Jeremy F. Kubik
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter
Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.
Aisling T. O'Donnell
Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith
Health care personnel treating victims of politically motivated violence are at risk for traumatic stress symptoms. Few studies have assessed the positive psychological impact of politically motivated violence on health care workers. In this study, the level of positive psychological impact among health care workers with recurrent exposure to victims of politically motivated violence was examined. A validated questionnaire survey of health care personnel treating victims of politically motivated violence during 2000-2005 in two hospital settings was conducted. Positive psychological impact was assessed by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and traumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the Revised Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. Subjects included physicians (surgeons and anesthesiologists), nurses, and psychotherapists. The rate of response to the mail-in questionnaires was 68.3% (n = 138). The sample consisted of 70 physicians, 37 nurses, and 31 hospital-based psychotherapists. Positive psychological impact was noted for the entire sample and among all professions. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact for the entire sample and for each profession, and there was a curvilinear relationship between traumatic stress symptoms and positive psychological impact. Women experienced greater levels of positive psychological impact. Hospital-based health care providers treating victims of politically motivated violence experience both positive and negative psychological impact. Individuals who are more traumatized by their experience are more likely to also have a positive psychological impact. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2 (3199, N = 23,397 = 126654.8, p<.001; RCFI = .97; RMSEA = .04 (.038-.039. As hypothesised, a family history of mental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. CONCLUSION: These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear
Tiwari, A; Chan, KL; Fong, D; Leung, WC; Brownridge, DA; Lam, H; Wong, B; Lam, CM; Chau, F; Chan, A; Cheung, KB; Ho, PC
Objective The objective of this first population-based study in Hong Kong was to assess the impact of psychological abuse by an intimate partner on the mental health of pregnant women. Design Survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in seven public hospitals in Hong Kong. Population Three thousand two hundred and forty-five pregnant women. Methods The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) and demographic questionnaires were administered face-to-face at 32–36 weeks of gestation. At 1 week postpartum, the AAS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and SF-12 Health Survey were administered by telephone. Main outcome measures Intimate partner violence, postnatal depression and health-related quality of life. Results Two hundred and ninety six (9.1%) of the participants reported abuse by an intimate partner in the past year. Of those abused, 216 (73%) reported psychological abuse only and 80 (27%) reported physical and/or sexual abuse. Forty six (57.5%) in the physical and/or sexual abuse group also reported psychological abuse. Women in the psychological abuse only group had a higher risk of postnatal depression compared with nonabused women (adjusted OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.12–3.02). They were also at a higher risk of thinking about harming themselves (adjusted OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.49–8.20) and had significantly poorer mental health-related quality of life (P < 0.001). The higher risks of postnatal depression and thinking of harming themselves were not observed in the physical and/or sexual abuse group although significantly poorer mental health-related quality of life (P < 0.001) was observed. Conclusions Psychological abuse by an intimate partner against pregnant women has a negative impact on their mental health postdelivery. Furthermore, psychological abuse in the absence of physical and/or sexual abuse can have a detrimental effect on the mental health of abused women. The findings underscore the importance of screening pregnant women for abuse by an intimate partner and the
Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara
Background Despite widespread acceptance of the ‘biopsychosocial model’, the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Methods and Findings Participants were 32,827 (age 18–85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ2 (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654·8, ppsychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. Conclusion These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence-based psychological therapies. PMID:24146890
Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna
The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.
Full Text Available Psychological perspective determines how people will intervene into problems, issue, cases and define their reasoning. It became more essential to study the psychological perspectives of medical students because they have to deal with human beings. In learning process, a teacher takes part in the learning process as a role model and becomes the greatest source of inspiration. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychological viewpoints of teachers on Health and Rehabilitation Sciences College students’ viewpoints. Method: Study was conducted during Sep 2016-Jan 2017, into two-time point intervention. The sample of this study comprised of (n=143 students and (n=8 teachers of college of health and rehabilitation sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University. Measures included were sociodemographic information data sheet and psychological view point scale. Results: Indicated that scores of students enrolled within traditional lecture based programs were significantly correlated (p<0.05 with behavioural perspective. In contrast, students’ score of PBL based programs were correlated (p<0.05 with psychoanalytical perspective. Teachers of both programs scored high on behavioural and psychoanalysis and it increased average scores of students at the end of semester. Conclusion: The methods used for teaching and teaching teachers both can influence the students point of view.
McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny
There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their
Uzma Zaidi; Lina Fahmi Hammad; Salwa Saad Awad; Hind Diouri Qasem; Nada Ahmed Al-Mahdi
Psychological perspective determines how people will intervene into problems, issue, cases and define their reasoning. It became more essential to study the psychological perspectives of medical students because they have to deal with human beings. In learning process, a teacher takes part in the learning process as a role model and becomes the greatest source of inspiration. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychological viewpoints of teachers on H...
Mastura Johar; Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee; Bahaman Abu Samah; Muhammad Nazrul Somchit
The present study investigated the effect of twelve weeks of low-impact aerobic dance exercise intervention (“aero-mass” dance exercise) on psychological health (stress) among sedentary working women, specifically in Malaysia. Sedentary participants (age range = 40 – 55 years; N = 40: BMI > 25) were randomly assigned to two groups: an intervention treatment of “aero mass aerobic dancing” and conventional low-impact aerobic dancing. Classes were held for 50 minutes, 3 days per week, for 12 wee...
Khundadze, M; Geladze, N; Kapanadze, N
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of internet gambling on children's mental and physical health and find correlation between the age, duration of internet use and type of comorbidity associated with internet gambling. The study assessed 50 patients with internet gambling (35 boys, 15 girls) from 2013-2016 y. The age range was 3-15 years. 15 patients were from 3-7 y of age, 20 patients from 7-12 y and 15 - from 12-15 y of age. The core problem common for all patients were internet overuse by computer games, mobile device and other gadgets. The main problem occurring in these children were insomnia, language delay, stuttering, behavioral disturbances, aggressive behavior phobias. These complaints were correlated with age of patients. The group of patients from 3-7 years of age exhibited sleep disturbances and language impairment, mainly presented with stuttering. The complaints occurring in children from 7-12 y of age are: tics, insomnia, phobias, emotional disturbances, daily fatigue, and attention-deficit. The group of children aged 12-15 years mainly revealed poor academic performance, refuse to play sport games, refuse to play music, insomnia, aggressive behavior, attention deficit, conflict with parents, coprolalia. Thus internet overuse affects physical and psychological aspects of child development which has to be managed by parental and psychologist's joint effort.
Estiri, Mehrdad; Nargesian, Abbas; Dastpish, Farinaz; Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi
The role of nurses in providing high quality healthcare to patients is so important that creating a desirable working environment to enhance their overall performance is unavoidable. This paper aimed to explore the impact of psychological capital on mental health by investigating the mediating effects of job burnout on this relationship. The data used in this research was obtained via a survey conducted among selected Iranian nurses in public hospitals. In total, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 384 were completed and returned. Collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between psychological capital, job burnout and mental health; also, there is a significant negative relationship between psychological capital and job burnout, and a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and mental health. The results have several important practical implications for human resource management in Iranian public hospitals. According to the results of this study, reducing job burnout is an important factor in enhancing psychological capital and can positively enhance nurses' mental health.
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Duk Yoon; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korea, to assess the variation in prevalence by sex and age, and to measure the impact of OAB on quality of life. A population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between April and June 2010 with a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of OAB, demographics, and the impact of OAB on quality of life. A geographically stratified random sample of men and women aged ≥30 years was selected. The overall prevalence of OAB was 22.9% (male, 19%; female, 26.8%). Of a total of 458 participants with OAB, 37.6% and 19.9% reported moderate or severe impact on their daily life and sexual life (5.6% and 3.5%, respectively, in participants without OAB). Anxiety and depression were reported by 22.7% and 39.3% of participants with OAB, respectively (9.7% and 22.8%, respectively, in participants without OAB). Only 19.7% of participants with OAB had consulted a doctor for their voiding symptoms, but 50.7% of respondents with OAB were willing to visit a hospital for the management of their OAB symptoms. This study confirmed that OAB symptoms are highly prevalent in Korea, and many sufferers appear to have actively sought medical help. OAB has severe effects on daily and sexual life as well as psychological health.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a “Health-at-every-size” (HAES intervention on psychological variables and body weight the weight-preoccupied overweight/obese women. Those women were randomized into three groups (1 HAES, (2 social support (SS, (3 waiting-list (WL, and were tested at baseline, post-treatment and six-month and one-year follow-ups. All participants presented significant psychological improvement no matter if they received the HAES intervention or not. However, even if during the intervention, the three groups showed improvements, during the follow up, the HAES group continued to improve while the other groups did not, even sometimes experiencing some deterioration. Furthermore, in the HAES group only, participant's weight maintenance 12 months after the intervention was related to their psychological improvement (quality of life, body dissatisfaction, and binge eating during the intervention. Thus, even if, in the short-term, our study did not show distinctive effects of the HAES intervention compared to SS and WL on all variables, in the long-term, HAES group seemed to present a different trajectory as psychological variables and body weight are maintained or continue to improve, which was not the case in other groups. These differential long-term effects still need to be documented and further empirically demonstrated.
Littlefield, Lyn; Giese, Jill
The Australian Government's Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative introduced mental health reforms that included the availability of Medicare-funded psychology services. The mental health initiative has resulted in a huge uptake of these services, demonstrating the strong community demand for psychological treatment. The initiative has…
Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun
To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.
Angel Mario Dzhambov
Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect. This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.
Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova
Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines are
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Casimiro, Antonio J; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
To characterize a representative sample of fibromyalgia women based on a set of relevant factors known to be related to this disease. To distinguish specific factors of the disease from other symptoms that might also exist in non-fibromyalgia women. To test whether fibromyalgia affects more severely physical or psychological outcomes. A total of 459 fibromyalgia women vs. 214 non-fibromyalgia (control) women from Southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. Several instruments were used to assess tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, fatigue, health-related quality of life, mental health, and cognitive performance. Overall, fibromyalgia women showed a worse status in pain, fatigue, health-related quality of life, depression, and anxiety than controls (P fibromyalgia and controls were observed in cognitive and memory performance, except for delayed recall, but the observed effect size was low (~0.25). The effect size observed for the global physical component (~3.3) was larger than that for the global psychological component (~1.3), all P fibromyalgia as a polysymptomatic distress condition with pain as its main symptom. Our findings support that fibromyalgia seems to have a greater impact on physical than on psychological outcomes, though both are largely affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L
Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi Sheykh; Seyedeh Oliya Emadian
The aim of this study was to the impact of conflict resolution skills to reduce marital conflict and couples mental health in centers of psychology and counseling services of Qaemshahr city. The sample under investigation was 30 pairs of volunteers (30 men and 30 women) from the centers of psychology and life counseling services of Qaemshahr city, which uses simple random method assigned to two experimental and control groups. The research tool was the marital conflicts questionnaire of Barat...
Julia Mutambara; Levison Maunganidze; Pamela Muchichwa
Objectives: The study sought to determine the psychological effects of obstetric fistula on women in Zimbabwe. Methods: The study was qualitative in nature and the phenomenological design was used. Purposive sampling was used to identify four women with obstetric fistula in two hospitals in Zimbabwe. In-depth interviews using unstructured interview guides were done with these women. Strict ethical principles were adhered to inorder to avoid harm to participants. Data that was obtained from th...
Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
This article reports findings from a study conducted with students in three sections of a Health Psychology course that replaced a traditional textbook with open educational resources (OER) as the primary course material. The purpose of the study was to learn how OER impacted students. Data were collected in Fall 2015 with students from New York…
Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong
The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, pcoping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, pstressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, Pcoping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, Pcoping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of twelve weeks of low-impact aerobic dance exercise intervention (“aero-mass” dance exercise on psychological health (stress among sedentary working women, specifically in Malaysia. Sedentary participants (age range = 40 – 55 years; N = 40: BMI > 25 were randomly assigned to two groups: an intervention treatment of “aero mass aerobic dancing” and conventional low-impact aerobic dancing. Classes were held for 50 minutes, 3 days per week, for 12 weeks. Repeated measures were examined at week 1, week 8 and week 12. Mixed repeated ANOVA revealed statistically significant time effects for Total Stress Scores (p < 0.01 with eta square =0.59 (large effect at week 8 and week 12. Furthermore, the time by group interaction was also statistically significant for total stress score (p < 0.05 with eta square = 0.18 (large effect. In addition, the result for between-subject effects indicates significant F (1, 38=7.74, p < 0.05, eta = 0.17, and therefore there was a significant difference in the stress level scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. Subjects of the intervention group, “aero mass aerobics dancing”, experienced the most benefits.
Prihodova, Lucia; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Roland, Robert; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.
P>Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome in the evaluation of kidney transplantation (KT). Although the medical and sociodemographic predictors of HRQoL in patients after KT are well known, there is still a lack of knowledge about the psychological factors involved.
Hamesch, Ulla; Cropley, Mark; Lang, Jessica
In the process of recovery from work, rumination is considered as an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and psychological health outcomes. Past research differentiated affective rumination from problem-solving pondering. The aim of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model for these two distinct ruminative states and to show how personality (i.e. neuroticism and conscientiousness) can alter the mediating effect. The present study is based on 119 surveys from dental students with a time lag of 6 months. Participants filled out questionnaires assessing specific study-relevant performance demands, rumination and personality and a screening measure for psychological health status. Neuroticism was found to moderate the demand-affective rumination association, but conscientiousness did not moderate the demand-problem-solving pondering association. Moderated mediation analysis revealed that affective rumination mediates the impact of demands on psychological health only for individuals low in neuroticism. Findings are discussed regarding potential interventions for dental students to prevent negative psychological health outcomes due to increased work-related demands in the long term. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen
... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...
Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona
There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive
Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Duk Yoon; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul
Purpose We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korea, to assess the variation in prevalence by sex and age, and to measure the impact of OAB on quality of life. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between April and June 2010 with a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of OAB, demographics, and the impact of OAB on quality of life. A geographically stratified random sample of men and women aged ?30 years was selected. Results...
Yoon Hong Chun
Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.
Kretova, I G; Belyaeva, O V; Shiraeva, O I; Komarova, M V; Chygarina, S E; Kostsova, E A
There was performed an assessment of anthropometric indices of physical development and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system, psychological and social status in 770 students of the higher educational institutions in the city ofSamara. There was revealed the presence of I-III degree obesity in 13.2% of young males and underweight in 19.1% of young females. Stress and disruption of the processes of the adaptation process were shown to be observed in 7.6% and 6.1% of students, respectively. There was found a tendency to hypertension in 12.6% of young males. Revealed changes are related to lifestyle of the modern student. The main factors for the improvement of the life quality is the duration of sleep and ultimate nutrition. Initially, the lower level of physical and functional capabilities is compensated by virtue of the correct organization of social and psychological factors and prevents possible deviations from the part of health.
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Micheli, Amelia C.
The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.
Aboalshamat, Khalid; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Strodl, Esben
Psychological distress is well-documented worldwide among medical and dental students. Few studies have assessed the impact of self-development coaching programs on the students' psychological health. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a self-development coaching programme on the psychological health and academic performance of preclinical medical and dental students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia. Four-hundred and twenty-two participants (n = 422, 20-22 years) fulfilled the study requirements and were invited into a parallel-randomised controlled trial that was partially blinded. Participants were stratified by faculty, gender, and academic year, and then randomised. A total of 156 students participated in the intervention group (IG) and 163 students participated in the control group (CG). The IG received the selfdevelopment programme, involving skills and strategies aimed to improve students' psychological health and academic performance, through a two-day workshop. Meanwhile, the CG attended an active placebo programme focussing on theoretical information that was delivered through a five-hour workshop. Both programmes were conducted by the same presenter during Week 1 of the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. Data were gathered immediately before (T1), one week after (T2) and five weeks (T3) after the intervention. Psychological health was measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), the General Self-Efficacy (GSE), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Academic performance was measured using students' academic weighted grades (WG). Student cognitive and emotional perceptions of the intervention were measured using the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ). Data from 317 students, who completed the follow ups, were analysed across the three time periods (IG, n = 155; CG, n = 162). The baseline variables and demographic data of the IG and CG were not significantly different. The IG showed short
Polis, Suzanne; Fernandez, Ritin
What is the impact of physical and psychological factors on health-related quality of life in adult patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis? All chronic liver diseases stimulate a degree of repetitive hepatocyte injury that alters the normal liver architecture and ends in cirrhosis.Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to livercirrhosis are a major public health burden, reporting increasing mortality and morbidity both in Australia and globally.The four leading causes of cirrhosis include harmful alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis B and C and metabolic syndromes related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity.A cirrhotic liver is characterized by the presence of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands that inhibit the passing of molecules between blood and functional units of liver hepatocytes, leading to liver dysfunction.Additionally, the presence of fibrous bands disrupts the normal vascular architecture, increasing resistance within the liver sinusoids and contributing to increased portal vein pressure.The early stages of cirrhosis are referred to as compensated liver disease with no reported symptoms or evidence of impaired liver function.However, the signs and symptoms of liver failure, as well as the mortality rate, increase as the severity of cirrhosis increases.Transition from compensated to decompensated cirrhosis is marked by one or more physiological changes. The physiological changes include increased portal vein pressure, impaired synthetic function, electrolyte imbalance and malnourishment.These physiological changes trigger the development of physical signs and symptoms and impact on the psychological wellbeing of the individual living with cirrhosis. The physical signs and symptoms include esophageal varices, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, jaundice, irregular sleep patterns, muscle cramps, pruritus, fatigue, impaired mobility, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort, gastrointestinal symptoms, change of body
Vallet, Dominique; Ferreri, Maurice
Terrorism is a major public health concern. The impact of violence against the civilian population is reinforced by the media reporting. Thus, terrorism has a psychological impact not only on its direct victims but also on the population as a whole. More research is needed on how to manage these consequences.
Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan
An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…
Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria
Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the "Standard Shift Work Index," validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.
Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Matteo Guadi,1 Luigi Marcheselli,1 Sara Balduzzi,1 Daniela Magnani,1 Rosaria Di Lorenzo2 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 2Department of Mental Health, AUSL di Modena, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance.Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way.Conclusion: Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects. Keywords: shift work, night work
von Mackensen, S; Harrington, C; Tuddenham, E; Littley, A; Will, A; Fareh, M; Hay, C R M; Khair, K
There is increasing recognition that sport is important for individuals with haemophilia; however, there remains a paucity of data of the importance of this in adults, many of whom already have joint pathology related to childhood bleeds and treatment access. This multicentre, cross-sectional study presents the impact of sport on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical performance and clinical outcomes in adults with haemophilia. Fifty adults aged 35.12±14.7 with mild (n = 12), moderate (n = 10), or severe (n = 28) haemophilia A (70%) or B (30%) from four haemophilia centres across the United Kingdom participated in the study. A total of 64% were overweight/obese according to their BMI; median orthopaedic joint scores using the WFH Orthopaedic Joint Score (OJS) were 6 (range 0-48). On a VAS pain scale (range of 0-10), patients reported mean score of 5.66 ± 2.4. 36% of participants reported not doing any sport, mainly due to their physical condition. However, 64% of participants reported undertaking sporting activity including contact sports, mostly twice per week in average 4 h week(-1) . Participating in sport did not have a statistically significant impact on HRQoL; except in the domain 'sport and leisure' of the Haem-A-QoL. Patients doing more sport reported significantly better HRQoL than those doing less sport (P sport for more than 4 h week(-1) had a significantly better physical performance than patients doing less sport (assessed with Hep-Test-Q). Encouraging physical activity and sport in older patients with haemophilia may have a direct impact on their HRQoL; thus, education about sport activity should be incorporated into routine haemophilia care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The participants in the experimental group were recruited from communities facing living space and personal privacy challenges, while the participants in the comparison group came from privileged communities with relatively adequate living space. The children's psychological functioning dimensions measured were ...
Aboalshamat, Khalid; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Strodl, Esben
.... The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a self-development coaching programme on the psychological health and academic performance of preclinical medical and dental students at Umm Al-Qura...
Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho; Park, Hyeong Geun; Kim, Myung-hyun
Health risk appraisal is often utilized to modify individual's health behavior, especially concerning disease prevention, and web-based health risk appraisal services are being provided to the general public in Korea. However, little is known about the psychological effect of the health risk appraisal even though poorly communicated information by the web-based service may result in unintended adverse health outcomes. This study was conducted to explore the psychological effect of health risk appraisal using epidemiological risk factor profile. We conducted a randomized trial comparing risk factor list type health risk appraisal and risk score type health risk appraisal. We studied 60 women aged 30 years and older who had no cancer. Anxiety level was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory YZ. The results of multivariate analysis showed that risk status was the independent predictors of increase of state anxiety after health risk appraisal intervention when age, education, health risk appraisal type, numeracy, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and health risk appraisal type by risk status interaction was adjusted. Women who had higher risk status had an odd of having increased anxiety that was about 5 times greater than women who had lower risk status. Our findings indicate that communicating the risk status by individual health risk appraisal service can induce psychological sequelae, especially in women having higher risk status. Hospitals, institutes, or medical schools that are operating or planning to operate the online health risk appraisal service should take side effects such as psychological sequelae into consideration.
Johnson, Norine G.
Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…
Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark
Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels...... a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After...
Yen, Jeffery; Vaccarino, Oriana
In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production. We provide an account of these issues, as well as reflections on the field's future, as inflected through the experiences of 12 South African psychologists whose careers span the emergence of health-related psychology to the present day.
Adriaanse, M.C.; Snoek, F.J.
Until recently, there was little empirical data regarding the psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes. There is now some progress in this area, as evidenced by emerging population based studies reporting on the effects of screening for type 2 diabetes on perceived health status and
Djalalinia, Shirin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar; Kelishadi, Roya
The aim of this communication is to provide some evidence linking the overweight/obesity and their impacts on different dimensions of health. We reviewed the related studies published from 1990 up till now through PubMed Central/Medline, which provide evidence linking obesity with health related issues. It is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and leads to serious health consequences for individuals and burden for the health care system as a whole. Literature search showed that it is related to at least 18 co-morbidities which are attributable to overweight and obesity. Moreover obese individuals more often suffer from significant joint pains, disorders and it also has social as well as psychological impairments. It is high time that countries facing the problems of obesity initiate some intervention measures to monitor and control this growing epidemic.
