in the help-seeking process. A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among Japanese adults aged 20-59 years in June 2014. Eligible respondents who did not have a serious health condition were included in this study (n=3308). Participants were asked how likely they would be to seek help from someone close to them (informal help) and medical professionals (formal help), respectively, if they were suffering from serious mental illness. Path analysis with structural equation modelling was performed to represent plausible connections between individual characteristics, neighbourhood contexts, and informal and formal help-seeking intentions. The acceptable fitting model indicated that those who had a tendency to consult about everyday affairs were significantly more likely to express an informal help-seeking intention that was directly associated with a formal help-seeking intention. Those living in a communicative neighbourhood, where neighbours say hello whenever they pass each other, were significantly more likely to express informal and formal help-seeking intentions. Those living in a supportive neighbourhood, where neighbours work together to solve neighbourhood problems, were significantly more likely to express an informal help-seeking intention. Adequate health literacy was directly associated with informal and formal help-seeking intentions, along with having an indirect effect on the formal help-seeking intention through developed positive perception of professional help. The results of this study bear out the hypothesis that neighbourhood context contributes to help-seeking intentions for mental illness. Living in a neighbourhood with a communicative atmosphere and having
Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E
Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations.
Williams, James D.
Full Text Available Adaptive help seeking and self-efficacy have been examined extensively over the last 20 years, but few studies have investigated their role in writing center tutoring, which has become an important component of process-oriented writing instruction. Using data collected over an 8-year period, this study analyzes the effect of writing self-efficacy (assessed using established self-efficacy scales and help-seeking behavior (measured by frequency of writing center visitation on writing performance as measured by composition grades. Participants were 671 undergraduates, approximately half of whom were international students for whom English was a second or third language. Data analyses showed an inverse correlation between self-efficacy and help-seeking behavior. In addition, high levels of help-seeking behavior resulted in better performance in composition classes, especially for the ESL participants; indeed, this behavior was the strongest predictor of success.
Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J
Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
WILLIAMS, James D; Takaku, S.
Adaptive help seeking and self-efficacy have been examined extensively over the last 20 years, but few studies have investigated their role in writing center tutoring, which has become an important component of process-oriented writing instruction. Using data collected over an 8-year period, this study analyzes the effect of writing self-efficacy (assessed using established self-efficacy scales) and help-seeking behavior (measured by frequency of writing center visitation) on writing performa...
42-43. 7 military norms of the warrior ethos of strength, group cohesion, and the individual’s ability to cope in times of combat.12 Stigma can...environment between the unit-level and base-level resources in an effort to debunk the stigma of help-seeking. The intent is also to increase awareness...due to social stigmas . I next discuss causal factors that reinforce the stigma surrounding help-seeking within the military. Additionally, I utilize
Masillo, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Saba, Riccardo; Brandizzi, Martina; Lo Cascio, Nella; Telesforo, Ludovica; Venturini, Paola; Izzo, Aniello; Mattioli, M Teresa; D'Alema, Marco; Girardi, Paolo; Fiori Nastro, Paolo
The effects of a negative interpersonal experience, such as bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence, can be strong and long lasting. Bullying victimization is associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Few studies have focused on personality traits of victims of bullying. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a particular personality trait called interpersonal sensitivity may be related to suspiciousness in those who experienced bullying victimization. The study sample consisted of 147 help-seeking adolescents (mean age 17 years) selected after a screening phase (Prodromal Questionnaire) and evaluated with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS). All participants were specifically asked if they had experienced either psychological bullying or physical bullying, and they completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Of the whole sample, 30 (20%) participants had experienced psychological bullying or physical bullying at least once in their life. Performing a multiple regression, bullying victimization was found to be an independent predictor of subtle paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Interpersonal sensitivity was also found to be an independent predictor of subtle paranoid ideation; in particular, two IPSM subscales, fragile inner-self and separation anxiety, showed a significant correlation with subtle paranoid ideation. Our results confirmed that bullying victimization is a negative interpersonal experience associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. However, being overly sensitive and having negative beliefs about the self as fragile and vulnerable to threat also lead to a tendency to attribute experiences as externally caused and, in turn, facilitate the formation and maintenance of paranoid ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Statistically, men make less use of health-care services than women. This has been interpreted as the result of the 'hegemonic' masculine code in which 'real' men are understood to be physically fit, uninterested in their health and self-reliant. However, less attention has been paid to understanding how hegemonic masculinity intersects with the wider western socio-cultural contexts of men's help-seeking, particularly the valorization of health as a form of social achievement. This article presents the results of interviews with 14 higher socio-economic status (SES) men to uncover their 'interpretive repertoires' in relation to health and illness, help-seeking and masculinity. Although many interviewees drew on the stereotype of the 'Neanderthal Man' who avoids the doctors to explain help-seeking by men 'in general', they constructed their own experiences of help-seeking in terms of being responsible, problem-solving and in control. It is argued that the framing of help-seeking in terms of 'taking action' chimes with an increasingly pro-active 'expert patient' approach within western health-care. This conceptual reconstruction of the dominant masculine code in relation to help-seeking, from 'Neanderthal Man' to 'Action Man', may lead to greater gender equality in terms of accessing health-care. However, it has the potential to exacerbate social inequalities between men from different SES groups.
Kleinberg, A; Aluoja, A; Vasar, V
Aims. This study examined the associations of social support, loneliness and locus of control with depression and help-seeking in persons with major depression. Methods. Twelve-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18-84 years (n = 6105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Factors describing social support, social and emotional loneliness and locus of control were assessed, and their associations with depression were analysed. The associations with reported help-seeking behaviour among people identified as having a major depressive episode (n = 343) were explored. Results. Low frequency of contacts with one's friends and parents, emotional loneliness, external locus of control and emotional dissatisfaction with couple relations were significant factors predicting depression in the multivariate model. External locus of control was associated with help-seeking in the depressed sample. Interactions of emotional loneliness, locus of control and frequency of contacts with parents significantly predicted help-seeking in the depressed sample. Conclusions. Depression is associated with structural and functional factors of social support and locus of control. Help-seeking of depressed persons depends on locus of control, interactions of emotional loneliness, locus of control and contacts with the parental family.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of written information may improve awareness of cancer symptoms and encourage timely presentation in primary care. This study assessed changes in symptom knowledge, perceived barriers to help-seeking, anxiety and intention to seek help, following exposure to a leaflet to raise awareness of gynaecological cancer symptoms. Methods Women (N = 484 completed questionnaires before and after reading the leaflet. The primary outcome was change in anticipated time to help-seeking for 12 symptoms. Changes in symptom knowledge, barriers and anxiety, and their association with prompt help-seeking were evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and logistic regression analyses. Results After reading the leaflet, symptom knowledge increased (p < 0.001, and perceived barriers (p < 0.001 and anxiety (p = 0.008 decreased. The number of symptoms for which women anticipated seeking help promptly increased (p < 0.001. Changes in knowledge (OR 4.21, 95 % CI 1.95-9.13 and perceived barriers (OR 4.60, 95 % CI 1.91-11.04 were independently associated with increased help-seeking. Conclusion Increased symptom knowledge and lowered perceived barriers were related to increased prompt anticipated help-seeking. This occurred without an increase in anxiety. This intervention is effective in altering knowledge, beliefs and help-seeking intentions for gynaecological cancer symptoms, at least in the short-term, and should be trialled in primary care.
Ho, Ka Po; Hunt, Caroline; Li, Stephen
The utilization of mental health services is low among Chinese immigrants in Australia, yet their help-seeking pattern has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to describe the delay among Chinese immigrants in seeking treatment for an anxiety disorder and to compare the results with previous research from the general population in Australia. Forty-nine participants were recruited from the community. Their demographic data, DSM-IV diagnosis and help-seeking patterns were assessed by a self-report questionnaire and the CB-SCID (Chinese-bilingual Structured Clinical Interview Schedule for the DSM-IV). The average length of the delay for treatment was 7.04 years and the average time to problem recognition was 8.07 years. The most common barriers to help-seeking reported by Chinese immigrants include a lack of knowledge about available treatment, being unable to afford the cost of the treatment, and having no transportation to access the service. The most frequently endorsed reason for help-seeking was "I recognized the problem was anxiety". General medical practitioners were most commonly their first professional contact. The time taken for Chinese immigrants in Australia to seek help was typically long, suggesting a similar help-seeking delay to the Australian general population. However, different barriers to help-seeking emerged, suggesting that Chinese immigrants would benefit from education about the symptoms of psychiatric disorders and available treatments.
Amemiya, Jamie; Wang, Ming-Te
Adolescents often avoid seeking academic help when needed, making it important to understand the motivational processes that support help seeking behavior. Using expectancy-value theory as a framework, this study examined transactional relations between motivational beliefs (i.e., academic self-concept or academic importance) and seeking help from teachers and peers across adolescence (i.e., from approximately age 12 to 17 years). Data were collected from 1479 adolescents (49% female; 61.9% African American, 31.2% European American, 6.9% other race). Analyses were conducted with cross-lagged panel models using three waves of data from seventh, ninth, and eleventh grade. Results indicated that both academic self-concept and academic importance were associated with increases in teacher help seeking in earlier adolescence, but were associated only with increases in peer help seeking in later adolescence. Help-seeking behavior positively influenced motivational beliefs, with teacher help seeking increasing academic self-concept earlier in adolescence and peer help seeking increasing academic importance later in adolescence. These transactional relations differed by adolescents' prior achievement and racial background, but not by adolescents' gender.
Parvin, Kausar; Sultana, Naznin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
Despite high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its adverse social and health consequences, the rate of help seeking for IPV is generally low. Although the level of IPV is much higher in urban slums of Bangladesh, the level and nature of help seeking of the victims are unknown. This paper aims to address this gap in the literature. Using a cross-sectional survey conducted between August 2011-February 2012, we explored disclosure of violence, help seeking behavior, and their correlates among randomly selected currently married women aged 15-29 in Dhaka slums (n = 2604). About 60 % of the currently married women reported past year spousal physical violence, but only 21 % disclosed and 19 % sought any help. High acceptance of violence was the main reason for not seeking help. Help was most commonly sought from informal sources (89 %). Any education, frequent and severe physical abuse, and presence of children increased the likelihood of disclosure and help seeking. Most survivors from slum who disclosed also sought help. Despite widespread physical abuse, many survivors never sought help. Wide acceptance of violence hampering help seeking needs to be challenged. Increasing disclosure would also enhance help seeking. Awareness rising regarding rights of women to live a violence free life is essential. Although many services are available in the urban area, information about these services needs to be available to women. Promoting education is important in increasing both disclosure and service uptake.
Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel
Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and
Distance learning provides an opportunity for students to learn valuable information through technology and interactive media. Distance learning additionally offers educational institutions the flexibility of synchronous and asynchronous instruction while increasing enrollment and lowering cost. However, distance education has not been well documented within the context of urban high schools. Distance learning may allow high school students to understand material at an individualized pace for either enrichment or remediation. A successful high school student who participates in distance learning should exhibit high self regulatory skills. However, most urban high school students have not been exposed to distance learning and should be introduced to proper self regulatory strategies that should increase the likelihood of understanding the material. To help facilitate a move into distance learning, a blended distance learning model, the combination of distance learning and traditional learning, will be used. According to O'Neil's (in preparation) revised problem solving model, self regulation is a component of problem solving. Within the Blended Biology course, urban high school students will be trained in help-seeking strategies to further their understanding of genetics and Punnett Square problem solving. This study investigated the effects of help-seeking in a blended high school Biology course. The main study consisted of a help-seeking group (n=55) and a control group (n=53). Both the help-seeking group and the control group were taught by one teacher for two weeks. The help-seeking group had access to Blended Biology with Help-Seeking while the control group only had access to Blended Biology. The main study used a pretest and posttest to measure Genetics Content Understanding, Punnett Square Problem Solving, Adaptive Help-Seeking, Maladaptive Help-Seeking, and Self Regulation. The analysis showed no significant difference in any of the measures in terms of
Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul
This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…
Sarah Bauerle Bass
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that men are less likely to seek help for depression, substance abuse, and stressful life events due to negative perceptions of asking for and receiving help. This may be exacerbated in male military cadets who exhibit higher levels of gender role conflict because of military culture. Methods This exploratory study examined the perceptions of 78 male military cadets toward help-seeking behaviors. Cadets completed the 31-item Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS and a component factor analysis was used to generate five composite variables and compare to validated factors. Perceptual mapping and vector modeling, which produce 3-dimensional models of a group’s perceptions, were then used to model how they conceptualize help-seeking. Results Factor analysis showed slightly different groupings than the BHSS, perhaps attributed to different characteristics of respondents, who are situated in a military school compared to general university males. Perceptual maps show that cadets perceive trust of doctors closest to them and help-seeking farthest, supporting the concept that these males have rigid beliefs about having control and its relationship to health seeking. Differences were seen when comparing maps of White and non-White cadets. White cadets positioned themselves far away from all variables, while non-White cadets were closest to “emotional control”. Conclusion To move these cadets toward help-seeking, vector modeling suggests that interventions should focus on their general trust of doctors, accepting lack of control, and decreasing feelings of weakness when asking for help. For non-White cadets a focus on self-reliance may also need to be emphasized. Use of these unique methods resulted in articulation of specific barriers that if addressed early, may have lasting effects on help-seeking behavior as these young men become adults. Future studies are needed to develop and test specific interventions
Skogstad, Philip; Deane, Frank P; Spicer, John
Prisoners experience high rates of mental health problems and suicidal behaviours. Failure to seek help may exacerbate these problems and limit opportunities to participate in offending-related programmes. To assess whether prisoners'; intentions to seek help for a personal-emotional problem, including suicidal feelings, can be predicted using variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). These TPB variables were supplemented by measures of emotional distress, prior contact with a psychologist and demographic variables. Male inmates from six New Zealand prisons were asked to participate, with approximately 50% (n = 527) of those who initially expressed an interest in the study completing the self-report questionnaire. Most participants completed the questionnaire in small-group meetings in the prison units and returned them to the researchers immediately after completion.Results On average, participants reported higher levels of current emotional distress than comparison student samples. TPB variables predicted help-seeking intentions for suicidality and personal-emotional problems. Those with prior contact with prison psychologists had lower intentions to seek help for suicidal feelings than prisoners without such contact. Older prisoners, those with more years of education, and those who had previous contact with a psychologist outside prison tended to have higher intentions to seek psychological help. Social-cognitive factors predicted intentions to seek help among New Zealand prisoners but prison-specific issues, such as relative reluctance to seek help when suicidal and reluctance to seek help from prison psychologists, were also identified. Implications for practice Prisoners'; access to services could be improved, for example, through directly working on attitudinal barriers. Strategies to ensure access to specialized forensic mental health in-reach services could also be an alternative or additional route to ensure that this disadvantaged group
Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire
Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem.
Zadnik, Elizabeth; Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A
This study investigated whether legal status was related to interpersonal victimization and help-seeking by comparing Latina immigrants with permanent legal status with Latina immigrants who are undocumented on rates of reported interpersonal victimization, types of perpetrators, and rates of help-seeking. Data come from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study, which interviewed 1,377 immigrant Latinas about their lifetime histories of sexual assault, physical assault, stalking, and threats along with help-seeking efforts. Results did not reveal significant differences between legal status and reported victimization rates or types of perpetrators. However, undocumented Latinas (n = 91) were less likely to seek formal help than those with permanent status. Results of this study indicate that undocumented status does not independently put women at risk of victimization, but that responses to violence are related to legal status. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mayberry, Lindsay S; Heflinger, Craig Anne
Family caregivers' conceptualizations of their child's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) influence help-seeking for the child and caregiver strain. We analyzed 21 interviews with caregivers to explore their conceptualizations about the cause of their child's EBP, their experiences of strain, and their reported help-seeking behaviors. Caregivers had divergent conceptualizations of their child's EBP: 12 caregivers viewed the EBP as caused by a disorder and described the onset of symptoms as the central stressful event, whereas 9 caregivers described their child's problems as a response to an earlier stressor (e.g. trauma, abuse, divorce). Different patterns of caregiver strain and help-seeking were associated with caregiver conceptualization. All caregivers voiced a need for peer-to-peer support for caregivers and youth with EBP.
Hays, Krystal; Gilreath, Tamika
Although Black Americans have lower prevalence of depression compared to non-Hispanic Whites (10% vs. 17%), they are nearly twice as likely to have worse outcomes. One contributor to poor depression outcomes involves the ways in which Black Americans seek help for depression. However, little is known about depression help-seeking behavior, and the use of multiple sources of help, among Black Americans. This study used latent class analysis to identify unique constellations of depression help seeking, from multiple sources, among African American and Black Caribbeans. Results indicated four profiles of depression help seeking including Informal/Primary Care Utilizers (41.4%), Formal Mental Health Utilizers (40.6%), All Support Utilizers (9.8%), and Mixed Source Utilizers (8.2%). The constellation of each profile and demographic differences in class assignment are discussed. Results have implications for tailored depression interventions for Black Americans including community-based psychoeducation and cultural competence training for mental health providers.
Caplan, Susan; Buyske, Steven
Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States, experience mental health disparities, which include decreased access to care, lower quality of care and diminished treatment engagement. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 177 Latino immigrants in primary care is to identify demographic factors, attitudes and beliefs, such as stigma, perceived stress, and ethnic identity that are associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition of depression. Results indicated that 45 participants (25%) had depression by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) criteria. Factors most likely to be associated with depression were: poverty; difficulty in functioning; greater somatic symptoms, perceived stress and stigma; number of chronic illnesses; and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Fifty-four people endorsed help-seeking. Factors associated with help-seeking were: female gender, difficulty in functioning, greater somatic symptoms, severity of depression, having someone else tell you that you have an emotional problem, and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Factors most likely to be associated with self-recognition were the same, but also included greater perceived stress. This manuscript contributes to the literature by examining attitudinal factors that may be associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition among subethnic groups of Latinos that are underrepresented in research studies.
Full Text Available Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States, experience mental health disparities, which include decreased access to care, lower quality of care and diminished treatment engagement. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 177 Latino immigrants in primary care is to identify demographic factors, attitudes and beliefs, such as stigma, perceived stress, and ethnic identity that are associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition of depression. Results indicated that 45 participants (25% had depression by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 criteria. Factors most likely to be associated with depression were: poverty; difficulty in functioning; greater somatic symptoms, perceived stress and stigma; number of chronic illnesses; and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Fifty-four people endorsed help-seeking. Factors associated with help-seeking were: female gender, difficulty in functioning, greater somatic symptoms, severity of depression, having someone else tell you that you have an emotional problem, and poor or fair self-rated mental health. Factors most likely to be associated with self-recognition were the same, but also included greater perceived stress. This manuscript contributes to the literature by examining attitudinal factors that may be associated with depression, help-seeking and self-recognition among subethnic groups of Latinos that are underrepresented in research studies.
Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S
The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.
Christa D. Labouliere
Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.
Rowe, Sarah L; French, Rebecca S; Henderson, Claire; Ougrin, Dennis; Slade, Mike; Moran, Paul
Self-harm is common in adolescence, but most young people who self-harm do not seek professional help. The aim of this literature review was to determine (a) the sources of support adolescents who self-harm access if they seek help, and (b) the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for adolescents who self-harm. Using a pre-defined search strategy we searched databases for terms related to self-harm, adolescents and help-seeking. Studies were included in the review if participants were aged 11-19 years. Twenty articles met criteria for inclusion. Between a third and one half of adolescents who self-harm do not seek help for this behaviour. Of those who seek help, results showed adolescents primarily turned to friends and family for support. The Internet may be more commonly used as a tool for self-disclosure rather than asking for help. Barriers to help-seeking included fear of negative reactions from others including stigmatisation, fear of confidentiality being breached and fear of being seen as 'attention-seeking'. Few facilitators of help-seeking were identified. Of the small proportion of adolescents who seek help for their self-harm, informal sources are the most likely support systems accessed. Interpersonal barriers and a lack of knowledge about where to go for help may impede help-seeking. Future research should address the lack of knowledge regarding the facilitators of help-seeking behaviour in order to improve the ability of services to engage with this vulnerable group of young people. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Galdas, Paul M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Percy, Myra E.; Ratner, Pamela A.
Empirical and theoretical literature suggests that stereotypical gender roles shape men’s and women’s health help-seeking behavior, and plays an important role in the treatment seeking delays of cardiac patients. We were interested in exploring the ways in which gender informs the experiences and help-seeking behavior of men and women who experienced the symptoms associated with acute cardiac events. We undertook 20 in-depth interviews between October 2007 and July 2008 with 11 men and 9 women recently diagnosed with an acute coronary syndrome in British Columbia, Canada. Participants were encouraged to tell their ‘story’ of the event that led to hospitalization and diagnosis, with a focus on the symptoms and decision making processes that occurred before and during the activation of health services: seeking the advice of others including colleagues, family members and healthcare professionals; calling 911; and attending an emergency department. Although we anticipated that distinctive patterns of help-seeking behavior aligned with stereotypical masculine and feminine ideals might emerge from our data, this was not always the case. We found some evidence of the influence of gender role ideology on the help-seeking behavior of both male and female participants. However, men’s and women’s experiences of seeking health care were not easily parsed into distinct binary gender patterns. Behavior that might stereotypically be considered to be ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ gender practice was shared by both male and female participants. Our findings undermine simple binary distinctions about gendered help-seeking prevalent in the literature, and contribute towards setting the direction of the future health policy and research agenda addressing the issue of gender and health help-seeking behavior. PMID:20398989
Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique G
Seventy-five American Indians, ages 25 to 84, representing 14 tribal nations, participated in this study. The historical, cultural, and behavioral responses to physical pain were examined. Data were collected over a 7-month period with a survey instrument that included the Universal Pain Scale, activities of daily living, causes of pain, cultural beliefs, and self-help-seeking behaviors. Also, recommendations for Western biomedical health care professionals are offered to improve services for the American Indian population. Findings demonstrate that culture plays a crucial role in wellness and significantly affects help-seeking behaviors, treatment regimens, responses to pain, and pain management.
Rasmussen, Mette Lyberg; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Dieserud, Gudrun
This study explores barriers to help-seeking among young men prior to suicide. We analyzed 61 in-depth interviews with parents, siblings, friends, and ex-partners of 10 young men (aged 18-30) with no record of mental illness, as well as 6 suicide notes, using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three barriers emerged: (a) a total defeat; (b) no room for weakness; and (c) fear of mental disorder. The shame from falling short of standards (own/significant male others') could be a considerable barrier to help-seeking in a suicidal crisis.
Williams, Dahra Jackson
Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…
Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo
This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper uses findings from a larger study to present a nuanced depiction of the interplay of informal and formal help-seeking processes of a sample of Chinese immigrants in their mental healthcare in New York City. Thirty one participants who were receiving mental health treatment were interviewed with regard to their experiences preceding their suicide attempt. Their narratives were coded for thematic analysis. Acculturation difficulties, inaccessibility to services and stigma associated with mental illness were major obstacles in the participants' help-seeking process, which was consistent with other studies of immigrants of ethnic minority groups in the USA. In addition, the findings showed how changes in this sample of Chinese immigrants' socio-cultural reality disrupted familiar help-seeking pathways, and perpetuated and amplified the aforementioned stressors. Issues of human connection, immigrants' resiliency and missed opportunities were also identified as potential resources to modify cultural stigmas and help-seeking behaviour. There are varied socio-cultural factors that need to be considered in mental health outreach services in immigrant communities.
Paris, Manuel, Jr.; Anez, Luis M.; Bedregal, Luis E.; Andres-Hyman, Raquel C.; Davidson, Larry
This study explored help seeking among primary Spanish speaking women of Hispanic origin who had behavioral health needs. We evaluated relational and cultural aspects of care and service utilization by using qualitative and quantitative measures of perceived behavioral health needs, therapeutic relationships, ethnic identity and degree of…
Czyz, Ewa K.; Horwitz, Adam G.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kramer, Anne; King, Cheryl A.
Objectives: This study sought to describe self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students who are at elevated suicide risk and determine if these barriers vary by demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants: Participants were 165 non-treatment seekers recruited as part of a Web-based treatment linkage…
Timlin-Scalera, Rebecca M.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.; Jackson, Margo A.
This study used grounded theory methodology (B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990) to explore the help-seeking behaviors of a select group of White male adolescents to understand and identify the mental health stressors in their lives and the factors involved with their decisions to seek or not to seek help for those…
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…
Samuolis, Jessica; Griffin, Kenneth; Mason, Mary Jo; Dekraker, Nancy
The goal of the present study was to examine the link between connectedness to campus and the likelihood of help-seeking from a mental health professional/school counselor for thoughts of suicide among college women. An online survey was administered to college students to assess perceived likelihood of seeking help, feelings of connectedness to…
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required.
I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); D. Butte (Dick); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractObjective Although adolescent girls from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of internalizing problems (e.g. depression), only a small fraction seeks formal help for these problems. To enhance help-seeking for internalizing problems among ethnic minority adolescent girls, insight
Laplante-Levesque, A.; Knudsen, L.V.; Preminger, J.E.; Jones, L.; Nielsen, C.; Oberg, M.; Lunner, T.; Hickson, L.; Naylor, G.; Kramer, S.E.
Objective: This study investigated the perspectives of adults with hearing impairment on hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation. Design: Individual semi-structured interviews were completed. Study sample: In total, 34 adults with hearing impairment in four countries (Australia, Denmark, UK, and
Shen, April Chiung-Tao
This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the help-seeking behaviors of female dating-violence victims from a cultural perspective. A semistructured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from 10 female victims (aged 20-28). Findings indicate that Taiwanese dating-violence victims tend to seek informal help rather than formal…
Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.
This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.
On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…
Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Knudsen, Line V; Preminger, Jill E; Jones, Lesley; Nielsen, Claus; Öberg, Marie; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E
This study investigated the perspectives of adults with hearing impairment on hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation. Individual semi-structured interviews were completed. In total, 34 adults with hearing impairment in four countries (Australia, Denmark, UK, and USA) participated. Participants had a range of experience with hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation, from never having sought help to being satisfied hearing-aid users. Qualitative content analysis identified four main categories ('perceiving my hearing impairment', 'seeking hearing help', 'using my hearing aids', and 'perspectives and knowledge') and, at the next level, 25 categories. This article reports on the densest categories: they are described, exemplified with interview quotes, and discussed. People largely described hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation in the context of their daily lives. Adults with hearing impairment rarely described clinical encounters towards hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation as a connected process. They portrayed interactions with clinicians as isolated events rather than chronologically-ordered steps relating to a common goal. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Schreiber Pedersen, Louise; Lose, Gunnar; Høybye, Mette Terp
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictors and reasons for help-seeking behavior among women with urinary incontinence (UI) in Germany and Denmark. METHODS: This international postal survey was conducted in 2014. In each country, 4,000 women of at least 18 ye...
The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…
Chyr, Wen-Li; Shen, Pei-Di; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jau-Bi; Tsai, Chia-Wen
This study explored the effects of online academic help-seeking (OAHS) and flipped learning (FL) on students' development of involvement, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning. A quasi-experiment was conducted to investigate whether students' involvement, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning increases over time with intervention by OAHS,…
Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler
Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…
Low, Lee Lan; Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun
This qualitative study aimed to explore the influence of social networks such as family members, friends, peers, and health care providers toward the help-seeking behaviour (HSB) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the public and private primary care settings. In-depth interviews of 12 patients, 9 family members, and 5 health care providers, as well as 3 focus groups among 13 health care providers were conducted. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim for qualitative analysis. Social influences play a significant role in the help-seeking process; once diagnosed, patients source information from people around them to make decisions. This significant influence depends on the relationship between patients and social networks or the level of trust, support, and comforting feeling. Thus, the impacts on patients' help-seeking behavior are varied. However, the help-seeking process is not solely an individual's concern but a dynamic process interacting with the social networks within the health care system. © 2015 APJPH.