Co, Michelle Ang; Tan, Luor Shyuan Maudrene; Tai, E Shyong; Griva, Konstadina; Amir, Mohamed; Chong, Kok Joon; Lee, Yung Seng; Lee, Jeannette; Khoo, Eric Yin-Hao; Wee, Hwee-Lin
Data on psychological distress (DIS), behavioral impact (BI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important yet lacking among Asian patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aim to identify factors associated with DIS, BI and HRQoL among T2DM to better understand patient needs. DIS was measured with Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) Psychological Distress (DHP-PD) subscale, Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) and Kessler-10 (K10), BI with DHP-18 Barriers to Activity and Disinhibited Eating subscales and HRQoL with Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between these outcomes and patient demographic, socioeconomic status, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and comorbidities. 213 T2DM patients (mean (SD) age: 45.0 (12.1) years, mean (SD) HbA1C: 8.3% (1.9%) and 70.0% reported at least one comorbidity) were evaluated. Poorer glycemic control was significantly associated with higher DHP-PD, PAID and worse HRQoL. Taking oral hypoglycemic agents plus insulin was independently associated with Barrier to Activity and Disinhibited Eating. Poorer glycemic control was only associated with diabetes-related distress (measured by DHP-PD and PAID) but not major depressive disorder (measured by K10). It may be more appropriate to screen for diabetes-related distress rather than major depressive disorder for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Lee, Dayoung; Jung, Song; Park, Seongjun; Hong, Hyun Ju
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents by gender and age. This study used 2013 nationwide school-based mental health screening test data from 591,303 seventh grade students and 618,271 tenth grade students in Korea. Suicidal ideation, four psychological problems, and three adverse life events were evaluated using the Adolescents Mental Health and Problem Behavior Screening Questionnaire-II. Of all students, 12.9-14.7% of the boys and 17.1-23.2% of the girls had suicidal ideation. Mood had the greatest impact on the risk for suicidal ideation and other factors also significantly increased the risk of suicidal ideation. Distractibility was positively related to suicidal ideation only in seventh grade students and behavioral problems increased suicidal ideation more in girls than in boys. Violence constituted the most powerful factor for suicidal ideation among the events; however, bullying constituted the most important event that increased suicidal ideation in seventh grade girls. All factors except 'Distractibility' increased the risk of severe suicidal ideation. The risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents differed by gender and age. Interventions should be made according to these characteristics to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.
Jones, Allan; Olsen, Mette Zander; Perrild, Hans J D
OBJECTIVE: The descriptive findings from the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN2) study are presented, with specific focus on the psychological impact of living with diabetes and quality of life for people with diabetes and family members of people...... with diabetes. METHOD: 502 people with diabetes over the age of 18 and 122 family members completed questionnaires online, by telephone or in person, including validated measures of diabetes-related distress, emotional well-being and quality of life as well as other measures of psychological well-being. RESULTS......: People with diabetes reported that living with diabetes was a psychological burden, with individuals taking insulin medication or diagnosed with type 1 diabetes reporting the most distress. Half of all family members sampled reported that living with diabetes impacted them negatively. CONCLUSION...
N. Mao (Ning); M.J. McAleer (Michael); S. Bai (Shuyu)
markdownabstractThis paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Kristensen, Kasper Andreas
This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.
Bell, Caroline; Carter, Frances; Boden, Joseph; Wilkinson, Tim; McKenzie, Jan; Ali, Anthony
To assess the impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on the psychological functioning of university staff, to identify predictors of adverse psychological functioning and to survey how different aspects of work roles (academic, teaching, clinical, administrative) were affected. Eighteen months following the most severe earthquake, 119 staff from the University of Otago based in Christchurch completed a retrospective survey. This included demographic information, a measure of earthquake exposure, standardised and self-rated measures to identify psychological distress and measures of how people perceived different aspects of their work roles were impacted. A substantial minority of staff reported moderate-extreme difficulties on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) subscales 18 months following the most severe earthquake (Depression=9%; Anxiety=3%; Stress =13%). Predictors of distress were higher levels of exposure to earthquake-related stressors, neuroticism and prior mental health disorders. There was an association between impact and work roles that was hierarchical; academic and administrative roles were most affected, followed by teaching with the least impact on clinical roles. This study shows that psychological symptoms following a disaster are common, but in a retrospective survey most people report that these improve with time. A minority however, continue to report difficulties which persist even 18 months post disaster. It also gives insights into how different work roles were impacted and from this makes suggestions for how organisations can support staff over difficult times.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients...
Aug 3, 2012 ... patients. The role of behaviour and lifestyle in the causation of cancer and hypertension has been studied extensively and can be used to illustrate how health psychology interventions could be applied to control these diseases. Health psychology interventions could close the widening communication gap.
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D.; Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understand...
Kaslow, Nadine J; Graves, Chanda C; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku
This article begins by contextualizing specialization and board certification of psychologists, with attention paid to relevant definitions and expectations of other health care professionals. A brief history of specialization and board certification in professional psychology is offered. The benefits of board certification through the American Board of Professional Psychology are highlighted. Consideration is then given to the primary reasons for psychologists working in academic health sciences centers to specialize in the current health care climate and to obtain board certification as a mark of such specialization.
There has been substantial empirical research on the health benefits of expressive writing. However, there has been less psychological research on the broader nature of writing and its relationship with health. The aim of this special section is to promote a more extensive engagement between health psychology and writing. It includes three articles on the value of investigating more established forms of writing, the nature of creative writing and the value of an intensive analysis of written accounts of illness. This article introduces this special section.
Mao, Ning; McAleer, Michael
This paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display wealth and social status. This paper integrates the following two papers: (1) Han and Zhou (2002), who proposed an integrative model, and argued that three variables, namely Country-of-Origin, Brand Name, and Price, we...
Mao, Ning; McAleer, Michael; Bai, Shuyu
markdownabstractThis paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display wealth and social status. This paper integrates the following two papers: __(1)__ Han and Zhou (2002), who proposed an integrative model, and argued that three variables, namely Country-of-Origin, Brand...
Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…
The aim of this paper is to outline the contribution of two strands of discursive research, glossed as 'macro' and 'micro,' to the field of health psychology. A further goal is to highlight some contemporary debates in methodology associated with the use of interview data versus more naturalistic data in qualitative health research. Discursive approaches provide a way of analyzing talk as a social practice that considers how descriptions are put together and what actions they achieve. A selection of recent examples of discursive research from one applied area of health psychology, studies of diet and obesity, are drawn upon in order to illustrate the specifics of both strands. 'Macro' discourse work in psychology incorporates a Foucauldian focus on the way that discourses regulate subjectivities, whereas the concept of interpretative repertoires affords more agency to the individual: both are useful for identifying the cultural context of talk. Both 'macro' and 'micro' strands focus on accountability to varying degrees. 'Micro' Discursive Psychology, however, pays closer attention to the sequential organization of constructions and focuses on naturalistic settings that allow for the inclusion of an analysis of the health professional. Diets are typically depicted as an individual responsibility in mainstream health psychology, but discursive research highlights how discourses are collectively produced and bound up with social practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.
Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Humphreys, Janice; Lee, Kathryn; Thomas, Patrick; Chopin, Lisa; Crisp, Gabrielle; O'Keeffe, Angela; Kimlin, Michael; Stacey, Andrew; Anderson, Debra
Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual's physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women.The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women's study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women's health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women's risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women.
Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what
Full Text Available The latest research performed in European countries shows that the psychosocial risks and the job related stress will become more and more important in the years to come due to their increasing spread. These trends will have even greater influence on healthcare managers' activities due to the specific nature of their jobs, which, in turn, increases the needs of efficient leadership. The purpose of the questionnaire held is to study the impact of healthcare managers’ psychological stability on the activities they perform in the course of their jobs. The analysis made shows that an individual’s performance depends on their motivation, abilities and organizational conditions and skills. What is also found out is that people with different types of behavioral control work in healthcare operative management. People with different types of psychological stability will be needed for the different management levels.
Moreno, Jhon Alexander; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Ojeda, Natalia; De los Reyes-Aragón, Carlos José; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos
Existing published studies about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in caregivers of dementia patients living in Latin American countries are very limited. However, cultural aspects, personal values, and social structure may affect the way caregivers experience their role in different societies. The current study investigated the relationship between HRQOL and psychological factors using a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 102 informal caregivers of patients with dementia from Bogotá, Colombia, South America. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Zarit Burden Interview, and the Short Health Questionnaire (SF36) for HRQOL. Canonical correlations revealed that there was a significant relationship between caregivers' mental health and HRQOL, such that caregivers with better satisfaction with life and less symptoms of depression had more vitality and better general health. There is a strong relationship between mental health and health-related quality of life in Colombian caregivers of dementia patients living in their country of origin. Specific aspects of mental health, including satisfaction with life and depression, need to be addressed in order to improve caregivers' quality of life. Given that mental health care resources may be scarce in Latin American countries, culturally appropriate interventions should focus on preventing/treating depression and promote life satisfaction, as a way to improve their quality of life.
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.
Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S
The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.
Rich, Grant Jewell
Presents an interview with Shelley Taylor, a professor of Psychology at the University of California in Los Angles (California). Addresses topics such as how she became interested in psychology, the importance of health psychology in the curriculum, the ideal training for students in health psychology, and her work with "positive illusions." (CMK)
As part of a growing literature on the histories of psychology in the Global South, this article outlines some historical developments in South African psychologists' engagement with the problem of "health." Alongside movements to formalize and professionalize a U.S.-style "health psychology" in the 1990s, there arose a parallel, eclectic, and more or less critical psychology that contested the meaning and determinants of health, transgressed disciplinary boundaries, and opposed the responsibilization of illness implicit in much health psychological theorizing and neoliberal discourse. This disciplinary bifurcation characterized South African work well into the postapartheid era, but ideological distinctions have receded in recent years under a new regime of knowledge production in thrall to the demands of the global market. The article outlines some of the historical-political roots of key trends in psychologists' work on health in South Africa, examining the conditions that have impinged on its directions and priorities. It raises questions about the future trajectories of psychological research on health after 20 years of democracy, and argues that there currently is no "health psychology" in South Africa, and that the discipline is the better for it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix
Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Sools, Anneke M; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben J
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what are the most important features of the proposed approach and how they are relevant. We illustrate each positioning with the scope and diversity of narrative health psychology brought together in this special issue. Finally, we reflect on where narrative health psychology is now and how it could develop in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina
In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Amazue, Lawrence O; Ekeh, Okechukwu Hope
Although research evidence indicates that loneliness is detrimental to mental health in diverse populations, impact of loneliness on psychological distress of orthopaedic patients' caregivers has been given little research attention. The present study examined the association of loneliness with psychological health, and explored gender differences in the loneliness and psychological health association among orthopaedic patients' caregivers. Participants were 250 patients' caregivers drawn from a national orthopaedic hospital in eastern Nigeria. Data was collected by means of self-report measures translated into the local dialect of the caregivers. Multiple regression results showed that loneliness positively predicted psychological distress in the total sample. Loneliness did not predict psychological distress of male caregivers, but it positively predicted psychological distress of female caregivers. In order to promote orthopaedic patients caregivers' mental health, gender-based differentials in the link between loneliness and psychological distress should be addressed by researchers and healthcare practitioners.
Castry, G; Ella, B; Emparanza, A; Siberchicot, F; Zwetyenga, N
Implant supported dental prostheses are the most up-to-date solution for edentulous patients. This technique requires and adequate bone quantity and quality. Bone distraction may allow compensating for some bone deficit, especially mandibulary. Few studies have been dedicated to how patients adjusted to this therapy (Int J oral Maxillofac Surg 34  238-42, Int J oral Maxillofac Surg 36  896-9, Med Oral Pathol Oral Cir Bucal 12  E225-8). We evaluated the psychological impact of alveolar mandibular distraction. Between 1999 and 2006, 31 patients aged 27 to 70 years underwent vertical alveolar mandibular distraction. Seventeen patients (54.8%) presented with complications. A questionnaire assessed the psychological impact by using notions used in healthcare psychology: perceived stress, perceived control, and social support. Twenty-three answers (74.2% of operated cases) were studied. In 87% of the cases, patients adjusted well the distraction procedure. Eighty-one percent felt no stress. Fifty-seven percent reported light to moderate pain, and 43% found the treatment painful. Confrontation to adverse events was mentioned only in 13% of the cases. In 17% of the cases, there was a slight alteration of sleep. Fifty-seven percent of the patients managed to forget the presence of the distractor. The most difficult stages were insertion of the distractor (48%) and the activation phase (17%). Seventy-one percent of the patients did not find the protocol restraining. The treatment length was not a problem for 65%. Two patients (9%) found it too long. Ninety-one percent of the patients activated the device on their own, for two (9% of the cases) the surgeon activated the device. Ninety-seven percent of the patients found supervision satisfactory. Medical information helped to adjust well to the procedure in 96% of the cases. Forty-three percent of the patients (10 cases) required specific help during the treatment: family support, attending physician, or
James, L C; Folen, R A; Porter, R I; Kellar, M A
The military patient population, the demanding environment in which medical services are provided, and the rigors of the operational environment create a unique challenge for service members as well as military health care providers. Within the military medical system, the subspecialty of clinical health psychology may provide patient care and consultation interventions necessary to meet the demands of the unique Army medical and military communities. As funding and other resources decrease, military health psychologists can provide high-quality care to difficult-to-manage patients while increasing outcome efficacy and decreasing costs to the hospital. This paper provides a definition of clinical health psychology and a description of its unique interventions and applications and how these unique skills augment medical services. Moreover, we offer a conceptual model for an innovative health psychology program that will assist other military treatment facilities in designing programs to increase outcome efficacy and concurrently reduce costs and utilization of services.
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of he...
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Joshua M. Tybur
Full Text Available Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of “health,” as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory. We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José
Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.
Padilla-Moledo, C; Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J
Interest on the impact of socioeconomic differences on youth's health is growing. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of parental educational level with psychological positive health and health complaints in Spanish children and adolescents. Parental educational level, psychological positive health indicators (perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships and academic performance) and health complaint index (headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, feeling dizzy) were self-reported using the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire in 685 (366 boys and 319 girls) children and adolescents. Children reporting parents with non-university studies (father, mother or both) had significantly higher odd ratio of having lower academic performance, lower life satisfaction, perceiving their health status as otherwise (vs. excellent) and having health complaints sometime than their counterparts reporting parents with university studies (father, mother or both). Current results provide evidence that children having parents with a university degree (father, mother or both) are more likely to have higher psychological positive health and lower health complaints than children reporting parents with non-university studies. This is particularly important for the welfare policy that must pay attention for implementing programs for helping population to access to university studies by their impact on youth health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Van Gerven, Eva; Bruyneel, Luk; Panella, Massimiliano; Euwema, Martin; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris
Objective To examine individual, situational and organisational aspects that influence psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident on physicians, nurses and midwives. Design Cross-sectional, retrospective surveys of physicians, midwives and nurses. Setting 33 Belgian hospitals. Participants 913 clinicians (186 physicians, 682 nurses, 45 midwives) involved in a patient safety incident. Main outcome measures The Impact of Event Scale was used to retrospectively measure psychological impact of the safety incident at the time of the event and compare it with psychological impact at the time of the survey. Results Individual, situational as well as organisational aspects influenced psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident. Psychological impact is higher when the degree of harm for the patient is more severe, when healthcare professionals feel responsible for the incident and among female healthcare professionals. Impact of degree of harm differed across clinicians. Psychological impact is lower among more optimistic professionals. Overall, impact decreased significantly over time. This effect was more pronounced for women and for those who feel responsible for the incident. The longer ago the incident took place, the stronger impact had decreased. Also, higher psychological impact is related with the use of a more active coping and planning coping strategy, and is unrelated to support seeking coping strategies. Rendered support and a support culture reduce psychological impact, whereas a blame culture increases psychological impact. No associations were found with job experience and resilience of the health professional, the presence of a second victim support team or guideline and working in a learning culture. Conclusions Healthcare organisations should anticipate on providing their staff appropriate and timely support structures that are tailored to the healthcare professional involved in the incident and to the specific
Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S
This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…
Full Text Available Orientation: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression.Motivation for the study: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles.Research approach, design and method: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160.Main findings: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE and from family to work (F2WE. Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. Contributions/value add: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families.
Hongsheng Chen PhD
Full Text Available This study analyzed the health of migrants in 4 types of neighborhood in the city of Guangzhou in China. The research shows that the health of internal migrants in urban villages and private housing neighborhoods is much better than those living in older inner city neighborhoods (which are known as jiefang shequ and unit neighborhoods (which are known as danwei. The reasons behind this are the facts that the migrants in urban villages tend to be relatively young and there tend to be better social and economic conditions in the private housing neighborhood. Moreover, among the 4 kinds of neighborhood, the gap between psychological health and physical health is the largest in urban villages. In addition, migrants who are younger, have better working conditions, and have higher levels of education have better health scores, and they tend to have more friends in the city, larger houses, better insurance, and more satisfaction with their neighborhood relationships, and they tend to be better adapted to urban life. As for the determinants of health, individual characteristics, community factors, and insurance are the most important factors. Specifically, individual age and age of housing have negative influences on physical health while insurance has a positive effect. This study shows that the type of neighborhood that migrants live in has a great impact on their psychological health, which can be improved by promoting neighborhood environments. Last, we propose that it is necessary to implement different strategies in different communities.
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo
This article introduces the monographic section on Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP), presenting eight theoretical and empirical papers about diverse topics. Traditionally, research on occupational health has mainly been focused on causes of diseases and on identifying and preventing work factors related to worker's impaired health. However, this biased view may not provide a complete understanding of the mechanisms that lead to employee well-being and performance. We discuss the differences of POHP with similar constructs, and review reasons for its importance in the development of this field. Overall, the studies included in the monographic section show the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs, and present ideas and questions that we hope may help to further our progress in the field of POHP.
Full Text Available of accidents and operations. 12.3 Overview of international experience In relation to health impacts of SGD, few studies have focused on long term health outcomes to include health impacts such as cancer or developmental outcomes (McDermott-Levy et al...., 2013; Werner et al., 2015). Werner et al. (2015) conducted a review of the current state of the evidence of environmental health impacts of unconventional natural gas development. They noted that health outcomes reported to be in some way associated...
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.
The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen
Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Zou, Yun; Zhan, Desong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological intervention on edentulous patients' satisfaction with complete clinically satisfactory complete dentures. The survey was conducted in China Medical University involving 84 individuals receiving complete dentures at this institution from August 2013 to March 2014. Participants were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups consisting of 42 subjects, respectively. In the intervention group, individuals received oral health education and psychological intervention before and after the whole process. In the control group, 42 cases received doctor's regular advice after treatment. Satisfaction regarding aesthetic, speech, mastication, retention and comfort was rated in the first and third month after prosthesis treatment. Patients overall aesthetic, speech, mastication and retention were significantly improved in both intervention and control groups in 3 months later after prosthesis treatment when compared with the first month (P evaluations (P 0·05) in first and third month. The study concludes that psychological intervention plays a significant role in improving patient satisfaction with complete dentures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration o...
Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün
The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.
Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite
Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.
Heaney, Caroline A.; Walker, Natalie C.; Green, Alison J.K.; Rostron, Claire L
The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of an online sport psychology education module on the attitudes and behaviours of qualified sports physiotherapists in the UK. Ninety-five sport physiotherapists studied either a sport psychology module or a control module, and their attitudes and behaviours towards sport psychology were measured prior to studying the module and at three points over a six-month period following its completion. It was found that those who had studied the spor...
Full Text Available The magnitude and impact of mental disorders does not correspond to the resources devoted to research and attention. Although we have made significant progress in their understanding and the efficacy of the psychological treatments, we are still far from an optimal situation. This paper focuses on one of the major issues which we consider fundamental challenges and needs in this area, the increase in research focusing on psychopathology, especially on the mechanisms and processes that explain and maintain mental disorders, as a key point for the design and development of new psychological interventions for the prevention, treatment, and promotion of mental health. The aim is to promote discussion among all stakeholders and debate on those lines we think as a priority.
Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu
Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
Nonetheless, not all caregivers are supportive of survivors; recent research findings, instead, show that incidents of CSA have debilitating psychological impact on survivors' caregivers which impair their functioning. This study explored whether a systematic link exists between an incident ofCSAand psychological changes ...
Prenatal diagnosis is associated with psychological challenges, which may affect the response of women before, during or after the procedure, as well as their decision on the future of an affected pregnancy. This prospective study was to evaluate the psychological impact of prenatal diagnosis, factors that may be ...
This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...
Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F
Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.
Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly M; Clifton, James P; van de Schoot, Rens; Tiemensma, Jitske
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of health psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries. We discuss the incorporation and impact of prior knowledge into the estimation process and the different components of the analysis that should be reported in an article. We present an example implementing Bayesian estimation in the context of blood pressure changes after participants experienced an acute stressor. We conclude with final thoughts on the implementation of Bayesian statistics in health psychology, including suggestions for reviewing Bayesian manuscripts and grant proposals. We have also included an extensive amount of online supplementary material to complement the content presented here, including Bayesian examples using many different software programmes and an extensive sensitivity analysis examining the impact of priors.
von Wagner, Christian; Steptoe, Andrew; Wolf, Michael S.; Wardle, Jane
The association between performance on health literacy measures and health outcomes is well established. The next step is to understand the processes through which health literacy affects health. This review introduces a framework drawing on ideas from health psychology and proposing that associations between health literacy and health outcomes…
Jesús Redondo; Marianela Luzardo-Briceño; Karol Lizeth García-Lizarazo; Cándido J. Inglés
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying among study participants and examine the psychological impact on both cyber victims and cyber attackers, also analyzing...
Hilton, Charlotte Emma; Johnston, Lynne Halley
Despite the growth in theoretical understandings of health behaviour and standardised approaches to health interventions (e.g. behaviour change taxonomies), health psychology has paid comparatively less attention to the importance of the implementation processes - 'how to' rather than 'what to' of such interventions. The clinical and interpersonal skills that often reflect these implementation processes are poorly defined within the health psychology literature. The level of proficiency in such skills expected of Health and Care Professions Council registered practitioner health psychologists is unclear and poorly documented within the UK training requirements. This article explores the potential impact of this and offers some pragmatic solutions.
Prazak, Michael; Critelli, Joseph; Martin, Luci; Miranda, Vanessa; Purdum, Michael; Powers, Catherine
This study examined the relationships of mindfulness, a form of focused self-awareness, with physical and psychological health. Mindfulness was measured in terms of four stable forms of awareness: Observe, an awareness of internal and external stimuli; Describe, an ability to verbally express thoughts clearly and easily; Act with Awareness, the tendency to focus on present tasks with undivided attention; and Accept without Judgment, the tendency to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward one's own thoughts and emotions. These aspects of mindfulness were explored in relation to both physical health, which consisted of heart rate variability, a measure of overall cardiovascular health, and psychological health, which consisted of flourishing, existential well-being, negative affect, and social well-being in a sample of 506 undergraduate students. Individuals high in mindfulness showed better cardiovascular health and psychological health. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Luis A. Oblitas
Full Text Available Studies on the scientific background of Health Psychology are discussed, including the conceptual definition, as well as the bio-psycho-social model that characterizes it. The relation between health and behavior is described in order to have a better understanding of health and illness, as well as about the pathogenic and immunology issues related to behavior. The main contributions of Health Psychology to improve life quality and health are described. Moreover, medical psychology, psychosocial coping of illness, as well as intervention strategies, are discussed. Health Psychology becomes a good alternative for the understanding of health and illness mechanisms, as well as for the prevention process and illness treatment related to psychological components.
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the invited presentation by the author at the American Psychological Association's Annual Convention, August 4-7, 2011, upon his receipt of the Joseph D. Matarazzo Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in Academic Health Centers presented by the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers. This article relates the history, roles, and responsibilities of psychologists in academic health centers to the ultimate survival and success of professional psychology. It describes implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the institutional practice of psychology including how psychology's place in academic health centers positions the field well for the future of healthcare reform. The article provides several recommendations to help professional psychology prepare for that future of integrated, interprofessional healthcare.
Franzén-Dahlin, Asa; Larson, Jenny; Murray, Veronica; Wredling, Regina; Billing, Ewa
To identify predictors of psychological health and examine if these predictors change over time in spouses of stroke patients during the first year after stroke. A second aim was to identify gender differences in psychological health among the spouses. The impact of burden in long-term caregivers may result in psychological consequences for the spouse. The rehabilitation process for the patient can be negatively affected by a stressed caregiver and result in long-term hospitalization. To identify spouses at risk for physical and psychological distress is, therefore, essential to support those in need. Longitudinal, comparative study. One hundred spouses of stroke patients were assessed at baseline, as well as after six and 12 months, regarding psychological health, well-being, own illness, need of assistance from general practitioner and/or district nurse, social network and knowledge about stroke. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted for baseline, six- and 12-month assessments, respectively, with psychological health as the dependent variable. General well-being and presence of illness in spouse were the most prominent predictors of psychological health, throughout the first year. Enhancing psychological health and preventing medical problems in the caregiver are essential considerations to enable patients with stroke-related disabilities to continue to live at home. Evaluating the situation for spouses of stroke patients is an important component when planning for the future care of the patient.
Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew
Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…
Miloseva, Lence; Milosev, Vladimir
The main aim of this paper is to present a new model and approach in Health and Clinical practice – Applied Positive Psychology. Through discussion about the roots of Positive Psychology and interest in what is good about humans and their lives and in optimal human functioning we will try to introduce a new model of Positive Health and Clinical Psychology. From Aristotle’s treatises on eudemonia, through Aquinas’ writings about virtue during the Renaissance, to the inquires of modern psycholo...
Horick, Nora K; Manful, Adoma; Lowery, Jan; Domchek, Susan; Moorman, Patricia; Griffin, Constance; Visvanathan, Kala; Isaacs, Claudine; Kinney, Anita Y; Finkelstein, Dianne M
Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness. Combining all patients into a single analysis, regression was used to evaluate the association between outcomes and socio-demographic and clinical factors. Median time since diagnosis was 3 years (range 0-9); 69 % were no longer in treatment. Poorer physical health was reported in registrants who were older at diagnosis, unmarried, and still in treatment. Poorer mental status was associated with younger diagnosis age and unmarried status. Psychological distress varied by cancer type and was higher among currently treated and unmarried registrants. Greater loneliness was reported in registrants with gynecological cancers, and those who were less educated or unmarried. The physical and mental health profile of rare cancer survivors is similar to what is reported for common cancers. Unmarried participants reported poorer outcomes on all measures of quality of life. Furthermore, physical and mental health were not significantly different by cancer type after adjustment for diagnosis age, whether currently in treatment and marital status. Thus, the combined analysis performed here is a useful way to analyze outcomes in less common diseases. Our findings could be valuable in guiding evaluation and intervention for issues impacting quality of life. Rare cancer survivors, particularly those without spousal support, should be monitored for challenges to the physical as well as psychological aspects of quality of life.
During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it ...
Background: Satisfied employees tend to be healthier and more productive. There is no known study on the overall job satisfaction and psychological health of bank employees in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among bank employees in a southern city of ...
Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.
We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…
Brack, Amy Badura; Kesitilwe, Kutlo; Ware, Mark E.
We conducted a random national survey of 100 doctoral, 100 comprehensive, and 100 baccalaureate institutions to determine the current state of the undergraduate health psychology course. We found clear evidence of a maturing course with much greater commonality in name (health psychology), theoretical foundation (the biopsychosocial model), and…
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology,
Religion encompasses behavioural, attitudinal, public and private activities, all of which potentially involve different antecedent factors and consequences for health outcomes. There is increasing research evidence that religious involvement is associated both cross-sectionally and prospectively with better physical health, ...
Michael A. Andrykowski
Full Text Available Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation impact of false positive (FP OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of “normal” results was also considered. This research suggests that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.
Andrykowski, Michael A
Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC) was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress) and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation) impact of false positive (FP) OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of "normal" results was also considered. This research suggests that a "normal" screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.
Herry Pintardi Chandra
Full Text Available The relationship between psychological empowerment of stakeholders and project success is an important thing that must be known by project manager. This research developed and tested the model to predict how well the impact of stakeholder psychological empowerment on project success. Stakeholder psychological empowerment was defined to have five indicator variables covering intrinsic motivation, opportunity to perform, ability to perform, task behaviors, and contextual behaviors. Meanwhile, project success can be measured by cost performance, time performance, quality performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. In this study, it was hypothesized that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaire survey carried out to 204 respondents, structural equation modeling (SEM was used for predicting the performance of project success. It was found that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success, especially on the ability to perform of stakeholders.
Zhou, Wen-Bin; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Qu, Hui
Abstract Background: Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organizational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. Methods: A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Results: Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment, and organizational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organizational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Qu, Hui
Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organisational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organisational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organisational commitment and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.
College students were administered a series of questionnaires designed to determine the association between psychological health, involvement in a romantic relationship, and the quality of love in a relationship. As predicted, subjects who had been involved in at least one love relationship scored significantly higher on a measure of self-actualization than individuals who had never been in love. In addition, it was found that level of self-actualization directly correlated with the degree of healthy love (Maslow's B-love) among individuals who had been involved in a romantic relationship. Among individuals who had terminated their relationship, those who demonstrated higher levels of self-actualization felt less resentment toward their ex-lover. Furthermore it was discovered that females show a higher level of B-love than males, but contrary to predictions the length of a romantic relationship did not influence B-love. It is concluded that the results of this study are essentially consistent with Maslow's theories about self-actualization, hierarchy of needs, and healthy love.
Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Klassen, Brian; Murdoch, William; Thakur, Elyse R; Wright, Brandy E; Morris, Pierre
Family medicine residents increasingly work collaboratively with psychology trainees. One type of collaborative experience involves dual interviewing of clinic patients. The goal of this observational study was to provide an initial description of what occurs during dual interviews as it relates to behavioral health assessments and interventions. Psychology trainees provided detailed descriptions of 550 collaborative patient encounters involving 348 patients from the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency clinic. Psychology trainees coded the frequency of behavioral health assessments and interventions by the resident, psychology trainee, or both. Eighty percent of the encounters contained a behavioral health assessment, and 29% contained a behavioral health intervention. Most of these clinical activities were collaboratively done. Interestingly, residents and psychology trainees tended to provide different behavioral health interventions. Moreover, residents provided different behavioral health interventions in repeat dual interviews (n=202) as opposed to first-time visits (n=348), while psychology trainees did not. Little is known about the process of dual interviewing, and this study is an important first step in describing how residents and psychology trainees actually interact during these encounters. More research is needed about the impact of dual interviewing on residents' behavior.
Olawale, Olajide A; Deih, Abraham N; Raphael KK Yaadar
Background: Psychological stress associated with cerebral palsy (CP) is known to be one of the most depressing conditions of families. In the traditional African society, some peculiar factors may contribute to the stress. Aims: The aims of this study were to identify and describe, from the African perspective, the psychological impact of CP on families and determine the strategies adopted by families in coping with it. Settings and Design: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey c...
Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P
While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Rozensky, Ronald H
Implications for the future of professional psychology are discussed and related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, patient-centered health care homes and accountable care organizations, and the growing importance of interprofessional competencies in health care. The need for increased information about the psychology workforce is related to the history of the institutional practice of psychology and how that data must be used to plan for the supply of psychologists required to meet the service demands of the changing health care system. Several challenges to the field of psychology are offered, along with steps that must be taken by the profession to prepare for increased institutionally based health care services in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M
The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Impacto del paso de los huracanes Gustav e Ike en la salud psicológica de un grupo de escolares afectados Impact of Gustav and Ike hurricanes crossing on the psychological health of a group of affected schoolchildren
Yasel Santiesteban Díaz
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: evaluar el impacto de los huracanes Gustav e Ike en la salud psicológica de un grupo de escolares. Caracterizar la representación psicológica que de los huracanes tuvieron estos, e identificar la presencia de síntomas psicológicos durante y posterior al paso de los meteoros por la localidad afectada. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de casos clínicos 3 meses después de haber pasado los eventos meteorológicos (noviembre 2008. Se seleccionaron 10 niños con edades entre 7 y 10 años, y se recogió el antecedente de daño parcial o total en sus viviendas. La comunidad escogida para el estudio fue Bacunagua, perteneciente al municipio de Los Palacios, el más afectado en la provincia de Pinar del Río. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el dibujo libre, la composición con el tema "El ciclón", y la entrevista, además se realizó una entrevista a los padres, para recoger el comportamiento de los niños durante y después del paso del ciclón. RESULTADOS: se consideraron 3 categorías como representación psicológica, las cuales fueron destrucción, afección emocional y recuperación; y los síntomas identificados fueron la ansiedad y la tristeza, en 2 niños los síntomas fueron suficientes para considerar la posibilidad Trastorno de Adaptación con Síntoma Ansioso-depresivo. CONCLUSIONES: el trabajo nos permitió acercarnos a los efectos psicológicos de los desastres desde técnicas psicológicas proyectivas, y nos mostró las características en tanto representación y sintomatología psicológica que poseían los escolares del meteoro que los afectó, lo cual permitió acercarse al tratamiento pos desastre existente y proponer recomendaciones.OBJECTIVES: to assess the impact of hurricanes Gustav and Ike on the psychological health of a group of schoolchildren. To characterize the psychological representation that hurricanes had on they and to identify the presence of psychological symptoms during and after the passing of
Watkins, Marley W; Chan-Park, Christina Y
Hirsch's (2005) h index has become one of the most popular indicators of research productivity for higher education faculty. However, the h index varies across academic disciplines so empirically established norms for each discipline are necessary. To that end, the current study collected h index values from Scopus and Google Scholar databases for 401 tenure-track faculty members from 109 school psychology training programs. Male faculty tended to be more senior than female faculty and a greater proportion of the male faculty held professorial rank. However, female faculty members outnumbered males at the assistant and associate professor ranks. Although strongly correlated (rho=.84), h index values from Google Scholar were higher than those from Scopus. h index distributions were positively skewed with many faculty having low values and a few faculty having high values. Faculty in doctoral training programs exhibited significantly larger h index values than faculty in specialist training programs and there were univariate differences in h index values across academic rank and sex, but sex differences were not significant after taking seniority into account. It was recommended that the h index be integrated with peer review and diverse other indicators when considering individual merit. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J
BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute...
Full Text Available Chronic alcoholism can have an adverse psychological impact on the family involved in caregiving and coping with the alcoholic. This article attempts to review and discuss relevant literature pertaining to the overall psychological impact of adult alcoholism on spouses and children. A literature search on various search engines like Pubmed, Psychinfo, OmniMedicalSearch, and WebMD was done using search words such as "psychological impact", "alcoholism", "family" "spouse", "parents," and "children". The articles perceived to be relevant have been reviewed and discussed. The literature search revealed significant problems in coping among family members. It was found that there exists a huge burden on the immediate family members of the chronic alcoholic. Recent studies have found high levels of psychological stress and depressive symptoms in spouses of alcoholics. Alcohol use has also been significantly linked to aggressive behaviors and intimate partner violence. Parentification and emotional caretaking were found in the children of chronic alcoholics. This can have a major impact on the psychological development of these children. Recent studies have shown that the offsprings of alcoholics are at a high risk for Conduct Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Substance Dependence. Marital and Family therapy may have a role in therapeutic as well as preventive care approaches in alcoholism.
Chamberlain, Kerry; Lyons, Antonia C; Stephens, Christine
We examine how critical health psychology developed in New Zealand, taking an historical perspective to document important influences. We discuss how academic appointments created a confluence of critical researchers at Massey University, how interest in health psychology arose and expanded, how the critical turn eventuated and how connections, both local and international, were important in building and sustaining these developments. We discuss the evolution of teaching a critical health psychology training programme, describe the research agendas and professional activities of academic staff involved and how this sustains the critical agenda. We close with some reflections on progress and attainment.
This paper focuses on widening participation and accessibility in relation to mental health issues and undergraduate psychology students. Sections 1 and 2 set the context and outline the scope and aims of this paper. Section 3 presents evidence of the student experience from the Improving Provisions for Disabled Psychology Students (IPDPS)…
Upton, Dominic; Mansell, Hayley
Psychology is taught on a range of vocational courses including such training for professions as nurses, medics, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and other health care professionals. However, what is uncertain is what psychology is taught, who it is taught by and how it is taught. This project aims to address these unresolved questions…
Jun 1, 2013 ... mainly due to poor working conditions and poor infrastructural ... The questionnaire contained three sections: 1) respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and work history;. 2) respondents' job satisfaction and. 3) psychological health ..... level and psychological well being of healthcare providers in a ...
Background: Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological ...
Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R
This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women...
Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.
Slatcher, Richard B; Selcuk, Emre
The association between the quality of people's close relationships and their physical health is well-established. But from a psychological perspective, how do close relationships impact physical health? This article summarizes recent work seeking to identify the relationship processes, psychological mediators and moderators of the links between close relationships and health, with an emphasis on studies of married and cohabitating couples. We begin with a brief review of a recent meta-analysis of the links between marital quality and health. We then describe our strength and strain model of marriage and health, homing in on one process-partner responsiveness-and one moderator-adult attachment style-to illustrate ways in which basic relationship science can inform our understanding of how relationships impact physical health. We conclude with a brief discussion of promising directions in the study of close relationships and health.
Haslam, N; Lusher, D
Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.
Dr. Sweeny is a social psychologist by training, but she applies the theories and methods of social psychology to address patients' experiences with their health and healthcare. Over the years, her work has examined topics ranging from bad news delivery to physician-patient communication to screening decisions. Her current research program focuses on the stressful but understudied experience of awaiting uncertain news, including news about one's health. She developed the uncertainty navigation model as a theoretical framework for understanding the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that emerge during the wait for health-relevant news. Her work has provided broad and novel insights into this difficult experience, including how waiting experiences unfold over time, the nature of distress during waiting periods, the relative effectiveness of various strategies people can use to cope with uncertainty, and the implications of stressful waiting periods for sleep and health. Dr. Sweeny’s work has been funded by the National Science Foundation and published in top journals, including Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Health Psychology Review, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, and Psychological Science. She received the inaugural Early Career Award from the Social Personality Health Network, and in 2016 she was awarded the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Career Contribution to Health Psychology. In her other life, Dr. Sweeny is a Middle Eastern dance performer and instructor, a yoga enthusiast, and an avid hiker. If you are a person with a disability and require an assistive device, services or other reasonable accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program at (240) 276-5626 at least one week in advance of the lecture date to discuss your accommodation needs.
Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.
Hodgetts, S; McConnell, D; Zwaigenbaum, L; Nicholas, D
Families with a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often utilize a variety of professional services. The provision of these services has many potential benefits for families; however, these services also place demands on parents, particularly mothers, to access, navigate and participate. Little is known about how involvement with these services and service systems influences the psychological wellbeing of mothers of children diagnosed with ASD. We examined the relationship between professional services and psychological wellbeing for mothers of children diagnosed with ASD. Mothers (n = 119) of children (mean child age 10.1 years; range 2-24 years) diagnosed with ASD anonymously completed a comprehensive survey. The survey included data related to maternal psychological wellbeing, professional services received and perceptions of these services, and child, mother and household characteristics. Regression analyses revealed that maternal psychological wellbeing was positively associated with the perceived continuity of services, and negatively associated with the number of professionals involved. Child and maternal age, and household income were also statistically significant predictors of maternal psychological wellbeing. The study findings draw attention to the potentially negative impact of systems-level challenges, especially fragmentation of services, on maternal psychological wellbeing, despite positive front-line services. In particular, our data suggest that psychological wellbeing among mothers of children with ASD may vary more as a function of service system variables than practitioner-level or child-level variables. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex
The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L
Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.
Derickson, Ryan; Fishman, Jonathan; Osatuke, Katerine; Teclaw, Robert; Ramsel, Dee
In psychologically safe workplaces, employees feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks, such as pointing out errors. Previous research suggested that psychologically safe climate optimizes organizational outcomes. We evaluated psychological safety levels in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and assessed their relationship to employee willingness of reporting medical errors. We conducted an ANOVA on psychological safety scores from a VHA employees census survey (n = 185,879), assessing variability of means across racial and supervisory levels. We examined organizational climate assessment interviews (n = 374) evaluating how many employees asserted willingness to report errors (or not) and their stated reasons. Finally, based on survey data, we identified 2 (psychologically safe versus unsafe) hospitals and compared their number of employees who would be willing/unwilling to report an error. Psychological safety increased with supervisory level (P report an error; retaliation fear was the most commonly mentioned deterrent. Furthermore, employees at the psychologically unsafe hospital (71% would report, 13% would not) were less willing to report an error than at the psychologically safe hospital (91% would, 0% would not). A substantial minority would not report an error and were willing to admit so in a private interview setting. Their stated reasons as well as higher psychological safety means for supervisory employees both suggest power as an important determinant. Intentions to report were associated with psychological safety, strongly suggesting this climate aspect as instrumental to improving patient safety and reducing costs.
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma
Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals' towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents.
The literature on gender differences related to psychological health among in-theater service members who are deployed in a combatant role is limited. Much focuses on retrospective reports of service members who have returned from deployment. Potential key factors that contribute to gender differences in psychological health among combatants are found in literature across several topic areas, but integration of findings across disciplines is lacking. A growing body of literature on gender differences related to psychological health of postdeployment military populations suggests males and females respond differently to perceived levels of social support pre-and postdeployment. One study on service members who were deployed suggested no significant gender differences related to reported psychological health symptoms, but did appear to find significant gender differences related to reported perception of unit morale. In another related area, research explores how ostracism impacts physical and psychological health of individuals and organizations, and can result in perceptions of physical pain, although research on gender differences related to the impact of ostracism is scarce. Research has also begun to focus on sex differences in pain responses, and has identified multiple biopsychosocial, genetic, and hormonal factors that may contribute as potential underlying mechanisms. In this brief review, we focus on and begin to integrate relevant findings related to the psychological health of females in combat roles, gender differences in the impact of perception of social support on psychological health, the psychological and physical impact of ostracism on individuals and organizations, and the current literature on sex differences in pain perception. We conclude with a synthesis and discussion of research gaps identified through this review, implications for clinical practice, and potential future research directions. In conclusion, there appear to be gender
Sharp, Tracy; Shreve-Neiger, Andrea; Fremouw, William; Kane, John; Hutton, Shawn
Identity theft is a new and growing form of white-collar crime. This exploratory study examined the psychological and somatic impact of identity theft and coping methods utilized by victims. Thirty-seven victims of identity theft participated in regional victim focus groups. Participants completed a victim impact questionnaire designed by the authors and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). The majority of participants expressed an increase in maladaptive psychological and somatic symptoms post victimization. Results on the BSI indicated that identity theft victims with unresolved cases, in contrast to those with resolved cases, were more likely to have clinically elevated scores when compared with a normative sample. Relatively similar coping mechanisms were utilized across victims. The results from this study suggest that victims of identity theft do have increased psychological and physical distress, and for those whose cases remain unresolved, distress is maintained over time.
Fajardo, Renato Salviato [UNESP; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Botasim, Eliene Ferreira; Barboza, Glaucia de Souza
To improve mental health services, the World Health Organization proposes an epidemiological approach" based on the constant screening of existing research, and aimed at continuous improvement of psychological treatment rather than strict application of prescribed techniques. This study provides an epidemiological survey conducted at the psychology ward of the municipal Ambulatório de Saúde Mental in Birigui, São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 180 patients in psychotherapeutic care were collected, ...
Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Álvaro; Burgueño, Rafael
This study aimed to determine the usefulness of integrating basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and relational frames theory (RFT) in order to explain the effects of social physique anxiety (SPA) - in the context of exercise - on exercisers' mental health. A total of 296 recreational cyclists and triathletes (100% males) aged 18 to 60 years old (M age = 35.65, SD = 9.49) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the target variables. Two models of structural equations with multiple mediators were tested using 5000 bootstrap samples. While the BPNT-based model explained 20% of variance in satisfaction with life (SWL) and 25% of variance in mental health (MH), the model that also incorporated RFT explained 43% of variance in both of those variables. Results showed that SPA negatively impacted exercisers' mental health via two different mechanisms: a) through a decrease in perceived satisfaction of basic psychological needs (β = -.05, p = .045 for SWL; β = -.07, p = .002 for MH); b) through an increase in psychological inflexibility, generated directly by SPA (β = -.24, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.20, p < .001 for MH) and also mediated by basic psychological need thwarting (β = -.09, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.08, p = .002 for MH). Results supported integrating the two theories, elucidating the processes by which a controlling social factor like SPA can affect the potential benefits of exercise.
Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.
A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy.
Full Text Available Historically speaking, psychology and religion have worked separately toward the goal of improving mental health among the people. Can psychology and religion work together and reap better results for the client? How important is religion for the people and how important are religious values for psychologists? What is the relationship between religion and mental health? How today's schools of psychology deal with the religious client? How is religion integrated in psychotherapy? These and other related issues are addressed in this paper. It is concluded that psychologists are obligated to work within the value system of the client and that this approach would achieve a more positive therapeutic outcome.
Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew
Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.