Research shows that a very small percentage of those who suffer from mental illness seek professional help and fear of stigma is a principal factor why individuals are reluctant to obtain assistance. This study evaluated whether using examples of celebrities' experiences with mental illness as a form of "contact" with a mentally ill…
Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Eacker, Anne; Durning, Steven J; Brazeau, Chantal; Moutier, Christine; Massie, F Stanford; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D
Because of the high prevalence of burnout among medical students and its association with professional and personal consequences, the authors evaluated the help-seeking behaviors of medical students with burnout and compared their stigma perceptions with those of the general U.S. population and age-matched individuals. The authors surveyed students at six medical schools in 2012. They measured burnout, symptoms of depression, and quality of life using validated instruments and explored help-seeking behaviors, perceived stigma, personal experiences, and attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment. Of 2,449 invited students, 873 (35.6%) responded. A third of respondents with burnout (154/454; 33.9%) sought help for an emotional/mental health problem in the last 12 months. Respondents with burnout were more likely than those without burnout to agree or strongly agree with 8 of 10 perceived stigma items. Respondents with burnout who sought help in the last 12 months were twice as likely to report having observed supervisors negatively judge students who sought care (odds ratio [OR] 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-3.39], P student's emotional/mental health problem to others (OR 1.63 [95% CI 1.08-2.47], P = .02). A smaller percentage of respondents would definitely seek professional help for a serious emotional problem (235/872; 26.9%) than of the general population (44.3%) and age-matched individuals (38.8%). Only a third of medical students with burnout seek help. Perceived stigma, negative personal experiences, and the hidden curriculum may contribute.
Ndyanabangi Sheila; Ssebunnya Joshua; Kigozi Fred; Kizza Dorothy; Nsereko James R; Flisher Alan J; Cooper Sara
Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problem...
Wood, Susan; Harrison, Lesley K; Kucharska, Jo
Male professional footballers (soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. Seven participants were interviewed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. One superordinate theme emerged; 'Survival'. This related to survival in the professional football world, of mental health difficulties and after transition into the 'real world'. Six subordinate themes are explored alongside literature pertaining to male mental health, identity, injury, transition, and emotional development. Shame, stigma, fear and level of mental health literacy (knowledge of mental health and support) were barriers to help-seeking. Support for professional footballers' mental wellbeing requires improvement. Recommendations are made for future research, mental health education and support.
Anstiss, David; Lyons, Antonia
Men's help-seeking behaviour for health issues is apparent in advice columns in men's magazines. This study discursively analysed men's help-seeking letters and expert replies within two international and popular men's magazines, Men's Health and For Him Magazine or FHM. Findings showed that the texts reinforced hegemonic ideals. Letters positioning men as self-reliant, independently knowledgeable, stoic and avoiding associations with femininity were positively reinforced in expert replies, while other types of positioning were responded to with condescension or ridicule. Results suggest the policing of boundaries by 'experts' around unacceptable/acceptable enactments of masculinity, which may have implications for if, how and when men seek help from experts. © The Author(s) 2013.
Brabeck, Kalina M; Guzmán, Michele R
Women's responses to partner abuse are shaped by their particular sociocultural contexts. In this study, quantitative data were collected from 75 Mexican-origin women who survived intimate partner abuse, to identify variables associated with help-seeking to survive relationship abuse. Help-seeking was defined as use of formal (e.g., shelter) and informal (e.g., family) sources. Variables included two cultural variables: machismo (i.e., adherence to traditional gender roles) and familismo (i.e., valuing family cohesion and reciprocity), and four sociostructural variables: income, education, English proficiency, and immigrant status. Results indicated participants with higher levels of familismo sought informal help more frequently than those with lower levels. Women with grade school education, no English proficiency, and undocumented status sought formal help less frequently than those not constrained by these barriers.
Makara Fuller, Kara; Karabenick, Stuart A.
This study examined the role of social achievement goals in academic help giving among peers within a high school. Students (n = 794) filled out surveys assessing their social goals, how often they are asked for help by their peers, and the type of help they gave to peers (instrumental vs. expedient). Controls included students’ grade point average, popularity, and personal help seeking preferences. Results demonstrated positive benefits of social development goals on students’ reports of how...
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Being bullied is associated with the manifestation of suicidal feelings, which sharply increase in middle(-late adolescence. Whether or not bullied middle(-late adolescents with suicidal feelings seek help is therefore a critical issue, given that help-seeking plays a key role in the prevention of suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of bullying, suicidal feelings and the interaction between these two factors on help-seeking behavior in adolescents. METHODS: Japanese middle(-late adolescents (aged 15-18 years; n = 9484 were studied using self-report questionnaires. The rate of adolescents who actually sought help was examined for bullying status and suicidal feelings. RESULTS: The rate of adolescents who sought help was significantly higher when they were bullied (p<0.001 and also when they had mild suicidal feelings (p<0.001, but not when they displayed serious suicidal feelings. In the case of adolescents who were bullied, however, having suicidal feelings significantly decreased the rate of help-seeking (OR = 0.47, p<0.05 and OR = 0.32, p = 0.002 for having mild and serious suicidal feelings, respectively. The decrease was remarkable when suicidal feelings were serious. Specifically, the decrease was significant in seeking help from peers and family members, who are the most frequent source of the help for adolescents, when they had serious suicidal feelings (OR = 0.21, p<0.01 and OR = 0.13, p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidal feelings may interfere with help-seeking behavior, which could be critical in suicide prevention in bullied middle(-late adolescents.
Full Text Available A sample of 1442 women attending a Forensic Healthcare Service provided information on their own and their partners' use of controlling behaviors, partner violence, and sexual abuse, as well as their own experiences of childhood abuse. Using Johnson's typology, the relationships were categorized as Nonviolent, Intimate Terrorism, or Situational Couple Violence. Findings suggest that help-seeking women’s experiences of intimate violence may be diverse, with their roles ranging from victim to perpetrator.
Labys, Charlotte A; Susser, Ezra; Burns, Jonathan K
Growing interest in strategies regarding early intervention for psychosis has led to a parallel interest in understanding help-seeking behavior, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Nevertheless, few LMIC studies have examined individuals with psychosis in non-urban, non-hospital settings. Using the perspective of formal and informal community service providers, we aimed to uncover descriptions of people with psychosis in a rural South African community and illuminate the potential complexities of their help-seeking journeys. We conducted a qualitative study of 40 key informant interviews and seven focus groups with stakeholders (traditional leaders, traditional healers, religious leaders, health care nurses, heads of non-governmental organizations, schoolteachers, community caregivers) in a rural Zulu community (Vulindlela). Thematic analysis of the data was performed using the inductive analysis approach. Interviewees discussed 32 individuals with probable psychosis in their community and provided rich descriptions of their symptoms. A complex picture of help-seeking behavior, primarily involving informal mental health service providers, emerged. Over half of the reported cases had no contact with formal health services in the course of their help-seeking journey; while more than two-thirds never attended a hospital and only 1 in 8 accessed a psychiatric hospital. Our results highlight the important role of informal care providers in LMICs as well as the need for more research on mental illness and local providers in non-hospital contexts. Community stakeholders can contribute to a fuller understanding of these issues, thereby assisting in the creation of appropriate and effective mental health interventions for rural South African communities like Vulindlela.
Does help-seeking alter the risk for incident psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with and without fearful spells or panic attacks? Findings from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal community study.
Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Höfler, Michael; Beesdo-Baum, Katja
Although fearful spells (FS) and panic attacks (PA) increase the risk for various mental disorders, few studies have examined whether help-seeking in those with FS/PA attenuates the risk for incident psychopathology. A community sample of adolescents and young adults (N=2978, aged 14-24 at baseline) was followed up in up to 3 assessment waves over 10 years. FS, PA, psychopathology, and help-seeking were assessed using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Logistic regressions with interaction terms (adjusted for sex and age) were used to test interactions between FS/PA and help-seeking at baseline on predicting incident psychopathology at follow-up. Cases with panic disorder (PD) at baseline were excluded from all analyses. FS/PA at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, PD, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and depression at follow-up (Odds Ratios, OR 1.62-5.80). FS/PA and help-seeking at baseline interacted on predicting incident PD (OR=0.09) and depression (OR=0.22) at follow-up in a way that FS/PA only predicted the respective disorders in individuals not seeking help at baseline. In those with FS/PA, a higher number of panic symptoms interacted with help-seeking on predicting incident PD (OR=0.63) in a way that a higher number of panic symptoms only increased the risk for PD in those without help-seeking at baseline. Help-seeking at baseline was not restricted to panic-specific interventions, but included treatment due to other psychological problems as well. Findings suggest that early help-seeking might modify psychopathology trajectories and prevent incident disorders in high-risk individuals with FS/PA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J
Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information. © The Author(s) 2014.
Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Depression is an illness increasingly constructed as a gendered mood disorder and consequently diagnosed in women more than men. The diagnostic criteria used for its assessment often perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes. The stigma associated with mental illness and the gendered elements of depression suggest there are likely numerous discourses that position, explain, and justify help-seeking practices. This qualitative study explored men's discourses of seeking help for depression. The methodological approach was informed by a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that drew on methods from discourse analysis. We conducted individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 38 men with depression, either formally diagnosed or self reported. The analysis revealed five discursive frames that influenced the men's talk about help-seeking and depression: manly self-reliance; treatment-seeking as responsible independent action; guarded vulnerability; desperation; and genuine connection. The findings are discussed within a broader context of social discourses of gender, the limitations of current help-seeking literature and the evidence for how men seek help in ways that extend traditional notions of medical treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gainsbury, Sally; Hing, Nerilee; Suhonen, Niko
Despite the negative consequences associated with gambling, few problem gamblers seek professional help. This study aimed to examine awareness of professional sources of help and help-seeking behaviour amongst regular and problem gamblers. Australian gamblers (N = 730) were recruited from the general population, multicultural gambling venues, and gambling helplines and treatment services. Surveys measured awareness of professional help services, help-seeking behaviour and motivators and barriers to seeking help. Gamblers demonstrated low awareness of professional help services. Problem gamblers born in Australia or who were divorced were more likely to seek help. Problem gamblers who were reluctant to seek help due to a desire solve the problem on their own and feeling ashamed for themselves or their family pride were more likely to have overcome these barriers to seek help. However, significant barriers related to denial of problem severity and concerns about the ability to access low cost services that cater for multicultural populations predicted a lower likelihood of having sought help. Public education should aim to de-mystify the treatment process and educate gamblers about symptoms of problem gambling to reduce shame, stigma, and denial and encourage help-seeking. Ongoing education and promotion of help services is required to increase awareness of the resources available, including targeted promotions to increase awareness of relevant services among specific populations.
Datta, J; Palmer, M J; Tanton, C; Gibson, L J; Jones, K G; Macdowall, W; Glasier, A; Sonnenberg, P; Field, N; Mercer, C H; Johnson, A M; Wellings, K
What is the prevalence of infertility and of help seeking among women and men in Britain? One in eight women and one in ten men aged 16-74 years had experienced infertility, defined by unsuccessfully attempting pregnancy for a year or longer, and little more than half of these people sought medical or professional help. Estimates of infertility and help seeking in Britain vary widely and are not easily comparable because of different definitions and study populations. A cross-sectional population survey was conducted between 2010 and 2012 with a sample of 15 162 women and men aged 16-74 years. Participants completed the Natsal-3 questionnaire, using computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) and computer-assisted self-interview (CASI). The reported prevalence of infertility was 12.5% (CI 95% 11.7-13.3) among women and 10.1% (CI 95% 9.2-11.1) among men. Increased prevalence was associated with later cohabitation with a partner, higher socio-economic status and, for those who had a child, becoming parents at older ages. The reported prevalence of help seeking was 57.3% (CI 95% 53.6-61.0) among women and 53.2% (CI 95% 48.1-58.1) among men. Help seekers were more likely to be better educated and in higher status occupations and, among those who had a child, to have become parents later in life. These data are cross-sectional so it is not possible to establish temporality or infer causality. Self-reported data may be subject to recall bias. The study provides estimates of infertility and help seeking in Britain and the results indicate that the prevalence of infertility is higher among those delaying parenthood. Those with higher educational qualifications and occupational status are more likely to consult with medical professionals for fertility problems than others and these inequalities in help seeking should be considered by clinical practice and public health. Funding was provided by grants from the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust, with support
Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf
Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred seeing a
Full Text Available Exceptional Experiences (EE are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE.Almost all participants (91% experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6% than in persons with a disorder (35.1% (OR = 5.7. Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE.Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred
Dunn, Karee E.; Rakes, Glenda C.; Rakes, Thomas A.
Academic help-seeking is an invaluable learning strategy that has not yet received much attention in the distance education research literature. The asynchronous nature of distance education and many online courses presents an inherent roadblock to help-seeking. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of academic self-regulation,…
Buurman, M.B.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Scand J Caring Sci; 2013; 27; 406-413 Women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour: a qualitative interview study Aims: To explore women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour. Methods: We interviewed 26
Febles, Alberto; Ogden, Jane
Background Stress has become an increasingly common presentation in general practice. This may relate to an increase in stress in people's lives or a change in the meaning of stress and its conceptualisation as a legitimate problem for the GP. Aim To explore patients' beliefs about stress, their association with help-seeking behaviour, and to examine differences by ethnic group. Design of study Cross-sectional survey of general practice patients attending to see their GP. Setting An inner-city London practice. Method Consecutive general practice patients completed a questionnaire, which involved rating a series of symptoms for the extent to which they were associated with stress and describing their help-seeking behaviour. In total, 548 patients completed the questionnaire. Most patients described themselves as black Caribbean (n = 163), black African (n = 48), or white British (n = 187). Results The symptoms most frequently associated with stress were sleeping problems, feeling depressed, feeling panicky, having high blood pressure and feeling anxious; feeling ashamed, experiencing indigestion, having diarrhoea, feeling hot or cold, and suffering from constipation were least commonly associated to stress. This model of stress did not vary by ethnic group. Ethnic group differences were found for the association between the model of stress and help-seeking behaviour. Although white British patients consistently reported that the more a symptom was seen as indicative of stress, the more likely they would be to visit the doctor for that symptom, this association was not found for either black Caribbean or black African patients. Conclusions The belief that stress-related symptoms are a legitimate problem for the GP is not universal and varies according to ethnic group. Stress is used by different patients in different ways and offers a variable pathway to the doctor. PMID:15826434
Preminger, Jill E; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
This study used a qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of adults with hearing impairment on hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation. Two superordinate themes, Age and Brain, emerged from prior analyses and are investigated in the present article. In-depth semistructured interviews were completed in four countries with 34 adults (aged 26 to 96 years) with hearing impairment. Participants were asked to "Tell the story of your hearing." Participants included individuals with different levels of experiences in hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation. The themes of Age and Brain emerged from the data based on qualitative content analysis. These major themes were analyzed further using interpretative phenomenology to create models of themes and subthemes as they related to hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation expectations and experience. Age was discussed by 68% of the 34 participants. The data were sorted into three themes: Expectations, Self-Image, and Ways of Coping. Brain was discussed by 50% of the participants. The data were sorted into three themes: Cognitive Operations, Plasticity, and Mental Effort. Adults with hearing impairment think of their age and their brain as contributing to their hearing impairment, disability, help-seeking, and rehabilitation. Although hearing impairment associated with older age was typically construed as a stigma, not all perceptions of aging and hearing impairment were negative. Some participants viewed older age and its influence on relationships or priorities as a reason for seeking out hearing health care or as the determining factor in deciding to wear hearing aids (HAs). Some expected hearing impairment with older age, thus they found it easier to accept wearing HAs than they may have at a younger age. They discussed the brain in terms of the cognitive operations that may either inhibit or improve speech communication. Participants believed that they could train their brains to improve their communication (and
Limited knowledge is available on the conditions that contribute to women's help-seeking after domestic violence in South Africa. Qualitative research conducted with 17 abused women in shelters in South Africa indicate that the best interests of children are influential both in women's decisions to stay in abusive relationships and to seek help. The personal decisions of women to seek help are influenced by powerful social discourses on the best interests of the child. Policy and practice that advocate for the best interests of the child need to prioritize the safety of both mothers and their children in domestic violence situations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Li, Wendy Wen; Tse, Samson
This article uses examples of problem gambling and help seeking among Chinese international students in New Zealand to demonstrate place identity transformation. Two-wave narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Chinese international students. Place identity among participants is shown to be a process that features the transformation of participants' identity. While the casinos in which the Chinese international students gambled gave rise to negative place identities, positive place identities facilitated the participants to change their problematic gambling. Through the investigation of place identity transformation, this article promotes a strength-based, non-labelling approach to intervention for people who are concerned about their gambling behaviours. © The Author(s) 2015.
Pace, Kristin; Silk, Kami; Nazione, Samantha; Fournier, Laura; Collins-Eaglin, Jan
Awareness and utilization of mental health services on college campuses is a salient issue, particularly for first-year students as they transition into college life. The current study uses focus groups and surveys to test help-seeking messages for first-year students. In this formative research, Phase 1 focus-group participants (N = 47) discussed four message concepts related to awareness of symptoms of mental health problems and services available to students. Phase 2 participants (N = 292) viewed one of three message concepts and then completed items that measured their perceptions of the message. Focus-group results helped prioritize likely effectiveness of messages based on responses to message features and provided an understanding of mental health help-seeking perceptions among college students. The quantitative results indicate the messages have potential for increasing awareness of mental health issues, as well as promoting availability of campus resources. Implications for tailoring campaign messages to first-year students are discussed.
Jen Lee Teh
Full Text Available People with mental illness (PWMI often internalise negative beliefs (self-stigma or anticipate external sources of stigma (perceived stigma. This study examines how the two types of stigma affect the willingness to communicate for help – such communication is a vital aspect of good patient care and treatment outcome. Seventy-two participants from different ethnic backgrounds who had experienced mental illness responded to an online survey about their level of agreement with statements reflecting self- and perceived stigma and their willingness to disclose to various help sources. Face-to-face interviews with 17 of these respondents provided a deeper understanding of how stigma affected their help-seeking communication. The quantitative results seemed to suggest that self-stigma has a stronger negative correlation with willingness to seek help. Respondents preferred disclosing to friends above family members and health professionals. The results highlight the importance of building resilience to reduce self-stigma and thereby increase help seeking. Given the different ethnic backgrounds of the participants, there emerged some multicultural issues that would seem to contribute to persisting mental illness stigma. These and any cultural differences are discussed.
Spears, Barbara A; Taddeo, Carmel M; Daly, Anthony L; Stretton, Alexander; Karklins, Larisa T
To examine the relationship between young Australians' cyberbullying experiences, their help-seeking practices and associated mental well-being and social connectedness, with a view to informing national health and well-being agendas. An online survey was administered to young people aged 12-18 years (n = 2,338), recruited across Australia in year 2 of a larger 4-year study. Youth with no experience of cyberbullying had better well-being profiles and mental health overall. Conversely, cyberbully victims, had poorer well-being and mental health and tended not to engage with online support services, in spite of being more likely to be online after 11 pm. Parents and peers were identified as key sources of help for most young people when dealing with problems. Cyberbullying is a public health issue particularly for vulnerable youth whose mental health and well-being is impacted more than those not involved. As youth are spending increasing time in the 24/7 online environment, there is a need to develop initiatives that engage young people and encourage help-seeking online, whilst concomitantly building capacity of parents and peers to support their well-being.
O'Grady, Allison E Flittner; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Willerton, Elaine; Cardin, Jean-François; Topp, David; Mustillo, Sarah; Lester, Patricia
Over the past decade, many children have experienced a parental deployment, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Research in the general population has shown that while many services are available for families with children experiencing problems, the rate of service utilization is low. This study examined help-seeking processes in military families in relation to children's problems. We collected data on emotional and behavioral problems from a sample of military parents with children ranging in age from zero to 10 years. While prevalence of children with problems was similar to prior research, results in this study suggested that military parents were alert to problems. Although military parents' help-seeking processes were similar to those documented in civilian studies in many respects, we did not find a significant gender difference in the recognition of problems. Furthermore, we found that children's experiences of deployment were related to use of services. Families who used services most often relied on primary care providers. These findings suggest military families are mindful of the possibility of their children having problems. In addition, many families utilize civilian services. Therefore, it is important to ensure that front-line civilian providers fully understand the context of military family issues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Hopf, Suzanne C; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonagh, Sarah H; Wang, Cen; Rakanace, Epenisa N
To understand how a Fijian community supports people with communication disability (PWCD) and whether their support is associated with participant demographics. Thematic analysis of 144 questionnaires that asked about participants' actions to support a fictional child and adult with communication disability. Participant responses fell into two categories: what they would do directly (self-help) and people and places where they would seek assistance (help-seeking). Self-help behaviours included: making a change to their own communication style or mode; trying to change their own and others' behaviour; teaching new skills; praying; changing the physical environment; seeking information independently; assessing or observing; and, using traditional medicine, western medicine, or traditional belief practices. Help-seeking behaviours included seeking help from: other community members; education professionals; a professional in another country; spiritual leaders; traditional belief practitioners; traditional medicine practitioners; western health care practitioners; or, an alternative provider (e.g. home, orphanage, nursing home). Younger participants and those of iTaukei Fijian ethnicity were more likely to seek help from other community members. This Fijian community actively supports people with communication disability within available networks. Development of speech-language pathology services for people with communication disability living in similar communities should harness the informal knowledge within these networks.
Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Öberg, Marie; Nielsen, Claus; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E.
Objectives: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published between January 1980 and January 2009) on correlates of help-seeking behavior for hearing loss, hearing-aid uptake, hearing-aid use, and satisfaction with the device. Methods: Publications were identified by structured searches in Pubmed and Cinahl and by inspecting the reference lists of relevant articles. The articles covered different stages that a person with hearing impairment may go through: prior to hearing aid fitting, the period covering the fitting and the period post hearing aid fitting. Inclusion of articles occurred according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Thirty-nine papers were included that identified 31 factors examined in relation to the four outcome measures. These covered personal factors (e.g., source of motivation, expectation, attitude), demographic factors (e.g., age, gender) and external factors (e.g., cost, counseling). Only two studies covered the actual fitting process. There was only one factor positively affecting all four outcome variables. This was self-reported hearing disability. The vast majority of studies showed no relationship of age and gender with any of the outcome domains. Discussion and conclusion: Whereas research of the last 28 years yielded valuable information regarding relevant and irrelevant factors in hearing aid health care, there are still many relevant issues that have never been investigated in controlled studies. These are discussed. PMID:21109549
Sheerin, Christina; Berenz, Erin C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Amstadter, Ananda B
Epidemiologic studies of trauma highlight the imbalance between prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and help seeking. We investigated prevalence and correlates of help seeking and self-medication in Norwegian adults with trauma history with a focus on common posttrauma outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (alcohol or drug). Participants reporting at least 1 PTSD symptom (n = 307) were asked if they consulted with a doctor/another professional (help seeking) or used drugs/alcohol (self-medication) for trauma-related problems. PTSD, alcohol abuse or dependence (AUD), and drug use or dependence (DUD) were assessed via structured diagnostic interviews. Help seeking and self-medication were endorsed by 37.4% and 10.4% of the sample, respectively. As compared to the full sample, help seeking was endorsed at a greater rate in individuals with PTSD (χ2 = 8.59, p = .005) and at a lower rate in those with AUD (χ2 = 7.34, p Self-medication was more likely to be endorsed by individuals with PTSD than without PTSD (χ2 = 25.68, p self-medication (odds ratio [OR] = 4.56) and help seeking (OR = 2.29), while AUD was associated with decreased likelihood of help-seeking (OR = .29). When self-medication was included as a predictor, PTSD was no longer associated with help seeking, although AUD remained inversely associated. PTSD and AUDs have a nuanced relationship with formal help seeking as well as the use of substances to cope. Trauma-exposed individuals are likely engaging in adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, the latter of which may be compounding distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gilgen, D; Maeusezahl, D; Salis Gross, C; Battegay, E; Flubacher, P; Tanner, M; Weiss, M G; Hatz, C
Migration, particularly among refugees and asylum seekers, poses many challenges to the health system of host countries. This study examined the impact of migration history on illness experience, its meaning and help-seeking strategies of migrant patients from Bosnia and Turkey with a range of common health problems in general practice in Basel, Switzerland. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue, a data collection instrument for cross-cultural research which combines epidemiological and ethnographic research approaches, was used in semi-structured one-to-one patient interviews. Bosnian patients (n=36) who had more traumatic migration experiences than Turkish/Kurdish (n=62) or Swiss internal migrants (n=48) reported a larger number of health problems than the other groups. Psychological distress was reported most frequently by all three groups in response to focussed queries, but spontaneously reported symptoms indicated the prominence of somatic, rather than psychological or psychosocial, problems. Among Bosnians, 78% identified traumatic migration experiences as a cause of their illness, in addition to a range of psychological and biomedical causes. Help-seeking strategies for the current illness included a wide range of treatments, such as basic medical care at private surgeries, outpatients department in hospitals as well as alternative medical treatments among all groups. Findings provide a useful guide to clinicians who work with migrants and should inform policy in medical care, information and health promotion for migrants in Switzerland as well as further education of health professionals on issues concerning migrants health.
Zhang, Lange; Kou, Yu; Zhao, Yunlong; Fu, Xinyuan
Previous studies have found that when low-status group members are aware that their in-group is stereotyped as dependent by a specific out-group (i.e. a dependency meta-stereotype is salient), they are reluctant to seek help from the high-status out-group to avoid confirming the negative meta-stereotype. However, it is unclear whether low-status group members would seek more help in the context of a salient dependency meta-stereotype when there is low (vs. high) group boundary permeability. Therefore, we conducted two experiments to examine the moderating effect of permeability on meta-stereotype confirmation with a real group. In study 1, we manipulated the salience of the dependency meta-stereotype, measured participants' perceived permeability and examined their help-seeking behaviour in a real-world task. Participants who perceived low permeability sought more help when the meta-stereotype was salient (vs. not salient), whereas participants who perceived high permeability sought the same amount of help across conditions. In study 2, we manipulated the permeability levels and measured the dependency meta-stereotype. Participants who endorsed a high-dependency meta-stereotype sought more help than participants who endorsed a low-dependency meta-stereotype; this effect was particularly strong in the low-permeability condition. The implications of these results for social mobility and intergroup helping are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Vyas, Seema; Mbwambo, Jessie
Women's responses to partner violence are influenced by a complex constellation of factors including: psychological attachment to the partner; context of the abuse; and structural factors, all of which shape available options for women outside of the relationship. To describe women's responses to physical partner violence; and to understand the role of women's economic resources on their responses. Cross-sectional data from Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between women's economic resources and their responses to violence. In both sites, among physically abused women, over one-half experienced severe violence; approximately two-thirds had disclosed the violence; and approximately 40% had sought help. Abused women were more likely to have sought help from health services, the police and religious leaders in Dar es Salaam, and from local leaders in Mbeya. Economic resources did not facilitate women's ability to leave violent partners in Dar es Salaam. In Mbeya, women who jointly owned capital assets were less likely to have left. In both sites, women's sole ownership of capital assets facilitated help-seeking. Although support services are being scaled-up in Tanzania, efforts are needed to increase the acceptability of accessing such services.
Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi,1,2 Mahmoud Salam,1,2 Samiyah Alanazi,1 Manal Alweldawi,1 Najad Alsomali,1 Najla Alotaibi1 1King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, 2Science and Technology Unit, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD, including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB and partner support (PS on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.Methods: Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ, and Partner Support Scale (PSS. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders.Results: The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates (β=0.250, t=2.063 and lower PS scores (β=-0.238, t=-2.038, were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.043 and adj P=0.045, respectively. Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks (β=0.374, t=2.082, were more likely to
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people living with hip or knee pain do not consult health care professionals. Pain severity is often believed to be the main reason for help seeking in this population; however the evidence for this is contradictory. This study explores the importance of several potential risk factors on help seeking across different practitioner groups, among adults living with chronic hip or knee pain in a large community sample. Methods Health care utilization, defined as having seen a family doctor (GP during the past 12 months; or an allied health professional (AHP or alternative therapist during the past 3 months, was assessed in a community based sample aged 35 or over and reporting pain in hip or knee. Adjusted odds ratios were determined for social deprivation, rurality, pain severity, mobility, anxiety/depression, co-morbidities, and body mass index. Results Of 1119 persons reporting hip or knee pain, 52% had pain in both sites. Twenty-five percent of them had seen a doctor only, 3% an AHP only, and 4% an alternative therapist only. Thirteen percent had seen more than one category of health care professionals, and 55% had not seen any health care professional. In the multivariate model, factors associated with consulting a GP were mobility problems (OR 2.62 (1.64-4.17, urban living (OR 2.40 (1.14-5.04 and pain severity (1.28 (1.13-1.44. There was also some evidence that obesity was associated with increased consultation (OR 1.72 (1.00-2.93. Factors were similar for consultation with a combination of several health care professionals. In contrast, seeing an alternative therapist was negatively associated with pain severity, anxiety and mobility problems (adjusting for age and sex. Conclusion Disability appears to be a more important determinant of help-seeking than pain severity or anxiety and depression, for adults with chronic pain in hip or knee. The determinants of seeking help from alternative practitioners
Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kramer, Anne; King, Cheryl A
This study sought to describe self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students who are at elevated suicide risk and determine if these barriers vary by demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants were 165 non-treatment seekers recruited as part of a Web-based treatment linkage intervention for college students at elevated suicide risk (from September 2010 through December 2011). Data were collected using Web-based questionnaires. Two coders coded students' responses to an open-ended question about reasons for not seeking professional help. The most commonly reported barriers included perception that treatment is not needed (66%), lack of time (26.8%), and preference for self-management (18%). Stigma was mentioned by only 12% of students. There were notable differences based on gender, race, and severity of depression and alcohol abuse. Efforts aimed at reaching students at elevated risk for suicidal behavior should be particularly sensitive to these commonly described barriers.
Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N; Decker, Michele R
Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (Tjaden and Thoennes in Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2000) dating violence descriptions, (WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC, 2007) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n = 32) aged 13-24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term "relationship drama", and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., "disrespect". Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., "drama", lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols
Mundia, Lawrence; Shahrill, Masitah; Jaidin, Jainatul Halida; Jawawi, Rosmawijah; Mahadi, Mar Aswandi
Brunei started implementing its two main reformed teacher education programs, MTeach and MEd, in 2009. The reasons for these innovations included upgrading the standard of teacher training, increasing teaching effectiveness, and improving the quality of education in the country. The purpose of this study was to determine how student teachers coped with and sought help on the challenging programs. Using an online survey design, 76 randomly selected recent graduate teachers responded appropriately to questionnaires administered to them by email. The obtained quantitative research information included demographic, coping, and help-seeking data, all analyzed by SPSS Version 22. Participants endorsed both the productive and nonproductive coping strategies. In addition, they depended more on peers, teachers and internet sources for help. Four major findings were obtained. First, task-oriented coping was the most important and significant predictor of success on the MTeach and MEd programs. Second, females had a higher likelihood of success compared to males (OR = 22.760, 95 % CI for OR = 12.848-40.320). Third, students who consulted relevant internet resources had higher odds for succeeding compared to those who did not (OR = 2.237, 95 % CI 1.196-4.183). Fourth, less-able students who collaboratively worked with the more-able peers were nearly two times more likely to perform better than those who did not (OR = 1.982, 95 % CI 1.082-3.630). Coping and help-seeking were positively and significantly related to academic achievement on the two Brunei main teacher education programs. Evidence from the present study suggested that vulnerable and at-risk trainee teachers needed appropriate interventions (educational, counseling and psychotherapy) related to effective use of task-oriented coping and seeking help via cooperative learning, internet sources, and teacher consultations,. Further research with interview probes was recommended to gain additional information
Bruls, Vivian E J; Jansen, Nicole W H; de Bie, Rob A; Bastiaenen, Caroline H G; Kant, IJmert
When developing an effective early preventive strategy for employees and students with CANS (Complaints of Arm, Neck or Shoulder, not caused by acute trauma or systemic disease), insight in help seeking behaviour and knowledge of factors associated with help seeking behaviour within the target population, is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived hindrance is associated with help seeking behaviour, specifically in employees and students identified with CANS. Additionally, the associations of factors related to functioning and participation, work-environment and demographics with help seeking behaviour were explored in these groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees and students of two universities in the South of the Netherlands. The questionnaire included questions to assess (1) demographics, work/study and activity related factors (2) experience of CANS (3) perceived hindrance (4) help seeking behaviour. A subpopulation of the survey, consisting of those employees and students with self-reported CANS, received additional questionnaires to examine the impact of (1) participant characteristics (2) complaint and health related variables (3) functioning and participation (4) work-environment and social support, on help seeking behaviour. 37.3% of the employees and 41.4% of the students reported CANS. Of these, respectively 43.3% and 45.5%, did not seek help and had no intention to seek help either. Employees and students who had not sought help reported less hindrance, less perceived disabilities and shorter duration of complaints, compared those who did seek help. Employees and students within this group who had also no intention to seek help, perceived fewer disabilities and reported shorter duration of complaints. The absence of help seeking behaviour in respondents with CANS is a bottleneck for implementation of preventive strategies. In employees and students with CANS, help seeking behaviour is primarily
Gözüm, Sebahat; Tuzcu, Ayla
Many studies have determined that the time between women's realization of first symptoms and seeking help from a healthcare professional is more than 1 month. The situation is defined as delay in medical help-seeking behavior (MHSB). The purpose of this study was to determine the time elapsed between the first symptoms of breast cancer and MHSB, as well as the factors contributing to the delay. In this descriptive study, the data were collected from 132 patients who received a diagnosis of breast cancer and are receiving treatment in the Oncology Clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital. The questionnaire used in the study was structured in 3 parts: sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer history/screening behaviors, and psychological factors affecting MHSB. The elapsed time between patients' first symptoms and MHSB was classified into "normal" when it was less than 1 month, "delay" when it was between 1 and 3 months, "long-term delay" when it was more than 3 months, and "very serious delay" when it was more than 6 months. A total of 59.8% were classified as normal, 16.7% as delayed, 5.3% as a long-term delay, and 18.2% as a very serious delay after first symptoms. The delay in MHSB time was affected 18.55 times by "not caring/minding," 10.73 times by "fear," 7.13 times by "having more important problems," and 4.23 times by "realization of first symptoms" by themselves. Psychological factors were the most important determinants in delay. The MHSB time was less if those first realizing the symptoms were healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals should direct women to screenings and train them to interpret symptoms correctly.
Інна Вікторівна Каряка
Full Text Available This article outlines the main approaches to the study of human mental activity and the main features of displaying attitudes during this process. Relationship between attitudes and psychological human readiness to mental activity is revealed based on a systematic analysis of the literature. The conclusion of the feasibility of establishing psychological human readiness to mental activity by updating mechanisms of psychological attitude for this activity
Thompson, R Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel
This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging puzzle with an adult. The goal was to document whether age and gender interact with fluctuating difficulty to affect children's spontaneous help-seeking. ANOVAs indicated that girls used more help-seeking during difficult segments of the task, despite performance equal to the boys. This pattern was strongest among older girls, who outperformed all other children and used the most help-seeking. Partial correlations, controlling for solving time, indicated that age predicted children's help-seeking during the most difficult segments of the task, but only among girls. Gender differences in social-linguistic maturation and cognitive development are discussed within the framework of Vygotskian theory and related educational practice.
Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Teo, Alan R; Marsh, Heather E; Liebow, Samuel B L; Chen, Jason I; Forsberg, Christopher W; Nicolaidis, Christina; Saha, Somnath; Dobscha, Steven K
The media has devoted significant attention to anecdotes of individuals who post messages on Facebook prior to suicide. However, it is unclear to what extent social media is perceived as a source of help or how it compares to other sources of potential support for mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the degree to which military veterans with depression use social media for help-seeking in comparison to other more traditional sources of help. Cross-sectional self-report survey of 270 adult military veterans with probable major depression. Help-seeking intentions were measured with a modified General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Facebook users and nonusers were compared via t tests, Chi-square, and mixed effects regression models. Associations between types of help-seeking were examined using mixed effects models. The majority of participants were users of social media, primarily Facebook (n=162). Mean overall help-seeking intentions were similar between Facebook users and nonusers, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Facebook users were very unlikely to turn to Facebook as a venue for support when experiencing either emotional problems or suicidal thoughts. Compared to help-seeking intentions for Facebook, help-seeking intentions for formal (eg, psychologists), informal (eg, friends), or phone helpline sources of support were significantly higher. Results did not substantially change when examining users of other social media, women, or younger adults. In its current form, the social media platform Facebook is not seen as a venue to seek help for emotional problems or suicidality among veterans with major depression in the United States.
Wu, Chen; Wang, Kefang; Sun, Tao; Xu, Dongjuan; Palmer, Mary H
To develop and test a predictive model of women's help-seeking intention for urinary incontinence that was developed using the theory of planned behaviour and to identify factors that influenced women's help-seeking intention. Urinary incontinence is a chronic progressive condition if left untreated, but few women seek help from healthcare providers. Reasons for not seeking help have been studied in Western countries while relatively little information is available from mainland China. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was performed in this study. From May-October 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 346 incontinent women from three communities in Jinan using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected via a self-administered pencil-and-paper survey that consisted of a multi-item questionnaire. Predictive model estimation was performed using structural equation model. The resultant model demonstrated that incontinent women's help-seeking intention could be predicted by their perceived self-efficacy and perceived social impact from urine loss. Perceived self-efficacy was the negative predictor, while the perceived social impact was the positive one. Overall, the predictive model explained 36% of the variance for incontinent women's help-seeking intention. The theory of planned behaviour can be used to predict help-seeking intention in women who have urinary incontinence. Community nurses should increase patients' help-seeking intention by addressing perceived social impact and perceived self-efficacy in managing incontinent symptoms. Our findings suggest that high perceived self-efficacy in dealing with incontinent symptoms could hinder incontinent women from seeking help from healthcare providers. The strong social impact women perceived, however, facilitates intention to seek help. Nurses should understand and address these factors through education and evidence-based practices to increase help-seeking
Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Lo, Ruby Tsz-Fung; Chan, Pik-Ying; Wong, John Kit-Shing; Lau, Chu-Leung; Kam, Chak-Wah
Healthcare services constitute the first formal support that many intimate partner violence (IPV) victims receive and a link to formal welfare and psychological support. The help-seeking behavior for psychosocial support, e.g., Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) onsite counseling, is key to developing effective support for IPV victims. This study aimed to strengthen the health-welfare support link to aid IPV prevention in AEDs by investigating the acceptance and refusal of on-site counseling by IPV victims. A retrospective cohort study retrieved and reviewed all records of IPV victims presenting at the AEDs of two Hong Kong hospitals between 2010 and 2014. A total of 157 male and 823 female IPV victims were identified, 295 of whom refused on-site counseling. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between help-seeking and demographic and violent injury-related factors. The odds of help-seeking via on-site counseling were significantly lower for victims with mental illness (aOR=0.49; 95% CI=0.27, 0.88). After controlling for all demographic characteristics, mental illness, and drug abuse information, sex remained an independent predictor of help-seeking (aOR=2.62; 95% CI=1.45, 4.74); victims who had experienced >2 abuse incidents were more likely to seek help than those who had experienced ≤2 abuse incidents (aOR=1.90; 95% CI=1.11, 3.26). The factors associated with help-seeking from on-site services by IPV victims reflect the need for multidisciplinary collaborative work aimed at IPV prevention. Healthcare professionals require training on how to promote help-seeking behavior targeted specifically for male and female IPV victims according to their needs and preferences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Almutairi, Adel F; Salam, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Samiyah; Alweldawi, Manal; Alsomali, Najad; Alotaibi, Najla
Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD), including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds. This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB) and partner support (PS) on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ), and Partner Support Scale (PSS). Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders. The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates (β=0.250, t=2.063) and lower PS scores (β=-0.238, t=-2.038), were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.043 and adj P=0.045, respectively). Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks (β=0.374, t=2.082), were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.045) compared to those with <6 weeks of postpartum duration. The prevalence of PPD among the study participants was high, especially among higher para women who underwent normal delivery and women ≥6 weeks post cesarean-section, in comparison with the results in other studies. PPD is reduced by enhancing women's GHSB and
Chase, Liana E; Cleveland, Janet; Beatson, Jesse; Rousseau, Cécile
In 2012 the Canadian government made significant cuts to its historically strong federal refugee health coverage plan. While this policy had negligible effects on the level of coverage provided to asylum seekers in Quebec, there is evidence that this group nonetheless experienced reduced healthcare access during the period of polarized national debate that ensued. This study engaged the "candidacy" model of healthcare access to illuminate factors contributing to the observed gap between entitlement and access. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with asylum seekers in Montreal to elicit narrative accounts of difficulties encountered in the pursuit of healthcare. Thematic content analysis in conjunction with a holistic examination of help-seeking trajectories revealed several important barriers to obtaining care, including widespread confusion and misinformation about refugee health coverage, cumbersome administrative procedures specific to asylum seekers, and long wait times. Feelings of marginalization and insecurity associated with precarious migratory status appeared to amplify the effects of these barriers to care such that even a minor access difficulty could have dramatic effects on future help-seeking and access outcomes. Demonstrating awareness of public discourses interrogating their deservingness of health coverage, participants often interpreted access difficulties as evidence of health professionals' unwillingness to serve them. Such interpretations conspired with fears associated with the asylum claim process to suppress self-advocacy, further help-seeking, and at times even information-seeking. This finding is particularly significant in that it suggests a mechanism through which hostile public representations of forced migrants-increasingly prevalent in Western host countries-can themselves endanger the physical, psychological, and social health of highly disadvantaged populations, even in the presence of strong entitlement policies
Full Text Available Perla Werner,1 Jeremia Heinik,2 Shmuel Giveon,3 Dikla Segel-Karpas,1 Eliezer Kitai41Center for the Research and Study of Aging, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Margoletz Psychogeriatric Center, Ichilov Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Clalit Health Services, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Department of Family Medicine, Leumit Health Services, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild neurocognitive disorder is a well-established clinical entity included in current diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease and in major psychiatric classifications. In all, a loosely defined concern obtained from conceptually different sources (the individual, a knowledgeable informant, or a clinician regarding a decline in cognition and change in functioning constitutes a sine qua non for initiating diagnostics and providing therapy and support. This concern in practice may translate into complex proactive help-seeking behavior. A better understanding of help-seeking preferences is required in order to promote early detection and management.Objectives: To compare help-seeking preferences of family physicians and the lay public in the area of MCI.Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 197 family physicians (self-administered and 517 persons aged 45 and over from the lay public (face to face. Information regarding familiarity with MCI and help-seeking preferences was assessed.Results: The vast majority in both samples reported that family physician, spouse, and children are the most highly recommended sources of help-seeking. In regard to professional sources of help-seeking, a higher percentage of the physicians than the lay public sample consistently recommended seeking help from nurses and social workers and psychiatrists, but a higher percentage of the lay public recommended turning to a neurologist for help
Calton, Jenna M; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Gebhard, Kris T
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive and devastating social problem that is estimated to occur in one of every four opposite-sex relationships and at least one of every five same-sex romantic relationships. These estimates may not represent violence against those who identify as transgender or genderqueer, and very little comprehensive research has been conducted on IPV within these populations. One statewide study on IPV found rates of IPV were as high as one of every two transgender individuals. In order to cope with the effects of abuse or leave an abusive partner, many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and genderqueer (LGBTQ) IPV survivors seek support from others. However, LGBTQ IPV survivors may experience unique difficulties related to their sexual orientation and gender identity when seeking assistance. This article reviews the literature on LGBTQ IPV and suggests three major barriers to help-seeking exist for LGBTQ IPV survivors: a limited understanding of the problem of LGBTQ IPV, stigma, and systemic inequities. The significance and consequences of each barrier are discussed, and suggestions for future research, policy, and practice are provided. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Religion and religious practices can affect Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD symptom expression and influence the way that people with OCD seek advice or treatment. This study investigated the expression of OCD symptoms and help seeking for religious OCD symptoms among practicing Muslim women. Method: Five practicing Muslim women aged 33 to 45 years who had immigrated to Australia from Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan and were diagnosed with OCD washing subtype (OCD-W took part in semi-structured interviews. Data Analysis: Thematic Analysis within a scientific realist framework was employed. Results: The most common compulsions reported by participants were performing excessive washing and repeating rituals before prayer, and these behaviours were carried out to prevent being punished by God. All participants had sought help for their OCD symptoms from an Imam before seeking help from a mental health professional, and the delay between symptom onset and OCD diagnosis by a psychiatrist ranged from 5 to 13 years. Conclusion: Effective evidence-based interventions for OCD are available and increasing awareness of OCD symptoms and treatment among Imams has the potential to reduce the delay between symptom onset and access to treatment for practicing Muslims who seek help and support.
Czyz, E. K.; Horwitz, A. G.; Eisenberg, D.; Kramer, A.; King, C.A.
Research objectives This study sought to describe self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students who are at elevated suicide risk and determine if these barriers vary by demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants Participants were 165 non-treatment seekers recruited as part of a web-based treatment linkage intervention for college students at elevated suicide risk (from September 2010 through December 2011). Methods Data were collected using web-based questionnaires. Two coders coded students’ responses to an open-ended question about reasons for not seeking professional help. Results The most commonly reported barriers included: perception that treatment is not needed (66%); lack of time (26.8%); preference for self-management (18%). Stigma was mentioned by only 12% of students. There were notable differences based on gender, race, and severity of depression and alcohol abuse. Conclusions Efforts aimed at reaching students at elevated risk for suicidal behavior should be particularly sensitive to these commonly described barriers. PMID:24010494
Meyer, Carly; Hickson, Louise; Lovelock, Karen; Lampert, Michelle; Khan, Asad
To examine the influence of audiological and non-audiological factors on help-seeking for hearing impairment (HI) in older adults. A retrospective research design was employed. Participants completed 14 measures, after which two multivariate, multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to the data to determine which factors were associated with consultation for HI and hearing aid uptake. Three-hundred-and-seven individuals who were 60 years or older and who presented with a unilateral or bilateral HI participated in the study. Non-hearing aid owners were assigned to a non-consulter group (n=55) or a consulter group (n=92); hearing aid owners were assigned to an unsuccessful hearing aid owner group (n=75) or a successful hearing aid owner group (n=85). A similar combination of factors was associated with the decisions to consult a health professional about HI and/or to adopt hearing aids. The most important factors related to attitudinal beliefs (e.g. perceived benefits of hearing aids) and external cues to action (e.g. support from significant others). Greater HI also influenced consultation and adoption of hearing aids. Findings highlight the importance of non-audiological factors in hearing rehabilitation to improve consultation for HI and hearing aid adoption.
Full Text Available In order to determine the reason for that, in terms of traditional help-seekingbehavior, we compared the patients who admitted to our psychiatric clinic topatients who admitted to rehabilitation clinic which, in our opinion, has similarpatterns of disease because of the chronic and long-term treatment.We compared those patients who accepted to involve our study from psychiatryas well as rehabilitation clinic. X2 and student-t test were used for statisticalanalyzes. P<0.05 was accepted as significant.We found that traditional help-seeking behavior rate was 57% for psychiatryclinic and 15% for rehabilitation clinic (p<0.01. The most common admissionplace for traditional help-seeking behavior was the religious area, the most frequentdiagnosis was jinn possession, and the most common treatment advised was amulet.The rate of traditional help-seeking behavior is high in psychiatric patients.Traditional help-seeking behavior may cause stopping the psychiatric therapy andmay cause a delay in admitting psychiatric clinic. In psychiatric patients, it isinsufficient to relate the traditional help-seeking behavior to duration of disease,educational status, insufficient information that the patients have about theirdisease or response to treatment.
Rosseel, Laura; Geeraerts, Dirk; Speelman, Dirk
Since the introduction of the matched guise technique in the 1960s (Lambert et al. 1960), there has been little methodological innovation in the field of language attitude research (Speelman et al. 2013). In social psychology, by contrast, a considerable number of new methods to measure implicit attitudes has been developed in the past two decades (Gawronski & De Houwer 2014). It is only recently that sociolinguistics has started to explore the potential of some of these social psychological ...
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Oswald, Ramona F; Khaw, Lyndal; Fonseca, Carol
Mothers in same-sex relationships face unique challenges when help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV). Formal helping systems often invalidate their family relationships, leaving them vulnerable and distrustful when help seeking. To better understand their experiences, the authors interviewed 24 lesbian/bisexual mothers who were either in or had left abusive same-sex relationships. Increasing severity of violence, effects of violence on children and families, and "being tired" influenced their definitions of the situation. Decisions to seek formal help appeared to be influenced by their support from informal networks and perceived stigma related to the intersection of IPV and being lesbian or bisexual.
Alikaj, Valbona; Vyshka, Gentian; Spaho, Elga; Skëndi, Valmira; Suli, Anastas
The goal of this study was to investigate all the potential routes to Child/Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic-University Hospital Center (CAPC-UHC) in Tirana. The article provides demographic data, as well as further information on the types and amounts of services children/adolescents received during the process of seeking help related to different diagnoses. The study was conducted in CAPC-UHC in Tirana, during September 2006-September 2007. Data were collected from 162 children and their parents using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Pathways Encounter Form. The sample consisted of 53.1% (86) males and 46.9% (76) females. The mean age was 9.5+4.4 years. Out of the total number of cases that sought care to CAPC; 55, 6% were referred by parents themselves, while the rest were referred by others. There was a significant effect of gender to intervals from the onset of problem to the first career (F=10.803, p=0.001), as well as a significant effect of gender to total time intervals from the onset till the specialist of child mental health problem (F=6.742, p=0.01). This is the first study investigating the help seeking process to psychiatric care in CAPC Tirana-Albania and may serve as a good start in generating evidence based on child/adolescent mental health service. Further multicentre studies will enhance the values of the findings, since the present study was performed in a single service, and in a setting lacking previous works with similar scope that could have served as references.
McAndrew, Annamaria J; Menna, Rosanne
Disordered eating is common among young women, but rates of help-seeking are remarkably low. Studies attempting to understand how disordered eating is perceived by young women have exposed participants to fictional vignettes that describe characters exhibiting eating pathologies, and assessed beliefs about the women's issues. These studies have informed our understanding of how young women perceive disordered eating in other women, but do not address the question of how disordered eating is perceived in oneself. In the present study, we randomly assigned 204 young women (ages 18-25 years) to one of two conditions (self or other). In each condition, participants read a hypothetical vignette in which the main character (the participant herself [self] or another female student [other]) exhibited disordered eating, and answered questions about her behavior and her need for help. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlations, chi square tests, multiple regression analyses, multinomial logistic regressions, and independent samples t-tests. Overall, results supported the existence of a broad discrepancy in how young women perceive disordered eating in themselves versus in other women. Specifically, relative to women who read the vignette about another individual, women who read the vignette about themselves were more likely to attribute their behavior to a general mental health issue (as opposed to an eating disorder); to believe that they were able to cope with their problem alone; and to believe that they did not need to seek help for their eating behaviors (despite perceiving fewer barriers to doing so). These findings highlight the need for empirical research to consider this self-other discrepancy when using findings to inform the development of disordered eating prevention and intervention programs; if not considered, we risk developing programs based on information that may not accurately represent the young women in need of services.
Cotter, Pádraig; Kaess, Michael; Corcoran, Paul; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Keeley, Helen; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Resch, Franz; Postuvan, Vita; Värnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta
To screen and clinically interview European adolescents reporting current suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) and investigate attendance at the clinical interview. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Project was carried out in 11 European countries. A baseline questionnaire was completed in school by 12,395 adolescents (mean age 14.9; SD 0.9). Those who screened positive for suicidality (attempting suicide and/or serious suicidal ideation or plans) in the past 2 weeks were invited to a clinical interview with a mental health professional. Of the 12,395 adolescents, 4.2 % (n = 516) screened positive for current suicidality. The prevalence ranged from 1.1 % in Hungary to 7.7 % in Israel (p screened positive subsequently attended the clinical interview. Female students were more likely to attend for interview (42.0 % versus 30.6 %, p = 0.010). The attendance rate varied considerably across countries, from 5.7 % in Italy to 96.7 % in France (p school as the only interview setting (Mean attendance rate, MAR = 88 vs. 31 %, p = 0.006) and arranging the interview within 1 week of contacting the student (MAR = 64 vs. 23 %, p = 0.013). The greater the travel time to interview, the lower the attendance rate (Pearson's r = -0.64, p = 0.034). Independent of the variation by country, at the individual level, adolescents with more depressive symptoms and a recent suicide attempt more often attended for interview. A high rate of current suicidality was found amongst European adolescents. However, the majority of these displayed limited help-seeking behaviour. Future studies should investigate ways of making screening programmes and other interventions more acceptable and accessible to young people, especially young males.
Anastas Suli MD, Prof
Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate all the potential routes to Child/Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic-University Hospital Center (CAPC-UHC in Tirana. The article provides demographic data, as well as further information on the types and amounts of services children/adolescents received during the process of seeking help related to different diagnoses .Method: The study was conducted in CAPC-UHC in Tirana, during September 2006-September 2007. Data were collected from 162 children and their parents using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and Pathways Encounter Form. The sample consisted of 53.1% (86 males and 46.9% (76 females. The mean age was 9.5 + 4.4 years .Results: Out of the total number of cases that sought care to CAPC; 55, 6% were referred by parents themselves, while the rest were referred by others. There was a significant effect of gender to intervals from the onset of problem to the first career (F = 10.803, p=0.001, as well as a significant effect of gender to total time intervals from the onset till the specialist of child mental health problem (F = 6.742, p=0.01.Conclusions: This is the first study investigating the help seeking process to psychiatric care in CAPC Tirana-Albania and may serve as a good start in generating evidence based on child/adolescent mental health service. Further multicentre studies will enhance the values of the findings, since the present study was performed in a single service, and in a setting lacking previous works with similar scope that could have served as references.