Background: There is a paucity of reports in the literature detailing the assessment of the beliefs,perception and psychological impact of acne patients . This is the first study from Saudi Arabia designed to address this issue. Materials and methods: A voluntary self-completed questionnaire was used to collect data from acne ...
Nordahl, Jennifer; Beran, Tanya; Dittrick, Crystal J.
Cyber-bullying is a significant problem for children today. This study provides evidence of the psychological impact of cyber-bullying among victimized children ages 10 to 17 years (M = 12.48, SD = 1.79) from 23 urban schools in a western province of Canada (N = 239). Students who were cyber-bullied reported high levels of anxious,…
MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.; Fitzsimons, Elaine
Background: Previous research with mothers of children with intellectual disabilities has shown that psychological acceptance is related to maternal psychological well-being. The present research extended this line of enquiry to fathers and explored the potential for psychological acceptance to mediate the impact of children's behaviour problems…
The potential health impacts of the proposed decision should be characterized based on the following criteria: Direction, Likelihood, Magnitude, Distribution, Severity, Permanence, Strength of Evidence.
Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498
Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.
psychoeducational program . Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 505-515. Greenberg, N., Langston, V., Fear, N. T., Jones, M., & Wessely, S. (2009). An... psychoeducational program designed to increase resilience led to improved mental health among British Royal Navy personnel. Cohn and Pakenham (2008...Finally, Gould, Greenberg, and Hetherton (2007) found that a psychoeducational program geared toward understanding symptoms of stress reactions
Simpson, Jane; Thomas, Carol
Clinical psychology and disability studies have traditionally occupied very different academic, philosophical and political spaces. However, this paper aims to illustrate the positive consequences and implications of attempts to understand and bridge this disciplinary divide. A narrative review format was used with evidence selected pragmatically as opposed to systematically. The construction of the argument determined the evidence selected. The concept of psycho-emotional disablism, which originated within disability studies, is argued to be a useful concept to bridge the divide between understandings of distress from both disability studies and clinical psychology perspectives. However, this can be usefully augmented by psychological research on the mechanisms through which disablism can affect individuals. Perspectives from both disability studies and clinical psychology can be usefully combined to bring important new perspectives; combined, these perspectives should help - on theoretical, service and social levels - to improve the mental health of disabled people. Implications for Rehabilitation Mental health is an important determinant of overall health-related quality of life and psychological therapy should be available for those disabled people who would value it. Psychological therapists working with disabled people should be more aware of the challenging social context in which disabled people live. Understandings of distress should not just include individual factors but also incorporate the psychological impact of stresses caused by societal barriers preventing inclusion. Psychologists should be more willing to work and engage at a societal and political level to influence change.
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of
Quick, J C
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a term first coined by Jonathan Raymond in 1990, yet OHP has historical, international roots dating at least to the early decades of the twentieth century. It involves research and practice to create healthy workplaces. This article has 4 sections. The 1st section discusses psychology's long history of concern for occupational health in industrial organizations, beginning with Hugo Münsterberg's study of industrial accidents and human safety in the late 1800s. The 2nd section focuses on OHP's movement from the convergence of public health and preventive medicine with health and clinical psychology in an industrial/organizational context. The 3rd section addresses the central issues of organizational and individual health through the framework of preventive management. The article concludes with OHP case examples drawn from the Chaparral Steel Company, the U.S. Air Force, and Johnson & Johnson.
father- daughter incest: Experiences of mothers following disclosure. Journal of Psychology in. Africa, 2007; 17 (1 & 2), 57-65. 16. Cohen, S., T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and. Social Behavior, 1983; 24,386-396. 17. Menon, A., B. Munalula& C. Glazebrook. Stress in.
Davidsen, Annette Sofie
a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis...... and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....
Nilay Pekel Uludagli
Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, mens involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for todays early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals psychological health in todays societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283
Isaka, Yukari; Inada, Haruhiko; Hiranuma, Yuri; Ichikawa, Masao
While cervical cancer screening is useful for detecting and then treating the disease at an early stage, most women with screen-positive results are free from cervical cancer but nevertheless subject to the unnecessary worry entailed in receiving such results. The purpose of this study was to examine whether receiving a screen-positive result was actually related to psychological distress among Japanese women who underwent cervical cancer screening. We conducted a questionnaire survey at health facilities in a semiurban city of Ibaraki prefecture, involving 1744 women who underwent cervical cancer screening and 72 who received screen-positive results and then underwent further testing. We used the K6 scale to assess their psychological distress (K6 score ≥5) and performed multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the relative effect of receiving screen-positive results on psychological distress. Psychological distress was more prevalent among women with screen-positive results (OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.32-3.74), while it was also related to history of mental health consultation (OR 2.26; 95 % CI 1.69-3.01) and marital status (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.02-1.70). Receiving a positive cervical cancer screening result was associated with psychological distress. To alleviate this psychological impact, the current form of communicating the screening results should be reconsidered.
Yanchus, Nancy J; Derickson, Ryan; Moore, Scott C; Bologna, Daniele; Osatuke, Katerine
The purpose of this paper is to explore employee perceptions of communication in psychologically safe and unsafe clinical care environments. Clinical providers at the USA Veterans Health Administration were interviewed as part of planning organizational interventions. They discussed strengths, weaknesses, and desired changes in their workplaces. A subset of respondents also discussed workplace psychological safety (i.e. employee perceptions of being able to speak up or report errors without retaliation or ostracism--Edmondson, 1999). Two trained coders analysed the interview data using a grounded theory-based method. They excerpted passages that discussed job-related communication and summarized specific themes. Subsequent analyses compared frequencies of themes across workgroups defined as having psychologically safe vs unsafe climate based upon an independently administered employee survey. Perceptions of work-related communication differed across clinical provider groups with high vs low psychological safety. The differences in frequencies of communication-related themes across the compared groups matched the expected pattern of problem-laden communication characterizing psychologically unsafe workplaces. Previous research implied the existence of a connection between communication and psychological safety whereas this study offers substantive evidence of it. The paper summarized the differences in perceptions of communication in high vs low psychological safety environments drawing from qualitative data that reflected clinical providers' direct experience on the job. The paper also illustrated the conclusions with multiple specific examples. The findings are informative to health care providers seeking to improve communication within care delivery teams.
Kim, Jin E.; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan
Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report two studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. PMID:26052815
Oti-Boadi, Mabel; Oppong Asante, Kwaku
Infertility has been shown to have considerable psychological effects on the well-being of couples, especially women. Religion has been found as a resource used by infertile women to cope with their distress. Little research has examined the influence of religious coping on psychological distress among infertile women in Ghana. This study examines the relationship between positive and negative religious coping and psychological health for women with infertility problems in Ghana. One hundred and fifty married women who were receiving assisted reproduction care in two specialized clinics were recruited for this study. Participants were administered with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Brief Religious Coping Scale to assess psychological health associated with infertility and religious coping respectively. A hierarchical regression was performed to examine the relative contribution of the domains of psychological health (i.e. somatization, anxiety and depression) in predicting negative religious coping and positive religious. The results showed that negative religious coping was significant and positively correlated with somatization, depression and anxiety. Furthermore, a positive relationship also existed between positive religious coping and somatization and anxiety but not depression. After controlling for age and duration of infertility, somatization and anxiety predicted positive religious coping whilst all the domains of psychological health (somatization, anxiety and depression) precited negative religious coping. This study expanded on the existing literature by examining positive and negative religious coping with psychological distress associated with infertility for women. These results underscore the need for health professionals providing therapies for women with infertility to acknowledge and consider their religious beliefs as this influences their mental health.
Fairburn, Christopher G; Patel, Vikram
The psychological treatment of mental health problems is beginning to undergo a sea-change driven by the widespread availability of digital technology. In this paper we provide an overview of the developments to date and those in the pipeline. We describe the various uses of digital interventions and consider their likely impact on clinical practice, clinical services and the global dissemination of psychological treatments. We note the importance of online clinics, blended treatment, digital assessment and digital training. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Flett, Ross A; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Long, Nigel R; MacDonald, Carol; Millar, Michelle; Clark, Bronwyn; Edwards, Howard; Petrik, Alexandra M
In order to better understand the long-term impact of child sex abuse, this study examined the association between women's experience of abuse, health symptoms, and psychological distress in adulthood. There is limited information about child abuse outside the United States. Nine hundred sixty-one women participated in a structured interview. Participants who had experienced abuse (13%) were significantly more vulnerable to psychological distress in adulthood if they were younger, less satisfied with their standard of living, and resided in urban areas. Dissemination and evaluation of therapies for the treatment of sex abuse in the New Zealand context is warranted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F
This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Hinkle, J. Scott
Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…
This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…
This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.
Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834
Hopp, Henrik; Troy, Allison S.; Mauss, Iris B.
Because of the central involvement of emotion regulation in psychological health and the role that implicit (largely unconscious) processes appear to play in emotion regulation, implicit emotion-regulatory processes should play a vital role in psychological health. We hypothesised that implicitly valuing emotion regulation translates into better psychological health in individuals who use adaptive emotion-regulation strategies. A community sample of 222 individuals (56% women) who had recently experienced a stressful life event completed an implicit measure of emotion regulation valuing (ER-IAT) and reported on their habitual use of an important adaptive emotion-regulation strategy: cognitive reappraisal. We measured three domains of psychological health: well-being, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment. As hypothesised, individuals who implicitly valued emotion regulation exhibited greater levels of psychological health, but only when they were high in cognitive reappraisal use. These findings suggest that salutary effects of unconscious emotion-regulation processes depend on its interplay with conscious emotion-regulation processes. PMID:21432692
Full Text Available The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying among study participants and examine the psychological impact on both cyber victims and cyber attackers, also analyzing gender differences in the impact. The sample consisted of 639 students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Bucaramanga branch, with an average age of 17.66 years (N = 303 boys, girls N = 334. For developing this analysis, the following instruments were used: (a Scale cyber aggressions; (B Scale cyber victimization; and (c Symptom Assessment Questionnaire-45 (SA-45. The results show that 27.5% of the sample has been attacked on occasion, and that the stalker was 26.7% over the past year. On the other hand, the results showed that there is a psychological impact (SA45 scales in both cyber victims and cyber aggressors. Gender differences in cyberbullying were evident only at some scales (primarily depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and somatization, although they were not significant among the psychological symptoms reported in this study (except for scales related to Somatization and Phobic Anxiety. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales
McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee
Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Hilton, Charlotte Emma; Johnston, Lynne Halley
Despite the growth in theoretical understandings of health behaviour and standardised approaches to health interventions (e.g. behaviour change taxonomies), health psychology has paid comparatively less attention to the importance of the implementation processes – ‘how to’ rather than ‘what to’ of such interventions. The clinical and interpersonal skills that often reflect these implementation processes are poorly defined within the health psychology literature. The level of proficiency in such skills expected of Health and Care Professions Council registered practitioner health psychologists is unclear and poorly documented within the UK training requirements. This article explores the potential impact of this and offers some pragmatic solutions. PMID:29379610
Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity. PMID:21627840
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.
The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.
Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger
The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Karanika-Murray, Maria; Bartholomew, Kimberley J.; Williams, Glenn A.; Cox, Tom
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that the quality of the leader–employee relationship is linked to employee psychological health. Leaders who reside at different hierarchical levels have unique roles and spheres of influence and potentially affect employees' work experiences in different ways. Nevertheless, research on the impact of leadership on employee psychological health has largely viewed leaders as a homogeneous group. Expanding on LMX theory, we argue that (1) LMX sourced ...
Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J
Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.
The aim of this study was to record experiences of three meditation conditions: Ratio Breathing, Transcendental Meditation and Zazen, with special reference to sport, health, neuro-physiology and sense of coherence. The participants (N=9), seven males and two females were all British, actively competing across a range of ...
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan
Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.
This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…
Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol
On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the…
Jun 1, 2013 ... Request for reprints to: S . Bello, Department of Community Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, P.O.Box. 1750 .... between job satisfaction and psychological health was calculated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS. A total of 215 questionnaires were distributed and.
Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G
Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. © The Author(s) 2016.
Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William
Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918
Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.
Ko, Jong Mi; Tecson, Kristen M; Rashida, Vanessa Al; Sodhi, Sandeep; Saef, Josh; Mufti, Mehwish; White, Kamila S; Ludbrook, Philip A; Cedars, Ari M
The factors having the greatest impact on self-reported health status in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remain incompletely studied. We conducted a single-site, cross-sectional study of ACHD patients followed at the Center for ACHD at Washington University School of Medicine, including retrospectively gathered clinical data and psychometric and health status assessments completed at the time of enrollment. To identify primary drivers of perceived health status, we investigated the impact of the demographic, clinical, and psychological variables on self-reported health status as assessed using the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Variables with significant associations within each domain were considered jointly in multivariable models constructed via stepwise selection. There was domain-specific heterogeneity in the variables having the greatest effect on self-reported health status. Depression was responsible for the greatest amount of variability in health status in all domains except physical functioning. In the physical functioning domain, depression remained responsible for 5% of total variability, the third most significant variable in the model. In every domain, depression more strongly influenced health status than did any cardiac-specific variable. In conclusion, depression was responsible for a significant amount of heterogeneity in all domains of self-perceived health status. Psychological variables were better predictors of health status than clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Méndez-Ulrich, Jorge Luis; Sanz, Antoni
Asymptomatic in its early stages, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. While psychosocial factors are taken into consideration for a host of diseases such as cancer, heart disease and autoimmune conditions, to date, psychological issues have been ignored in the clinical management of glaucoma. This work reviews the most relevant contributions from a health psychology perspective for the assessment and treatment of glaucoma, which is emerging in the field of psycho-ophthalmology. To provide scientific evidence regarding contributions of psychology to the comprehension of glaucoma, a bibliographic review of three databases (Psicodoc, PsycInfo and Medline) was conducted, spanning the period between 1940 and 2016. This review yielded a total of 66 studies published in the period analysed and identified three areas where health psychology has made substantive contributions to glaucoma screening, monitoring and treatment: the emotional impact on patients suffering from glaucoma, the adherence to treatment and the effects of stress on intraocular pressure. A health psychology approach for research and therapy of glaucoma must focus on the management of the negative affect associated with the diagnosis, the optimisation of treatment adherence and the stress management of the intraocular pressure measurements.
Scheepers, Renée A
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.
Aydin, May H; Sibai, Abla M
Health care should protect against the detrimental effects of stress on psychological well-being by providing both direct and indirect benefits. Using a sample of 490 older Lebanese (age 60 and over), this study examines whether access to and utilization of medical care buffer the impact of specific stressors on depressive symptoms. Findings show that access to medical care is associated with depressive symptoms for those who experienced recent death, serious accident and health-related stressors and that limited access increases depression for those exposed to recent violent stressors. The saliency of health-related events may be associated with health care access which is imposed under distressing contexts, likely worsening psychological well-being.
Bales, M; Pambrun, E; Melchior, M; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N M-C; Charles, M-A; Verdoux, H; Sutter-Dallay, A-L
Pregnant women are vulnerable to the deleterious impact of environmental stressors. The aims were to identify the environmental and pregnancy characteristics independently associated with prenatal psychological distress and access to mental health care. We used data from the French cohort Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE), a nationally representative cohort of children followed-up from birth to adulthood. Information about prenatal psychological status and access to mental health care was collected during the maternity stay. Maternal/pregnancy characteristics independently associated with psychological distress and access to mental health care were explored using multivariate analyses. Of the 15,143 mothers included, 12.6% reported prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal distress was more frequent in women with very low economical status, alcohol/tobacco use, unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, late pregnancy declaration, multiparity and complicated pregnancy (high number of prenatal visits, prenatal diagnosis examination, obstetrical complications). Of the women reporting prenatal distress, 25% had a prenatal consultation with a mental health specialist and 11% used psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. Decreased likelihood to consult a mental health specialist was found in young women, with intermediate educational level and born abroad. Causal inferences should be made cautiously as the questionnaire did not collect information on the temporal sequence between psychological distress and associated characteristics. Women with social and obstetrical vulnerabilities are at increased risk of poor mental health during pregnancy. Improving mental health care access during pregnancy is a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Rathmann, Katharina; Elgar, Frank J; de Looze, Margaretha; Hofmann, Felix; Ottova-Jordan, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Bosakova, Lucia; Currie, Candace; Richter, Matthias
The recent economic recession, which began in 2007, has had a detrimental effect on the health of the adult population, but no study yet has investigated the impact of this downturn on adolescent health. This article uniquely examines the effect of the crisis on adolescents' psychological health complaints in a cross-national comparison. Data came from the World Health Organization collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2005-06 and 2009-10. We measured change in psychological health complaints from before to during the recession in the context of changing adult and adolescent unemployment rates. Furthermore, we used logistic multilevel regression to model the impact of absolute unemployment in 2010 and its change rate between 2005-06 and 2009-10 on adolescents' psychological health complaints in 2010. Descriptive results showed that although youth and adult unemployment has increased during the economic crisis, rates of psychological health complaints among adolescents were unaffected in some countries and even decreased in others. Multilevel regression models support this finding and reveal that only youth unemployment in 2010 increased the likelihood of psychological health complaints, whereas its change rate in light of the recession as well as adult unemployment did not relate to levels of psychological health complaints. In contrast to recent findings, our study indicates that the negative shift of the recent recession on the employment market in several countries has not affected adolescents' psychological health complaints. Adolescents' well-being instead seems to be influenced by the current situation on the labour market that shapes their occupational outlook. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
D. Yu. Barkova
Full Text Available The analysis of the current state of the problem has allowed to de?ne the role of the type of schooling enhancing or, at least, retaining the appropriate level of the psychological health of the learners. According to the de?nition of the author if the paper, psychological health is a condition of openness to experience, ability to maintain contacts with internal and external personality’s reality and successfully acquire knowledge and skills. To de?ne the level of the psychological health the authors have used the following terms: individual manifestation of psychological health, the norms of the health, communicative competence, personal adaptive potential, moral patterns acquired, etc. The authors have revealed in the paper not only the medical backgrounds of investigating the impact of different factors on the level of the psychological health of the secondary school learner, but have carried out an empirical research and checked their postulates in practice. It was found as a result of the research that the problem of psychological health the most signi?cantly arises in the period of the formation of the personality that is at the teen age, since this period as is known from the theory of the personality development plays a signi?cant role in the consequential outcomes and results in certain consequential outcomes in the fundamental psychological structure of the personality. To investigate empirically the level of the psychological health achieved by the learners in different types of educational establishments a sample of 40 teenagers was chosen and the following variables were assessed: the level of the comprehension by the learner of the purpose of life, the emotional stability level and moral normativity. The analysis of the empirical ?ndings proved the hypothesis that there are no signi?cant differences between the levels of adaptability and personal growth among the teenagers grown up and
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Wentzel, M.J.; Sieverink, Floor; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kelders, Saskia Marion
Introduction: eHealth is gaining more and more ground in health psychology and behavioural medicine to support wellbeing, a healthier lifestyle or adherence to medications. Despite the large number of eHealth projects to date, the actual use of eHealth interventions is lower than expected. Many
Grey, Jillian M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.
Background: Providing long-term care to an adult relative with intellectual disability can impact negatively on caregivers' health and well-being. Methods: Data were collected via online and postal questionnaires on 110 family carers' physical and psychological health, family stress and perceived positive gains from caring. Psychological…
Facchin, F; Barbara, G; Dridi, D; Alberico, D; Buggio, L; Somigliana, E; Saita, E; Vercellini, P
What factors affect the mental health of women with endometriosis? Not only pelvic pain, but also individual characteristics (i.e. self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy), time from diagnosis and intimate relationship status influence the psychological health of endometriosis patients. The negative impact of endometriosis on mental health has been widely demonstrated by the research literature, along with the fact that presence and severity of pelvic pain are associated with anxiety and depression. However, endometriosis is a complex multidimensional disease and factors other than pelvic pain, including individual differences, may contribute to explain the variability in women's mental health. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2015 and 2017 at an Italian academic department of obstetrics and gynaecology. A total of 210 consecutive endometriosis patients (age: 36.7 ± 7.0 years) were included. Demographic and endometriosis-related information was collected. Individual differences were assessed using validated measures evaluating self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) were used to evaluate mental health. Based on the extant literature, we identified three categories of putative predictors (demographic variables, endometriosis-related factors and individual differences i.e. 'self'), whose psychological impact was examined using a hierarchical multiple regression approach. Being in a stable relationship (coded 1 ['yes'] or 0 ['no']) was associated with decreased rumination (RRS: β = -0.187; P = 0.002). A shorter time from diagnosis was associated with greater anxiety (HADS-A: β = -0.177; P = 0.015). Pelvic pain severity and 'self' were associated with all mental health variables (Ps self-esteem, body esteem, and emotional self-efficacy were correlated with better psychological outcomes (Ps women with endometriosis. In our regression
Full Text Available This research was conducted with an objective to study relationships between physical activity and emotional wellbeing of women. The study involved 659 women aged 18–45. The following questionnaires were used: General Health Questionnaire, Health Questionnaire for Adults, Beck Depression Inventory. Physically active women experienced less stress disorders (P<0.05 and less depressiveness (P<0.05. Results showed that even a low level of physical activity (1-2 times per week can account for positive impact on women’s mental health (depressive feelings and psychological disorders.
Kees, Michelle; Rosenblum, Katherine
The decade long conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have placed considerable strain on military families. Given robust data showing high rates of deployment-related psychological health problems in spouses and children, and the near absence of evidence-based psychological health programs for military families in the community, interventions are urgently needed to support and strengthen spouses as they adjust to deployment transitions and military life experiences. This Phase 1 pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a resiliency intervention for military spouses in civilian communities (HomeFront Strong; HFS), and generated preliminary efficacy data regarding impacts on psychological health and adjustment. Through two group cohorts, 14 women completed the intervention, with 10 women providing pre- and postgroup assessment data. Findings support feasibility of the intervention and high rates of program satisfaction. Participants reported learning new strategies and feeling more knowledgeable in their ability to use effective coping skills for managing deployment and military-related stressors. Participation in HFS was also associated with reduction in levels of anxiety and perceived stress, and improvements in life satisfaction and life engagement. HFS is a promising community-based intervention for military spouses designed to enhance resiliency, reduce negative psychological health symptoms, and improve coping. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen
Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives. The HIV epidemic has drastically increased among older adults in China, yet little research has examined the psychological impacts among older and younger people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs. This study examined and compared self-efficacy, depression, well-being, and quality of life among older and younger PLWHAs in China. Method. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to recruit a final sample of 148 participants. Older adults were defined as age 50 and older. Result. Compared to younger PLWHAs aged 18–49 years old, older PLWHAs reported lower levels of well-being (7.6 versus 11.4, higher levels of depression (18.6 versus 15.8, and poorer quality of life. Self-efficacy was similar among older (23.9 and younger (24.6 PLWHAs. A higher level of depression among older PLWHAs was associated with much lower levels of subjective well-being and quality of life (physical health and psychological health. Conclusion. The findings suggest that older PLWHAs face psychological problems and mental health challenges beyond those experienced by younger PLWHAs. Intervention programs dedicated to improving mental health and quality of life are greatly needed for HIV infected older adults.
Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan
Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Marmash, Lily R
Assessment of individuals' psychological well-being and mental health is an important aspect of health promotion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of psychological well-being and general health report among Jordanian university students. A total of 1108 students from six universities in Jordan were surveyed regarding psychological well-being and general health. The results showed that students perceived their psychological well-being as moderate. Psychological wellbeing subscales were negatively correlated with reports of physical pain, chronic infections, and previous or current treatment of a psychiatric illness. Male and female university students were similar in their perceptions of psychological well-being; however, they differed in their general health report. Perception of psychological well-being is an important component of university students' health. The importance of psychological well-being is highlighted, and implications for mental health nurses are presented.
Wong, Jaclyn S; Waite, Linda J
Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health 5 years later than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process.
Stetz, Thomas A; Stetz, Melba C; Turner, David D
Little is known about the relative impact of the organization of missions on aircrew well-being. Using an occupational stress model we investigate a previously little studied concept of mission stressors and determine its relative impact in comparison to physical and war stressors in the prediction of four strains in deployed aircrews. Questionnaires were completed by 272 deployed in-aircraft crewmembers. Three new stressors were developed for this study: mission stressors, physical stressors, and war stressors. In addition, four strains were measured: PTSD, depression, sleepiness, and nervousness. Regression analyses were used to examine the relative impact of each stressor on the four strain measures while controlling for age and occupation. All three stressors played a significant role in the prediction strains with the total explained variance in the analyses ranging from 15% and 39%. Interestingly, mission stressors played the most important role in the prediction of strains possessing the largest partial eta squared in each analysis. The second most important stressor was physical stressors followed by war stressors. The importance of mission stressors may be because current training is designed to inoculate crewmembers to stressors such as the physical/environmental conditions and violent war actions, but there is no training or acknowledgment of the importance of dealing with mission stressors. Our findings suggest it might be beneficial for commanders to address these stressors, as it may improve short-term psychological well-being, which may ultimately impact mission success and safety.
Olajide A Olawale
Full Text Available Background: Psychological stress associated with cerebral palsy (CP is known to be one of the most depressing conditions of families. In the traditional African society, some peculiar factors may contribute to the stress. Aims: The aims of this study were to identify and describe, from the African perspective, the psychological impact of CP on families and determine the strategies adopted by families in coping with it. Settings and Design: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted in the Physiotherapy Department of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: Participants were 52 parents of children with CP. They completed a questionnaire designed to determine the degree of psychological stress on the families and strategies adopted to cope with the stress. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to show responses in graphical formats. Results: Respondents agreed that having adequate knowledge of CP would help them cope well with the demands of taking care of children with CP. 38.5% of respondents said that people in the society accused them of some wrongdoing that has made their children to have CP. Personal problems experienced include loss of job, lack of concentration at work, loss of family joy, and derangement of financial affairs of the family. 26 (50% of them resort to religious/spiritual intervention as an alternative or complementary mode of treatment for their children while 28% resort to dependence on the extended family system for support. Conclusion: Families caring for children with CP generally have a positive attitude towards their children. However, there is need to educate the public on the causes of CP and treatment options available to families.
Olawale, Olajide A; Deih, Abraham N; Yaadar, Raphael KK
Background: Psychological stress associated with cerebral palsy (CP) is known to be one of the most depressing conditions of families. In the traditional African society, some peculiar factors may contribute to the stress. Aims: The aims of this study were to identify and describe, from the African perspective, the psychological impact of CP on families and determine the strategies adopted by families in coping with it. Settings and Design: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted in the Physiotherapy Department of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: Participants were 52 parents of children with CP. They completed a questionnaire designed to determine the degree of psychological stress on the families and strategies adopted to cope with the stress. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to show responses in graphical formats. Results: Respondents agreed that having adequate knowledge of CP would help them cope well with the demands of taking care of children with CP. 38.5% of respondents said that people in the society accused them of some wrongdoing that has made their children to have CP. Personal problems experienced include loss of job, lack of concentration at work, loss of family joy, and derangement of financial affairs of the family. 26 (50%) of them resort to religious/spiritual intervention as an alternative or complementary mode of treatment for their children while 28% resort to dependence on the extended family system for support. Conclusion: Families caring for children with CP generally have a positive attitude towards their children. However, there is need to educate the public on the causes of CP and treatment options available to families. PMID:23914092
Murphy, Sinead A; Osborne, Hannah; Smith, Ian
Psychological consultation is becoming increasingly common within older adult mental health and dementia services. However, there is very little research that examines the impact or effectiveness of this method of working. This study explored how psychological consultation impacted on the daily practice of staff working on mental health and dementia inpatient units. It also examined the mechanisms that enabled this process. Given the lack of current literature in this area, an exploratory qualitative design was employed. Ten staff who had received psychological consultation were individually interviewed. Staff comprised qualified and unqualified staff from a range of professions, and worked on older adult mental health or dementia units. Interviews were subject to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified from the analysis: (1) 'It makes you understand the reasons why people are like they are'; (2) 'It depends on the patient or service user'; (3) the importance of visibility and accessibility; (4) impact of psychology consultation on the effectiveness of the team; and (5) impact of psychology consultation on feelings invoked in the workplace. The findings suggest that psychological consultation impacted on staffs' daily practice in a variety of ways. Psychological consultation also appeared to increase team efficiency. Less positive findings were identified within the dementia setting. Specific recommendations are drawn from the conclusions to further guide clinical psychologists working within teams. Direction for future research in the area of psychological consultation is also suggested.
Sumner, Kenneth E.; Lampmann, Jodi L.
This article describes a project to reinforce learning in an undergraduate health psychology seminar. The project required students to (a) profile the physical and mental health status of at least 15 family members, (b) identify trends or patterns related to health and illness in their families, and (c) develop an action plan for maintaining good…
Easpaig, Bróna R Nic Giolla; Fryer, David M; Linn, Seònaid E; Humphrey, Rhianna H
Queer-theoretical resources offer ways of productively rethinking how central concepts such as 'person-context', 'identity' and 'difference' may be understood for community health psychologists. This would require going beyond consideration of the problems with which queer theory is popularly associated to cautiously engage with the aspects of this work relevant to the promotion of collective practice and engaging with processes of marginalisation. In this article, we will draw upon and illustrate the queer-theoretical concepts of 'performativity' and 'cultural intelligibility' before moving towards a preliminary mapping of what a queer-informed approach to community health psychology might involve.
Full Text Available In 90-ies years of last century in our country happened the crash of the system of values with transition to the standards of capitalistic society, and it lead to the formation of chronicle psychosocial stress of high and medium levels. Medics of all directions started to face functional psychosomatic diseases. Raised the necessity in grounding of health manpower in discipline of clinical psychology, with the learning of psychophisiological bases of diseases and possibilities if their correction. This direction of development of soviet medical education and health service in general seems progressive and prospective.
Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora
This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
BACKGROUND: Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence...... investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. RESULTS: Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest......, psychiatric symptoms that persist after surgery and inappropriate eating behaviour postoperatively are likely to contribute to poor health-related quality of life outcome. CONCLUSION: Certain psychological factors appear to be important for mental health and HRQOL after bariatric surgery. However...
Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Christ, Sharon L; Kwak, Yoon Young; Lu, Ting
Adolescents receive psychological or emotional care from both parents and peers, which is crucial for mental health at this stage. Little research has been undertaken to evaluate the experience and consequences of caregiver psychological neglect during adolescence. Less is known about the unique and combined impacts of neglectful experiences with parents and peers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between exposure to caregiver psychological neglect and isolation from peers with depression for a population of at-risk adolescents. A sample of 2776 adolescents who represent a cohort population of adolescents in contact with Child Protective Services in the U.S. was studied. Data come from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW) and are pooled across four waves representing seven years duration. Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to estimate within-time associations. A two-stage-least squares path model was used to determine within-time reciprocal effects between depression and neglectful experiences. Adolescents who are emotionally neglected by their primary caregivers and are isolated from peers have substantially increased depression, a combined standardized effect of 0.78-0.91. Isolation from peers is more impactful for depression compared to psychological neglect by caregivers. The effects of deficits in these two primary sources of emotional support explain 40 percent of the variation in depression. The relationships between depression and peer isolation and depression and psychological neglect are reciprocal, but the primary direction of effect is from neglectful experiences to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Mark; Jenkins, Kym
To investigate the psychological impact on Australian hospital patients of the media coverage of the September 11 (9/11) terrorist attack. Thirty psychiatry and 26 matched medical and surgical inpatients were assessed. Both reported and observed distress was common. Women reported significantly more distress than men. Individuals with psychiatric illness were significantly more varied in their attribution of cause for 9/11. Seven patients (29%) with pre-existing psychosis became delusional surrounding the events, but there were no significant differences between the psychiatry and the medical and surgical inpatients. Clinical impressions were confirmed, namely, that a large proportion of hospital inpatients were adversely affected by TV footage of the 9/11 terrorist attack. Most vulnerable were those already with a mental disorder, particularly those with a pre-existing psychotic illness.
Leeming, Amy; Murray, Scott A; Kendall, Marilyn
Heart failure is a common cause of death and causes significant morbidity in its advanced stage. As the illness progresses, lack of physical health may overshadow psychological, social and existential distress. To explore the impact of advanced heart failure on other aspects of the patients' lives. We undertook a secondary analysis of interview data generated for a qualitative longitudinal study looking at the experiences of patients with advanced heart failure, and their family and professional carers. A sub set of patient, family and professional carer interview transcripts was selected for thematic analysis. The sample was chosen to reflect a range of age, gender and social situations. Eighteen transcripts from five cases were examined. Three key themes were identified: 1) social isolation; 2) psychological issues and coping strategies; and 3) existential concerns. Psychosocial and existential issues are important aspects of the lives of patients suffering from heart failure. Holistic management should encompass an awareness of exploration and support for these dimensions.
Hegarty, Peter; Walton, Zoe
An academic journal's impact factor (hereafter JIF) is an average measure of the citation count of individual articles published in that journal. JIF is used to assess merit, predict impact, and allocate resources, but the actual number of citations to individual articles is only modestly correlated with the JIFs of the journals in which they are published. We counted PsycInfo citations to 1,133 articles published in nine leading psychology journals (1996-2005). Both article length (r =.31) and reference list length (r = .41) predicted log-transformed citation counts better than JIF (r = .27). Articles with fewer graphs and more structural equation models were more frequently cited. Citation count was better predicted by a model based on article length and citation count rather than JIF. When JIF was used to predict citation count, the impact of women authors and social science research was underestimated. These findings distinguish impact in science, as measured by JIF, from actual impact in psychology, and they show the unintended consequences of using a measure of the former to predict the latter. © Association for Psychological Science 2012.
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina
According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.
Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic
This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Wooding, Sally; Raphael, Beverley
Recent acts of terrorism have emphasised the need for research to further establish not only the nature of the impact of disaster and terrorism on the population, but also further define methods of effective intervention. Those affected, and often overlooked, include children and adolescents, yet, our knowledge of the impact upon the younger members of our community is limited. The literature is evolving, and there are a small number of valuable studies that can inform a response to the mental health needs of this younger population. This article reviews some of the psychological impacts of disaster and terrorism upon children and adolescents, and considers both risk and protective factors. The importance of a developmental approach to children's understanding of disaster, particularly death and the nature of grief and loss are discussed as is the distinction between the phenomenology of bereavement and trauma. Family and community support are highlighted as protective factors, and a number of recent, valuable recommendations for intervention including psychological first aid and cognitive-behavioral therapy are described. Finally, the complex role of the media and the degree that children should be exposed to images of violence and disaster is considered. Disasters, whether they are natural or human-made always will be with us. It is necessary that a public-health approach that not only prepares for such scenarios, but responds by maximising the use of existing systems and agency linkages, is taken.
Sarah E. Golding
Full Text Available Background The study objective was to investigate and synthesize available evidence relating to the psychological health of Emergency Dispatch Centre (EDC operatives, and to identify key stressors experienced by EDC operatives. Methods Eight electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, The Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, and Google Scholar were searched. All study designs were included, and no date limits were set. Studies were included if they were published in English, and explored the psychological health of any EDC operatives, across fire, police, and emergency medical services. Studies were excluded if they related solely to other emergency workers, such as police officers or paramedics. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using checklists adapted from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. A narrative synthesis was conducted, using thematic analysis. Results A total of 16 articles were included in the review. Two overarching themes were identified during the narrative synthesis: ‘Organisational and Operational Factors’ and ‘Interactions with Others’. Stressors identified included being exposed to traumatic calls, lacking control over high workload, and working in under-resourced and pressured environments. Lack of support from management and providing an emotionally demanding service were additional sources of stress. Peer support and social support from friends and family were helpful in managing work-related stress. Discussion EDC operatives experience stress as a result of their work, which appears to be related to negative psychological health outcomes. Future research should explore the long-term effects of this stress, and the potential for workplace interventions to alleviate the negative impacts on psychological health. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42014010806.
The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…
Results: Psychological disturbances as a consequence of vitiligo were found in 36 (31 %) adult patients. Patients with mild psychological disturbances were found in 20 of these patients and severe disturbances in 16. Conclusion: Psychological consequences are common in patients with vitiligo. Key words: Vitiligo; Stress; ...
Watkins, Daphne C; Johnson, Natasha C
Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites). Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14) and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97) experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05) and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95). Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.
Torres, Jacqueline M; Wallace, Steven P
We determined the impact of premigration circumstances on postmigration psychological distress and self-rated physical health among Latino immigrants. We estimated ordinary least squares and logistic regression models for Latino immigrants in the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 1603). Mean psychological distress scores (range = 10-50) were 14.8 for women and 12.7 for men; 35% of women and 27% of men reported fair or poor physical health. A third of the sample reported having to migrate; up to 46% reported unplanned migration. In multivariate analyses, immigration-related stress was significantly associated with psychological distress, but not with self-rated health, for both Latino men and women. Having to migrate was associated with increased psychological distress for Puerto Rican and Cuban women respondents and with poorer physical health for Puerto Rican migrant men. Unplanned migration was significantly associated with poorer physical health for all Latina women respondents. The context of both pre- and postmigration has an impact on immigrant health. Those involved in public health research, policy, and practice should consider variation in immigrant health by migration circumstances, including the context of exit and other immigration-related stressors.
Background Public health services implement individual, community and population level interventions to change health behaviours, improve healthy life expectancy and reduce health inequalities. Understanding and changing health behaviour is complex. Integrating behaviour change theory and evidence into interventions has the potential to improve services. Methods Health Psychologists apply evidence and theories aimed at understanding and changing health behaviour. A Scottish programme is piloting the training of Health Psychologists within NHS contexts to address prominent public health challenges. Results This article outlines the details of this novel programme. Two projects are examined to illustrate the potential of partnership working between public health and health psychology. Conclusion In order to develop and improve behaviour change interventions and services, public health planners may want to consider developing and using the knowledge and skills of Health Psychologists. Supporting such training within public health contexts is a promising avenue to build critical NHS internal mass to tackle the major public health challenges ahead. PMID:21070643
Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.
A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid
Reimann, Mareike; Guzy, Jakob
This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of ...
Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.
The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…
Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M
A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.
Wilson, Dawn K
This issue of Health Psychology includes original contributions for advancing research on theoretical issues such as mediation and moderation effects in promoting healthy diet and physical activity behavior change. This special issue was developed to highlight some of the fundamental issues from a biological, cognitive, social, and environmental perspective for understanding the impact of intervention effects on behavior change processes and ultimate health. Given the increasing prevalence of health-related problems, such as the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States, the perspective presented in this issue should be very useful to researchers, scientists, scholars, and a wide range of health professionals who hope to curb these critical public health problems. (Copyright) 2008 APA.
Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
In responding to Upton's discourse arguing for reform of undergraduate health profession curricula to maximise the inclusion of health psychology, it is first important to concede the enormity of the task. After all, psychologists are inherently biased towards their subject, quite simply due to their immersion within it which convinces them of its…
Elisardo Becoña Iglesias
Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology, and to promote discussion about how this research improves understanding of health behavior change and can be harnessed to meet public health mandates. The articles included in the special issue showcase this diversity and promise, and present not only new findings, but also new theories, new measures, and state-of-the- art summaries of progress. The research demonstrates the added value of considering implicit processes for understanding health behaviors, their interactions with explicit processes and neural mechanisms, as well as the benefits of targeting implicit processes in health behavior interventions. At the same time, however, the papers in this special issue also point to potential boundary conditions, the importance of good measures and appropriate tests of implicit processes, and the challenges involved in assessing implicit processes' causal role in determining health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the chronic care management challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
Chest pain and palpitations, non-malignant pain, breathlessness and fatigue often endure despite the receipt of appropriate nursing and medical care. This is distressing for patients, impacts on their quality of life and ability to function and is associated with high healthcare usage and costs. The cognitive behavioural approach offers nurses a model to understand how people's perceptions and beliefs and their emotional, behavioural and physiological reactions are linked. Common 'thinking errors' which can exacerbate symptom severity and impact are highlighted. Understanding of this model may help nurses to help patients cope better with their symptoms by helping them to come up with alternative more helpful beliefs and practices. Many Improving Access to Psychological Therapy services offer support to people with chronic physical symptoms and nurses are encouraged to sign post patients to them.
Choi, S-H; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J
Assessing changes in patient's psychological health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) over time during orthodontic treatment may help clinicians to treat patients more carefully. To evaluate changes in mental health, self-reported masticatory ability and OHRQoL during orthodontic treatment in adults, this prospective study included 66 adults (30 men, 36 women; mean age, 24·2 ± 5·2 years). Each patient completed the Korean versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) at baseline (T0), 12 months after treatment initiation (T1) and debonding (T2). All variables changed with time. Self-esteem and the total OHIP-14K score significantly decreased and increased, respectively, at T1, with a particular increase in the psychological and social disabilities scores. There were no significant differences in any questionnaire scores before and after treatment. The total OHIP-14K score was positively correlated with trait anxiety and depression, and negatively correlated with self-esteem and KFIA at T0, regardless of the treatment duration. Older patients showed a significant increase in the total OHIP-14K score at T1 and T2. OHRQoL worsened with an increase in the treatment duration. Our results suggest that OHRQoL temporarily deteriorates, with the development of psychological and social disabilities, during orthodontic treatment. This is related to the baseline age, psychological health and self-reported masticatory function. However, patients recover once the treatment is complete. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin
To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
Full Text Available Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory. From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.
Ioannou, Andriani; Mechili, Aggelos; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Diomidous, Marianna
Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Globalization describes the interplay of macro-social forces across cultures. The purpose of this study is a systematic review of the bibliography on the impacts of globalization in health. The consequences of globalization on health present a twofold dimension, on the one hand affects the health of the population and on the other hand organization and functioning of health systems. As a result of globalization, there has been an undeniable economic development and technological progress to support the level of health around the world, improving the health status of certain populations with a beneficial increase in life expectancy. In many aspects globalization is good but there are many problems too.
Kacel, Elizabeth L; Ennis, Nicole; Pereira, Deidre B
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of grandiosity, fantasies of unlimited power or importance, and the need for admiration or special treatment. Individuals with NPD may experience significant psychological distress related to interpersonal conflict and functional impairment. Research suggests core features of the disorder are associated with poor prognosis in therapy, including slow progress to behavioral change, premature patient-initiated termination, and negative therapeutic alliance. The current manuscript will explore challenges of working with NPD within the context of life-limiting illness for two psychotherapy patients seen in a behavioral health clinic at a large academic health science center. The ways in which their personality disorder affected their illness-experience shared significant overlap characterized by resistance to psychotherapeutic change, inconsistent adherence to medical recommendations, and volatile relationships with providers. In this manuscript we will (1) explore the ways in which aspects of narcissistic personality disorder impacted the patients' physical health, emotional well-being, and healthcare utilization; (2) describe psychotherapeutic methods that may be useful for optimizing psychosocial, behavioral, and physical well-being in individuals with co-morbid NPD and life-limiting disease; and (3) review conceptualizations of NPD from the DSM-5 alternative model for assessing personality function via trait domains.
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.
Sylvia, Louisa G; Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L; Mehta, Darshan H; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R; Simon, Naomi M
Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. We developed "Resilient Warrior," a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. These pilot data provide preliminary support that "Resilient Warrior," a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program.
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology. By the 1980s, I adopted an even broader multi-disciplinary approach to health, as the HIV/AIDS epidemic urgently challenedg health researchers/practitioners, in France and worldwide.
Staatsen BAM; Franssen EAM; Lebret E; CCM
In this report an assessment has been made of the effects on public health caused by environmental pollution originating from activities around Schiphol airport. This investigation is part of an integral Environmental Impact Assessment that was legally required for the planned expansion of the
Full Text Available Based on the massive reading of data mining and association rules mining documents, this paper will start from compressing transactional database and propose the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. According to the previous analysis, this paper will also study the association rules mining algorithm based on the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. At last, this paper will apply this mining algorithm in the test results analysis module of team psychological health assessment system, and will extract the relationship between each psychological impact factor, so as to provide certain guidance for psychologists in their mental illness treatment.
Valentina E. Di Mattei
Full Text Available Background: The introduction of aesthetic care programs for cancer patients inside hospitals could help patients cope with the side effects of both disease and treatment. The specific objective of this study is to evaluate whether a complementary and supportive program, called “Health in the Mirror,” has a positive effect on participants by analyzing certain psychological variables.Methods: Eighty-eight female cancer patients were included in this analysis. The support program is composed of three group aesthetic interventions that address both physical and psychological aspects that accompany cancer and its treatment. Patients were asked to complete a battery of tests in order to measure the impact of the program on certain psychological variables including anxiety, depression, body image, self-esteem, and quality of life. Outcome variables were measured at three different time-points: prior to participation, on the last day of the program, and after a 3-month follow-up.Results: Participating in the psychosocial support program “Health in the Mirror” determines an improvement in the psychological variables measured. Results revealed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, anxiety and body image issues, as well as an improvement in self-esteem levels; this suggests that participating in this program could facilitate better adjustment to disease and treatment.Discussion: This study legitimizes the importance of implementing supportive and complementary therapies together with conventional therapies; the therapeutic approach to cancer cannot be restricted solely to medical care, but it must consider the patient as a whole person with needs that are not only physical or medical, but also psychological, social, and existential.
Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn
Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures
Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Montiel Company, José María; Pinho, Teresa; Almerich Silla, José Manuel
Introduction and Objectives: The objectives were to assess the relationship between perceived smile aesthetics and perceived psychological impact as measured by the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ), and their own perception of it using the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS); relate the IOTN-AC and VAS to the PIDAQ; and study the predictive capacity of the scales for psychological impact. Materi...
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
.... Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored...
The Awaritefe Psychological Index (API) was used to assess level of psychological dysfunction. Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically. Result shows that infertile women did not differ from fertile women as determined by API total score. Women with primary infertility were significantly different from women with ...
Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.
Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…
Karanika-Murray, Maria; Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Williams, Glenn A; Cox, Tom
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that the quality of the leader-employee relationship is linked to employee psychological health. Leaders who reside at different hierarchical levels have unique roles and spheres of influence and potentially affect employees' work experiences in different ways. Nevertheless, research on the impact of leadership on employee psychological health has largely viewed leaders as a homogeneous group. Expanding on LMX theory, we argue that (1) LMX sourced at the levels of the line manager (LM) and senior management (SM) team will be differentially linked to employee psychological health (assessed as worn-out) and that (2) these relationships will be mediated by perceived work characteristics (reward and recognition, workload management, quality of relationships with colleagues and physical environment). Structural equation modelling on data from 337 manual workers partially supported the hypotheses. Perceptions of the physical environment mediated the relationship between LMX at the LM level and employee psychological health, whereas perceptions of workload management mediated the relationship between LMX at the SM level and psychological health. These findings corroborate arguments that leaders are not a uniform group and as such the effects of LMX on employees will depend on leadership hierarchy. Implications for expanding leadership theory are discussed.
Karanika-Murray, Maria; Bartholomew, Kimberley J.; Williams, Glenn A.; Cox, Tom
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that the quality of the leader–employee relationship is linked to employee psychological health. Leaders who reside at different hierarchical levels have unique roles and spheres of influence and potentially affect employees' work experiences in different ways. Nevertheless, research on the impact of leadership on employee psychological health has largely viewed leaders as a homogeneous group. Expanding on LMX theory, we argue that (1) LMX sourced at the levels of the line manager (LM) and senior management (SM) team will be differentially linked to employee psychological health (assessed as worn-out) and that (2) these relationships will be mediated by perceived work characteristics (reward and recognition, workload management, quality of relationships with colleagues and physical environment). Structural equation modelling on data from 337 manual workers partially supported the hypotheses. Perceptions of the physical environment mediated the relationship between LMX at the LM level and employee psychological health, whereas perceptions of workload management mediated the relationship between LMX at the SM level and psychological health. These findings corroborate arguments that leaders are not a uniform group and as such the effects of LMX on employees will depend on leadership hierarchy. Implications for expanding leadership theory are discussed. PMID:25999635
Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jun 7, 2011 ... Background: Assessment of health related quality of life (HRQL) has become central to assessing the self- perceived impact of physical and mental ..... ence asthma self-management behavior. Thus as in other studies (10, 16), this ... Physicians caring for this group of patients will do well to take note of this ...
Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob
In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita
Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588
Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.
Digital Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia versus sleep hygiene education: the impact of improved sleep on functional health, quality of life and psychological well-being. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Espie, Colin A; Luik, Annemarie I; Cape, John; Drake, Christopher L; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Ong, Jason C; Gordon, Christopher; Bostock, Sophie; Hames, Peter; Nisbet, Mhairi; Sheaves, Bryony; G Foster, Russell; Freeman, Daniel; Costa-Font, Joan; Emsley, Richard; Kyle, Simon D
Previous research has demonstrated that digital CBT (dCBT), delivered via the Internet, is a scalable and effective intervention for treating insomnia in otherwise healthy adults and leads to significant improvements in primary outcomes relating to sleep. The majority of people with insomnia, however, seek help because of the functional impact and daytime consequences of poor sleep, not because of sleep discontinuity per se. Although some secondary analyses suggest that dCBT may have wider health benefits, no adequately powered study has investigated these as a primary endpoint. This study specifically aims to investigate the impact of dCBT for insomnia upon health and well-being, and will investigate sleep-related changes as mediating factors. We propose a pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial of 1000 community participants meeting criteria for insomnia disorder. In the DIALS trial (Digital Insomnia therapy to Assist your Life as well as your Sleep), participants will be randomised to dCBT delivered using web and/or mobile channels (in addition to treatment as usual (TAU)) or to sleep hygiene education (SHE), comprising a website plus a downloadable booklet (in addition to TAU). Online assessments will take place at 0 (baseline), 4 (mid-treatment), 8 (post-treatment), and 24 (follow-up) weeks. At week 25 all participants allocated to SHE will be offered dCBT, at which point the controlled element of the trial will be complete. Naturalistic follow-up will be invited at weeks 36 and 48. Primary outcomes are functional health and well-being at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes are mood, fatigue, sleepiness, cognitive function, productivity and social functioning. All main analyses will be carried out at the end of the final controlled follow-up assessments and will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Further analyses will determine whether observed changes in functional health and well-being are mediated by changes in sleep. The trial is funded
Ishak, Waguih William; Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine
The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.
Full Text Available The problem of saving and improving psychological health of educational relations' participants can be considered crucial. This article looked at several approaches to systemic analysis of various factors influencing psychological health of educational relations' participants in a negative way. We identified these factors by the levels they emerge at, namely: the level of learner himself/herself, the level of his/her social environment (teachers and parents, as well as educational institution, municipality and region. It is only possible to save and improve psychological health of educational relations' participants if systemic risk factors are eliminated at every level. Unsolved contradictions of the higher level "descend" to lower levels and require additional efforts to eliminate their effect. The article introduces the notion of learners’ “psychological health standards” that implies a system of socio-psychological, pedagogical, administrative, and technical conditions for saving and improving psychological health.
Full Text Available A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.
Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain
A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. PMID:24785743
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; McGuire, Lynanne; Robles, Theodore F; Glaser, Ronald
This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade. Issues discussed include the routes through which psychological factors influence immune function, how a stressor's duration may influence the changes observed, individual difference variables, the ability of interventions to modulate immune function, and the health consequences of psychosocially mediated immune dysregulation. The importance of negative affect and supportive personal relationships are highlighted. Recent data suggest that immune dysregulation may be one core mechanism for a spectrum of conditions associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and frailty and functional decline; production of proinflammatory cytokines that influence these and other conditions can be stimulated directly by negative emotions and indirectly by prolonged infection.
Dionne, Frédérick; Ngô, Thanh-Lan; Blais, Marie-Claude
This paper presents a vision of mental health using the model of psychological flexibility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT is a representative approach of the third wave of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). This article first describes the theoretical and practical aspects of ACT and, in a second part, reviews some of the empirical data supporting its clinical use. Due to the high rate of comorbidity in mental health settings, transdiagnostic approaches in CBT, such as ACT, have recently become popular and particularly appealing to various clinical settings. The theoretical aspects underlying ACT, as well as its clinical components in the treatment of psychopathology were described based on major books in this area, such as Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson (2012). A descriptive literature review was undertaken to explore the data on the efficacy of ACT for the treatment of mental health problems. Psycinfo and Medline, as well as the Association for Contextual Science website were analyzed for relevant articles. The key search terms were: "Acceptance and Commitment therapy" or "ACT" or "acceptance" or "mindfulness" or "defusion." The reference lists of the articles retrieved were also analyzed. The articles that were not in English or French were excluded. Data suggest that ACT is particularly effective for stress, anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse and various chronic medical conditions. The six processes of the model of psychological flexibility have been validated based on the results of correlational and meditational studies. More than seventy randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis including 18 randomized control trials conclude that ACT is more effective than waiting list, placebo and treatment as usual control conditions. ACT is a promising and evidence-based approach in mental health for the treatment of anxiety and depression as well as for complex and chronic conditions. More research is needed to further validate its
Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...... that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social...... capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; Simpson, Jeffry A.
Few psychological studies, if any, can claim a legacy as imposing as the obedience studies of Stanley Milgram. Their impact was of notable consequence in the separate spheres of research ethics, research design, and theory in psychology, and they changed the ways that psychologists conceptualize and conduct their research. The authors discuss the…
A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…
Rozensky, Ronald H; Grus, Catherine L; Nutt, Roberta L; Carlson, Cindy I; Eisman, Elena J; Nelson, Paul D
The Education and Training Guidelines: A Taxonomy for Education and Training in Professional Psychology Health Service Specialties was endorsed as a policy of the American Psychological Association in 2012. These Guidelines have the potential for broad impact on the field by providing both a structure and recommendations for the consistent usage of language--definitions and terminology--to reduce current descriptive inconsistencies across education and training programs in professional psychology. The Guidelines are not designed to define specifics of the training or practice of individual psychologists; they are to be used only to describe programmatic structure in a consistent manner. This article details the developmental history of these Guidelines and highlights the strong alliance between the leaders of the various recognized specialties in professional psychology and the education and training community in health service psychology. The content, application, future dissemination and impact of the Guidelines are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
von Lengerke, Thomas
Hepworth's assessment of critical health psychology's capacity to contribute to public health promotion (this issue) is commented on and supplemented by selected issues relevant to Hepworth's timely call for interdisciplinary research and action in this context. Drawing on eco-epidemiology, multilevel research strategies are suggested that comprehensively account for individual/psychological and population/sociological factors. It is delineated how health promotion policies may be backed by psychologically informed policy analysis. Regarding health, it is argued to keep scrutinizing ill-health and to resist simplistic notions of quality of life or wellness but also to enhance these by incorporating concepts from positive psychology. Finally, it is considered whether trans disciplinarity may be in aid of fully realizing the potentials of blending the merits of health psychology and public health.
Bradford, Natalie Katrina; Chan, Raymond Javan
The effects of cancer and treatment have severe and long lasting negative impacts on quality of life. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) have high survival rates but may not reach their full life potential because of these consequences. This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the effects of health promotion and psychological interventions for AYA after cancer treatment. The review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Included studies were identified though a range of electronic databases through to May 2016. Studies were critically appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Seventeen studies, comprising a total of 2314 participants aged 13-39years were included in this review. Participants in 15 studies were survivors of childhood cancer, with only two studies specifically recruiting survivors of cancer diagnosed during young adulthood. Ten studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs); the remaining seven were before and after studies. The quality of studies was variable across all appraised domains; risk of bias was evident in regards to recruitment, measures of exposure and outcomes, confounding factors, attrition and lost-to follow-up. Studies evaluated a range of health promotion and psychological interventions to improve health related and process outcomes. Eleven studies reported modest positive outcomes, with psychological and physical activity interventions achieving greater success compared to general health promotion interventions. This review highlights the lack of high-quality studies for optimising the health and well-being of AYA cancer survivors. No conclusive evidence favouring specific interventions were identified, although recommendations for future studies are made. Interventions delivered face-to-face and those that facilitate peer-to-peer support hold promise. Harnessing social media and technology to deliver interventions is likely to increase and these
Bekteshi, Venera; Xu, Qingwen; Van Tran, Thanh
After testing the capacity of Kessler's psychological distress (K6) scale to measure equally across low-income Mexican-born women (n=881) and U.S.-born women of Mexican descent (n=317), this study assesses the impact of acculturation on this group's psychological distress. We employ descriptive and confirmatory factor analyses to test the cross-cultural equivalence of K6. Multivariate and logistic regression is used to test the association between acculturation and psychological distress among low-income, Mexican-American women. The cross-cultural equivalence analysis shows that some of the scale's items have the capacity to measure psychological distress equally among participants. Regression results indicate that the more acculturated these women become, the greater their psychological distress is. The study recommends that researchers emphasize the cross-cultural equivalence of their measures and suggests a heightened awareness among practitioners of the multidimensional impact of acculturation on clients of Mexican descent. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vriezekolk, J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Evers, A.W.M.; Stenger, A.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van
PURPOSE: To examine psychological health status among patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis) and osteoarthritis in multidisciplinary rehabilitation, and to describe changes in psychological distress, illness
This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230
Possa, M F; Minacapelli, E; Canale, S; Comi, G; Martinelli, V; Falautano, M
The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis on newly diagnosed individuals remains so far little explored. Our aim is to outline affective, personality and quality of life (QoL) correlates of MS patients shortly after MS diagnosis. Thirty-eight (22 F and 16 M) newly-diagnosed MS patients (mean interval from diagnosis communication 4.7 ± 3.8 months, range 1-12 months) underwent the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and a comprehensive psychological evaluation: Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Psychophysiological Questionnaire-Revised, Fear Survey Schedule, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Questionnaire, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Personal Meaning Questionnaire, Problem Solving Inventory and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. The Expanded Disability Status Scale was assessed during the neurological examination. Depressive symptomatology, only partially related to disability, was observed in approximately 40% of patients. The prevalent approach to MS diagnosis was one of avoidance in 65.8% of cases. QoL reductions in self-perception and psychological well-being emerged, together with a peculiar perception of change in health that was not related to neurological disability. With regard to personality assessment, depressive personal meaning organization correlates inversely with important QoL measures. Newly-diagnosed patients go through a complex network of psychological changes still in the initial phases immediately after diagnosis. A thorough understanding of these adjusting aspects by the neurologist could be crucial in improving patients' QoL, participation in relevant disease decisions and adherence to pharmacological therapy.
I. V. Vorobyeva
Full Text Available Introduction. Today, the process of socialization of modern youth takes place in absoutely other circumstances in comparison with former generations. The social activity of young people and teenagers is being developed not only in real but also in virtual space. The Internet environment, where new generation representatives actively manifest themselves, has significant effect on their life goals and behaviour. This influence can be positive and useful, on the one hand, and negative, on the other, deforming human mind and own personality. The aim of the present article is to identify, describe and analyze social and psychological factors of youth susceptibility to psychological and informational impact of the Internet environment.Methodology and research methods. A method of sociological questioning was applied to find out the characteristics of young people behaviour in virtual space, degree of their involvement in “a world web”, and intensity of the Web-based interaction. Psychodiagnostic methods by A. V. Smirnov “Semantic universals of the information and cultural environment” were used for studying the peculiarities of young people attitude to the Internet.Results and scientific novelty. The features of attitudes of young people towards the use of the Internet, degree of their virtual environment immersion, frequency of usage and behaviour models on the Internet are considered. A risk group among examinees (data sample – n = 277, 14–25 years is marked out and characterized. The representatives of this group showed high activity on the Internet, however, they do not draw attention to the Internet content: their relation to virtual space is based on aprioristic recognition of its need and usefulness with the accompanying denial of any propaganda of dangerous ideas and behaviour models which can endanger psychological health, own wellbeing and wellbeing of other people.Practical significance. The data obtained can be used for
Liu, Hongjie; He, Xin; Levy, Judith A; Xu, Yongfang; Zang, Chunpeng; Lin, Xinqin
Objectives. The HIV epidemic has drastically increased among older adults in China, yet little research has examined the psychological impacts among older and younger people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs...
Choi, Jiyeon; Donahoe, Michael P; Hoffman, Leslie A
This article provides an overview of current knowledge on the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health of family caregivers of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and suggestions for future research. Review of selected papers published in English between January 2000 and October 2015 reporting psychological and physical health outcomes in family caregivers of ICU survivors. In family caregivers of ICU survivors followed up to five years after patients' discharge from an ICU, psychological symptoms, manifested as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, were highly prevalent. Poor self-care, sleep disturbances and fatigue were identified as common physical health problems in family caregivers. Studies to date are mainly descriptive; few interventions have targeted family caregivers. Further, studies that elicit unique needs of families from diverse cultures are lacking. Studies to date have described the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health in family caregivers of ICU survivors. Few studies have tested interventions to support unique needs in this population. Therefore, evidence for best strategies is lacking. Future research is needed to identify ICU caregivers at greatest risk for distress, time points to target interventions with maximal efficacy, needs of those from diverse cultures and test interventions to mitigate family caregivers' burden.
Full Text Available Psychosocial factors have been found to impact airway pathophysiology in respiratory disease with considerable consistency. Influences on airway mechanics have been studied particularly well. The goal of this article is to review the literature on airway responses to psychological stimulation, discuss potential pathways of influence, and present a well-established emotion-induction paradigm to study airway obstruction elicited by unpleasant stimuli. Observational studies have found systematic associations between lung function and daily mood changes. The laboratory –based paradigm of bronchoconstrictive suggestion has been used successfully to elicit airway obstruction in a substantial proportion of asthmatic individuals. Other studies have demonstrated an enhancement of airway responses to standard airway challenges with exercise, allergens, or methacholine. Standardized emotion-induction techniques have consistently shown airway constriction during unpleasant stimulation, with surgery, blood and injury stimuli being particularly powerful. Findings with various forms of stress induction have been more mixed. A number of methodological factors may account for variability across studies, such as choice of measurement technique, temporal association between stimulation and measurement, and the specific quality and intensity of the stimulus material, in particular the extent of implied action-orientation. Research has also begun to elucidate physiological processes associated with psychologically induced airway responses, with vagal excitation and ventilatory influences being the most likely candidate pathways, whereas the role of specific central nervous system pathways and inflammatory processes has been less studied. The technique of emotion-induction using films has the potential to become a standardized challenge paradigm for the further exploration of airway hyperresponsiveness mediated by central nervous system processes.
Strasburger, Victor C.
Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…
Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin
This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gioia, M C; Cerasa, A; Di Lucente, L; Brunelli, S; Castellano, V; Traballesi, M
To investigate whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form X2 (STAI-X2), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and the questionnaire for depression (QD) were administered in a cross-sectional study of 137 males with spinal cord injury including 52 tetraplegics and 85 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sports activity participation (high frequency vs no sports participation). Moreover, multiple regression analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of demographic variables, such as age, educational level, occupational status and marital status, on psychological variables. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the groups for anxiety (STAI-X2), extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and depression (QD). In particular, SCI patients who did not practice sports showed higher anxiety and depression scores and lower extraversion scores than sports participants. In addition, with respect to the paraplegics, the tetraplegic group showed the lowest depression scores. Following multiple regression analysis, only the sports activity factor remained as an independent factor of anxiety scores. These findings demonstrate that sports activity is associated with better psychological status in SCI patients, irrespective of tetraplegia and paraplegia, and that psychological benefits are not emphasized by demographic factors.
Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Dawson, F; Shanahan, S; Fitzsimons, E; O'Malley, G; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J
Given that carers of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and carers of individuals with psychiatric disorders experience elevated levels of stress and psychological distress, carers of individuals with both ID and a comorbid psychiatric disorder are potentially at even greater risk for psychological difficulties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological well-being of carers of adults with a dual diagnosis compared with carers of adults with intellectual disability alone. Four-hundred and forty-two questionnaires were sent to four community services and seventy-five family carers of adults with intellectual disability responded. Psychological well-being of carers was assessed using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Friedrich edition (QRS-F) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Comorbid psychopathology for their family member with ID was assessed using the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behaviour (RSMB). Twenty-four percent of the individuals with ID were reported to have comorbid psychopathology. Between-group analyses compared carers of people with ID and comorbid psychopathology to carers of people with ID alone. Regression analyses examined the relationship between psychopathology and other care-related variables to carer stress and psychological distress. Carers of people with ID and comorbid psychopathology were found to have significantly higher levels of stress and psychological distress than carers of people with ID alone. Autism was found to be the only significant predictor of both stress and psychological distress among measures of psychopathology. Additional comorbid psychopathology in individuals with intellectual disability has a significant impact on their carers' psychological well-being. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
and Psychological Health in OIF/OEF Veterans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles W. Wilkinson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Seattle...COVERED 15 March 2011 - 14 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Blast Concussion mTBI, Hypopituitarism, and Psychological Health...isolation, and decreased quality of life, as well as muscular weakness, erectile dysfunction, infertility , and diminished cardiovascular function
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Margison, Judith A.; Shore, Bruce M.
Calls for increased collaborative practices in school psychology parallel similar advances in the realm of health care. This article overviews the concepts associated with collaborative practice in school psychology and in health care (e.g., interaction, teamwork, and collaboration) and discusses how the literature emerging from interprofessional…
van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3
M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)
textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti
Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…
Tahghighi, Mozhdeh; Rees, Clare S; Brown, Janie A; Breen, Lauren J; Hegney, Desley
To synthesize existing research to determine if nurses who work shifts have poorer psychological functioning and resilience than nurses who do not work shifts. Research exploring the impact of shift work on the psychological functioning and resilience of nurses is limited compared with research investigating the impact of shifts on physical outcomes. Integrative literature review. Relevant databases were searched from January 1995-August 2016 using the combination of keywords: nurse, shift work; rotating roster; night shift; resilient; hardiness; coping; well-being; burnout; mental health; occupational stress; compassion fatigue; compassion satisfaction; stress; anxiety; depression. Two authors independently performed the integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the mixed-methods appraisal tool by Pluye et al. A total of 37 articles were included in the review (32 quantitative, 4 qualitative and 1 mixed-methods). Approximately half of the studies directly compared nurse shift workers with non-shift workers. Findings were grouped according to the following main outcomes: (1) general psychological well-being/quality of life; (2) Job satisfaction/burnout; (3) Depression, anxiety and stress; and (4) Resilience/coping. We did not find definitive evidence that shift work is associated with poorer psychological functioning in nurses. Overall, the findings suggest that the impact of shift work on nurse psychological functioning is dependent on several contextual and individual factors. More studies are required which directly compare the psychological outcomes and resilience of nurse shift workers with non-shift workers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
Rennick, Janet E; Johnston, C Celeste; Lambert, Sylvie D; Rashotte, Judy M; Schmitz, Norbert; Earle, Rebecca J; Stevens, Bonnie J; Tewfik, Ted; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon
Critically ill children are at risk for psychological sequelae following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This article reports on the psychometric testing of the first self-report measure of psychological distress for 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale. This 23-item scale takes approximately 15 mins for children to complete. Psychometric testing based on Classic Test Theory and guidelines for health measurement scale development. The pediatric intensive care units of four Canadian pediatric hospitals and the ear, nose, and throat clinic of one participating hospital. A total of 172 children (pediatric intensive care unit group, n = 84; ear, nose, and throat group, n = 88) aged 6-12 yrs and their parents. None. We assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale and conducted contrasted group comparisons and convergent and concurrent validation testing. Fit indices and internal consistency were best for a three-factor solution, suggesting three dimensions of psychological distress: 1) worries about getting sick again, 2) feeling things have changed, and 3) feeling anxious and fearful about hospitalization. As expected, Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale scores were positively correlated with child anxiety and medical fear scores. The ear, nose, and throat group scores were higher than expected. Higher Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale scores in older children may reflect a better understanding of the situation and its complexity and meaning, and younger children's tendency to provide more positive self-evaluation. The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale is a promising new self-report measure of psychological distress with demonstrated reliability and validation testing in 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This new measure has potential
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F
PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.
PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça
This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Ang, Seng Giap Marcus; Chen, Hui-Chen; Siah, Rosalind Jiat Chiew; He, Hong-Gu; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee
To summarize empirical evidence relating to stressors that may affect patients' psychosocial health following colostomy or ileostomy surgery during hospitalization and after discharge. An extensive search was performed on the CINAHL®, Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science electronic databases. Eight articles were included with three qualitative and five quantitative research designs. Most studies were conducted in Western nations with one other in Taiwan. Following colostomy or ileostomy surgery, common stressors reported by patients during hospitalization included stoma formation, diagnosis of cancer, and preparation for self-care. After discharge, stressors that patients experienced encompassed adapting to body changes, altered sexuality, and impact on social life and activities. This review suggests that patients with stomas experience various stressors during hospitalization and after discharge. Additional research is needed for better understanding of patient postoperative experiences to facilitate the provision of appropriate nursing interventions to the stressors. To help patients deal with stressors following stoma surgery, nurses may provide pre- and postoperative education regarding the treatment and recovery process and encourage patient self-care. Following discharge, nurses may provide long-term ongoing counseling and support, build social networks among patients with stomas, and implement home visit programs. Stoma surgery negatively affects patients' physical, psychological, social, and sexual health. Postoperative education programs in clinical settings mostly focus on physical health and underemphasize psychological issues. More pre- and postoperative education programs are needed to help patients cope with stoma stressors.
Kadayam G. Gomathi; Soofia Ahmed; Jayadevan Sreedharan
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire...
Objective: Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease that causes loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. The disease has profound psychological consequences. These effects range from mild embarrassment to a severe loss of self-confidence and social anxiety, especially for those who have lesions on exposed ...
Drug related problem (DRPs) is a key factor which will affect the outcome of therapy and safety. The aim of the present study is to assess the DRPs in T2DM patients and psychological aspects of patients by community pharmacists to observe the rate of DRP. Prospective randomized controlled intervention study involved ...
O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce
In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
The psychological impact of the war in Iraq stimulated major initiatives to build a modern mental health care system for the Iraqi people and to improve mental health services for U.S. veterans of the Iraq war. Although these two initiatives differ in important respects, they are both informed by general principles of psychology concerning the nature of social problem definition, the process of human adaptation to extreme stress and its aftermath, and the role and limits of mental health services. Building on these common themes and my own experiences, I describe how two nations are trying to address the colossal psychological damage wrought by the war in Iraq. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association
Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L.; Mehta, Darshan H.; Denninger, John W.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R.; Simon, Naomi M.
Background: Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. Methods: We developed “Resilient Warrior,” a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. Results: From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. Conclusion: These pilot data provide preliminary support that “Resilient Warrior,” a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program. PMID:26665021
Hantula, Donald A.
The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…
O’Neal, Catherine W; Wickrama, K. A. S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer
The current study examined the influence of health insurance, psychological processes (i.e. psychological competency and vulnerability), and the interaction of these two constructs on older African Americans’ utilization of five preventive care services (e.g. cholesterol screening and mammogram/prostate examination) using data from 211 older African Americans (median age = 60). In addition to direct effects, the influence of health insurance sometimes varied depending on respondents’ psychological competency and/or vulnerability. Policies and interventions to increase older African Americans’ use of preventive health services should consider structural (e.g. health insurance) and psychological (e.g. psychological competency and vulnerability) factors along with the interaction between these factors. PMID:23456216
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Sharma, Jyoti; Dhar, Rajib Lochan; Tyagi, Akansha
The study examined the extent to which work-family conflicts cause stress among nursing staff and its subsequent impact on their psychological health. It also examined if the emotional intelligence level of the nursing staff acted as a moderator between their level of stress and psychological health. A survey was carried out on 693 nursing staff associated with 33 healthcare institutions in Uttarakhand, India. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was carried out to understand the relationships shared by independent (work-family conflicts) and dependent (psychological health) constructs with the mediator (stress) as well as the moderator (emotional intelligence). The results revealed that stress acted as a mediator between work-family conflict of the nursing staff and their psychological health. However, their emotional intelligence level acted as a moderator between their stress level and psychological health. To conclude, the crucial roles of emotional intelligence in controlling the impact of stress on psychological health along with the practical as well as theoretical implications are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.
In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…
Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi
We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.
Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Meyer-Kalos, Piper S; Mueser, Kim T; Estroff, Sue E; Brunette, Mary F; Correll, Christoph U; Robinson, James; Rosenheck, Robert A; Schooler, Nina; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M
Recovery-oriented practices that promote client-centered care, collaboration, and functional outcome have been recommended to improve treatment engagement, especially for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Psychological well-being (PWB) is related to recovery and refers to experiencing purpose and meaning in life through realizing one's potential. The recently completed Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP) study sought to improve quality of life, functional outcome, and well-being in individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP). Therefore, the primary aims of the present analysis were: 1) to examine the impact of treatment on PWB and mental health recovery trajectories, 2) to examine the impact of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) on these outcomes, and 3) to examine the relationships among these outcomes and quality of life. Multilevel modeling was used given the nested data structure. Results revealed that PWB and mental health recovery improved over the course of the 2-year treatment; there were no significant treatment differences. In addition, DUP was associated with the Positive Relationships and Environmental Mastery dimensions of PWB. Finally, PWB, mental health recovery, and quality of life were all significantly correlated at baseline while controlling for depressive symptoms. Overall, the findings indicate that PWB and mental health recovery can improve in FEP, are related to yet distinct from quality of life, and that DUP may play a role in certain facets of these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I; Kubzansky, Laura D
To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health.
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.
Crozier, S; Robertson, N; Dale, M
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic condition for which a predictive genetic test by mutation analysis has been available since 1993. However, whilst revealing the future presence of the disease, testing may have an adverse psychological impact given that the disease is progressive, incurable and ultimately fatal. This review seeks to systematically explore the psychological impact of genetic testing for individuals undergoing pre-symptomatic mutation analysis. Three databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) were interrogated for studies utilising standardised measures to assess psychological impact following predictive genetic testing for HD. From 100 papers initially identified, eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Psychological impact of predictive genetic testing was not found to be associated with test result. No detrimental effect of predictive genetic testing on non-carriers was found, although the process was not found to be psychologically neutral. Fluctuation in levels of distress was found over time for carriers and non-carriers alike. Methodological weaknesses of published literature were identified, notably the needs of individuals not requesting genetic testing, as well as inadequate support for individuals registering elevated distress and declining post-test follow-up. Further assessment of these vulnerable individuals is warranted to establish the extent and type of future psychological support.
Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José
We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.
Haldane, Joanne; Nickerson, Angela
Research findings have documented a relationship between the number of types of traumatic events to which refugees were exposed and psychological disorders. It is unclear, however, if gender moderates the impact of trauma on refugee mental health. The participants in this study were 60 male and 31 female refugees and asylum-seekers resettled in Australia. Participants had a mean age of 34.54 years (SD = 9.70), and were from a variety of countries including Iraq, Iran, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a multigroup path analysis to test if the relationship between psychological outcomes of exposure to trauma (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression) was different as a function of the type of traumatic exposure (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal) or as a function of gender. We found a significant relationship between interpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .77) and anxiety symptoms (β = .32) in women, and a significant association between noninterpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .59), anxiety (β =.49), and depression symptoms (β = .32) in men. For men, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = 0.14 to 1.01; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.53 to 0.43. For women, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = -0.79 to 0.67; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.09 to 1.46. These results suggested supporting refugees in their efforts to overcome the psychological impact of trauma, including the allocation of resources in clinical services to support the psychological recovery of refugees. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M
Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.
Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don
This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.
Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J
The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.
Benjamin, Ludy T; Simpson, Jeffry A
Few psychological studies, if any, can claim a legacy as imposing as the obedience studies of Stanley Milgram. Their impact was of notable consequence in the separate spheres of research ethics, research design, and theory in psychology, and they changed the ways that psychologists conceptualize and conduct their research. The authors discuss the legacy of these studies, especially as they effected dramatic changes in the fields of personality and social psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of what psychological science has lost in the aftermath of Milgram--high impact studies--and the salience that such research has in illuminating the most significant problems of our society, studies that could produce great human benefits. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.
A large proportion of adolescents experience significant psychological distress, but a vast majority never obtain needed mental health services. The availability of school-based mental health services has increased immensely in recent years, but ongoing challenges impact students’ utilization of these services. Research on mental health help seeking pathways for adolescents suggests that mental health literacy (MHL), stigma towards seeking help, and context-specific barriers to care are key...
Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M
The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.
Marise Fagundes Silveira
Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of impact of oral health conditions on physical and psychosocial dimensions among adolescents and to identify factors associated with severity of impact. The impact of oral health status was assessed by the instrument Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14. The covariates were: socioeconomic status, habits and health care, use of dental services, and normative conditions of oral health. Structural equation modeling was performed, and 15.6% of adolescents reported impact in at least one dimension of the OHIP-14. The dimensions that showed the highest prevalence of impact were psychological distress (11.8% and physical pain (6.6%. The number of teeth needing dental treatment, number of filled teeth, and CPI significantly affected severity of impact. In this adolescent population, unfavorable socioeconomic conditions were associated with reduced use of dental services, associated in turn with precarious oral health conditions and increased severity of impact.
Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360
Rook, Karen S; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H; Newsom, Jason T; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved in negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults' physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with having fewer ambivalent and exclusively problematic kin ties. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults' lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia
The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.
Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Kemper, Jessica; Stürmer, Carolina
review. Sample sizes ranged from 217 to 2411 participants of ages 14-95 years. All included studies used cross-sectional designs and self-developed measures for outcomes related to both defined indicators of public acceptability. Three surveys used observational study designs, whereas one study was conducted as an experiment investigating the impact of brief educational information on attitudes. Taken together, the findings of included surveys suggested that e-mental health treatment services were perceived as less helpful than traditional face-to-face interventions. Additionally, intentions to future use e-mental health treatments were overall smaller in comparison to face-to-face services. Professional support was essential for help-seeking intentions in case of psychological distress. Therapist-assisted e-mental health services were preferred over unguided programs. Unexpectedly, assumed associations between familiarity with Web-based self-help for health purposes or "e-awareness" and intentions to use e-mental health services were weak or inconsistent. Considering the marginal amount and heterogeneity of pilot studies focusing on public acceptability of e-mental health treatments, further research using theory-led approaches and validated measures is required to understand psychological facilitator and barriers for the implementation of innovative services into health care.
Finch, Amy; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Chiang, Jaclyn; Elit, Lorraine; McLaughlin, John; Springate, Caitlin; Esplen, Mary Jane; Demsky, Rochelle; Murphy, Joan; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A
The objective of this study was to measure the impact of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy on health-related quality of life and psychological distress in women. Women who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy between August 20, 2003 and June 26, 2008 because of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were invited to participate. Participants completed three questionnaires (SF-12(®) Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory and the Impact of Events Scale) before prophylactic surgery and again 1 year after surgery. Measures of health-related quality of life, of general psychological distress and of ovarian cancer worry before and after surgery were compared. Few women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy experienced a worsening in physical or mental health functioning after salpingo-oophorectomy. On average, women experienced less ovarian cancer-specific worry after surgery; 34.3% experienced moderate to severe ovarian cancer-specific distress before surgery, compared with 18.6% after surgery. For most women, physical and mental health-related quality of life did not deteriorate after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, and they were less worried about ovarian cancer. A subset of women continued to experience moderate to severe cancer-specific distress. Identification of these women is important in order to provide continued counseling and support. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wilkinson, Ross B.
This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…
Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D
This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.
Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M
This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.
Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong
The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Jun 1, 2013 ... Satisfied respondents were least likely to have psychological disorder. Conclusion: ... screening instrument designed to detect current diagnosable .... meta-analysis: they reported that correlation between job satisfaction and ...
Susana Sofia Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morbid obesity has multiple implications for psychological and physical health. Bariatric surgery has been selected as the treatment of choice for this chronic disease, despite the controversial impact of the surgery on psychosocial health. The objective of this study was to describe candidates for bariatric surgery and analyze changes in weight, psychopathology, personality, and health problems and complaints at 6- and 12- month follow-up assessments. METHODS: Thirty obese patients (20 women and 10 men with a mean age of 39.17±8.81 years were evaluated in different dimensions before surgery and 6 and 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS: Six and 12 months after bariatric surgery, patients reported significant weight loss and a significant reduction in the number of health problems and complaints. The rates of self-reported psychopathology were low before surgery, and there were no statistically significant changes over time. The conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness dimensions increased, but neuroticism and openness remained unchanged. All changes had a medium effect size. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients experience significant health improvements and some positive personality changes after bariatric surgery. Even though these findings underscore the role of bariatric surgery as a relevant treatment for morbid obesity, more in-depth longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the evolution of patients after the procedure.
Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension between flood affected and non-affected households. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding, flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis.
In 2010, an interorganizational effort among the American Psychological Association, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils, known as the Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), was initiated to address mounting concerns related to education and training for the professional practice of psychology. Given that professional psychology includes diverse areas of practice and the mounting concerns about psychology's role in a reformed health care system, HSPEC chose to focus on preparation of psychologists for the delivery of health care services and made seven recommendations that constitute the core of a blueprint for the future. These recommendations require significant changes in graduate education-changes critical to the future of psychology as a health profession. As part of its work, HSPEC developed a statement of core competencies for the preparation of health service psychologists, integrating feedback solicited through public comment and review by the psychology community, including education and training councils and APA governance groups. The articulation of these competencies serves to inform not only the preparation of health service psychologists but students, employers, regulators, and policymakers as well. It also reflects the discipline's commitment to quality and accountability in the preparation of its workforce. HSPEC recognizes that its recommendations to strengthen the core preparation and identity of health service psychologists will result in some limitations on degrees of freedom at the program level but believes such limitation to be in the service of coherent and uniform standards for education and training. This blueprint supports the evolution and development of the profession within a scientific context. It supports standards as meaningful, versus minimum, indicators as part of the profession's obligation to the public. The blueprint also calls for the profession
Ploeg, E. van der
The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…
Background: Psychological violence has emerged as a priority concern in all workplaces because of its adverse consequences on victims' health. So far, limited research has been conducted on the effect of psychological violence on the five interrelated contexts of human existence. Objectives: This qualitative study ...
Rathmann, Katharina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Osorio, Ana M; Bosakova, Lucia; Elgar, Frank J; Richter, Matthias
Little is known about the impact of recessions on young people's socioeconomic inequalities in health. This study investigates the impact of the economic recession in terms of youth unemployment on socioeconomic inequalities in psychological health complaints among adolescents across Europe and North America. Data from the WHO collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' (HBSC) study were collected in 2005/06 (N = 160,830) and 2009/10 (N = 166,590) in 31 European and North American countries. Logistic multilevel models were used to assess the contribution of youth unemployment in 2009/10 (enduring recession) and the change in youth unemployment (2005-2010) to adolescent psychological health complaints and socioeconomic inequalities in complaints in 2009/10. Youth unemployment during the recession is positively related to psychological health complaints, but not to inequalities in complaints. Changes in youth unemployment (2005-2010) were not associated with adolescents' psychological health complaints, whereas greater inequalities in complaints were found in countries with greater increases in youth unemployment. This study highlights the need to tackle the impact of increasing unemployment on adolescent health and health inequalities during economic recessions.
Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J
Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zawadzki, Matthew J
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are related to psychological health, with most work examining reappraisal and suppression. Yet, emerging findings suggest that rumination may have stronger relationships with psychological health, namely depression, than other ER strategies. This paper replicated and extended this work by testing whether rumination was independently associated with a range of poor psychological health risk indicators and outcomes. In addition, it explored whether the reason why rumination is so deleterious to health is because it underlies the stress-health relationship. Participants (n = 218) completed measures online. Surveys assessed ER strategies (reappraisal, suppression, proactive coping, emotion support seeking, and rumination), health risk indicators (hostility, optimism, self-esteem), health outcomes (depression, poor sleep quality, anxiety) and perceived chronic stress. Multivariate regression analyses revealed rumination as the only ER strategy with a consistent independent effect on all the health risk indicators and outcomes. Bootstrapping analyses revealed indirect effects of perceived chronic stress on all the health variables via rumination. Rumination had a deleterious relationship with psychological health, perhaps because rumination underlies the relationship between stress and psychological health. Results have implications for interventions, particularly emphasizing the need to target ruminative thinking after stressful experiences.
Background: Literature on the impact of health sector reform (HSR) on motivation of healthcare workers (HWs) and performance in health service provision in developing countries is still limited. Objective: To describe the impact of HSR on HW motivation and performance in providing quality health care in Tanzania.
Kaasen, A; Helbig, A; Malt, U F; Naes, T; Skari, H; Haugen, G
To predict acute psychological distress in pregnant women following detection of a fetal structural anomaly by ultrasonography, and to relate these findings to a comparison group. A prospective, observational study. Tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine. One hundred and eighty pregnant women with a fetal structural anomaly detected by ultrasound (study group) and 111 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included within a week following sonographic examination after gestational age 12 weeks (inclusion period: May 2006 to February 2009). Social dysfunction and health perception were assessed by the corresponding subscales of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Psychological distress was assessed using the Impact of Events Scale (IES-22), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the anxiety and depression subscales of the GHQ-28. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment. Social dysfunction, health perception and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, depression). The least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity induced the lowest levels of IES intrusive distress (P = 0.025). Women included after 22 weeks of gestation (24%) reported significantly higher GHQ distress than women included earlier in pregnancy (P = 0.003). The study group had significantly higher levels of psychosocial distress than the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints. Psychological distress was predicted by gestational age at the time of assessment, severity of the fetal anomaly, and ambiguity concerning diagnosis or prognosis.
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Miranda, Jeanne M.; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G.; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E.
Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models. PMID:26430948
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E; Hughes, Jennifer L; Miranda, Jeanne M; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E
Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models.
Montiel-Company, José-María; Pinho, Teresa; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel
Introduction and Objectives: The objectives were to assess the relationship between perceived smile aesthetics and perceived psychological impact as measured by the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ), and their own perception of it using the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS); relate the IOTN-AC and VAS to the PIDAQ; and study the predictive capacity of the scales for psychological impact. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 447 college students in Spain and Portugal (average age 20.4 years, 33.1% men and 66.9% women). The online self-completed surveys used the recently-validated Spanish and Portuguese versions of the PIDAQ to assess the self–reported psychological impact of the students’ dental aesthetics and IOTN-AC and an ad hoc 100 mm VAS for their perception of their dental aesthetics. Results: PIDAQ was linearly correlated with IOTN AC and VAS. Pearson’s coefficient was 0.55 for PIDAQ and IOTN-AC (CI 95% 0.48-0.61) and -0.72 for PIDAQ and VAS (CI 95% -0.66 - -0.76). VAS and IOTN-AC were predictive variables in a linear regression model of the total PIDAQ score. The VAS diagnosed individuals whose dental aesthetics had a self-perceived psychological impact (area under the curve 0.827, CI 95% 0.787-0.868) more precisely than the IOTN-AC (area under the curve 0.742, CI 95% 0. 696-0.788). Conclusions: In adults patients, there is a significant linear relationship between perceived smile aesthetics and self-perceived psychological impact. Key words:Visual Analog Scale, Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, malocclusion, psychological, aesthetics. PMID:25810834
Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Montiel-Company, José-María; Pinho, Teresa; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel
The objectives were to assess the relationship between perceived smile aesthetics and perceived psychological impact as measured by the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ), and their own perception of it using the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS); relate the IOTN-AC and VAS to the PIDAQ; and study the predictive capacity of the scales for psychological impact. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 447 college students in Spain and Portugal (average age 20.4 years, 33.1% men and 66.9% women). The online self-completed surveys used the recently-validated Spanish and Portuguese versions of the PIDAQ to assess the self-reported psychological impact of the students' dental aesthetics and IOTN-AC and an ad hoc 100 mm VAS for their perception of their dental aesthetics. PIDAQ was linearly correlated with IOTN AC and VAS. Pearson's coefficient was 0.55 for PIDAQ and IOTN-AC (CI 95% 0.48-0.61) and -0.72 for PIDAQ and VAS (CI 95% -0.66 - -0.76). VAS and IOTN-AC were predictive variables in a linear regression model of the total PIDAQ score. The VAS diagnosed individuals whose dental aesthetics had a self-perceived psychological impact (area under the curve 0.827, CI 95% 0.787-0.868) more precisely than the IOTN-AC (area under the curve 0.742, CI 95% 0. 696-0.788). In adults patients, there is a significant linear relationship between perceived smile aesthetics and self-perceived psychological impact. Key words:Visual Analog Scale, Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, malocclusion, psychological, aesthetics.
Deng, Xiao; Wang, Yun-Ji; Deng, Feng; Liu, Pang-Li; Wu, Yan
We examined the role of adolescent orthodontic patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and positive and negative affects) and the clinical indicators of dental esthetics (orthodontists' ratings on the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component [IOTN-AC]), and their changes from pretreatment to posttreatment as predictors of the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics. In this prospective longitudinal study, 1090 adolescent orthodontic patients seeking treatment at the Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in China (mean age, 14.25 years; SD, 2.03 years) were assessed before treatment, and 68.99% (n = 752) were assessed after treatment. All subjects completed a questionnaire measuring psychological well-being attributes and 3 components of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics (perceptive, cognitive-affective, and social-functional). Clinical indicators of dental esthetics were measured by 3 orthodontists using the IOTN-AC. Substantial enhancement from pretreatment to posttreatment was found in all 3 Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Aesthetics components, confirming the positive effects of orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life. Psychosocial impact of dental esthetics at baseline and improvement from pretreatment to posttreatment were found to be predicted by the patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and negative affect) and the clinical indicators (orthodontists' rating on the IOTN-AC) at baseline, as well as their pretreatment to posttreatment change. Psychological well-being attributes had comparable or greater contribution to the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics at baseline as well as greater improvement after treatment than the clinical indicators. These biopsychological models explained 29% to 43% of the variances in psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics outcome at baseline and about 33% of the variance in
Bhattacharya, Rahul; Barton, Simon; Catalan, Jose
HIV testing is known to be stressful, however the impact of false positive HIV results on individuals is not well documented. This is a series of four case who developed psychological difficulties and psychiatric morbidities after being informed they had been misdiagnosed with HIV-positive status. We look into documented cases of misdiagnosis and potential risks of misdiagnosis. The case series highlights the implications a false diagnosis HIV-positive status can have, even when the diagnosis is rectified. Impact of misdiagnosis of HIV can lead to psychosocial difficulties and psychiatric morbidity, have public health and epidemiological implications and can lead to medico-legal conflict. This further reiterates the importance of HIV testing carried out ethically and sensitively, and in line with guidelines, respecting confidentiality and consent, and offering counselling pre-test and post-test, being mindful of the reality of erroneous and false positive HIV test results. The implications of misdiagnosis are for the individual, their partners and social contacts, as well as for the community.