Full Text Available The behavior of Chinese patients seeking help for erectile dysfunction (ED has not been described in detail. This was an observational study conducted using an outpatient clinic-based questionnaire survey of ED patients. From 2008 to 2009, physicians in 10 medical centers in China enrolled 2693 men (aged 25-70 years diagnosed with ED. The diagnosis was based on the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 Questionnaire. The men completed a survey that asked questions about demographics, marital status, education level and household income as well as help-seeking behavior and awareness of medical therapy. The mean age of the 2693 men was 43.4 ± 5.3 years; 73% were <50-years-old and 49% had a high household income. The mean time between noticing ED and taking the first treatment was 4.3 ± 2.1 months. Of the 2577 respondents, physicians (54% and the internet (52% were most frequently consulted sources for information about ED. Young ED patients preferred using the internet and older patients preferred consulting with physicians. Western medicine (19% and traditional Chinese medicine (16% were most frequently used for treatment. Young ED patients preferred to first search the internet for information, whereas older patients first asked physicians for help. Side effects of treatment were the greatest concern, especially for older patients. Physicians and the internet are frequently consulted for ED information and therapy. On the basis of these survey results, we believe that physicians in China should enhance health education about ED, especially via the internet.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…
van Dolen, Willemijn M.; Weinberg, Charles B.; Ma, Leiming
Objective: This study examined the influence of community unemployment and divorce rate on child help-seeking behavior about violence and relationships via a telephone and Internet helpline. Methods: Time series analysis was conducted on monthly call volumes to a child helpline ("De Kindertelefoon") in the Netherlands from 2003 to 2008…
Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.; Tangen, Truls N.
This study explores relations between students' perceptions of the classroom goal structures, their personal goal orientations, mathematics anxiety, and help-seeking behavior in mathematics classes. The respondents were 309 Norwegian middle school students. The data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The analyses…
Rietdijk, J.; Ising, H.K.; Dragt, S.; Klaassen, R.; Nieman, D.; Wunderink, L.; Cuijpers, P.; Linszen, D.; van der Gaag, M.
Knowledge on associations between ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis and on non-psychotic psychopathology in help-seeking populations is limited with respect to differences between male and female patients. The present study tests the hypothesis that both social anxiety and depression
Davies, Hilary; Marcu, Afrodita; Vedsted, Peter
OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic inequalities in recognising signs and symptoms of cancer may result in inequalities in timely help-seeking and subsequent prognosis of breast cancer. We explored the mediating role of symptom attribution and concern on the relationship between level of education and help-...
Kedde, Harald; van de Wiel, Harry; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Bender, Jim
The aim of this study was to investigate help-seeking behavior in relation to sexual problems among people with a disease or an impairment, as well as determining factors that promote people to seek professional sexological help. A total of 341 respondents (224 men, 117 women) participated.
van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.; Ma, L.
Objective This study examined the influence of community unemployment and divorce rate on child help-seeking behavior about violence and relationships via a telephone and Internet helpline. Methods Time series analysis was conducted on monthly call volumes to a child helpline (‘De Kindertelefoon’)
Siebert, Erin C.; Stewart, David G.; Hu, Emily M.; Estoup, Ashley C.; Underbrink, Erin G.; Moore, Lindsay S.
Our aim was to test the hypothesized relationships between trauma exposure and alcohol-related problems, mediated by PTS symptoms, moderated by prior trauma exposure and help-seeking. Participants were 244 members of a private university who were enrolled or employed at the school on the date of a campus shooting. Online measures were distributed…
Mackinnon Andrew J
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there has been very little work investigating behaviour changes induced by interventions that are designed to increase help seeking. The present paper examines the effects of two Internet depression websites on help seeking. Methods 414 individuals with elevated scores on a depression assessment scale were randomly allocated to a depression information website, a cognitive-behavioural skills training website (CBT or an attention control condition. Reports of help seeking for specific treatments, from specific sources and for categories of treatments were assessed. Results Relative to the control, the depression information site was associated with decreases in seeking support from friends and family, the use of music and of everyday treatments and no increase in seeking evidence based interventions. The CBT site was associated with the report of help seeking for CBT, massage and exercise. Conclusion Methods to encourage the use of evidence-based treatments need further research to determine whether the assistance sought is evidence based and whether there are unintended effects.
Havinga, Petra J; Hartman, Catharina A; Visser, Ellen; Nauta, Maaike H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A
BACKGROUND: Offspring of patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders are at high risk of developing a similar disorder themselves. Early recognition and treatment may have substantial effects on prognosis. The main aim of this study was to examine the time to initial help-seeking and its
Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre
Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise. © The Author(s) 2013.
Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde
Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…
Hutchinson, Kathleen M.
Physical and psychological aggression in dating relationships is prevalent among college students (e.g., Kaura & Lohman, 2007; Shook, Gerrity, Jurich, & Segrist, 2000; Straus, 2008), and students experiencing dating IPV are most likely to speak to friends (Prospero & Vohra-Gupta, 2008). The current study investigated differences in…
Sunyoong Kim; Junmo Sung; Jaeahm Park; Stephen W Dittmore
.... The satisfaction derived from participation in leisure activities with positive leisure attitudes effects psychological well-being by decreasing stress and loneliness, while also enhancing personal self-esteem...
Clement, S; Schauman, O; Graham, T; Maggioni, F; Evans-Lacko, S; Bezborodovs, N; Morgan, C; Rüsch, N; Brown, J S L; Thornicroft, G
Individuals often avoid or delay seeking professional help for mental health problems. Stigma may be a key deterrent to help-seeking but this has not been reviewed systematically. Our systematic review addressed the overarching question: What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking for mental health problems? Subquestions were: (a) What is the size and direction of any association between stigma and help-seeking? (b) To what extent is stigma identified as a barrier to help-seeking? (c) What processes underlie the relationship between stigma and help-seeking? (d) Are there population groups for which stigma disproportionately deters help-seeking? Five electronic databases were searched from 1980 to 2011 and references of reviews checked. A meta-synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies, comprising three parallel narrative syntheses and subgroup analyses, was conducted. The review identified 144 studies with 90,189 participants meeting inclusion criteria. The median association between stigma and help-seeking was d = - 0.27, with internalized and treatment stigma being most often associated with reduced help-seeking. Stigma was the fourth highest ranked barrier to help-seeking, with disclosure concerns the most commonly reported stigma barrier. A detailed conceptual model was derived that describes the processes contributing to, and counteracting, the deterrent effect of stigma on help-seeking. Ethnic minorities, youth, men and those in military and health professions were disproportionately deterred by stigma. Stigma has a small- to moderate-sized negative effect on help-seeking. Review findings can be used to help inform the design of interventions to increase help-seeking.
This study employed quantitative methodology to examine the role of age, gender, years of living in the United Kingdom, past experiences of therapy, acculturation, public stigma and internalised shame in predicting Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help of first generation Greek immigrants (N=120). \\ud \\ud The results of the correlational analysis suggested significant correlations between attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help, gender, age, years in the ...
Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Arango-Lopera, Victoria Eugenia; Wagner, Fernando A.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; García-Peña, Carmen
Objective Depression in the elderly is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, such as high health service utilization rates, low pharmacological compliance, and synergistic interactions with other comorbidities. Moreover, the help seeking process, which usually starts with the feeling “that something is wrong” and ends with appropriate medical care, is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the pathway of help seeking among older adults with depressive symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 60-year or older of community dwelling elderly belonging to the largest health and social security system in Mexico was done. A standardized interview explored the process of seeking health care in four dimensions: depressive symptoms, help seeking, help acquisition and specialized mental health. Results A total of 2,322 individuals were studied; from these, 67.14% (n=1,559) were women, and the mean age was 73.18 years (SD=7.02) 57.9% had symptoms of depression, 337 (25.1%) participants sought help, and 271 (80.4%) received help and 103 (38%) received specialized mental health care. In the stepwise model for not seeking help (χ2=81.66, p<0.0001), significant variables were female gender (OR=0.07 95% CI 0.511–0.958 p=0.026), health care use (OR 3.26 CI 95% 1.64–6.488, p=0.001). Number of years in school, difficulty in activities, SAST score and depression as a disease belief were also significant. Conclusions Appropriate mental health care is rather complex and is influenced by several factors. The main factors associated with help seeking were gender, education level, recent health service use, and the belief that depression is not a disease. Detection of subjects with these characteristics could improve care of elderly with depressive symptoms. PMID:23585359
Del Valle Del Valle, Gema; Carrió, Carmen; Belloch, Amparo
Help-seeking for mental disorders is a complex process, which includes different temporary stages, and in which the motivational variables play an especially relevant role. However, there is a lack of instruments to evaluate in depth both the temporary and motivational variables involved in the help-seeking process. This study aims to analyse in detail these two sets of variables, using a specific instrument designed for the purpose, to gain a better understanding of the process of treatment seeking. A total of 152 patients seeking treatment in mental health outpatient clinics of the NHS were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 21 had Agoraphobia, 18 had Major Depressive Disorder), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa, and 22 had Cocaine Dependence. The patients completed a structured interview assessing the help-seeking process. Disorder severity and quality of life was also assessed. The patients with agoraphobia and with major depression took significantly less time in recognising their mental health symptoms. Similarly, patients with major depression were faster in seeking professional help. Motivational variables were grouped in 3 sets: motivators for seeking treatment, related to the negative impact of symptoms on mood and to loss of control over symptoms; motivators for delaying treatment, related to minimisation of the disorder; and stigma-associated variables. The results support the importance of considering the different motivational variables involved in the several stages of the help-seeking process. The interview designed to that end has shown its usefulness in this endeavour. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. METHODS: The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach (1988, through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. FINDINGS: The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women's decision-making about utilizing health services. CONCLUSION: Help seeking
Calear, Alison L; Michelle Banfield; Batterham, Philip J; Alyssa R. Morse; Owen Forbes; Bradley Carron-Arthur; Martin Fisk
Background Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental heal...
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Al-Sultan, Omar A; Alghamdi, Qusay A; Almohaimeed, Ibrahim K; Alqannas, Sulaiman I
To evaluate the gender-specific difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the help-seeking behavior among gastroenterology outpatients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in 4 hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to identify depression and anxiety. A total of 438 patients completed the study questionnaire; 135 (31%) females, and 303 (69%) males. Compared with males, females had more depression symptoms (44% versus 32%, p=0.012), anxiety symptoms (34% versus 24%, p=0.036), anxiety-associated difficulty (65% versus 52%, p=0.012), but similar suicidal thoughts (14% versus 11%, p=0.347). Females had similar gastrointestinal complaints but longer duration of symptoms. In both females and males, the most common first interventions were using medications (63% versus 69%), and undergoing endoscopy (19% versus 15%), while very few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation `Roquia` (7% versus 8%). Compared with males, females were more likely to subsequently seek help at private clinics (23% versus 14%, p=0.014), or with a Quran therapist (11% versus 5%, p=0.012). There are clear gender-specific differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and associated perceived difficulty, but modest differences in help-seeking behavior. Female patients at the gastroenterology clinic may deserve more psychological attention to diagnose depression and anxiety and to alleviate their impact.
Ditte, Darja; Schulz, Wolfgang; Ernst, Gundula; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing in Europe as well as in the USA, but CAM courses are infrequently integrated into medical curricula. In Europe, but also especially in the USA and in Canada, the attitudes of medical students and health science professionals in various disciplines towards CAM have been the subject of investigation. Most studies report positive attitudes. The main aim of this study was to compare the attitudes towards CAM of medical and psychology students in Germany. An additional set of questions concerned how CAM utilisation and emotional and physical condition affect CAM-related attitudes. Two hundred thirty-three medical students and 55 psychology students were questioned concerning their attitudes towards CAM using the Questionnaire on Attitudes Towards Complementary Medical Treatment (QACAM). Both medical students and psychology students were sceptical about the diagnostic and the therapeutic proficiency of doctors and practitioners of CAM. Students' attitudes towards CAM correlated neither with their experiences as CAM patients nor with their emotional and physical condition. It can be assumed that German medical and psychology students will be reluctant to use or recommend CAM in their professional careers. Further studies should examine more closely the correlation between attitudes towards CAM and the students' worldview as well as their existing knowledge of the effectiveness of CAM.
Reddy, Linda A.; Forman, Susan G.; Stoiber, Karen C.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.
The present investigation examined 460 school psychology trainers' attitudes and beliefs about the conditions for the education and training of evidence-based practices (i.e., assessments and interventions) in training programs in the United States and Canada using an online survey. Trainer attitudes and beliefs about education and training in…
Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
Non-parent college students enrolled in a lifespan developmental psychology course were assessed at two time points (beginning of the semester and shortly after midterm) on knowledge and attitudes that would likely to be useful for the transition to parenthood. Students reported perceived change in knowledge and attitudes, and repeated measures…
Shin, Hong-Im; Jeon, Woo Taek
Medical education is perceived as being very stressful, which leads to declines in subjective well-being in medical students. Therefore, student counseling is becoming an exigent issue. The goal of this study was to investigate the academic difficulties and subjective well-being of medical students to identify their needs with regard to counseling. In addition, we analyzed help-seeking behaviors of students to develop an effective counseling program. We performed a survey (n=205) to determine the extent to which medical students encounter academic difficulties in their lives in medical school and how they attempt to resolve their problems. In addition, we used the Oxford Happiness Scale to examine the relationships between academic performance, previous help-seeking behavior, and happiness in medical students. Of various types of problems, 62% of medical students perceived learning difficulties to be the most serious issue in medical school. Despite encountering difficulties, more than 67% of students failed to seek help from faculty or their fellow students. There was a significant relationship between happiness score and previous help-seeking behavior. A lack of perceived seriousness was identified as the most significant barrier to seeking help. Access to counseling programs must be improved for students with apparent academic difficulties who do not seek counseling. Through such programs, students can learn and practice methods of coping with their difficulties and develop medical and professional competence.
Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S
Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Willging, Cathleen E; Salvador, Melina; Kano, Miria
This qualitative study examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in rural areas of the poor and multiethnic state of New Mexico access secular (professional and lay) and sacred (indigenous and Christian) mental health care resources. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to document the help-seeking processes of 38 rural LGBT people. Obtaining assistance was complicated by the ideal of self-reliance and the view of mental illness as a sign of weakness. Financial considerations and a lack of and community-based LGBT social networks also exerted substantial influence on help seeking. Many LGBT people would strategically remain silent about their sexuality or gender status and rely on their family ties to access the range of secular and sacred resources that are most commonly available in medically underserved rural communities. Although persons from sexual and gender minority groups often experience positive outcomes as a result of help seeking, some LGBT people remain vulnerable to anti-LGBT sentiments that persist within secular and sacred sectors of rural health care systems.
Abdollahi, Abbas; Hosseinian, Simin; Beh-Pajooh, Ahmad; Carlbring, Per
One of the biggest barriers in treating adolescents with mental health problems is their refusing to seek psychological help. This study was designed to examine the relationships between two forms of perfectionism, self-concealment and attitudes toward seeking psychological help and to test the mediating role of self-concealment in the relationship between perfectionism and attitudes toward seeking psychological help among Malaysian high school students. The participants were 475 Malaysian high school students from four high schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Structural equation modelling results indicated that high school students with high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism, high levels of self-concealment, and low levels of self-oriented perfectionism reported negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Bootstrapping analysis showed that self-concealment emerged as a significant, full mediator in the link between socially prescribed perfectionism and attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Moderated mediation analysis also examined whether the results generalized across men and women. The results revealed that male students with socially prescribed perfectionism are more likely to engage in self-concealment, which in turn, leads to negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help more than their female counterparts. The results suggested that students high in socially prescribed perfectionism were more likely to engage in self-concealment and be less inclined to seek psychological help.
Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie
The present study seeks to ascertain the attitudes of Portuguese psychology students (future psychologists) toward the development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Each participant (N = 182) read a vignette describing an adoption of a child by lesbian and gay persons. After reading the vignette, participants rated four different aspects of the future development of the adopted child (psychosocial adjustment, victimization, psychological disturbance, and normative sexuality). Furthermore, participants were asked about their gender, interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men, gender role attitudes, and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Future psychologists' attitudes toward the developmental outcomes of children adopted by lesbians and gay men were associated with negative attitudes toward non-heterosexuals, which in turn correlated to interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men and adherence to gender conservative values. These results clearly highlight the central role of social attitudes and the need for cultural competence training of future psychologists that encourages interpersonal contact with non-heterosexuals and discourages traditional gender roles and negative attitudes toward lesbian and gay men.
Bal, P. Matthijs; De lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van der Velde, Mandy E. G.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to
Bal, P. Matthijs; de Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.
Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes: a meta-analysis P.M. Bal, A H. De Lange, P.G.W Jansen Er M.E G Van der Velde, Gedrag en Organisatie, volume 23, March 2010, nr 1, pp 44-72. The meta-analysis investigated the relations between age and psychological contracts It was expected that
Immigrants constitute 24 percent of the Australian population, with skilled immigration becoming the fastest growing migration stream in Australia. Nonetheless, epidemiological data and systematic research of this population is lacking. Most recent Russian-speaking immigrants coming from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have arrived to Australia on the skilled immigrant program, and there is also a lack of research on this particular cultural group. Skilled immigrants are expected to adapt bette...
In this study, the author investigated differences in Japanese and American college students' tendencies to advise a hypothetical rape victim (their sister) to seek help from police, family members, or mental health professionals. Japanese students tended to encourage the victim to seek help from her family members, whereas American students tended to encourage her to seek help from police and mental health counselors. Cross-cultural discrepancies were marked by the following factors: (a) feelings of shame moderated advice to seek help from police; (b) minimization of rape mediated the likelihood to advise the involvement of police and mental health counselors; (c) attitudes toward mental health counselors mediated advice to seek help from them; and (d) the type of rape (stranger vs. date rape) moderated advice to report the crime to police.
Despite being vulnerable to mental health problems, college students are a population that is especially influenced by perceptions of peer mental health stigmatization (Quinn, Wilson, MacIntyre, & Tinklin, 2009), a known barrier to seeking mental health services (Corrigan, 2004a; Komiya, Good, & Sherrod, 2000; Vogel, Wade, & Haake,…
de Groot, Marieke; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert
Relatives who are bereaved by suicide likely consult their GP when they feel the need for professional help. GPs may play a key role in establishing who is at risk for adverse consequences of the loss as they are familiar with relatives' possible psychiatric vulnerabilities. The availability of evidence-based services for relatives of suicide victims is limited. Successful implementation of services needs analysis of key factors considered critical in the achievement of changes. We investigated GPs' management of help requests of relatives bereaved by suicide and examined determinants of GPs willingness to refer for evidence-based follow-up care. A cross-sectional survey among 488 GPs in the northern part of The Netherlands. A 44% response was achieved (n = 214) during the last 3 years, 38 (18%) were exposed to suicide, 21 (10%) to help requests without being exposed to suicide and 52 (24%) to both suicide and help requests. Out of 106 requests, 69 (65%) were handled by the GP; 60 (57%) were either directly or additionally referred, principally for mental health care. Suicide exposure and female gender were associated with the doctor's perception that follow-up care following a loss through suicide is useful. The perception that help is useful increased the likelihood of GPs' referral for evidence-based follow-up care. GPs support the availability of evidence-based follow-up care for relatives of suicide victims. To modify GPs' key role in referring relatives for it, GPs should be well informed of its usefulness and to whom.
de Groot, Marieke; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert
Methods. A cross-sectional survey among 488 GPs in the northern part of The Netherlands. Results. A 44% response was achieved (n = 214) during the last 3 years, 38 (18%) were exposed to suicide, 21 (10%) to help requests without being exposed to suicide and 52 (24%) to both suicide and help
Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…
Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Tracy, Hattie; Knepp, Kristen; Munetz, Mark R
The objective was to understand the experiences of parents as they sought psychological and specialized medical services for a loved one having a first episode of psychosis. The research method was qualitative and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews. Eleven parents of eight adolescent or young adult children consented to be interviewed. Data from these interviews were coded and sorted. Parents reported that many of their encounters resulted in delays in accessing treatment. These encounters were characterized by misattributions of the child's behavior, poor advice, misdiagnosis, disbelief in the seriousness of the child's condition, and an unwillingness to share information. But parents also reported that encounters with other individuals were characterized by helpful advice, emotional support, and suggestions as to how to access early intervention services. Encounters with many professionals were generally not helpful to parents. These encounters served as roadblocks to accessing proper treatment for their child. More publicity, outreach, and education are recommended in the professional community.
Cheng, Kun-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Three instruments (i.e., Internet-specific epistemic beliefs, self-regulation, and online academic help seeking questionnaires) were administered to 319 high school students with the aim of understanding the role of Internet specific epistemic beliefs and self-regulation in their online academic help seeking. Through a structure equation modeling…
Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A.
Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens® program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed…
Positive attitudes toward sex offenders can lead to favourable treatment outcomes and with psychology students being among the most likely graduates to move into offender rehabilitation, it is important to investigate the attitudes of this group. Students from British psychology and non-psychology courses read vignettes depicting an adult and a juvenile committing a contact sexual offence on a child, and completed modified versions of the attitudes towards sex offenders [ATS] questionnaire. T...
Intrieri, R C; Rapp, S R
Self-control skills are coping responses that help to organize one's own behavior and to manage cognitive and emotional responses that disrupt ongoing, adaptive behavior. The concept of self-control is applied to the chronically stressful caregiving experience. The present study examined the relationship between caregivers' role-specific burden and their self-control skillfulness. Forty-four caregivers of cognitively impaired spouses were assessed. Demographic characteristics, psychiatric symptomatology, role-specific burden, functional impairment of their spouse, and dispositional self-control skillfulness were measured. Highly skillful caregivers reported lower burden, fewer memory and behavior problems for their care recipient, and fewer psychiatric symptoms than less skilled caregivers. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control skillfulness was associated with caregiver burden net the effects of covariates including age, education, memory and behavior problems of the care recipient, and caregivers' psychological distress. Results suggest that self-control skills may play an important role in caregiving and may help to explain why some caregivers adapt better than others to their role.
Full Text Available Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea, the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23 and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44 among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69, but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28. Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.
Full Text Available Background: Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21–22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors. Results: We found that young men had larger peer social networks than young women and that young women's social networks centered on their households. For general health, both young men and young women often sought help from an older, maternal figure. However, for sexual health, young men consulted their group of peers, whereas young women were more likely to seek information from one individual, such as an older female friend or family member. Conclusion: These differences in help-seeking behaviors have important implications for the delivery of health information in South Africa and how health promotion is packaged to young men and women, especially for sexual and reproductive health issues. Peer educators might be very effective at conveying health messages for young men, whereas women might respond better to health information presented in a more confidential setting either through community health workers or mHealth technologies. Provision of or linkage to health services that is consistent with young people's health-seeking behavior, such as using peer educators and community health care workers, may increase the reach and utilization of these services among young people.
Meagley, Kathryn; Schriver, Brittany; Geary, Rebecca S; Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Stein, Aryeh D; Dunkle, Kristin L; Norris, Shane A
Young people constitute a major proportion of the general population and are influenced by a variety of factors, especially in regards to seeking help. An understanding of help-seeking behaviors among young people is important for designing and implementing effective targeted health services. We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 young adults aged 21-22 years in Soweto, South Africa, to explore the gender dimensions of social networks and help-seeking behaviors. We found that young men had larger peer social networks than young women and that young women's social networks centered on their households. For general health, both young men and young women often sought help from an older, maternal figure. However, for sexual health, young men consulted their group of peers, whereas young women were more likely to seek information from one individual, such as an older female friend or family member. These differences in help-seeking behaviors have important implications for the delivery of health information in South Africa and how health promotion is packaged to young men and women, especially for sexual and reproductive health issues. Peer educators might be very effective at conveying health messages for young men, whereas women might respond better to health information presented in a more confidential setting either through community health workers or mHealth technologies. Provision of or linkage to health services that is consistent with young people's health-seeking behavior, such as using peer educators and community health care workers, may increase the reach and utilization of these services among young people.
Gomez, D M; Gunarathna, C; Gunarathna, S; Gnanapragasam, K; Hanwella, Raveen
Mental illness contributes significantly to the global disease burden. There is great diversity in the manner in which mentally ill patients seek help as this is influenced by their beliefs and the opinion of the family-social support unit. The stigma associated with mental illness is a barrier to effective therapy in Sri Lanka where systematic public awareness programmes are minimal. To study the help-seeking behaviour and its impact on patients attending a psychiatry clinic of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was carried out among 120 attendees of the psychiatry clinic of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Sample was selected using systematic sampling. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. More than half the participants sought psychiatric care as their first help-seeking behaviour and found it significantly more useful than non-psychiatric care alternatives. The average time to seek psychiatric care, irrespective of the pathway to care, was less than one month. The recommendation of the family and the social support unit and perceiving that the symptoms were due to a mental illness were the key factors in determining help-seeking behaviour. The average expense on alternative care was zero. There was no significant difference on the impact to employment among those that chose psychiatry care initially from those that did not. Our findings suggest that mentally ill patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Colombo, are likely to seek psychiatric care early. This is probably due to better recognition and knowledge regarding available treatment.
Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene
Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.
Novick, Richard J.; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra M.
OBJECTIVE Asking for help in the operating room occurs within a surgical culture that has traditionally valued independence, decisiveness, and confidence. A tension exists between these deeply ingrained character traits and the new culture of team-based practice that emphasizes maximizing patient safety. The objective of this study is to explore surgeon-to-surgeon help-seeking behaviors during complex and unanticipated operative scenarios. STUDY DESIGN Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 14 consultant surgeons from multiple specialties. We used constructivist grounded theory to explore help-seeking experiences. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified iteratively using constant comparisons. SETTING The setting included 3 separate hospital sites in a Canadian academic health sciences center. PARTICIPANTS A total of 14 consultant surgeons from 3 separate departments and 7 divisions were included. RESULTS We developed the “Call-Save-Threat” framework to conceptualize the help-seeking phenomenon. Respondents highlighted both explicit and tacit reasons for calling for help; the former included technical assistance and help with decision making, and the latter included the need for moral support, “saving face,” and “political cover.” “The Save” included the provision of enhanced technical expertise, a broader intraoperative perspective, emotional support, and a learning experience. “The Threat” included potential downsides to calling, which may result in near-term or delayed negative consequences. These included giving up autonomy as primary surgeon, threats to a surgeon’s image as a competent practitioner, and a failure to progress with respect to independent judgment and surgical abilities. CONCLUSIONS Our “Call-Save-Threat” framework suggests that surgeons recurrently negotiate when and how to seek help in the interests of patient safety, while attending to the
Holt, Charlene; Milgrom, Jeannette; Gemmill, Alan W
Low uptake of treatment by women with symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety is consistently reported. This study examined whether a brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention delivered by Maternal and Child Health Nurses (MCHNs) during routine emotional health assessments improves help-seeking following childbirth. In this parallel two-group cluster randomised controlled trial, MCHNs delivered a MI intervention ('PRIMER', n = 20) or Routine Care (n = 20) at women's (n = 541) postnatal consultations. The primary outcome was help-seeking over the 12 months post-birth. Other outcomes were emotional distress measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Revised and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and barriers to help-seeking obtained by self-report via a checklist of potential barriers that was presented to women to select from if applicable. 27.4% of the sample experienced emotional distress over the 12 months post-birth. When comparing women who experienced emotional distress with those who did not, odds of seeking help were 4.0 times higher for the MI condition than Routine Care (p = .004). Of the women who sought help from a psychologist, 47.6% in the MI condition attended 6 + sessions versus 20.0% in Routine Care (numbers too small for reliable significance test). There was a non-significant trend of lower depression, anxiety and stress in the MI condition. Three risk factors for postnatal depression predicted help-seeking: antenatal anxiety (OR = 2.8, p = .002), depression history (OR = 2.5, p = .002) and self-esteem (OR = 0.7, p = .04). Common barriers to seeking help were thinking that one would or should be able to manage without help (endorsed by 11.1%). Treatment uptake for postnatal distress can be increased with MI. Training MCHNs in MI was feasible and valued. Given the devastating effects of depression, further research is needed to ascertain whether MI can improve mental health
Kummer, Sonja; Walter, Fiona M; Chilcot, Joseph; Scott, Suzanne
Advanced stage cancer is frequently attributed to delays in presentation to a healthcare professional. To reduce undue delay, it is imperative to understand the reasons underlying help-seeking behaviour and to measure those using valid and reliable tools. This systematic review aimed to identify how studies have measured psychosocial factors affecting time to presentation for (potential) cancer symptoms. A total of 35 studies were included. Most studies failed to use valid and reliable tools, and predominantly provided inconclusive results regarding psychosocial factors and time to presentation when no or minimal psychometric evidence was present. Consequently, measure selection and future measure development should be guided by psychometric principles.
Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.
Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate
The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281
Gough, Harrison G.
Attitudes toward specific issues in population covary, but are independent enough to warrant separate assessment. Five case vignettes were given to illustrate the personological implications of contrasting profile configurations. (Editor/RK)
Marchira, Carla R; Supriyanto, Irwan; Subandi; Soewadi; Good, Byron J
Help seeking is predictor of prognosis in the first episode of psychotic disorders. Caregivers play a key role in deciding from whom to seek help. In Indonesia, caregivers often seek help from alternative healers first and health professionals later, which is believed to result in delayed psychiatric treatment and risk for poor prognosis. This study measured the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in a sample of 100 persons being treated for a first episode of psychosis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. We attempted to measure and determine associations among caregivers' explanatory models, help seeking behaviors and DUP in this sample. The data were then statistically analyzed. The DUP for this population was very short. Most caregivers were parents or spouses (72 and 12%, respectively) and at the time of being interviewed described medical explanatory models for the psychotic symptoms (60%). A majority described having visited traditional/alternative healers prior to their visit to health professionals (67%). Despite this, the DUP was not significantly different for these two groups. Thus, first resort to traditional/alternative healers did not predict prolonged DUP. Further study with a larger sample is needed to better understand the relationship between care seeking, use of alternative healers and DUP in Indonesia.
Caulfield, MJ; Karageorghis, CI
We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s¼7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys’ minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not exce...
Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D
Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted that there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this article examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Celikel, Feryal Cam; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Koc, Medine; Etikan, Ilker; Yucel, Basak
The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and correlates of disordered eating attitudes in a university-sample Turkish female population and to evaluate the contribution of maternal psychopathologic symptoms and family functioning. Female students (n = 267; mean age, 21.21 +/- 1.88 years) completed the Eating Attitude Test, Beck Depression Inventory, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Symptom Check List 90-R, and Family Assessment Device. Mothers (n = 96; mean age = 46.41 +/- 5.31 years) completed the Beck Depression Inventory, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Symptom Check List 90-R. Twelve percent of the female college students had abnormal eating attitudes. Disordered eating attitudes were positively correlated with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and phobic anxiety. Eating attitude of the student sample was positively correlated with the mothers' obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, and general psychopathology and "affective involvement" in family functioning. It is necessary to pay attention to the levels of depression, alexithymia, anxiety, and obsession-compulsions, as well as family functioning and maternal psychopathology.
This study investigated the predictability of educational qualifications, age, achievement, motivation, career salience and problem solving ability on attitudes toward multiple-role planning (ATMRP) among employed women in Southwestern Nigeria. The participants were 254 employed women randomly selected from five ...
Yalvaç, Hayriye Dilek; Mutlu, Elif Aktan; Kotan, Zeynep; Özer, İbrahim; Karslıoğlu, Ersin Hatice; Çayköylü, Ali
This study aims to identify the help seeking behaviours of patients from two geographically distinct provinces of Turkey. A questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics and help seeking ways was applied to 49 schizophrenia patients from Van, 99 from Ankara. The ratio of patients seeking psychiatric help at the beginning of their illness was 76% in Ankara, the capital city, in contrast to 54% in Van (p = 0.01). Twenty-two percent of patients from Ankara and 69% from Van reported that non-psychiatric help seeking was the choice of their families (p seeking behaviours show regional variations. Religious help seeking behaviour is a major way of dealing with the illness. Psychoeducation is a crucial need both for patients and families.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265
Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Dolen, Willemijn M; Weinberg, Charles B; Ma, Leiming
This study examined the influence of community unemployment and divorce rate on child help-seeking behavior about violence and relationships via a telephone and Internet helpline. Time series analysis was conducted on monthly call volumes to a child helpline ('De Kindertelefoon') in the Netherlands from 2003 to 2008 and on the topics discussed (primarily Violence and Relationships) from 1994 to 2008 in answered calls and chats. As unemployment rises, the number of calls to the helpline increases. With increased unemployment, the share of conversations about violence and about relationships is found to be higher. When the divorce rate goes up, the number of calls to the helpline increases, but the share of Violence and of Relationships decreases. In addition, the share of contacts about Violence is increasing over time, while the share about Relationships is decreasing. Furthermore, the showing of violent movies is associated with fewer attempted helpline calls. Finally, seasonal variation in call volumes and the shares of calls about Violence and Relationships are found. Our data provide a unique and direct perspective on child help-seeking behavior. Our results suggest that more resources need to be devoted to resolving children's problems during times of unemployment as they seek more help particularly with respect to violence. Increased training of counselors with regard to children reporting incidents of violence is particularly important, as the share of contacts about violence is increasing over time and during a recession. Resources are especially needed as, on average, less than half of the calls to child helplines are actually answered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reilly, Nicole; Harris, Sheree; Loxton, Deborah; Chojenta, Catherine; Forder, Peta; Austin, Marie-Paule
Clinical practice guidelines now recommend that women be asked about their past or current mental health as a routine component of maternity care. However, the value of this line of enquiry in increasing engagement with support services, as required, remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine whether assessment of past or current mental health, received with or without referral for additional support, is associated with help-seeking during pregnancy and the postpartum. A subsample of women drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (young cohort) who reported experiencing significant emotional distress during pregnancy (N=398) or in the 12 months following birth (N=380) participated in the study. Multivariate analysis showed that women who were not asked about their emotional health were less likely to seek any formal help during both pregnancy (adjOR=0.09, 95%CI: 0.04-0.24) and the postpartum (adjOR=0.07, 95%CI: 0.02-0.13), as were women who were asked about these issues but who were not referred for additional support (antenatal: adjOR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.15-0.45; postnatal: adjOR=0.14, 95%CI: 0.07-0.27). However, considerable levels of consultation with general practitioners, midwives and child health nurses, even in the absence of referral, were evident. This study demonstrates that enquiry by a health professional about women's past or current mental health is associated with help-seeking throughout the perinatal period. The clinical and resource implications of these findings for the primary health care sector should be considered prior to the implementation of future routine perinatal depression screening or psychosocial assessment programmes. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…
del Río, Asunción Álvarez; Marván, Ma Luisa
Euthanasia has become the subject of ethical and political debate in many countries including Mexico. Since many physicians are deeply concerned about euthanasia, due to their crucial participation in its decision and implementation, it is important to know the psychological meaning that the term 'euthanasia' has for them, as well as their attitudes toward this practice. This study explores psychological meaning and attitudes toward euthanasia in 546 Mexican subjects, either medical students or physicians, who were divided into three groups: a) beginning students, b) advanced students, and c) physicians. We used the semantic networks technique, which analyzed the words the participants associated with the term 'euthanasia'. Positive psychological meaning, as well as positive attitudes, prevailed among advanced students and physicians when defining euthanasia, whereas both positive and negative psychological meaning together with more ambivalent attitudes toward euthanasia predominated in beginning students. The findings are discussed in the context of a current debate on a bill proposing active euthanasia in Mexico City. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Brodwin, Martin G.
Developments that laid the groundwork for the modern psychology of attitude began with early Greek philosophy. Conceptions of the cosmologists during the Golden Age of Greek Civilization and the Sophist movement served as a link between mythology and science. Contributions of British Empiricism and German Experimentalism were instrumental to the…
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Rodolfo Augusto Matteo Ambiel
Full Text Available This research aimed to verify the attitudes of the traffic-psychologic evaluation process. There were 50 participants getting their first permission or renewing the license to drive. They answered to a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Psychologic Evaluation Service Scale. The Results indicated that the participants had a favorable attitude towards the evaluation. The candidates for the first driving license gave importance to the process while the candidates with undergraduate education reduced its value. There were no significances differences of sex or age. There were statistically significant and positive correlations between the factors: importance, efficiency and clarification of the process. Based on the results, it was possible to infer that despite complaints about the evaluation the candidates recognize its importance for the traffic.
Soto, Lucero; Armendariz-Anguiano, Ana Lilia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez Cruz, A
A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤2.5). Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001) and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001). Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5). High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John
Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Obando Medina, Claudia; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin
Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people's mental health problems, suicidal problems and help-seeking behaviour. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people's willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people.
Verger, Pierre; Guagliardo, Valérie; Gilbert, Fabien; Rouillon, Frédéric; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) among university students. This article aims to study 12-month prevalence of PD in university students, their socio-economic correlates, impairment in daily life and help-seeking behaviours. Cross-sectional study of randomly selected first-year students aged 18-24 years, enrolled in one of the six universities in south-eastern France in 2005-2006. We used the WHO CIDI-Short Form to derive DSM-IV diagnoses and the Sheehan disability scale to evaluate impairment. We studied their correlates with multiple logistic regressions. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD) and substance use disorders (SUD) were 8.9% (95% CI: 7.2-10.9), 15.7% (95% CI: 13.5-18.2) and 8.1% (95% CI: 6.7-9.8), respectively. MDD was associated with precarious economic situation (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), AD with a precarious job or unemployment of the father (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.04-4.14) and SUD with higher educational level of father (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.28-3.67) or having a paid job (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). "Marked" or "extreme" impairment (score > or =7 for at least one of the domains in the Sheehan scale) was noted for 51.7% of students presenting a PD and was even more frequent in the presence of MDD/AD comorbidity. Only 30.5% of the students with a PD had sought professional help in the past 12 months. This study provides new results regarding university students suggesting a link between precarious economic situations and MDD. The frequent impairment arising from PD alongside low rates of help-seeking suggests that PD could be one of the factors in academic failure in first year of university. These results should be used to improve prevention and care of PD in university students in France.
Knudsen, Line V; Nielsen, Claus; Kramer, Sophia E; Jones, Lesley; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
The uptake and use of hearing aids is low compared to the prevalence of hearing impairment. People who seek help and take part in a hearing aid rehabilitation process participate actively in this process in several ways. In order to gain more knowledge on the challenges of hearing help-seeking and hearing aid use, this qualitative study sought to understand the ways that people with hearing impairment describe themselves as active participants throughout the hearing aid rehabilitation process. In this qualitative interview study we examined the hearing rehabilitation process from the perspective of the hearing impaired. In this article we describe how the qualitative interview material was interpreted by a pragmatic qualitative thematic analysis. The analysis described in this article focused on the efforts, initiatives, actions, and participation the study participants described that they had engaged in during their rehabilitation. Interviews were conducted with people with hearing impairment in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The 34 interview participants were distributed equally between the sites, just as men and women were almost equally represented (56% women). The average age of the participants was 64. All participants had a hearing impairment in at least one ear. The participants were recruited to represent a range of experiences with hearing help-seeking and rehabilitation. With each participant one qualitative semistructured interview ranging between 1 and 2 hr was carried out. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, read through several times, and themes were identified, defined, and reviewed by an iterative process. From this thematic focus a concept called "client labor" has emerged. Client labor contains nine subthemes divided into three overarching groups: cognitive labor, emotional labor, and physical labor. The participants' experiences and meaning-making related to these conceptual types of efforts is described
Daniel Serrani Azcurra
Full Text Available The ageist attitudes of students represent an obstacle to the development of the knowledge and empathy required for assisting the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in explicit/implicit attitudes and knowledge regarding older people, in a sample of psychology students before and after they carried out a practical task called "Observing the Older Adult" (TOAM. To this end, we evaluated the changes in explicit knowledge with Palmore's Facts on Aging Quizzes 1 and 2 (FAQs1-2; the changes in explicit attitudes with Kogan's Scale for Attitudes Toward Old People (SATOP; and the Age Group Evaluation and Description (AGED Inventory. The subsequent changes in implicit attitudes were evaluated with the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The changes were measured one week, three months, one year and two years after completing the TOAM with ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. After the TOAM was carried out, positive changes were observed in knowledge and explicit attitudes toward seniors, but implicit attitudes remained negative in the first assessment, and were modified only after a year.
Caulfield, Michael J; Karageorghis, Costas I
We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s = 7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys' minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not excessively restricting their weight and felt healthy), and their relaxed weight (when there were no forthcoming light rides or no rides at all). It was hypothesized that when riding at minimal weight, jockeys would record a more negative mood profile compared with scores recorded at optimal or relaxed weights. The same trend was expected for eating attitudes. These hypotheses were supported as jockeys reported significantly more negative mood profiles and eating attitudes at minimal weight. The EAT-26 scores indicated the presence of disordered attitudes towards eating at this weight. These results suggest that jockeys' endeavours to reach the minimum weight limit stipulated by governing bodies are likely to jeopardize their psychological well-being. Dialogue surrounding the appropriateness of current weight regulations is therefore encouraged.
Evans, Maggie A; Feder, Gene S
Informal and formal support for women experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA) can improve safety and health outcomes. There has been little qualitative work on the role of both pathways to support and women's experiences of disclosing their experience of DVA in different contexts. This qualitative study used repeat interviews with women survivors of DVA to explore their pathways to support and their experiences of barriers and facilitators to disclosure and help-seeking. Thirty-one women seeking help from specialist DVA agencies in the UK were interviewed twice over 5 months. Women recounted long journeys of ambivalence, often only disclosing abuse after leaving the perpetrator. Access to specialist support rarely came via general practitioners, despite high levels of consulting for anxious and depressed feelings, and was more often facilitated by police or housing agencies following a crisis such as assault. Informal disclosure only led to specialist help if the family member or friend themselves had experience or knowledge of DVA. Women experiencing DVA need earlier access to specialized DVA services. Many women needed an 'enabler' to facilitate access, but once this contact was made, disclosure to other professionals or to family and friends was legitimized in the eyes of the women. Safely accessible publicity about DVA services and an appropriate response from social and health-care professionals should be promoted, including support for women disclosing DVA to take action on the information they receive about services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morgan, Jessica Kelley; Hourani, Laurel; Lane, Marian E; Tueller, Stephen
Military chaplains not only conduct religious services, but also provide counseling and spiritual support to military service members, operating as liaisons between soldiers and mental health professionals. In this study, active-duty soldiers (N = 889) reported help-seeking behaviors and mental health. Using logistic regressions, we describe the issues for which soldiers reported seeking help, then outline the characteristics of those who are most likely to seek help from a chaplain. Of the soldiers who sought help from a chaplain within the previous year, 29.9% reported high levels of combat exposure, 50.8% screened positive for depression, 39.1% had probable PTSD, and 26.6% screened positive for generalized anxiety disorder. The participant's unit firing on the enemy, personally firing on the enemy, and seeing dead bodies or human remains predicted seeing a chaplain. Future research should examine ways to engage soldiers who have had more combat experiences with the chaplain community to address spiritual issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Taking into consideration issues such as stigma and the mental health gap, this study explores narratives of anxious and depressed women treated in a community-based primary care service in a Rio de Janeiro favela about their suffering and care. We analysed 13 in-depth interviews using questions from Kadam's study. Framework analysis studied Access, Gateway, Trust, Psychosocial Issues, and Primary Mental Health Care, as key-concepts. Vulnerability and accessibility were the theoretical references. Thematic analysis found “suffering category”, highlighting family and community problems, and “help seeking category”, indicating how these women have coped with their emotional problems and addressed their needs through health services, community resources and self-help. Women's language patterns indicated links between implicit social rules and constraints to talk about suffering, especially if related to local violence. High medical turnover and overload are barriers for establishing a positive relationship with family physicians and continuity of care is a facilitator that promotes trust, security and adherence. Concluding, to plan community-based primary mental health care of this population, cultural and social factors must be comprehended as well as the work health teams conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression causes substantial disease burden in both developed and developing countries. To reduce this burden, we need to promote understanding of depression as a major health condition. The International Depression Literacy Survey (IDLS has been developed to assess understanding of depression in different cultural and health care settings. Methods Four groups of Australian university students completed the survey: medical students in second (n = 103 and fourth (n = 82 years of a graduate course, ethnic Chinese students (n = 184 and general undergraduate students (n = 38. Results Differences between the student groups were evident, with fourth year medical students demonstrating greater general health and depression literacy than second year medical students. Australian undergraduate students demonstrated better depression literacy than those from ethnic Chinese backgrounds. Ethnicity also influenced help seeking and treatment preferences (with more Chinese students being inclined to seek help from pharmacists, beliefs about discrimination and perceptions regarding stigma. Conclusion The IDLS does detect significant differences in understanding of depression among groups from different ethnic backgrounds and between those who differ in terms of prior health training. These preliminary results suggest that it may be well suited for use in a wider international context. Further investigation of the utility of the IDLS is required before these results could be extrapolated to other populations.
Hickie A M, Ian B; Davenport, Tracey A; Luscombe, Georgina M; Rong, Ye; Hickie, Megan L; Bell, Morag I
Depression causes substantial disease burden in both developed and developing countries. To reduce this burden, we need to promote understanding of depression as a major health condition. The International Depression Literacy Survey (IDLS) has been developed to assess understanding of depression in different cultural and health care settings. Four groups of Australian university students completed the survey: medical students in second (n = 103) and fourth (n = 82) years of a graduate course, ethnic Chinese students (n = 184) and general undergraduate students (n = 38). Differences between the student groups were evident, with fourth year medical students demonstrating greater general health and depression literacy than second year medical students. Australian undergraduate students demonstrated better depression literacy than those from ethnic Chinese backgrounds. Ethnicity also influenced help seeking and treatment preferences (with more Chinese students being inclined to seek help from pharmacists), beliefs about discrimination and perceptions regarding stigma. The IDLS does detect significant differences in understanding of depression among groups from different ethnic backgrounds and between those who differ in terms of prior health training. These preliminary results suggest that it may be well suited for use in a wider international context. Further investigation of the utility of the IDLS is required before these results could be extrapolated to other populations.
Choi, Isabella; Andrews, Gavin; Sharpe, Louise; Hunt, Caroline
Internet treatments may overcome barriers and improve access to mental health services for people who do not access professional help. It may be particularly beneficial for Chinese Australians, a group that tends to delay and underutilize face-to-face treatments. This study explored the appeal of Internet therapy to Chinese- and English-speaking Australians with depression who accessed Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programs. Data collected from previous randomised controlled trials of iCBT depression programs were used. Using a matched samples design, 55 Chinese- and 55 English-speaking iCBT participants with depression were matched on age, gender, and depression screener scores. They were compared on their symptom severity, previous help-seeking patterns, and reasons for seeking Internet treatment. The Chinese-speaking participants had significantly milder depressive symptoms and were less likely to have previously sought professional help compared to the English-speaking participants (all ps speaking participants were more likely to seek iCBT due to lack of knowledge about face-to-face treatment (p = 0.005), while the English-speaking participants were more likely to report not benefiting from traditional help (p = 0.030). The attraction of iCBT appears to be the reduction of structural barriers to treatment. iCBT may reduce treatment delay and increase access to Chinese Australians who have not sought professional help. English-speaking Australians are seeking iCBT as an additional means of getting help.
Stieglitz Ham, Heidi; Bunn, Paul; Meyer, Carly; Khan, Asad; Hickson, Louise
The objective of this study was to explore technology use and its relationship to help-seeking for hearing impairment (HI) and success with hearing aids among older adults. Previous research had suggested a link between higher levels of technology use and hearing aid success. General technology use was evaluated using a purposefully developed 25-item questionnaire. Twelve items related to everyday technology use (e.g. DVD player) and 13 related to advanced technology use (e.g. Bluetooth). Four groups of older adults with HI participated in the study: (1) non-consulters (n=49), (2) consulters (n=62), (3) unsuccessful hearing aid owners (n=61), and (4) successful hearing aid owners (n=79). Preliminary analyses revealed a main effect in the use of everyday and advanced technology across the four participant groups. However, it was found that age and living arrangements accounted for most of the variance in reported everyday technology use (p=.030; p=.029, respectively) and age and gender accounted for the variance in reported advanced technology use (phearing aid owners, our findings did not support this prediction. Technology use did not vary by group membership once the covariates of age, gender, and living arrangements were accounted for.
Anderson, Melissa L; Wolf Craig, Kelly S; Ziedonis, Douglas M
Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility during the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that originally explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors' help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that could be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged were not wholly dissimilar from the general preferences of members of other sociolinguistic minority groups-a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality procedures, trust, and transparency of the research process. Yet, how these themes are applied to the inclusion of Deaf research participants is distinct from any other sociolinguistic minority population, given Deaf people's unique sensory and linguistic characteristics. We summarize our findings in a preliminary "Checklist for Designing Deaf Behavioral Clinical Trials" to operationalize the steps researchers can take to apply Deaf-friendly approaches in their empirical work. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kimergård, A; Foley, M; Davey, Z; Dunne, J; Drummond, C; Deluca, P
Codeine misuse and dependence poses a clinical and public health challenge. However, little is known about dependence and treatment needs in the UK and Ireland. To characterize codeine use, dependence and help-seeking behaviour. An online cross-sectional survey advertised on Facebook, Twitter, health and drug websites and e-mail circulars. The survey collected data on demographics and codeine use amongst adults from the UK and Ireland. The Severity of Dependence Scale measured the level of codeine dependence. The sample of 316 respondents had a mean age of 35.3 years (SD = 12.3) and 67% were women. Of the 316 respondents, 54 scored ≥5 on the Severity of Dependence Scale indicating codeine dependence (17.1%). Our study found that codeine dependence is a problem with both prescribed and 'over-the-counter' codeine. Codeine dependence was associated with daily use of codeine, faking or exaggerating symptoms to get a prescription for codeine and 'pharmacy shopping' ( P addiction treatment demand through increased identification and referrals in primary care.
Birnbaum, Michael L; Candan, Kristin; Libby, Ilana; Pascucci, Olivia; Kane, John
The objective of the study was to explore the content of existing online resources available to information-seeking youth as psychotic symptoms first emerge and determine how these resources may influence initiation of care. Using 18 hypothetical search terms, developed by the Early Treatment Programme (ETP) staff, we searched three of the most popular websites used by the youth (Google, Facebook and Twitter) and extracted the first five hits from each. Sites were categorized into those that encouraged help seeking, those that potentially contribute to treatment delay, those with an undetermined impact and those that were unrelated to treatment. An alarmingly few of the first five hits from the top three online resources encourage potentially psychotic youth to seek professional evaluation. The majority of our search results yielded unmonitored chat forums that lacked a unified message. The remainder promoted stigma, normalized potentially psychotic experiences or were completely unrelated to mental health. We must develop innovative, easy-to-access and youth-focused online and social media experiences that encourage symptomatic youth to seek care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kedde, Harald; van de Wiel, Harry; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Bender, Jim
The aim of this study was to investigate help-seeking behavior in relation to sexual problems among people with a disease or an impairment, as well as determining factors that promote people to seek professional sexological help. A total of 341 respondents (224 men, 117 women) participated. Approximately 50% wanted professional help with finding a sexual partner and sexual adjustment problems. Further, approximately 40% wanted professional help for problems in their sexual relationship, practical sexual problems, and the inability to enjoy their sexuality. In total, two third considered contacting a health care professional of which 35% had indeed had contact with a health care professional. Only a third of those evaluated these contacts as positive. To identify factors associated with the respondent's participation in psychosexual therapy, we performed a logistic regression analyses with a participation in a psychosexual intervention as the dependent variable. Sexual dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of participation in psychosexual therapy. Furthermore, people who indicated that they wanted professional help for their sexual problems and people who had already discussed sexuality issues with a health care professional were more likely to participate. Disease and demographic characteristics did not influence one's decision to participate.
Quaife, S L; Forbes, L J L; Ramirez, A J; Brain, K E; Donnelly, C; Simon, A E; Wardle, J
Not recognising a symptom as suspicious is a common reason given by cancer patients for delayed help-seeking; but inevitably this is retrospective. We therefore investigated associations between recognition of warning signs for breast, colorectal and lung cancer and anticipated time to help-seeking for symptoms of each cancer. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with a population-representative sample (N=6965) of UK adults age ≥ 50 years, using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale. Anticipated time to help-seeking for persistent cough, rectal bleeding and breast changes was categorised as >2 vs ≤ 2 weeks. Recognition of persistent cough, unexplained bleeding and unexplained lump as cancer warning signs was assessed (yes/no). Associations between recognition and help-seeking were examined for each symptom controlling for demographics and perceived ease of health-care access. For each symptom, the odds of waiting for >2 weeks were significantly increased in those who did not recognise the related warning sign: breast changes: OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.47-4.08; rectal bleeding: OR=1.77, 1.36-2.30; persistent cough: OR=1.30, 1.17-1.46, independent of demographics and health-care access. Recognition of warning signs was associated with anticipating faster help-seeking for potential symptoms of cancer. Strategies to improve recognition are likely to facilitate earlier diagnosis.
Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Geroulanou, K; Kontoangelos, K; Prokopi, A; Pantazi, A; Zervakaki, A; Stefanis, C N
Stigma and mental health literacy affect access to and quality of treatment of major depression. Though mental health professionals seem better able to recognize major depression than the general public, they often hold similarly stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from the disorder. These attitudes are shaped jointly by the public stigma attached to mental illnesses as well as by the content and delivery of mental health professionals' undergraduate training. In line with this, the present study aimed to explore psychology students' ability to recognize major depression, their attitudes towards the disorder, and their views surrounding helpfulness of various interventions. A random sample of 167 undergraduate students was recruited from the psychology department of one public university in Athens. During one university hour, students were administered a vignette describing a woman fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. A self-report questionnaire exploring students' recognition abilities, attitudes to depression and views on the helpfulness of various treatment modes was also administered. In total, 80.2% of students correctly recognized major depression from the vignette. Concerning their attitudes, students were unsure about the illness and ambivalent towards the person who suffers from it. With regard to available treatments for depression, students considered discussion with a friend to be the most helpful intervention. Counseling, cognitive behavioural therapy and psychoanalysis were also viewed in a positive light. On the contrary, antidepressants were not deemed helpful by most students. Finally, recognition of as well as attitudes towards depression and its treatments seemed to improve during the second year of undergraduate study; however they remained unchanged thereafter. Consistent with these, psychology students seem to have only a rudimentary knowledge on depression, that cannot not be qualified as mental health literacy
In this editorial, the new incoming editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ( JPSP )addresses the upcoming challenges and the issue of replicability. Although people vary (often dramatically) in their views on the nature and extent of this issue, that we have an issue to address is something that the new editor thinks most scholars would agree on. It is her hope that engaging in these efforts will return our community to a place that young talent willingly and safely bets their futures on. It is with this sense of mission that she feel honored to serve in this role over the next five years. As Editor, she would like to address the current challenges by actively promoting three principles: rigor, innovation, and inclusiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Roberts, Lynne D; Forman, Dawn
Undergraduate psychology students have been largely excluded from interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives. In contrast to many health professions, undergraduate psychology students do not engage in work placements as part of their degree, and many enter careers outside the health care context. However, the collaborative skills gained through an IPE experience may well be beneficial to students who work in this wider context. This research examines whether undergraduate psychology students' views of IPE vary according to their planned career directions, and if so, whether the perceived relevance of IPE mediates the relationships. A sample of 188 Australian university undergraduate psychology students completed an online questionnaire following completion of a first-year IPE health sciences program. Path analysis indicated that psychology students' attitudes towards IPE are associated with both professional identification and practitioner orientation, fully mediated through the perceived relevance of IPE to future career and study plans. Stronger professional identification and practitioner orientation were associated with greater perceived relevance and more positive and less negative attitudes towards IPE. Placing a stronger emphasis on the generalizability of IP skills taught may increase students' awareness of the relevance outside of the health context, reducing disengagement of students planning alternative careers.
Heaney, Caroline A.; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C.; Green, Alison J.K.
Objectives: The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not.\\ud \\ud Participants and design: Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists ...
Portolano, Marlana; Evans, Rand B
Social psychologists might be surprised to learn that their discipline has been cut off from a vast and ancient family tree. The study of attitude change in the context of experimental social psychology began around 1918. It developed into a defined discipline in the 1930s and 1940s, particularly through the work of Carl Hovland and his associates. Unlike earlier specialties in experimental psychology, social psychology emerged well after the 19th-century split between psychology and philosophy in college curricula. Before this period of growth in empirical teaching and practice, the study of persuasion in classical rhetoric was a bedrock of higher education for more than 2000 years. Because of social psychology's late development in empirical science, there is a historical disconnect between experimental social psychology and its ancient philosophical counterpart, classical rhetoric. This article demonstrates similarities and differences between Hovland's findings and the theoretical groundings of classical rhetoric. We suggest areas where modern social psychology might benefit from a look at the older, more holistic theories of the art of rhetoric.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E
Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment. Post-randomization, three intervention sessions were delivered in one-week intervals (45 min total). Participants were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention, one-week post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. RM-ANOVAs were utilized among the intent-to-treat sample. There were no significant differences across time points between the intervention groups for help-seeking stigma and readiness to change. At two-month follow-up, 25% of participants initiated mental health treatment (29.4% CBM-HS, 20.0% psychoeducation). Strikingly, across groups, there was a statistically significant reduction in help-seeking self-stigma (F[2.214,66.418] = 5.057, p = 0.007, η p 2 = 0.144) and perceived public stigma (F[3,90] = 6.614, p undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders. Studies are needed to evaluate these interventions against an inactive control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante
The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…
Undergraduate psychologists are among the most likely group to move into therapeutic roles relating to sex offender rehabilitation. A positive attitude and good working knowledge about characteristics of sex offenders improves the therapeutic alliance between psychologist and offender, which is a factor cited as potentially increasing the likelihood of treatment success (Craig, 2005; Timimi 2009). With this in mind, and Given the range of psychology courses now offered by British universitie...
van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information
Sjoerd van den Heuvel; Charissa Freese; René Schalk; Marcel van Assen
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information
This article develops a grounded theory of help-seeking to investigate the social and cultural determinants of help-seeking among Kyrgyz women who have experienced domestic violence. Results indicate that cultural traditions and social norms-most notably the social construction of marriage, the shame associated with divorce, and the status of daughters-in-law in Kyrgyz society-are used to justify domestic violence and prevent victims from seeking help. The proposed theory and results suggest that scholars, policymakers, and front-line contacts must emphasize dispelling myths, misconceptions, and traditional beliefs about gender and marriage to break the abusive dynamics and provide professional help.
Fortney, John C; Curran, Geoffrey M; Hunt, Justin B; Cheney, Ann M; Lu, Liya; Valenstein, Marcia; Eisenberg, Daniel
Millions of disadvantaged youth and returning veterans are enrolled in community colleges. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and help-seeking behaviors among community college students. Veterans (n=211) and non-veterans (n=554) were recruited from 11 community colleges and administered screeners for depression (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), posttraumatic stress disorder (PC-PTSD), non-lethal self-injury, suicide ideation and suicide intent. The survey also asked about the perceived need for, barriers to and utilization of services. Regression analysis was used to compare prevalence between non-veterans and veterans adjusting for non-modifiable factors (age, gender and race/ethnicity). A large proportion of student veterans and non-veterans screened positive and unadjusted bivariate comparisons indicated that student veterans had a significantly higher prevalence of positive depression screens (33.1% versus 19.5%, Pdepression (OR=2.10, P=.01) and suicide ideation (OR=2.31, P=.03). Student veterans had significantly higher odds of perceiving a need for treatment than non-veterans (OR=1.93, P=.02) but were more likely to perceive stigma (beta=0.28, P=.02). Despite greater need among veterans, there were no significant differences between veterans and non-veterans in use of psychotropic medications, although veterans were more likely to receive psychotherapy (OR=2.35, P=.046). Findings highlight the substantial gap between the prevalence of probable mental health disorders and treatment seeking among community college students. Interventions are needed to link community college students to services, especially for student veterans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tsigebrhan, Ruth; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Fekadu, Abebaw
Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder associated with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity. Suicidality is a recognised complication of epilepsy. As part of developing an integrated service for people with epilepsy (PWE) and priority psychiatric disorders within primary care, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in Ethiopia to investigate patterns of help-seeking, suicidality and the association with duration of untreated epilepsy (DUE) among PWE. Cases were identified through community key informants and diagnosis was confirmed by trained primary care clinicians. Severity of epilepsy, depression and suicidality were assessed using standardised methods. Multivariable regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that suicidality was associated with DUE. The majority of PWE sought help from both religious and biomedical healing centres. The lifetime treatment gap for biomedical care was 26.9%, with a 12 month treatment gap of 56.7%. Close to one-third (29.9%) of participants reported using traditional and cultural healing practices. Nearly one-third (30.2%) of participants reported suicidality (suicidal ideation, plan or attempt) in the previous 1 year. The median (IQR) DUE was 24 months (4-72). There was no association between DUE and suicidality. In the multivariable model, being married [odds ratio (OR) 2.81, 95% CI 1.22, 6.46], increased depressive symptoms (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10, 1.26) and perceived poorer wealth relative to others (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.07, 6.68) were associated independently with suicidality. In this study, PWE sought help from both biomedical and religious healing centres. Suicidality and depression have a high prevalence in PWE in this setting. Integrated mental and neurological health care within primary care is needed for improved holistic management of epilepsy.
Full Text Available Two studies were performed to investigate the impact of students’ clicker performance feedback on their help-seeking behaviour and use of other learning strategies. In study 1, we investigated the relationship between students’ clicker performance, self-efficacy, help-seeking behavior, and academic achievement. We found that there was a significant positive correlation between their clicker performance and their course grades, and help-seeking behavior was negatively and significantly related to clicker and course performance but only for participants with high self-efficacy. In study 2, we expanded our focus to determine if participants modified a number of learning strategies as a result of receiving clicker performance feedback as well as attempting to replicate the clicker-course performance relationship found in study 1. Although participants reported an increase in their use of various learning strategies as a result of using the clickers, changes in learning strategy use was not significantly related to clicker or term test performance. The relationship between clicker and course performance was replicated. The results suggest that clicker-based feedback alone may not be sufficient to lead to a successful change in learning strategy use and that students may need more specific instruction on self-regulation and effective learning strategy use in order to improve their learning.Deux études ont évalué l’impact de la rétroaction sur la performance des étudiants indiquée par télévoteur sur leur comportement de recherche d’aide et sur les autres stratégies d’apprentissage utilisées. Dans la première étude, les chercheurs se sont penchés sur la relation entre la performance indiquée par télévoteur, le sentiment d’auto-efficacité, la recherche d’aide et la réussite scolaire. Nous avons trouvé une corrélation positive significative entre la performance indiquée par télévoteur et les notes de cours. De plus
Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen
Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K
The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…
Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.
Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.
Duijvestijn, JA; Anteunis, LJC; Hoek, CJ; Van den Brink, RHS; Chenault, MN; Manni, JJ
Objective-To determine factors influencing help-seeking behaviour in hearing-impaired persons aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Material and Methods-The study comprised 1,419 persons (480 females, 939 males) aged greater than or equal to 55 years who participated voluntarily in a driving test.
de Anstiss, Helena; Ziaian, Tahereh; Procter, Nicholas; Warland, Jane; Baghurst, Peter
The large and diverse bodies of literature on refugee child and adolescent mental health have not been matched by a commensurate interest in help-seeking. Most help-seeking research has centred on Western and, to a lesser extent, non-refugee ethnic minority adult populations. An emerging child and adolescent help-seeking literature consistently reports widespread underutilization of mental health services by children in the general population. Current research and opinion suggest a similar trend for refugee and other ethnic minority children. While service underutilization appears to be an issue for all children, those from refugee backgrounds may be at increased risk of mental health problems and have greater difficulty accessing mental health care. From a policy and practice perspective, the most important explanation for low uptake of services by refugee families concerns an overall failure of Western mental health systems to accommodate the needs of ethnically diverse populations in general and refugees in particular. In order to effectively plan for the mental health needs of refugee children and adolescents, Western host country governments need a clear understanding of help-seeking behaviour.
Katarina Görts Öberg, PhD
Öberg KG, Hallberg J, Kaldo V, et al. Hypersexual Disorder According to the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory in Help-Seeking Swedish Men and Women With Self-Identified Hypersexual Behavior. Sex Med 2017;5:e229–e236.
Coleman, S J; Stevelink, S A M; Hatch, S L; Denny, J A; Greenberg, N
A recent quantitative review in the area of stigma and help seeking in the armed forces has questioned the association between these factors (Sharp et al. 2015). To date, the contribution of qualitative literature in this area has largely been ignored, despite the value this research brings to the understanding of complex social constructs such as stigma. The aim of the current systematic review of qualitative studies was to identify appropriate literature, assess the quality and synthesize findings across studies regarding evidence of stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues within the armed forces. A multi-database text word search incorporating searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Social Policy and Practice, Social Work Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC and EBM Review databases between 1980 and April 2015 was conducted. Literature was quality assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Thematic synthesis was conducted across the literature. The review identified eight studies with 1012 participants meeting the inclusion criteria. Five overarching themes were identified across the literature: (1) non-disclosure; (2) individual beliefs about mental health; (3) anticipated and personal experience of stigma; (4) career concerns; and (5) factors influencing stigma. The findings from the current systematic review found that unlike inconsistent findings in the quantitative literature, there was substantial evidence of a negative relationship between stigma and help seeking for mental health difficulties within the armed forces. The study advocates for refinement of measures to accurately capture the complexity of stigma and help seeking in future quantitative studies.
Lueck, Jennifer A
Although disproportionally affected by depression, most depressed college students do not seek the help they need. Research has recently uncovered the potential negative effects of depression help-seeking messages if depressed cognition is not considered in the health message design process. It is unclear if depression determines whether and how individuals pay attention to gain- and loss-framed depression help-seeking messages-a mechanism that has significant implications for the strategic planning of health communication interventions. In order to enable the effective matching of message design and audience features, this study investigated attention patterns for gain (n = 75)- and loss (n = 78)-framed depression help-seeking messages using eye-tracking technology and self-report measures. The results confirmed that depression is a characteristic of risk avoidance and negative cognition. Depressed participants tended to pay more attention to disease information that was placed in a loss-framed rather than a gain-framed depression help-seeking message. Using negative message framing strategies for health messages seeking to educate about depression symptoms might therefore be a useful persuasive strategy-particularly when disseminated to vulnerable populations affected by depression. Furthermore, the present study emphasizes the effective use of eye-tracking technology in communication research.
Zock, E.; Kerkhoff, H.; Kleyweg, R. P.; van Bavel-Ta, T. B. V.; Scott, S.; Kruyt, N. D.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; van de Beek, D.
Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical
Li, Wenjing; Denson, Linley A.; Dorstyn, Diana S.
This study investigated help-seeking intentions and use of mental health services within a sample of 1128 Mainland Chinese college students (630 males and 498 females; mean age = 20.01 years, SD = 1.48). Results of structural equation modeling and logistic regression analysis suggested that social-cognitive variables had significant effects both…
Chin, Weng Yee; Chan, Kit T Y; Lam, Cindy L K; Lam, T P; Wan, Eric Y F
To identify the factors associated with 12-month mental health service use in primary care patients with depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional followed by 12-month cohort study. 10 179 adult patients were recruited from the waiting rooms of 59 primary care clinics across Hong Kong to complete a questionnaire which screened for depression. 518 screened-positive participants formed the cohort and were telephoned at 3, 6 and 12 months to monitor mental health service use. ▸ Help-seeking preferences; ▸ Intention to seek help from a healthcare professional; ▸ 12-month mental health service use. At baseline, when asked who they would seek help from if they thought they were depressed, respondents preferred using friends and family (46.5%) over a psychiatrist (24.9%), psychologist (22.8%) or general practitioner (GP; 19.9%). The presence of depressive symptoms was associated with a lower intention to seek help from family and friends but had no effect on intention to seek help from a healthcare professional. Over 12 months, 24.3% of the screened-positive cohort reported receiving services from a mental health professional. Factors associated with service use included identification of depression by the GP at baseline, having a past history of depression or other mental illness, and being a public sector patient. Having a positive intention to seek professional help or more severe depressive symptoms at baseline was not associated with a greater likelihood of receiving treatment. Mental health service use appears to be very low in this setting with only one in four primary care patients with depressive symptoms receiving treatment from a psychiatrist, GP or psychologist over a year. To help reduce the burden of illness, better detection of depressive disorders is needed especially for patients who may be undertreated such as those with no prior diagnosis of depression and those with more severe symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Lores, Taryn Jade; Henke, Miriam; Chur-Hansen, Anna
Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the
Schröder, Johanna; Sautier, Leon; Kriston, Levente; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Späth, Christina; Köther, Ulf; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen
Only a minority of people suffering from depression receive adequate treatment. Psychological Online Interventions (POIs) could help bridge existing treatment gaps and augment the effectiveness of current treatments. Apart from effectiveness, user acceptance of POIs must be achieved if such interventions are to be broadly implemented in existing health-care. Valid measurement tools examining attitudes towards POIs are lacking. Therefore, we examined the dimensionality of attitudes towards POIs, developed a novel questionnaire, the Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions Questionnaire (APOI), and gathered data to examine its reliability. We recruited a sample of 1004 adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms from a range of sources. We constructed a set of 35 items based on literature review as well as expert and patient queries. The initial items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a randomly selected subsample. A final set of 16 items was subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to cross-validate the factor structure in a separate subsample. The EFA revealed four dimensions: "Scepticism and Perception of Risks", "Confidence in Effectiveness", "Technologization Threat" and "Anonymity Benefits". The model fit in the CFA was excellent relating to all applied indices (χ(2)=105.816, p=.651; SRMR=.042; RMSEA=.013; CFI=.994) and the APOI total scale showed acceptable to good internal consistency. Further research with the APOI might facilitate the development and dissemination of POIs and, ultimately, help improve the quality of care for people experiencing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.
Full Text Available The study analyzes the conceptions of heterosexuality of Psychology students at Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and explores its associations with attitudes towards homosexuality. An exploratory research design was conducted, mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches, with a non probabilistic sample, 89 students (64 of the initial section of the career and 25 of the final section. Students answered a written self-report about the question: "Heterosexuality, is it natural? Why?". Seven types of conceptions of heterosexuality were identified, four of them based on essentialists views, and three presented socio-constructionist arguments. Data suggests an association between negative attitudes toward homosexuals and essentialists conceptions of heterosexuality, especially in lower grades students. This study generated questions and reflections about future therapist sexualities and gender-blind training.
Wilson, Coralie Joy; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew
The "Building Bridges to General Practice" (BBGP) program is an outreach initiative. It aims to reduce young peoples' perceived knowledge- and belief-based barriers to engaging in treatment and to increase their behavioral intentions to consult a general medical practitioner (GP) for physical and psychological problems. By increasing…
Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan
The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering coupless problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.
Brian E Roe
Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.
Mantovani, Nadia; Pizzolati, Micol; Edge, Dawn
Stigma related to mental illness affects all ethnic groups, contributing to the production and maintenance of mental illness and restricting access to care and support. However, stigma is especially prevalent in minority communities, thus potentially increasing ethnically based disparities. Little is known of the links between stigma and help-seeking for mental illness in African-descended populations in the UK. Building on the evidence that faith-based organizations (FBOs) can aid the development of effective public health strategies, this qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with faith groups to explore the complex ways in which stigma influences help-seeking for mental illness in African-descended communities. A thematic approach to data analysis was applied to the entire data set. Twenty-six men and women who had varying levels of involvement with Christian FBOs in south London were interviewed (e.g. six faith leaders, thirteen 'active members' and seven 'regular attendees'). Key factors influencing help-seeking behaviour were as follows: beliefs about the causes of mental illness; 'silencing' of mental illness resulting from heightened levels of ideological stigma; and stigma (re)production and maintenance at community level. Individuals with a diagnosis of mental illness were likely to experience a triple jeopardy in terms of stigma. 'One-size-fits-all' approaches cannot effectively meet the needs of diverse populations. To ensure that services are more congruent with their needs, health and care organizations should enable service users, families and community members to become active creators of interventions to remove barriers to help-seeking for mental illness. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fonseca, Ana; Gorayeb, Ricardo; Canavarro, Maria
Objective this study aims to characterize the help-seeking behaviours of women who were screened positive for perinatal depression, to investigate its sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and to characterize the perceived barriers that prevent women from seeking professional help. Design cross-sectional internet survey. Setting participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and f...
Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Vostanis, Panos; Belsky, Jay; Humphrey, Neil; Wolpert, Miranda
Mental health booklets may provide a low-cost means of promoting mental health self-management and help seeking in schools. The aim of the study was to assess the (a) use, (b) acceptability and (c) impact of booklets for students in primary (10-11 years) and secondary school (12-13 years) alone and in conjunction with funding for targeted mental health support. This was a 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 846 schools in England were randomly allocated to receive/not receive: (1) booklets for students containing information on mental health self-management and help seeking, and (2) funding for mental health support as part of a national mental health initiative. 14,690 students (8139 primary, 6551 secondary) provided self-report on mental health, quality of life (baseline and 1 year follow-up) and help seeking (follow-up). (a) Approximately, 40 % primary school students and 20 % secondary school students reported seeing the booklets. (b) Of these, 87 % of primary school students reported that the booklet was 'very helpful' or 'quite helpful', compared with 73 % in secondary school. (c) There was no detectable impact of booklets on mental health, quality of life or help seeking, either alone or in conjunction with additional funding through the national mental health initiative. Lack of discernable impact of booklets underscores the need for caution in adopting such an approach. However, it is feasible that the impact was obscured by low uptake or that booklets may be more effective when used in a targeted way.
Vyas, Seema; Mbwambo, Jessie
ABSTRACT Background: Women?s responses to partner violence are influenced by a complex constellation of factors including: psychological attachment to the partner; context of the abuse; and structural factors, all of which shape available options for women outside of the relationship. Objective: To describe women?s responses to physical partner violence; and to understand the role of women?s economic resources on their responses. Methods: Cross-sectional data from Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tan...
Full Text Available Background. In the UK, most people with mental health problems are managed in primary care. However, many individuals in need of help are not able to access care, either because it is not available, or because the individual's interaction with care-givers deters or diverts help-seeking. Aims. To understand the experience of seeking care for distress from the perspective of potential patients from “hard-to-reach” groups. Methods. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, analysed using a thematic framework. Results. Access to primary care is problematic in four main areas: how distress is conceptualised by individuals, the decision to seek help, barriers to help-seeking, and navigating and negotiating services. Conclusion. There are complex reasons why people from “hard-to-reach” groups may not conceptualise their distress as a biomedical problem. In addition, there are particular barriers to accessing primary care when distress is recognised by the person and help-seeking is attempted. We suggest how primary care could be more accessible to people from “hard-to-reach” groups including the need to offer a flexible, non-biomedical response to distress.
Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth
Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.
McKenzie, Stephen P; Hassed, Craig S; Gear, Jacqui L
Mindfulness is a technique for training people to pay full attention and to fully accept the reality of what they are paying attention to. The clinical efficacy of mindfulness has been increasingly demonstrated during the last two decades. Very little research, however, has been undertaken on health professionals' and students of health professions' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness. These may affect the current and future level of use of a technique that offers important clinical advantages. We aimed to compare knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness of medical students without exposure to it in their training with psychology students without exposure and with medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their training. A total of 91 medical students from Monash University, 49 medical students from Deakin University, and 31 psychology students from Deakin University were given a questionnaire that elicited quantitative and qualitative responses about level of knowledge of mindfulness and willingness to administer or recommend it to their future patients. Psychology students without exposure to mindfulness in their training have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure to it in their training. Medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their course have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure. Knowledge of mindfulness is positively correlated with students' willingness to use or recommend it. Possible implications of the findings of this study are that if future doctors are routinely instructed in mindfulness as a clinical intervention they may be more likely to form a more positive attitude towards it, that is more consistent with that of nonmedical health professions such as psychologists, and that they therefore may be more likely to administer it or refer its use. The
McNair, Ruth P; Bush, Rachel
Same sex attracted women (SSAW) are disproportionately affected by depression and anxiety, due to experiences of sexuality and gender based discrimination. They access mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual women, however with lower levels of satisfaction. This study examined the range of professional and social help seeking by same-sex attracted women, and patterns according to sexual orientation and gender identity subgroup. Eight key stakeholders were interviewed, and a convenience sample of 1628 Australian SSAW completed an online survey in 2015. This included several scales to measure mental health, community connectedness and resilience; and measured past 12 month help seeking behaviour, enablers, barriers and preferences for mental health care. Chi-square analyses and binary logistic regression analyses examined demographic associations with mental health. Correlations between help seeking, mental and physical health, and connectedness were run. A high proportion (80 %) of the total sample had perceived mental health problems over the past 12 months. Over half had depression, and over 96 % had anxiety. Trans and gender diverse participants were twice as likely as female participants to have mental health problems, and lesbians were least likely. High levels of past 12 month help seeking included 74.4 % seeing a GP, 44.3 % seeing a psychologist/counsellor, 74.7 % seeking family/friends support and 55.2 % using internet based support. Professional help was prioritised by those with higher mental health need. Trans participants were most likely to have sought professional help and participated in support groups, but least likely to have sought help from friends or family. The most common barriers to help seeking were discrimination and lack of LGBTI sensitivity of services, particularly for gender diverse, queer and pansexual participants. Enablers included mainstream community connectedness, having a trustworthy GP, and
Ellis, S J; Kitzinger, C.; Wilkinson, S
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level of support for lesbian and gay human rights. The results indicated that whilst only a small percentage of r...
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.
Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Olesen, Frede
the patients’ first presentation of symptom to the doctor's referral to clarifying investigations at specialists or hospitals. Knowledge about psychological factors that may cause patient and doctor delay is limited, but will be essential in an intervention on preventing delay. The Attachment theory seems...... to be able to contribute as an explanatory model. This theory describes the evolutionary and developmental origin of patterns of close interpersonal relationships OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present project are to examine whether attachment styles in general practitioners as well as in their patients...... influence length of patient delay and doctor delay in patients diagnosed with cancer. Interactions between patients’ attachment styles and general practitioners’ attachment styles on patient and doctor delay will also be explored. METHODS: The project is a cross-sectional study based on registry data...
Brandizzi, Martina; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Masillo, Alice; Lanna, Andrea; Curto, Martina; Lindau, Juliana Fortes; Solfanelli, Andrea; Listanti, Giulia; Patanè, Martina; Kotzalidis, Giorgio; Gebhardt, Eva; Meyer, Nicholas; Di Pietro, Diana; Leccisi, Donato; Girardi, Paolo; Fiori Nastro, Paolo
Self-rated attenuated psychotic-like experiences (APLEs) are increasingly used to screen for ultra-high-risk (UHR) across all ages. However, self-rated psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), in particular perception-related ones, were more frequent in children and adolescents, in which they possessed less clinical significance. We therefore explored the prevalence of different factors of APLEs in help-seeking adolescents, and their relationship with age, functioning and psychopathology. As a part of the "Liberiamo il Futuro" project, help-seeking adolescents (N=171; 11-18 years, 53% male) were screened with the 92-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-92). A factor analysis was performed on the PQ-92 positive items (i.e., APLEs) to identify different APLE-factors. These were assessed for their association with age, functioning and psychopathology using regression analyses. APLEs were very common in help-seeking adolescents, and formed four factors: "Conceptual Disorganization and Suspiciousness", "Perceptual Abnormalities", "Bizarre Experiences", and "Magical Ideation". Associations with age and functioning but not psychopathology were found for "Perceptual Abnormalities" that was significantly more severe in 11-12-year-olds, while "Conceptual Disorganization and Suspiciousness" was significantly related to psychopathology. In line with findings on PLEs, prevalence and clinical significance of APLEs, especially perception-related ones, might depend on age and thus neurodevelopmental stage, and may fall within the normal spectrum of experience during childhood. This should be considered when screening for UHR status in younger age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fonseca, Ana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
this study aimed to examine the relationship between women's intentions to seek informal help and to seek professional help and to explore the indirect effects of women's perceived encouragement to seek professional help from their male partner. Moreover, this study aimed to examine if these relationships vary as function of the presence of higher levels of perinatal distress. cross-sectional internet survey. participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and forums that focused on pregnancy and childbirth. 231 women (pregnant/ had a baby during the last 12 months) completed the survey. participants were questioned about sociodemographic and clinical data and were assessed concerning perinatal distress (Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), intentions to seek informal and formal help (General Help-Seeking Questionnaire) and perceived encouragement from the partner to seek professional help. the women reported a significantly higher intention to seek help from their partner than to seek professional help (p < .001). Although women with higher perinatal distress levels presented lower intentions to seek informal help from the male partner (p = .001) and perceived less encouragement from the male partner to seek professional help (p < .001), the presence of perinatal distress did not moderate the relationship between those variables. A significant indirect effect on the relationship between women's intention to seek informal and professional help occurred through the women's perceived encouragement from the male partner to seek professional help. the results of this study highlight the important role of the male partner's encouragement in women's professional help-seeking for mental health problems. awareness campaigns about perinatal distress and about professional treatment benefits may be directed universally to all women in the
Lubman, Dan I; Berridge, Bonita J; Blee, Fiona; Jorm, Anthony F; Wilson, Coralie J; Allen, Nicholas B; McKay-Brown, Lisa; Proimos, Jenny; Cheetham, Ali; Wolfe, Rory
Adolescence is a high-risk time for the development of mental health and substance use problems. However, fewer than one in four 16-24 year-olds with a current disorder access health services, with those experiencing a substance use disorder being the least likely to seek professional help. Research indicates that young people are keeping their problems to themselves or alternatively, turning to peers or trusted adults in their lives for help. These help-seeking preferences highlight the need to build the mental health literacy of adolescents, to ensure that they know when and how to assist themselves and their peers to access support. The MAKINGtheLINK intervention aims to introduce these skills to adolescents within a classroom environment. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) with schools as clusters and individual students as participants from 22 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the MAKINGtheLINK intervention group or the waitlist control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post intervention and 6 and 12 months post baseline. The primary outcome to be assessed is increased help-seeking behaviour (from both formal and informal sources) for alcohol and mental health issues, measured at 12 months post baseline. The findings from this research will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the MAKINGtheLINK intervention for teaching school students how to overcome prominent barriers associated with seeking help, as well as how to effectively support their peers. If deemed effective, the MAKINGtheLINK programme will be the first evidence-informed resource that is able to address critical gaps in the knowledge and behaviour of adolescents in relation to help-seeking. It could, therefore, be a valuable resource that could be readily implemented by classroom teachers. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000235707
van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; Timmerman, V.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a model on how business managers perceive that an employee’s psychological contract influences his or her attitude toward an organizational change. More specifically, it aims to provide insight into the managerial views on: first, the affective,
Sjoerd van den Heuvel; René Schalk; Charissa Freese; Volken Timmerman
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a model on how business managers perceive that an employee’s psychological contract influences his or her attitude toward an organizational change. More specifically, it aims to provide insight into the managerial views on: first, the affective,
Razzouk, Rim; Johnson, Tristan E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of case studies on learning outcomes, attitudes toward instructions, and team shared mental models (SMM) in a team-based learning environment in an undergraduate educational psychology course. Approximately 105 students who participated in this study were randomly assigned to either a case-study…
Umubyeyi, Aline; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla
Purpose Mental disorders commonly affect young people but usually go unrecognized and untreated. This study aimed to investigate help-seeking behaviours, barriers to care and self-efficacy for seeking mental health care among young adults with current depression and/or suicidality in a low-income setting. Methods This cross-sectional study used two sub-populations: a sub-sample of those suffering from current depression and/or suicidality (n?=?247) and another of those not suffering from thes...
Kang, Ji Yun
The purpose of this study is to understand East Asian international student’s underutilization of counseling services (versus U.S. domestic students) by applying Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior (TRA/PB) and Ludwikowski, Vogel, and Armstrong (2009)’s stigma model to help-seeking. Participants were 146 East Asian international students and 210 domestic college students at Purdue University. AMOS 23.0 for Structural Equation Modeling was used to conduct a Latent Mean Analysis (LMA) an...
Ellis, Sonja J; Kitzinger, Celia; Wilkinson, Sue
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level of support for lesbian and gay human rights. The results indicated that whilst only a small percentage of respondents expressed negative attitudes towards lesbians and gay men on the ATLG-S, the sample as a whole did not overwhelmingly support lesbian and gay human rights. The lack of support for lesbian and gay human rights is discussed in relation to its implications for psychology students as future practitioners and policymakers.
Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nurses are the most important group who provide health system services. They may face with various stresses related to their job that may cause physiological problems. Many factors can influence their psychological health. With this in mind, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between religious attitude with psychological well-being in nurses working in Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The data were collected by means of three questionnaires: demographic, psychological wellbeing, and religious attitude questionnaires. The religious attitude was assessed by Clark and Stark's religious attitude questionnaire. And the psychological well-being was measured by psychological well-being questionnaire introduced by Ryff and Keyes for adults in this study. Results: Religious attitude and psychological well-being were at medium level in 53/6% of the subjects (n=127. Correlational Pearson test showed that total score of religious attitude had significantly positive relationships with psychological well-being (r=+0/30, p<0/01. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that religious attitude can have a positive influence on psychological well-being.
Paula Bertozzi de Oliveira e Sousa Leão
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Doubts, competitiveness and preparation for the residency examination increase stress and insecurity at the end of medical course. Well-being is very important at this point, but it is known that medical students are reluctant to seek help, particularly for emotional problems. This study investigated the relationship among well-being, perceived needs and help-seeking in final-year students. METHODS: Well-being was assessed using Beck's Inventories of Anxiety (BAI and Depression (BDI and the WHOQOL-brief (quality of life. A questionnaire was used to assess perceived needs and medical school support resources. RESULTS: The students reported good quality of life (68% but presented anxiety (27%, depression (20% and impaired social functioning. Fifty-one percent of the students acknowledged academic needs and 25% psychological needs. Only a portion of the students with anxiety and depression or bad quality of life used the institutional support. Female gender, perceived psychological needs and anxiety symptoms were associated to the use of the Mental Health Service. Satisfaction with mentoring relationships and positive changes were associated to Mentoring attendance. CONCLUSION: There are different factors involved in help-seeking and identifying specificities in the use of institutional support resources can help to develop strategies to sensitize students about help-seeking during the medical courseOBJETIVO: Dúvidas, competição e o exame de residência aumentam o estresse e a insegurança ao final do curso; entretanto, sabe-se que alunos de Medicina são resistentes a procurar ajuda, especialmente para problemas emocionais. Este estudo investigou a relação entre bem-estar, percepção de necessidades e busca de ajuda entre alunos do último ano do curso médico. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os Inventários Beck (ansiedade e depressão, o WHOQOL-breve (qualidade de vida e um questionário para avaliar necessidades e o uso dos recursos de
Reavley, Nicola J; Cvetkovski, Stefan; Jorm, Anthony F
The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of data from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB) on the factors associated with the use of sources of information on mental health. A further aim is to examine the associations between the use of information sources and professional help-seeking. Data from the 2007 NSMHWB were used. The survey sample comprised 8,841 residents of private dwellings across Australia aged 16-85 years. Television was the most common source of information about mental health issues in the previous 12 months (accessed by 20.5% of respondents) followed by pamphlets and brochures (accessed by 15.6% of respondents). Having an anxiety or affective disorder, female gender, higher levels of education and having a family member with a mental health problem was associated with the seeking of information on mental health issues from the internet, non-fiction books and brochures/pamphlets. Accessing information on the internet was associated with increased use of any mental health services, GPs and mental health professionals (MHPs). The results suggest that promotion of internet resources may offer the opportunity to increase help seeking for mental health problems and may offer the opportunity to engage those least likely to seek professional help, notably young males.
Harris, M G; Baxter, A J; Reavley, N; Diminic, S; Pirkis, J; Whiteford, H A
To examine: (1) gender-specific determinants of help-seeking for mental health, including health professional consultation and the use of non-clinical support services and self-management strategies (SS/SM) and; (2) gender differences among individuals with unmet perceived need for care. Analyses focused on 689 males and 1075 females aged 16-85 years who met ICD-10 criteria for a past-year affective, anxiety or substance use disorder in an Australian community-representative survey. Two classifications of help-seeking for mental health in the previous year were created: (1) no health professional consultation or SS/SM, or health professional consultation, or SS/SM only, and; (2) no general practitioner (GP) or mental health professional consultation, or GP only consultation, or mental health professional consultation. Between- and within-gender help-seeking patterns were explored using multinomial logistic regression models. Characteristics of males and females with unmet perceived need for care were compared using chi-square tests. Males with mental or substance use disorders had relatively lower odds than females of any health professional consultation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.46), use of SS/SM only (AOR = 0.59), and GP only consultation (AOR = 0.29). Notably, males with severe disorders had substantially lower odds than females of any health professional consultation (AOR = 0.29) and GP only consultation (AOR = 0.14). Most correlates of help-seeking were need-related. Many applied to both genders (e.g., severity, disability, psychiatric comorbidity), although some were male-specific (e.g., past-year reaction to a traumatic event) or female-specific (e.g., past-year affective disorder). Certain enabling and predisposing factors increased the probability of health professional consultation for both genders (age 30+ years) or for males (unmarried, single parenthood, reliance on government pension). Males with unmet perceived need for care were more likely to
Mpho M. Pheko
Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.
Desaulniers, Julie; Daigle, Marc S
Suicide rates can vary quite considerably and attitudes regarding suicide may explain part of the variation. The present study investigated, across the 17 regions of Quebec (Canada), men's attitudes towards suicide, expressing pain and help seeking, as they are related to suicide rates and sociodemographic variables (unemployment, divorce/separation, income and education). Most correlations were non-significant. However, in regions with an above-average educational level and with higher divorce/separation rates, men had better attitudes towards expressing pain. Furthermore, in regions where men were more inclined to express pain, suicide rates were lower. Also, significant positive correlations were found between suicide rates and low educational level, but also between an increase in suicide rates and an increase in income level. Where the aetiology of suicide is concerned, researchers must examine both sociodemographic factors and the psychological factors associated with them.
Saso, Srdjan; Clarke, Alex; Bracewell-Milnes, Timothy; Saso, Anja; Al-Memar, Maya; Thum, Meen-Yau; Yazbek, Joseph; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Hardiman, Paul; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J Richard
Uterine transplantation (UTx). To explore patients' knowledge of and attitudes toward UTx before and after a short educational intervention via a video and question and answer (Q&A) session. Large, in-depth survey investigating patients' motivations, aims, and beliefs on UTx. Imperial College London. Women diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) who were seeking information on UTx and had already volunteered to participate in the study. A semistructured interview involving a brief baseline questionnaire before a Q&A session and a 20-minute video exploring the main risks and benefits for UTx. Attitudes of self-referred patients with AUFI toward UTx before and after education focusing on UTx. Rank order of importance of key UTx-related issues. Forty women were interviewed. Following the video presentation and Q&A session, 97.5% (n = 39) would undergo UTx ahead of surrogacy and adoption in full knowledge that the latter 2 options would be ultimately safer for their own well-being and the fact that the graft could fail even prior to conception. All felt that UTx should take place, and 92.5% saw UTx as achievable. The study demonstrates a keen interest in UTx, partly because other options seem difficult to access. It is worth noting that people appear to be distancing themselves from the risk. This requires careful assessment in any clinical program. This study is the first to demonstrate a qualitative relationship between patients with AUFI and their curiosity and desire for UTx. It paves the way for forming the introduction into the psychological assessment of a potential patient. © 2016, NATCO.
Papadaki, Vasileia; Plotnikof, Kyriaki; Gioumidou, Meropi; Zisimou, Vasiliki; Papadaki, Eleni
This study investigated the attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among social work, psychology, medical, and nursing students in Crete, Greece, using Herek's ATLG scale. No respondents held completely heterosexist attitudes; only 1.6% held completely non-heterosexist attitudes. The 44.96 total ATLG score indicates a slightly positive attitude toward lesbians and gay men. Psychology students scored higher than all others on positive attitudes, followed by social work students, medical students, and nursing students. Gender, having lesbian or gay acquaintances or friends, and religiosity were significant factors influencing students' attitudes, while no impact on attitudes due to the effects of higher education could be discerned. Implications for curriculum design and teaching methods are discussed.
Bell, Jo; Mok, Katherine; Gardiner, Eric; Pirkis, Jane
The study replicates earlier research using a UK sample to examine differences between suicidal people who go online for suicide-related reasons and suicidal people who do not, perceived effects of suicide-related Internet use, and perceived barriers to offline help-seeking. A total of 72 UK citizens (18-24 years old) who had contemplated killing themselves or deliberately harmed themselves with the intention of dying within the past 12 months participated in an anonymous online survey. Results indicate that suicidal young people who use the Internet for suicide-related purposes are a high-risk group characterized by higher levels of social anxiety. The main purposes of suicide-related Internet use were to connect with others and seek information. Both positive and negative effects were found.
As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries. PMID:24940355
Umubyeyi, Aline; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla
Mental disorders commonly affect young people but usually go unrecognized and untreated. This study aimed to investigate help-seeking behaviours, barriers to care and self-efficacy for seeking mental health care among young adults with current depression and/or suicidality in a low-income setting. This cross-sectional study used two sub-populations: a sub-sample of those suffering from current depression and/or suicidality (n = 247) and another of those not suffering from these conditions and not suffering from any other mental condition investigated (n = 502). Help-seeking behaviours, barriers to care and self-efficacy for mental health care seeking were measured among those suffering from current depression and/or suicidality (n, %). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for experiencing barriers to care. Self-efficacy for seeking mental health care was compared between men and women in the two sub-populations. Of the 247 men and women with current depression and/or suicidality, 36.0 % sought help at a health care unit and 64.0 % from trusted people in the community. Only six people received help from a mental health professional. The identified barriers were mainly related to accessibility and acceptability of health services. For the population suffering from current depression and/or suicidality, the self-efficacy scale for seeking mental health care suggested a low confidence in accessing mental health care but a high confidence in respondents' ability to successfully communicate with health care staff and to cope with consequences of seeking care. The current study clearly highlights young adults' poor access to mental health care services. To reach universal health coverage, substantial resources need to be allocated to mental health, coupled with initiatives to improve mental health literacy in the general population.
Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati; Seyyed Mohiadin Bahari; Pejman Ahmadi
The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men) of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier...
Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati; Seyyed Mohiadin Bahari; Pejman Ahmadi
The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men) of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier...
Hegarty, Peter; Massey, Sean
This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics.
Hong, Kyung Sook; Oh, Bo-Young; Kim, Eui-Jung; Chung, Soon Sup; Kim, Kwang Ho
Purpose In recent years, many psychological problems in patients with stomas have been addressed in a number of studies. But there are only a few studies that use objective measures to take into account self-appraisal by patients with permanent or temporary stomas. The aim of this study is to compare the psychological attitude of patients with permanent and temporary stomas and to determine the most appropriate psychological supportive care. Methods Sixty-five patients, who received a stoma between January 2009 and March 2012, were classified into two groups with either permanent or temporary stomas and were observed prospectively. We developed a questionnaire with the aid of a psychiatrist to analyze the grade of psychological attitude of self-appraisal of patients. The questionnaire was categorized into three parts; body image scale, self-esteem scale, and depression scale. Patients responded to the questionnaire 4 weeks after the operation and the answers of each group were compared. Results Out of 65 patients, 42 received temporary stomas and 23 received permanent stomas. There was no significant mean difference between permanent and temporary stoma patients in the body image scale, the self-esteem scale, and the depression scale. However, patients with a permanent stoma tended to have a worse body image and lower self-esteem on some specific items within the questionnaires. Conclusion Patients with stomas have negative attitudes toward themselves and some meaningful differences were found between different types of stoma applied. Surgeons should be concerned about postoperative psychological support for patients with stomas. PMID:24761424
Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses outcomes of a research on cultural attitudes and basic beliefs as predictors of psychological and emotional well-being in urban and rural populations. As it was revealed, beliefs contribute to the emotional and psychological well-being of both people living in urban and in rural areas. The rates of regression explaining the variations in psychological well-being by beliefs are higher in those living in rural areas, whereas the rates explaining emotional well-being are higher in urban population. The most significant predictor of the subjective well-being is one’s belief in the worth of his/her Self and in other people’s kindness. Also, of much importance for the well-being of those living in the cities (in contrast to the rural population is their belief in luck. The impact of cultural context on the psychological well-being is higher in the rural population, while its impact on their emotional well-being remains unclear. However, if the city represents the impact of vertical individualism, in the rural areas it is horizontal individualism and collectivism that play an important role in the prediction. Thus beliefs and cultural context to a greater extent account for the variations in the psychological well-being in the rural population than in the urban one. Inclusion in a social territorial community also predetermines the differences in the prediction of the emotional and psychological well-being.
Conclusion: Attribution of depressive and anxiety symptoms appeared to be more likely to influence help-seeking behaviors than attitudes toward mental illness. Enhancing public mental health literacy toward depression may help facilitate help-seeking in response to potential mental illness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72 and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9% and employed (50%. Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%, 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%, 'loneliness' (24.8% and 'unemployment' (19.3% as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5% and Sociachanges (10.6 while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a mental illness and many held superstitious beliefs. A vast majority of Pakistanis have non-biomedical beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia. Their
Isaksson Ro, Karin E; Tyssen, Reidar; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Aasland, Olaf G; Gude, Tore
Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians. 227 physicians who attended a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana, Norway in 2003-2005, were followed with self-report assessments at baseline, one-year, and three-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout), job stress, coping strategies and neuroticism. Changes in these measures were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Temporal relationships between changes were examined using structural modelling with cross-lagged and synchronous panel models. 184 physicians (81%, 83 men, 101 women) completed the three-year follow-up assessment. Significantly reduced levels of emotional exhaustion, job stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies from baseline to one year after the intervention, were maintained at three-year follow-up.Panel modelling indicated that changes in emotion-focused coping (z = 4.05, p help-seeking physicians.
Hernandez, Maria Y; Organista, Kurt C
Research shows high risk for depression among immigrant Latinas known to increase during the acculturation process. Several barriers such as stigma and low health literacy result in an under-utilization of needed treatment among these women. In response, this study replicated the effectiveness of a Spanish language fotonovela, a form of Entertainment-Education (E-E), designed to increase depression literacy, decrease stigma, and increase help-seeking knowledge and behavior in Latinos. Specifically, this study evaluated a fotonovela delivered in a multifaceted approach to health education used by promotoras. A pretest-posttest randomized control group experimental design with 142 immigrant Latinas at risk for depression was employed. Results indicate significant posttest improvements in depression knowledge, self-efficacy to identify the need for treatment, and decreased stigma in experimental as compared to control group participants. Findings support the application of E-E health literacy tools such as fotonovelas, delivered in multifaceted approaches to health education used by promotoras, to Latinas at risk for mental health concerns.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians. Methods 227 physicians who attended a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana, Norway in 2003-2005, were followed with self-report assessments at baseline, one-year, and three-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout, job stress, coping strategies and neuroticism. Changes in these measures were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Temporal relationships between changes were examined using structural modelling with cross-lagged and synchronous panel models. Results 184 physicians (81%, 83 men, 101 women completed the three-year follow-up assessment. Significantly reduced levels of emotional exhaustion, job stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies from baseline to one year after the intervention, were maintained at three-year follow-up. Panel modelling indicated that changes in emotion-focused coping (z = 4.05, p Conclusion A sequential relationship indicated that reduction in emotion-focused coping and in job stress preceded reduction in emotional exhaustion. As a consequence, coping strategies and job stress could be important foci in intervention programs that aim to reduce or prevent burnout in help-seeking physicians.
Catone, Gennaro; Marotta, Roberta; Pisano, Simone; Lennox, Belinda; Carotenuto, Marco; Gritti, Antonella; Pascotto, Antonio; Broome, Matthew R
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are common in the general population and increase the risk of psychotic disorders. Adolescents are a high-risk group of this condition. Stressful events, such as bullying, have a role in the onset of PLEs. This study has several aims: (1) to assess PLEs in adolescents seeking help from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, (2) to assess the association of PLEs with specific bullying victimization and (3) to assess difference in PLEs and victimizations by sex and age. Participants were help-seeking (HS) adolescents initially screened for PLEs. They completed an assessment including characteristics of PLEs and bullying victimization. We paid particular attention to different kinds of PLEs and victimization. In total, 50 PLE-positive adolescents screened from 324 HS adolescents (15.4%) constituted the sample. Paranoia and verbal bullying were the PLEs and form of victimization most represented, respectively. Verbal bullying was strongly associated with paranoia (odds ratio (OR): 4.40, confidence interval (CI): 2.8-5.9, p bullying with grandiosity. Verbal bullying was also associated with psychotic negative symptoms, but controlling for emotional symptoms and other victimization led to a reduction in the effect. Men were more involved in physical victimization and experienced grandiosity; on the contrary, late adolescents were most involved in social victimization and negative psychotic symptoms Conclusion: PLEs are relevant in HS adolescents. Bullying victimization interacts with the onset of these phenomena. In particular, verbal bullying predicted paranoia onset significantly.
Villatoro, Alice P.; Morales, Eduardo S.; Mays, Vickie M.
Considering the central role of familismo in Latino culture, it is important to assess the extent to which familismo affects mental health help-seeking. This study examined the role of behavioral familismo, the level of perceived family support, in the use of mental health services of Latinos in the United States. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a representative household survey examining the prevalence of mental disorders and services utilization among Latinos and Asian Americans. Analyses were limited to Latino adults with a clinical need for mental health services, indexed by meeting DSM–IV diagnostic criteria for any mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder during the past 12 months (N = 527). One-third of Latinos with a clinical need used any type of service in the past year, including specialty mental health, general medical, and informal or religious services. High behavioral familismo was significantly associated with increased odds of using informal or religious services, but not specialty or medical services. Self-perceived need and social perceptions of need for care within close networks (i.e., told by family/friends to seek professional help) also were significant predictors of service use. These results carry important implications toward expansions of the mental health workforce in the informal and religious services settings. PMID:24999521
Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro
Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.
Hansla, Andre; Gamble, Amelie; Juliusson, Asgeir; Gaerling, Tommy [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 500, SE-40530 Goeteborg (Sweden)
The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcendent value types. (author)
Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Todd, Chris
Background Delays to diagnosis in lung cancer can lead to reduced chance of survival, and patients often wait for several months before presenting symptoms. The time between first symptom recognition until diagnosis has been theorized into three intervals: symptom appraisal, help-seeking, and diagnostic interval (here: “pathway to diagnosis”). Interventions are needed to reduce delays to diagnosis in lung cancer. The Web has become an important lay health information source and could potentially play a role in this pathway to diagnosis. Objective Our overall aim was to gain a preliminary insight into whether Web-based information plays a role in the pathway to diagnosis in lung cancer in order to assess whether it may be possible to leverage this information source to reduce delays to diagnosis. Methods Patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the 6 months before study entry completed a survey about whether (and how, if yes) they had used the Web to appraise their condition prior to diagnosis. Based on survey responses, we purposively sampled patients and their next-of-kin for semistructured interviews (24 interviews; 33 participants). Interview data were analyzed qualitatively using Framework Analysis in the context of the pathway to diagnosis model. Results A total of 113 patients completed the survey (age: mean 67.0, SD 8.8 years). In all, 20.4% (23/113) reported they or next-of-kin had researched their condition online before the diagnosis. The majority of searches (20/23, 87.0%) were conducted by or with the help of next-of-kin. Interview results suggest that patients and next-of-kin perceived an impact of the information found online on all three intervals in the time to diagnosis. In the appraisal interval, participants used online information to evaluate symptoms and possible causes. In the help-seeking interval, the Web was used to inform the decision of whether to present to health services. In the diagnostic interval, it was used to evaluate health
Mueller, Julia; Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Todd, Chris
Delays to diagnosis in lung cancer can lead to reduced chance of survival, and patients often wait for several months before presenting symptoms. The time between first symptom recognition until diagnosis has been theorized into three intervals: symptom appraisal, help-seeking, and diagnostic interval (here: "pathway to diagnosis"). Interventions are needed to reduce delays to diagnosis in lung cancer. The Web has become an important lay health information source and could potentially play a role in this pathway to diagnosis. Our overall aim was to gain a preliminary insight into whether Web-based information plays a role in the pathway to diagnosis in lung cancer in order to assess whether it may be possible to leverage this information source to reduce delays to diagnosis. Patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the 6 months before study entry completed a survey about whether (and how, if yes) they had used the Web to appraise their condition prior to diagnosis. Based on survey responses, we purposively sampled patients and their next-of-kin for semistructured interviews (24 interviews; 33 participants). Interview data were analyzed qualitatively using Framework Analysis in the context of the pathway to diagnosis model. A total of 113 patients completed the survey (age: mean 67.0, SD 8.8 years). In all, 20.4% (23/113) reported they or next-of-kin had researched their condition online before the diagnosis. The majority of searches (20/23, 87.0%) were conducted by or with the help of next-of-kin. Interview results suggest that patients and next-of-kin perceived an impact of the information found online on all three intervals in the time to diagnosis. In the appraisal interval, participants used online information to evaluate symptoms and possible causes. In the help-seeking interval, the Web was used to inform the decision of whether to present to health services. In the diagnostic interval, it was used to evaluate health care professionals' advice, to support
Using community-based participatory research to explore social determinants of women's mental health and barriers to help-seeking in three urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved communities.
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; De Maagd-Rodriguez, Megan
Depression and anxiety are significant mental health issues that affect urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women disproportionately. This study sought to identify social determinants of mental health and barriers to help-seeking for this population. Using community based participatory research and focus groups, sixty-one Black, Hispanic, and White women identified economic, family, cultural, and neighborhood issues as perceived determinants of their depression/anxiety. They identified practical, psychosocial, and cultural barriers to their help-seeking behavior. These results can promote women's health by fostering an understanding of social factors as perceived determinants of depression/anxiety and shaping practice and policy initiatives that foster positive aggregate outcomes. © 2013.
Millman, Zachary B; Weintraub, Marc J; Bentley, Eryn; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that perceived social stress influences illness presentation and course among youth in the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis. Little is known, however, about the social cognitive factors associated with social stress perception in this population, particularly relative to youth with non-CHR psychopathology. Individuals with psychosis tend to endorse an external locus of control (LOC), which is associated with the stress response in healthy individuals. LOC may therefore be related to perceived social stress in youth at CHR. We examined the differential relations of self-reported LOC and perceived social stress, as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, across 45 CHR and 65 help-seeking control (HSC) participants. Youth at CHR reported more social stress (F[1, 107]=6.28, p=0.01) and a more external LOC (F[1, 107]=4.98, p=0.03) than HSCs. Further, external LOC was more strongly associated with feelings of social stress in the CHR group relative to the HSC group (interaction: b=0.35, t=2.32, psocial stress, however, were nonsignificant at internal levels of LOC (b=-2.0, t=-0.72, p=0.48; f 2 =0.00). Results suggest that perceptions of uncontrollability over one's social environment may more often induce or exacerbate feelings of stress and tension in CHR youth relative to HSCs. A better understanding of the social cognition-stress relation may improve understanding of CHR phenomenology, etiology, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Emery, Jon D; Walter, Fiona M; Gray, Vicky; Sinclair, Craig; Howting, Denise; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Webster, Andrew; Auret, Kirsten; Saunders, Christobel; Nowak, Anna; Holman, C D'Arcy
Previous studies have focused on the treatment received by rural cancer patients and have not examined their diagnostic pathways as reasons for poorer outcomes in rural Australia. To compare and explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in patients with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural Western Australia (WA). A mixed-methods study of people recently diagnosed with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural WA. The time from first symptom to diagnosis (i.e. total diagnostic interval, TDI) was calculated from interviews and medical records. Sixty-six participants were recruited (24 breast, 20 colorectal, 14 prostate and 8 lung cancer patients). There was a highly significant difference in time from symptom onset to seeking help between cancers (P = 0.006). Geometric mean symptom appraisal for colorectal cancer was significantly longer than that for breast and lung cancers [geometric mean differences: 2.58 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.64-4.53), P = 0.01; 3.97 (1.63-6.30), P = 0.001, respectively]. There was a significant overall difference in arithmetic mean TDI (P = 0.046); breast cancer TDI was significantly shorter than colorectal or prostate cancer TDI [mean difference : 266.3 days (95% CI: 45.9-486.8), P = 0.019; 277.0 days, (32.1-521.9), P = 0.027, respectively]. These differences were explained by the nature and personal interpretation of symptoms, perceived as well as real problems of access to health care, optimism, stoicism, machismo, fear, embarrassment and competing demands. Longer symptom appraisal was observed for colorectal cancer. Participants defined core characteristics of rural Australians as optimism, stoicism and machismo. These features, as well as access to health care, contribute to later presentation of cancer.
Holmes, Jeffrey D.
Could the same interests that draw many students to psychology also predict departure from the major? I present a comparison of students and instructors with respect to professional interests and views of the scientific nature of psychology (Study 1) and an examination of the link between student interests and persistence in the major (Study 2).…
Mundon, Chandra R.
This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students' attitudes…
Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Jariah Masud, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Rahimah IbrahimInstitute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: There is a growing body of literature indicating that attitudes toward aging significantly affect older adults’ psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of scientific investigations examining the role of older adults’ attitudes toward aging on their spouses' psychological well-being. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on the psychological well-being of older couples.Methods: Data for the present study, consisting of 300 couples aged 50 years and older, were drawn from a community-based survey entitled “Poverty among Elderly Women: Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar” conducted in Peninsular Malaysia. An actor–partner interdependence model using AMOS version 20 (Europress Software, Cheshire, UK was used to analyze the dyadic data.Results: The mean ages of the husbands and wives in this sample were 60.37 years (±6.55 and 56.33 years (±5.32, respectively. Interdependence analyses revealed significant association between older adults’ attitudes toward aging and the attitudes of their spouses (intraclass correlation =0.59; P<0.001, and similar interdependence was found for psychological well-being (intraclass correlation =0.57; P<0.001. The findings from AMOS revealed that the proposed model fits the data (CMIN/degrees of freedom =3.23; goodness-of-fit index =0.90; confirmatory fit index =0.91; root mean square error of approximation =0.08. Results of the actor–partner independence model indicated that older adults’ psychological well-being is significantly predicted by their spouses' attitudes toward aging, both among older men (critical ratio =2.92; P<0.01 and women (critical ratio =2.70; P<0.01. Husbands’ and wives’ own reports of their attitudes toward aging were significantly
Hodge, Ken; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Gerrard, David; Lonsdale, Chris
We examined whether constructs outlined in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), namely, autonomy-supportive and controlling motivational climates and autonomous and controlled motivation, were related to attitudes toward performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in sport and drug-taking susceptibility. We also investigated moral disengagement as a potential mediator. We surveyed a sample of 224 competitive athletes (59% female; M age = 20.3 years; M = 10.2 years of experience participating in their sport), including 81 elite athletes. Using structural equation modeling analyses, our hypothesis proposing positive relationships with controlling climates, controlled motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was largely supported, whereas our hypothesis proposing negative relationships among autonomous climate, autonomous motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was not supported. Moral disengagement was a strong predictor of positive attitudes toward PEDs, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of PEDs susceptibility. These findings are discussed from both motivational and moral disengagement viewpoints.
Imhoff, Débora; Rabbia, Hugo H
... Córdoba, and explores its associations with attitudes towards homosexuality. An exploratory research design was conducted, mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches, with a non probabilistic sample, 89 students...
Ljubičić, Milana; Dragišić Labaš, Slađana; Nastasić, Petar
Introduction: This paper deals with student’s attitudes towards the persons suffering from mental disorders and addicts to PAS – alcohol and drugs. It was our desire to introduce changes to the Mental Disorders Sociology Course based on the given answers. The main aim of the research was to study so-called social representation that future professionals have on those categories of the mentally ill. We also tried to establish the link between attitude direction and some socio-demographic...
Full Text Available Objectives: Providing care to children who have disability is often a stressful experience, yet spiritual beliefs may help mothers to be patient, tolerant and hard in coping with child-rearing difficulties. This study examined the relationship between the spiritual attitudes of mothers of handicapped children to child-rearing and psychological hardiness. Methods: In a descriptive correlational study, 120 mothers of handicapped children who were referred to the rehabilitation clinics of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Rofeideh, Akhavan and Sina clinics were selected through purposeful sampling and answered the Sanctification of Parents Scale (SPS, and Personal Views Survey (PVS. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 software and statistical procedures including Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used. Results: Results showed that spiritual attitudes to child-rearing are significant predictors of hardiness in mothers. Discussion: It seems like having spiritual attitudes in difficult situations such as providing care for disabled children plays a significant role in mother’s patience and hardiness.
Full Text Available Lung cancer symptoms are vague and difficult to detect. Interventions are needed to promote early diagnosis, however health services are already pressurised. This study explored symptomology and help-seeking behaviours of primary care patients at 'high-risk' of lung cancer (≥50 years old, recent smoking history, to inform targeted interventions.Mixed method study with patients at eight general practitioner (GP practices across south England. Study incorporated: postal symptom questionnaire; clinical records review of participant consultation behaviour 12 months pre- and post-questionnaire; qualitative participant interviews (n = 38 with a purposive sample.A small, clinically relevant group (n = 61/908, 6.7% of primary care patients was identified who, despite reporting potential symptoms of lung cancer in questionnaires, had not consulted a GP ≥12 months. Of nine symptoms associated with lung cancer, 53.4% (629/1172 of total respondents reported ≥1, and 35% (411/1172 reported ≥2. Most participants (77.3%, n = 686/908 had comorbid conditions; 47.8%, (n = 414/908 associated with chest and respiratory symptoms. Participant consulting behaviour significantly increased in the 3-month period following questionnaire completion compared with the previous 3-month period (p = .002, indicating questionnaires impacted upon consulting behaviour. Symptomatic non-consulters were predominantly younger, employed, with higher multiple deprivation scores than their GP practice mean. Of symptomatic non-consulters, 30% (18/61 consulted ≤1 month post-questionnaire, with comorbidities subsequently diagnosed for five participants. Interviews (n = 39 indicated three overarching differences between the views of consulting and non-consulting participants: concern over wasting their own as well as GP time; high tolerance threshold for symptoms; a greater tendency to self-manage symptoms.This first study to examine symptoms and consulting behaviour amongst a
Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani; Nafiseh Habibian; Reza Ahmadi
Background and Objectives: Nurses are the most important group who provide health system services. They may face with various stresses related to their job that may cause physiological problems. Many factors can influence their psychological health. With this in mind, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between religious attitude with psychological well-being in nurses working in Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The data were collected by means of three questionnai...
Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N
Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.
Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.
This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
Nadezhda Alekseevna Garipova
Practical implications. The results can be useful for developing psychocorrection sessions and trainings. The data can be helpful for specialists of Family Psychological Support centers and for instructors of “Ecological Psychology”, “Family Relations Psychology” disciplines. The study carried out is likely to be highly educational since many respondents participating in the survey admitted that they had never considered personal boundaries violation to be the reason for marital conflicts. They also lacked information concerning psychological space, how to regulate personal space boundaries and how to respond to other family members behavior in an adequate manner.
Fortner-Wood, Cheryl; Armistead, Leigh; Marchand, Anna; Morris, F. Benjamin
Student response systems (SRSs) are reported to increase student interest, interaction, and engagement and result in "deeper" learning. However, the effects on learning are still suspect. Here, outcomes were compared for students in SRS and traditional sections of 200-level and 500-level psychology courses. Results showed SRS students…
Bradley, Deirdre Elyse
A reasoned action approach (RAA) was used to assess the importance of psychological factors (attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control) in forming a woman's intention to use mobile technology, specifically mobile business applications. This study also examined whether the significance of these factors varied across cultures. An…
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable.…
The study focuses on the connection between attitude toward cancer, sense of coherence and family history of breast cancer, on the one hand, and psychological distress on the other among women who are referred for breast cancer examination following a medical examination prompted by a complaint of "feeling something in the breast." A sample of 314 women referred to a breast health clinic in northern Israel completed questionnaires that measured psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), personal resources (the Sense of Coherence Scale), and mindset (Attitude to Cancer Treatment Scale). A weak sense of coherence and a more negative attitude toward cancer (i.e., viewing victims of cancer with pity; viewing the illness as a death sentence; harboring a fear of death from cancer) predict a high level of psychological distress while awaiting an examination. A family history of breast cancer, or a first-time examination, were not found to be predictors of greater psychological distress. Learning cognitive behavioral coping skills, as well as access to information on cancer and treatment in order to change attitude toward cancer, are needed.
van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; Freese, Charissa; Timmerman, Volken
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a model on how business managers perceive that an employee's psychological contract influences his or her attitude toward an organizational change. More specifically, it aims to provide insight into the managerial views on: first, the affective,
Bartels, H.; Middel, B. L.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Staal, M. J.; Albers, F. W. J.
Objective: Evaluating the effect of anxiety and depression on clinical measures of general health, tinnitus-specific quality of life, and coping abilities. Design: Two hundred sixty-five chronic, subjective tinnitus sufferers were divided into four psychological symptom groups according to cut-off
Oleg Gennadievich Motovilin
Full Text Available AimTo study the relationship between two components of the attitude (rational and emotional of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D to the disease among themselves as well as the relationship of each component with psychological well-being of patients.Materials and methodsOne hundred twenty-nine T1D patients (43 males, 86 females were studied. The attitude towards the disease was studied using the Colour Attitude Test (CAT by A.M. Etkind and the Psychological Diagnosis of the Type of Person’s Attitude to the Disease (TAD developed at the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute (St. Petersburg. Psychological well-being was evaluated using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI by C.D. Spielberger that was adapted by Y.L. Khanin, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, the self-assessment diagnostic technique by Dembo–Rubinstein and the Purpose in Life Test (PILT by Crumbaugh & Maholick that was adapted by D. Leontyev.ResultsThere were two groups of patients in the results of cluster analysis of TAD: those with rational adaptive and maladaptive attitudes towards the disease. In the group of patients with the rational adaptive attitude towards the disease, scores were higher on most scales of STAI, CES-D, SF-36 and PILT. In the result of cluster analysis of CAT, there were two groups of patients: those with favourable and unfavourable emotional acceptance of the disease. The group of patients with favourable emotional acceptance of the disease also had higher scores on most scales of STAI, CES-D, SF-36, PILT and the Dembo–Rubinstein technique. The comparative analysis of the relationship of rational and emotional components in attitude to the disease showed their incomplete coincidence among themselves.ConclusionsBoth the rational and emotional components of the attitude towards the disease are associated with the psychological well-being of patients. Patients with
Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.
How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…
Bannatyne, Amy Jean; Stapleton, Peta Berenice
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly stigmatised condition, with treatment often involving multidisciplinary care. As such, understanding and comparing the attitudes of emerging mental health and medical professionals towards AN, within the content of sex-based differences, is pertinent to facilitate the development of targeted stigma interventions. Examine the volitional stigmatisation of AN in emerging medical and mental health professionals. Participants (N = 126) were medical (n = 41) and psychology students (n = 85) who completed a range of attitudinal outcome measures (e.g. Causal Attributions Scale, Eating Disorder Stigma Scale, Opinions Scale, Characteristics Scale and Affective Reaction Scale). Across both disciplines, men were found to exhibit significantly higher eating disorder (ED) stigma, considered AN to be a more trivial and weak illness, and attributed greater levels of blame and responsibility to AN sufferers. Men also had significantly lower biogenetic causal attributions. Compared with psychology students, medicine students exhibited slightly greater anticipation of negative reactions in response to AN, obtained higher selfish/vain scores and considered sociocultural factors to contribute "a lot" in the development and maintenance of AN. Overall, results indicate interventions aimed at improving ED mental health literacy are needed, specifically targeting males and potentially medical students.
Lau, Annie Y S; Proudfoot, Judith; Andrews, Annie; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Crimmins, Jacinta; Arguel, Amaël; Coiera, Enrico
Personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS), which include a personal health record (PHR), health management tools, and consumer resources, represent the next stage in consumer eHealth systems. It is still unclear, however, what features contribute to an engaging and efficacious PCHMS. To identify features in a Web-based PCHMS that are associated with consumer utilization of primary care and counselling services, and help-seeking rates for physical and emotional well-being concerns. A one-group pre/posttest online prospective study was conducted on a university campus to measure use of a PCHMS for physical and emotional well-being needs during a university academic semester (July to November 2011). The PCHMS integrated an untethered personal health record (PHR) with well-being journeys, social forums, polls, diaries, and online messaging links with a health service provider, where journeys provide information for consumer participants to engage with clinicians and health services in an actionable way. 1985 students and staff aged 18 and above with access to the Internet were recruited online. Logistic regression, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, and chi-square analyses were used to associate participants' help-seeking behaviors and health service utilization with PCHMS usage among the 709 participants eligible for analysis. A dose-response association was detected between the number of times a user logged into the PCHMS and the number of visits to a health care professional (P=.01), to the university counselling service (P=.03), and help-seeking rates (formal or informal) for emotional well-being matters (P=.03). No significant association was detected between participant pre-study characteristics or well-being ratings at different PCHMS login frequencies. Health service utilization was strongly correlated with use of a bundle of features including: online appointment booking (primary care: OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.01-3.00; counselling: OR 6
Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Iranzo-Tatay, Carmen; Gimeno-Clemente, Natalia; Barberá-Fons, Maria Antonia; Rojo-Bofill, Luis Miguel; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo
The heritability of eating disorders has been estimated to range from 22% to over 62%.The aim of this study is to determine the relative influence of genetics and environment that contribute to the drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and ineffectiveness, by evaluating sex differences in a sample of adolescent twins from Valencia, Spain. Five hundred eighty-four pairs of adolescent twins between 13 and 18 years of age completed the study. To determine zygosity, teachers responded to a questionnaire on physical similarity. Psychological traits of eating disorders were assessed with four sub-scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI); drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and ineffectiveness. Twin models were used to assess genetic and environmental (common and unique) factors affecting these four psychological traits. All four traits showed significant genetic contributions among girls, with heritability estimates of 37.7% for ineffectiveness, 42.8% for perfectionism, 56.9% for drive for thinness, and 65.5% for body dissatisfaction. Among boys, body dissatisfaction showed no additive genetic contributions, indicating significant shared and individual specific environment effects. The three other traits in boys showed significant additive genetic contributions, but were lower than in girls. With the exception of body dissatisfaction in boys, psychological traits of eating disorders show heritability patterns that differ according to sex. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Interactive Virtual Humans for Training Environments,” Interservice/ Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2007, paper 7105... Videogame Usage Among Soldiers and Implications for the Effective Use of Serious Videogames for Military Training,” Military Psychology, Vol. 22...Information and Support,” Interservice/ Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2011, Orlando, Fla., paper 11263, 2011. Rosenthal
Friedman, Lois C; Romero, Catherine; Elledge, Richard; Chang, Jenny; Kalidas, Mamta; Dulay, Mario F; Lynch, Garrett R; Osborne, C Kent
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-blame for developing breast cancer, a self-forgiving attitude, mood, and quality of life among women with breast cancer. In this cross-sectional study, 123 women with Stages 0-III breast cancer completed questionnaires measuring demographic and medical characteristics, self-blame, self-forgiveness, mood, and quality of life. Women who blamed themselves reported more mood disturbance (p self-forgiveness and the potential benefits of reducing self-blame to facilitate adjustment to breast cancer.
Bearman, Sarah Kate; Wadkins, Melanie; Bailin, Abby; Doctoroff, Greta
Despite the rapid proliferation of mental health interventions with proven benefit for youth, empirically supported interventions (ESIs) are underutilized in most service settings. Treatment outcome studies in these community-based settings suggest that the majority of youth do not show improvement, underscoring the importance of addressing the gap between research and practice. Clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) may limit the use of ESIs, and efforts to address these attitudes with post-graduate training pose significant challenges. Pre-practicum training in EBP may address these challenges by familiarizing students with the framework of EBP as well as with the current youth treatment evidence base and the theories and strategies of well-supported interventions. We describe a required EBP course within a professional psychology doctoral program. Forty-two students in two class cohorts completed a measure of attitudes toward EBP prior to the first class and after the final class lecture. Students were predominantly Caucasian women with bachelor's degrees. As expected, over the course of the class, student attitudes became significantly more favorable toward EBP. Students who had previously received a master's degree had more favorable attitudes prior to the class, and students with a prior bachelor's degree showed the greatest change in attitude. The results support the use of pre-practicum training in EBP to improve attitudes toward EBP, which may lead to use of effective practices with clients following training.
Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M
Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.
Baş, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes, self-esteem, social trait anxiety and social physique anxiety of self-reported vegetarian and nonvegetarian Turkish adolescents. The sample for the Turkish University' students is designed to provide the estimates of vegetarian indicators and prevalence. The participants were 608 females and 597 males, in total 1205 adolescents aged between 17 and 21 years. Disturbed eating behaviors (EAT-26> or =20) was found in 45.2% (14 of vegetarian) of the total vegetarian sample; which included two of the male vegetarians and 12 of the female vegetarians. The mean BMI was 19.78+/-1.49 kg/m(2) for female vegetarians and 20.78+/-2.46 kg/m(2) for female nonvegetarians (pvegetarians had significantly higher score than male nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (17.25+/-11.18 for male vegetarians and 9.38+/-6.60 for male nonvegetarians), dieting (6.50+/-7.65 for male vegetarians and 2.55+/-3.87 for male nonvegetarians) and oral control (6.13+/-4.67 for male vegetarians and 3.20+/-3.19 for male nonvegetarians) scores (pvegetarians had significantly higher score than female nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (22.04+/-13.62 for female vegetarians and 11.38+/-8.28 for female nonvegetarians), dieting (10.35+/-9.58 for female vegetarians and 4.41+/-5.30 for female nonvegetarians), oral control (7.78+/-5.13 for female vegetarians and 3.33+/-3.51 for female nonvegetarians) and STAI (51.39+/-7.28 for female vegetarians and 47.29+/-5.13 for female nonvegetarians) scores (pvegetarian adolescents. The vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians.
Holt, R I G; Nicolucci, A; Kovacs Burns, K; Lucisano, G; Skovlund, S E; Forbes, A; Kalra, S; Menéndez Torre, E; Munro, N; Peyrot, M
To assess the ways in which healthcare professionals address psychological problems of adults with diabetes in the second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2(™) ) study. Approximately 120 primary care physicians, 80 diabetes specialists and 80 nurses and dietitians providing diabetes care participated in each of 17 countries (N=4785). Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate independent statistically significant associations of respondent attributes concerning psychological care strategies, including assessment of diabetes impact on the patient's life, assessment of depression, provision of psychological assessment and support, and coordination with mental health professionals. Psychological care strategies were positively associated with each other but differed by healthcare practice site and discipline; nurses and dietitians were less likely to assess depression than other healthcare professionals, while primary care physicians were less likely to coordinate with mental health specialists or ask patients how diabetes affects their lives. Psychological care was positively associated with healthcare professionals' beliefs that patients need help dealing with emotional issues and that clinical success depends on doing so, and also with level of psychological care training, multidisciplinary team membership and availability of resources for psychological care. There were significant between-country variations in psychological care strategies, before and after adjustment for individual-level factors, and significant country-by-covariate interactions for almost all individual-level factors investigated. Improvements in training and resources, recognition and assessment of psychological problems, and increased belief in the efficacy of psychological support may enhance healthcare professionals' efforts to address psychological problems in adults with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.
Steier, Shmuel Tommy
During the first year after Israel's declaration of independence, 350,000 Holocaust survivors immigrated to Israel, about 1/3 of the country's population at that time. Their poor public image ("soap", "avac adam"--shadow of a man) and the Zionist--pioneer attitude of rejecting the "diasporal mentality", led to arrogance and disrespect towards the survivors. The attitude of therapists towards the victims has been influenced by the public atmosphere and their problems did not receive the attention they deserved. This fact caused an additional trauma--"secondary victimization", which, in turn, was one of the causes for the "conspiracy of silence". This silence lasted for many years and caused HoLocaust survivors to become more vulnerable at an older age. A review of the complex psychological condition of Holocaust survivors in the community is characterized by a combination of toughness and vulnerability and other aspects such as: the frequency of PTSD among Holocaust survivors and its characteristics as well as therapists' difficulties in coping with the post-traumatic state. The sequence of traumatic events in their Lives caused a feeling of vulnerability in some survivors. Furthermore, insult and fear of exposure, that throughout the years prevented them from demanding their rights, was contrary to the normative behaviour in Israeli society. The interest and the number of studies concerning the Holocaust and Holocaust survivors increases as the number of survivors decreases and as we move further in time from the horrors of that war. To implement a policy of positive discrimination (affirmative action) for survivors in the Israeli health system.
Full Text Available In financial circles, one of the most discussed and interested topics is the forecastability of stock prices. Many of the studies aiming at determining stock market prices rest on the fact that investors make their decisions rationally based on facts and data. In this paper, we aim to investigate the behavior of individual investors in ISE based on published literature in behavioral finance area. We have found that some psychological prejudice in fact affects the behavior of individual investors. Unlike the conventional assumptions many investors make systematic mistakes and do not utilize rational answers even though it is known. Moreover, media, friends and similar environmental factors also affect the investors’ choices, and processes that turns into herd behavior creating abnormalities in the markets which in turn causes exceptionally high or low reactions
Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara
On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Bradley, Robert H
The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children's development. This study investigated how women's attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by the United Nations Children's Fund. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85 999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children. Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers' attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Pediatricians can address parents' psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents' attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine
This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…
Button, Susan; Thornton, Alexandra; Lee, Suzanne; Shakespeare, Judy; Ayers, Susan
Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan
.... 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form...
Van Hook, M P
Depression tends not to be accurately identified and treated in primary care settings. Women of color are especially likely to use these settings for mental health issues but are less likely to be diagnosed appropriately. A study was conducted within four Florida primary care clinics serving primarily low-income families. Participants included 321 women (Black, 22%, Hispanic, 23.5%, White, 38.6%) who completed a confidential questionnaire while waiting to be seen by clinic staff. Ten percent reported recent major depression, with 26.7% indicating depressive symptoms during the past two years. Depressed women were significantly more likely to report physical violence during the past year. Respondents turned primarily to family, friends, and medical clinics for their depression. They found turning to clinic staff to be helpful and described psychosocial interventions as useful. Members of all ethnic/racial groups reported barriers to seeking help, including perceived separation between mental health and general health and stigma. Implications are discussed in terms of appropriate community education and screening procedures.
Lo, Iris P Y; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Timothy H Y
To assess the perceived importance of childbearing and attitudes toward assisted reproductive technology (ART) among Chinese lesbians and the impact on their psychological well-being. Survey-based study using a 39-item questionnaire. Not applicable. A total of 438 Chinese lesbians between the ages of 18 and 35 years. None. Perceived importance of childbearing; attitudes toward ART; and levels of anxiety and depression. Perceived importance of childbearing to Chinese lesbians was negatively associated with age (r = -0.23), relationship length (r = -0.18), and full-time employment (F = 4.29). Compared to heterosexual childless women, Chinese lesbians thought childbearing was significantly less important (3.30 vs. 6.00 on a 1-10 scale, t = 14.6). Most lesbian respondents (92%) supported legalizing same-sex couples' access to ART, although less than half (41%) wanted to use it themselves to have children. Among lesbians who thought childbearing was important to their parents or their partners, not wanting ART was associated with higher anxiety levels. This is the first quantitative study of childbearing attitudes of lesbians in Asia. The data suggest that Chinese lesbians in the study who perceived childbearing as important to their parents or to their partners but did not want to seek ART reported higher anxiety levels. This study helps raise health care professionals' awareness of Chinese lesbians' attitudes toward childbearing as well as calls for a better delivery system of fertility and mental health services to address the psychological burden of Chinese lesbians in relation to reproductive issues. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stürmer, Stefan; Benbow, Alison E F; Siem, Birte; Barth, Markus; Bodansky, Alexander N; Lotz-Schmitt, Katharina
Building on an integration of research findings on intergroup behavior from multiple fields of scientific inquiry (biological and cultural paleoanthropology, social psychology), as well as research on the HEXACO personality framework (e.g., Ashton & Lee, 2007), 3 independent studies (total N = 1,007) were conducted to introduce and test a fresh personality perspective on human xenophilia. Even though the studies focused on different criteria (Study 1: favorable attitudes toward contact with immigrants, Study 2: habitual cross-cultural exploration, Study 3: favorable attitudes toward contact with indigenous people) and employed different operationalizations of major personality traits (the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised [HEXACO-PI-R], the 10-item Big Five Inventory [BFI-10]) results were remarkably similar. First, path analyses confirmed that major personality traits were significant and direct predictors of xenophilia that were independent of the contributions of individual differences commonly predicting xenophobic reactions across studies. Second, and in line with the authors' more specific hypotheses, hierarchical regression analyses also corroborated that individual differences in the levels of endeavor-related personality traits (i.e., eXtraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness) had a substantially greater power in predicting individual differences in xenophilia than individual differences in levels of altruism/cooperation-related traits (i.e., Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness). The implications of these findings for more general psychological theorizing on human sociality are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D
Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis.
Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS. In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral
Masuda, Akihiko; Hayes, Steven C.; Twohig, Michael P.; Lillis, Jason; Fletcher, Lindsay B.; Gloster, Andrew T.
This study examined differences between Japanese international college students and U. S. college students on stigma toward people with psychological disorders, stigma tolerance in help seeking, and self-concealment. Japanese international students had greater stigma toward individuals with psychological disorders than did their U.S. counterparts.…
Attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia among care-dependent older adults (50+) in Austria: the role of socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress, and social isolation
Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Gasser-Steiner, Peter; Freidl, Wolfgang
Background Care-dependency constitutes an important issue with regard to the approval of end-of-life decisions, yet attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia are understudied among care-dependent older adults. We assessed attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia and tested empirical correlates, including socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress and social isolation. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional survey among older care allowance recipie...
Full Text Available Abstract Bronchial Asthma is a worldwide condition with particularly high prevalence in first world countries. The reasons are multifactorial but a neglected area is the psychological domain. It is well known that heavy emotions can trigger attacks and that depression negatively affects treatment outcomes. It is also known that personality type has a greater effect on disease prevalence than in many other conditions. However, many potential psychological treatments are hardly considered, neither in treatment guidelines nor in reviews by asthma specialists. Moreover, there is very little research concerning the beliefs and practices of doctors regarding psychological treatments. Using a questionnaire survey we ascertained that local GPs in Saxony-Anhalt have reasonably good knowledge about the psychological elements of asthma; a third consider it to be some of the influence (20-40% aetiology and a further third consider it to be even more important than that (at least 40% total aetiology. Our GPs use psychosomatic counseling sometimes or usually in the areas of sport and smoking (circa 85% GPs, although less so regarding breathing techniques and relaxation (c40% usually or sometimes do this However despite this knowledge they refer to the relevant clinicians very rarely (98% sometimes, usually or always refer to a respiratory physician compared with only 11% referring for psychological help.
Late adolescents face a multitude of stressors in their daily lives and must find ways to weather this distress. The attitudes and beliefs late adolescents hold about seeking formal help when appropriate can influence their engagement in formal help seeking behaviors. Previous research suggests that adolescents' willingness to seek help for mental…
Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the results of research concerning psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for development of negative anti-health (that is too restrictive and compensatory attitude toward one’s body in young Polish women. The study comprised 120 women, of 20 to 25 years of age, with similar socio-demographic status (marital status, living and having been brought up in multi-generation families who so far in the course of their lives have not disclosed mental or somatic disturbances (having accompanying manifestations of body image distortion. The theoretical theses for the research model were the contemporary cognitive concepts (multifactor models of body image dissatisfaction, as well as socio-cultural concepts.
Clement, Marie-Eve; Chamberland, Claire
Objective: To present prevalence rates of child psychological aggression and physical violence from a population survey conducted in 2004 and to compare the rates with the rates obtained in the 1999 edition of the survey. Methods: The survey used a randomly generated telephone number methodology. Interviews were conducted using a computer-assisted…
Physiotherapists report improved understanding of and attitude toward the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after Cognitive Functional Therapy training: a qualitative study
Full Text Available Question: What are physiotherapists’ perspectives on managing the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive biopsychosocial training? Design: Qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews to explore physiotherapists’ perceptions of their identification and treatment of the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive Cognitive Functional Therapy (CFT training. Participants: Thirteen qualified physiotherapists from four countries who had received specific CFT training. The training involved supervised implementation of CFT in clinical practice with patients. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An interpretive descriptive analysis was performed using a qualitative software package. Results: Four main themes emerged from the data: self-reported changes in understanding and attitudes; self-reported changes in professional practice; altered scope of practice; and increased confidence and satisfaction. Participants described increased understanding of the nature of pain, the role of patient beliefs, and a new appreciation of the therapeutic alliance. Changes in practice included use of new assessments, changes in communication, and adoption of a functional approach. Since undertaking CFT training, participants described a greater awareness of their role and scope of practice as clinicians in identifying and addressing these factors. Conclusion: Physiotherapists expressed confidence in their capacity and skill set to manage the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after CFT training, and identified a clear role for including these skills within the physiotherapy profession. Despite this, further clinical trials are needed to justify the time and cost of training, so that intensive CFT training may be made more readily accessible to clinicians, which to date has not been the case. [Synnott A, O’Keeffe M, Bunzli S, Dankaerts W, O