Kim, Y H
To explore the negative health behaviors of Korean adolescents, reveal factors affecting their negative health behavior, and present a substantial correlation model between the negative health behaviors and psychological factors. A total of 2124 adolescents randomly selected from junior high and high schools in Seoul were surveyed. Four Korean-version instruments were used to identify the negative health behavior and psychological construct of adolescents: Adolescent Health Survey, Health Locus of Control scale, Self-Esteem scale, and Self-Efficacy scale. Korean adolescents showed high prevalence of smoking, drinking alcohol, bad eating habits, and viewing pornography; and very low prevalence, however, of sexual intercourse and illegal drug use. In addition to this, the findings revealed that the subdomains in adolescents' negative health behavior were statistically correlated with the subdimensions of a psychological factor. A correlation model was an adequate fit to identify a possible relationship between the negative health behaviors and the psychological factors. This study provides significant and new information about the relatively unstudied Korean adolescents and has the potential to influence the development of better health education and health psychology.
Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Khoda, Maryam Omid; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Vatankhah, Mona
The current study aimed to investigate the coping strategies and level of psychological distress in mothers of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and the family impact of this disorder. Participants were mothers of 55 children or adolescents with nonsyndromic CLP recruited from families attending a CLP clinic and 2 university hospitals in Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Family impact, psychological distress, and coping strategies were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires including Family Impact Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Coping Response Inventory. Findings revealed that mothers relied more on the use of approach-oriented rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. According to General Health Questionnaire scores, 38.2% of mothers showed some evidence of psychological distress, and 23.6% were suspected of having severe psychological problems. Regarding the family impact of CLP, mothers reported the greatest impact to be on the family's financial status and parental emotions. Those mothers who used avoidant coping strategies reported a greater family impact of CLP (P = 0.002). Emotional discharge and acceptance coping were significant predictors of family impact (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mothers of 13- to 18-year-old patients with CLP reported greater use of problem-solving coping strategy when compared with mothers of younger patients (P = 0.006). Child's age and coping strategies were not significant predictors of the level of mother's psychological distress. Increased knowledge about how parents cope with their child's craniofacial condition may help caregivers develop a more family-oriented care approach, which is sensitive to the psychosocial needs of parents, children, and their families.
Mojtabai, Ramin; Jorm, Anthony F
There has been an increase in the use of mental health services in a number of industrialized countries over the past two decades with little impact on mental health status of the populations. Few studies, however, have examined recent trends in mental health status in the US. Using data from three large general annual population surveys in the US-the National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and National Survey on Drug Use and Health-we examined temporal trends in non-specific psychological distress, depressive episodes and mental health treatment seeking over the 2001-2012 period. Prevalence of past-month significant psychological distress and past-year depressive symptoms changed little over time. However, a larger percentage of participants reported poor mental health for ≥15 days or 30 days in the past month in 2011-2012 (8.7% and 5.7%, respectively) than in 2001-2002 (6.6% and 4.6%). A larger percentage of participants in the later period also reported receiving mental health treatments. Possible changes in mental health status may have been missed due to the limited scope of assessments or the small magnitude of changes. Potential reciprocal influences between service use and mental health status could not be investigated because of cross-sectional data. Despite increasing use of mental health treatments in the US in the first decade of this century, there is no evidence of decrease in prevalence of psychological distress or depression. Poor match between need for treatment and actual treatments received in usual care settings may partly explain the findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith
The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.
Roz Shafran; Sophie D Bennett; Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs...
H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study
Acharya, Indranil; Acharya, Jayanti P; Waghrey, Divya
.... on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in colleges in a big city...
Li, Menglong; Nie, Jingsong; Ren, Yujia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise dependence on the psychological health of Chinese college students. A total of 1601 college students from three universities in Hunan, China, were selected as research subjects. Several measurement scales, including the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Subjective Well-being Scale, were used to survey the psychological health problem of these students and to analyze the effects of exercise dependence on their psychological health. Exercise dependence, based on the structural equation model analysis, can positively influence state anxiety (Pstudents. By contrast, exercise dependence negatively influences students' self-satisfaction (Phealth of college students. Further research using multi-dimensional exercise addiction scales should be conducted to identify all the negative effects of exercise addiction factors on psychological health.
Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie
Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540
Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J
Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bedair, Radwa; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Quyam, Sadia; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Swan, Lorna; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Wong, Tom
The psychological impact of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) has not been established. To compare device acceptance, quality of life, anxiety and depression between ACHD patients with ICDs (ICD-Congenital), with pacemakers (PPM-Congenital), with no devices (No Device-Congenital) and non-ACHD patients with ICDs (ICD-Non-Congenital). A total of 147 ACHD and 46 non-ACHD patients (age 45.0±14.7 years, 56.5% males) completed the Florida Patient Acceptance Survey (FPAS), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS). ICD-Congenital patients (n=59) showed lower device acceptance compared to PPM-Congenital patients (n=41), p=0.04, and reported worse quality of life (p=0.001) and higher prevalence of depression (p=0.009) when compared to No Device-Congenital (n=47) patients. ICD-Congenital and ICD-Non-Congenital patients (n=46) showed similar mental and physical health, device acceptance, anxiety and depression. Within ICD-Congenital, patients with poorest device acceptance (FPAS congenital heart disease who receive an ICD than those who receive pacemakers. Appropriate screening for anxiety and depression may be warranted for ACHD patients considered for ICD implantation or already living with ICDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schulz, Torben; Niesing, Jan; Stewart, Roy E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.
Although kidney transplantation improves overall quality of life and physical functioning, improvements of psychological distress are often modest. However, apparent stressors such as comorbidity are only weakly associated with psychological distress and their impact differs considerably between
Robinson, Simon; Kellett, Stephen; King, Ingrid; Keating, Val
The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative has depended on the training of a new NHS mental health workforce. At step 3 of the stepped care model, capacity building has required the recruitment of a wide range of mental health professionals into high intensity therapists training posts. This shift naturally entails role transition on the part of trainees into delivering cognitive behavioural psychotherapy (CBP), but no previous research has examined the experience of such transitions. To describe the lived experience of transition from mental health nurse to IAPT high intensity therapist and to identify possible factors which moderate effective role conversions. Six qualified high intensity therapists were interviewed using a semi-structured interview and the subsequent interviews transcribed. Thematic content analysis (TCA) was used to analyze personal accounts of role transition. All participants had previously been mental health nurses and attended the same IAPT high intensity therapist (HIT) training programme. Six key themes were apparent from the TCA. Three interconnected themes concerning supervision (style, impact of approach and historical context) and three additional themes of the challenge of learning a new clinical approach, high need for support, and forming a new psychotherapist identity. Findings suggest supervision is the most important factor in supporting complex psychotherapy role transitions. Clinical supervisors may need to incorporate dedicated time on role and identity shift during CBP training to ensure effective assimilation and transition. Methodological short-comings are identified and discussed.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...
Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey
Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...
Bendersky, Joseph W
The controversial crowd psychology of Gustave Le Bon has been both praised as an incisive contribution to social theory and also condemned as a doctrine of irrationality and mass manipulation associated with fascism. New archival documentation now demonstrates that Le Bon exercised significant influence on U.S. military thinking and practice through World War II. Army writings and officer training on morale, leadership, and battlefield psychology rested substantially on his theory of crowds, particularly regarding races and panic. Le Bon's racial psychology took on additional importance when the African-American 92 nd Infantry Division panicked during combat in Italy. This new evidence offers an excellent case study of the direct and enduring impact of a peculiar type of social psychology on the institutional culture of the army from the classrooms at the Army War College to the battlefield itself. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W
Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.
Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm
Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact to psychological contract on the organisational commitment of public sector employees in Maldives. The research draws a sample of 100 respondents from ministry of Youth and Sports, Maldives, using simple random probability sampling technique. A Likert-Scale with 1-5 rating was used to obtain. The Questionnaire distributed included five variables to measure the Psychological Contract construct. These are ‘trust, ‘mutual obligation’, ‘perceived fairness, and ‘length of contract’. The dependent variable was organizational commitment (affective commitment, which is measured using ‘sense of belonging to the organization’, pride in organization membership’, and meaning associated with the work’. The data collected was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 22.0 for windows. The correlation analysis shows that the dimensions of psychological contract have positive correlation with affective commitment. The main results indicate that psychological contract dimension such as fulfillment of mutual obligations, perceived fairness and length of contract has a positive and significant impact on affective commitment. However this study found that psychological contract dimension, trust in employer has a positive correlation although it does not have a significant impact on affective commitment. Implications and suggestion for future researches are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7 and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20 years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4% cases. The mean GSI (1.46 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4 of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507, unemployment (effect size = 0.464 and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62. Among the participants, 87 (58.4% cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6% cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120. There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history
Knowles, Simon R; Tribbick, Davina; Connell, William R; Castle, David; Salzberg, Michael; Kamm, Michael A
-focused coping style (eg, seek advice) ameliorate depression, but not anxiety. Months since surgery was associated with improved health status, reduced poorer illness perceptions, and increased emotional-focused coping. Illness perceptions and coping were found to mediate anxiety and depression. The results confirm that how individuals perceive their illness and what coping strategies they engage in impacts their psychological well-being. Study findings support the need for designing targeting psychological interventions based on individual illness perceptions and self-efficacy rather than exclusively focusing on coping strategies in patients with a stoma.
Idris, Mohd Awang; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H
To examine the impact of globalization on employee psychological health and job satisfaction via job characteristics (i.e., job demands and job resources) in an emerging economy, that of Malaysia. As external factors are regarded as influences on the working environment, we hypothesized that global forces (increased pressure and competition) would have an impact on burnout and job satisfaction via increased demands (role conflict, emotional demands) and reduced resources (supervisor support, coworkers support). Data were collected using a population based survey among 308 employees in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Participants were approached at home during the weekend or on days off from work. Only one participant was selected per household. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Nearly 54% of respondents agreed that they need to work harder, 25% agreed that their job was not secure and 24% thought they had lost power and control on the job due to global trade competition. Consistent with our predictions, demands mediated the globalization to burnout relationship, and resources mediated the globalization to job satisfaction relationship. Together, these results support the idea that external factors influence work conditions and in turn employee health and job satisfaction. We conclude that the jobs demands-resources framework is applicable in an Eastern setting and that globalization is a key antecedent of working environments.
Mooy, J. M.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.
Intersectoral health policy implies negotiations with politicians outside the health sector. Health politicians have a stronger position if they can quantify health impact. In this Dutch case-study we used a computer simulation approach to answer the following questions: Which anti-tobacco
Granito, Vincent J.; Santana, Mary E.
New research is emerging that focuses on the role the physical classroom space plays in the teaching-learning dynamic. The purpose of this exploratory research is to describe the students' and instructors' perspectives of how the classroom space and environment impact teaching and learning. Focus groups were utilized with data points coming from…
Dec 31, 2014 ... Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: ...
Over the centuries, the heart has been recognized as a centre for spiritual, intellectual and emotional life in diverse cultures. This paper introduces a psychology of the heart with specific reference to the time honoured, transcultural applications of a local, African, Zulu, breath based, heart focussed, psychotherapeutic ...
Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne
Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…
Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The ...
Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie
Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Background Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Conclusion Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions. PMID:28331330
Fottrell, Edward; Kanhonou, Lydie; Goufodji, Sourou; Béhague, Dominique P.; Marshall, Tom; Patel, Vikram; Filippi, Véronique
Background Little is known about the impact of life-threatening obstetric complications (‘near miss’) on women’s mental health in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To examine the relationships between near miss and postpartum psychological distress in the Republic of Benin. Method One-year prospective cohort using epidemiological and ethnographic techniques in a population of women delivering at health facilities. Results In total 694 women contributed to the study. Except when associated with perinatal death, near-miss events were not associated with greater risk of psychological distress in the 12 months postpartum compared with uncomplicated childbirth. Much of the direct effect of near miss with perinatal death on increased risk of psychological distress was shown to be mediated through wider consequences of traumatic childbirth. Conclusions A live baby protects near-miss women from increased vulnerability by giving a positive element in their lives that helps them cope and reduces their risk of psychological distress. Near-miss women with perinatal death should be targeted early postpartum to prevent or treat the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:20044654
Full Text Available The family and its function as a social institution has an important role in children’s psychological development. The Aim of this study is to investigate the relations of family functioning and the level of psychological basic needs of adolescents with their mental health. Research design is descriptive -correlational and the sample has been recruited from four military areas in Tehran city via simple random sampling method. A total number of 200 families with their youth (14 to 22 year old completed three questionnaires: Family Assessment Device (FAD, Psychological Needs Questionnaire (PNQ, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The resultsindicate that there are significant correlations between family functionig subscales and mental health of their adolescences. Other finding show that low family functioning has negative correlation with psychological basic needs (including three subscales: competence, autonomy, and relatednessof adolescents. We discuss the results in the light of previous findings and provide suggestions to improve family function.
Maryam Hosseini Almosavi
Full Text Available The robust increase in mental disorders, elevated use of sedatives and increased number of psychiatric hospitals, even in developed countries, indicate the need for preparing the human mind against tribulations. Although industrial advances have provided mankind with comfort, they have also increased the level of stress and psychological traumas. Here, the question arises as how we can free individuals from mental damages and stress in order to sustain mental health and pave the way for growth and excellence. In this article, we aimed to investigate the influence of fasting on mental health, according to “Shabaniyah Sermon” by Prophet Muhammad and new psychological findings. It should be mentioned that such comparison requires comprehensive research and further studies. In this article, we evaluated various cognitive measures such as “faith in God” and “worship”, as well as behavioral strategies, e.g., “repentance” and “honoring kinship”. These practices are based on humans’ spiritual needs and psychologists’ ideas and have great impacts on human health and prevention of psychological traumas. The main purpose of this study was to identify factors which harm the human spirit and deprive an individual of mental health. By identifying these factors, we can provide the grounds for growth and prosperity.
Probst, Vincent; Plassard-Kerdoncuf, Delphine; Mansourati, Jacques; Mabo, Philippe; Sacher, Frédéric; Fruchet, Christine; Babuty, Dominique; Lande, Gilles; Guyomarc'h, Béatrice; Le Marec, Hervé
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a hereditary arrhythmic disease, responsible for sudden death in patients without known heart disease. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is recommended in patients at high risk of sudden death, but the resulting psychological impact has never been studied. The aim of our study was to assess the impact on quality of life of BrS and ICD implantation. Patients were selected from the reference centre for hereditary arrhythmic disease database in Nantes. This population was divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1), symptomatic implanted patients; Group 2 (G2), asymptomatic implanted patients; and Group 3 (G3), asymptomatic patients without ICD. One hundred and ninety questionnaires [36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and subsidiary questions] were analysed (60 in G1, 78 in G2, and 52 in G3). We failed to identify any difference in the evaluation of the SF-36 between the three groups and the SF-36 score was similar to the French population score. However, specific questions regarding tolerance of the ICD showed that ICD implantation resulted in significant negative impact, especially for professional careers and purchasing insurance, even though the patient considered ICD implantation as reassuring. Whatever the group, BrS patients have a good quality of life with no difference between implanted and non-implanted patients. However, ICD implantation is accompanied by difficulties in their social and professional life. This work emphasizes the need to propose specific recommendations applicable to insurance to reduce the complications experienced by these patients.
Boman, U W; Bryman, I; Halling, K; Möller, A
Psychological well-being, self-rated health and social situation were investigated in a cross-sectional multidisciplinary study of 63 women with Turner syndrome (TS; mean age 31.5 years, range 18-59 years). The psychological examination included a semi-structured interview, and use of two standardized self-rating scales, the Psychological General Well-being Index (PGWB) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Psychological well-being and self-rated health were similar in the women with TS and Swedish female normative data, matched for age. However, the women with TS reported more social isolation than the normative group. Within the TS group, the oldest women reported more psychological distress and poorer health than the youngest. Those with impaired self-rated health reported more emotional distress. The women with TS were studying or in employment to the same degree as the general population, although fewer were cohabiting. In the interview, both negative and positive consequences of TS were reported. This study did not find any evidence for impaired psychological well-being, although it did indicate that women with TS experience more difficulties in the area of social and partner relationships.
Williams, Amy M; May, Pamela E; Mason, Shawn T; Wang, Chun; Pomana, Lidia
To identify the contributions of medical conditions and psychological distress to well-being within a non-clinical sample, stratified by age. It was predicted that medical conditions and psychological distress would be negatively associated with well-being. It was also predicted that psychological distress and medical conditions would account for significant variance in well-being. It was further predicted that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between medical conditions and well-being across the life span. 1,424,307 employees/health plan members that completed an HRA. SEM was used to characterize relationships among medical conditions and psychological distress in predicting well-being (QoL, HRQoL, and impairments in ADLs) in five adult age groups. Medical conditions and psychological distress were negatively associated with well-being. As age increased, psychological distress was less associated with well-being. However, in those >75 years old, psychological distress had the largest association with well-being. All medical conditions, except cancer, were negatively associated with well-being. There were decreasing effects of medical conditions across the life span, with the exception of pulmonary disease which increased. Psychological distress mediated the relationship between medical conditions and well-being, with chronic pain having the greatest mediation across the life span. The analysis revealed differences in the contribution of psychological distress and medical conditions to well-being by age group. Additionally, the contribution of psychological distress was equitable to that of medical conditions, thus highlighting the importance of addressing psychological distress in medical populations for well-being. Findings suggest the relevance of age in well-being and the need for further longitudinal investigation.
Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann
This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…
Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.
This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine
Kranzler, John H.; Grapin, Sally L.; Daley, Matt L.
This study examined the research productivity and scholarly impact of faculty in APA-accredited school psychology programs using data in the PsycINFO database from 2005 to 2009. We ranked doctoral programs on the basis of authorship credit, number of publications, and number of citations. In addition, we examined the primary publication outlets of…
Schenk, Allison M.; Fremouw, William J.
With the growth of technology, bullying has expanded into the technological realm. Labeled cyberbullying, individuals are utilizing technology, such as cell phones and the Internet, to bully and harass others with the intention of causing harm. The purpose of this study was to expand prevalence, psychological impact, and coping strategy research…
Meulenbroek, L.F.P.; Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study in 755 student teachers using general questionnaires, the Voice Handicap Inventory (VHI), Type D
Gopie, Jessica Premdee
In this thesis the psychological impact of two types of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer was investigated with a prospective study including 202 patients from different hospitals in the South-West of the Netherlands between 2007-2012. With
Rehman, Saif ur; Qingren, Cao; Latif, Yasir; Iqbal, Pervaiz
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact and interrelation between positive psychological capital and occupational burnout among faculty associates of technical and professional training institutions. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 282 faculty members from 17 technical institutions were selected from the province of…
Bhullar, Naureen; Rose, Karen C.; Utell, Janine M.; Healey, Kathryn N.
The authors assessed the impact of peer review on student writing in four sections of an undergraduate Developmental Psychology course. They hypothesized that peer review would result in better writing in the peer review group compared to the group with no peer review. Writing was rated independently by two instructors who were blind to the…
Rowsell, A. C.; Clare, I. C. H.; Murphy, G. H.
Background: In other populations, the psychological impact of abuse has been conceptualized as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994), but little is known about whether this is appropriate for adults with severe intellectual disabilities and very limited communication skills. Methods: An…
An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that
Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L
Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
a type 1 error of 0.05, a power of 90%, and a ratio. 541. African Health Sciences ... significant difference. Statistical Analysis. Descriptive analysis was done for the demographic characteristics of patients and other control variables both groups. ..... The medication errors refer to the mistakes in the process that could lead to.
Research on child sexual abuse (CSA) suggest that support and protection from the caregiver provide the child an effective platform for quick recovery and improvement in mental health and social functioning. Nonetheless, not all caregivers are supportive of survivors; recent research findings, instead, show that incidents of ...
Gomathi, Kadayam G; Ahmed, Soofia; Sreedharan, Jayadevan
The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson's chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. A total of 112 students (89.6%) completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were 'frequency of exams', 'academic workload', and 'time management'. Major psychosocial stressors were 'worries regarding future', 'high parental expectations', 'anxiety', and 'dealing with members of the opposite sex'. Health-related issues were 'irregular eating habits', 'lack of exercise', and 'sleep-related problems'. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.
Kadayam G Gomathi
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125 of the Gulf Medical University (GMU in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE, were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6% completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major psychosocial stressors were ‘worries regarding future’, ‘high parental expectations’, ‘anxiety’, and ‘dealing with members of the opposite sex’. Health-related issues were ‘irregular eating habits’, ‘lack of exercise’, and ‘sleep-related problems’. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.
Tamura, Karin Ruth
The literature on incest was reviewed with specific emphasis on the psychological impact that the incestuous relationship has on the female victim. The goals of the review were to identify the psychological impact of incest as supported by clinical observations and empirical research and to review literature on intervention strategies. These…
growing number of individuals with psychological health conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder ...ment, follow-up care for children prescribed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and mental health utilization (among other...SUMMARY ■ C O R P O R A T I O N Assessing the Quality and Value of Psychological Health Care in Civilian Health Plans Lessons and Implications
McGarry, Sarah; Girdler, Sonya; McDonald, Ann; Valentine, Jane; Lee, Shew-Lee; Blair, Eve; Wood, Fiona; Elliott, Catherine
To investigate the impact of regular exposure to paediatric medical trauma on multidisciplinary teams in a paediatric hospital and the relationships between psychological distress, resilience and coping skills. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, secondary traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout, compassion satisfaction, resilience and coping skills were measured in 54 health professionals and compared with published norms. Participants experienced more symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (P coping strategies, and less use of dealing with the problem and non-productive coping strategies than comparative groups. Non-productive coping was associated with more secondary traumatic stress (r = 0.50, P = 0.05), burnout (r = 0.45, P = 0.01), post-traumatic stress disorder (r = 0.41, P = 0.05), anxiety (r = 0.42, P = 0.05), depression (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), and stress (r = 0.52, P = 0.01) and resilience was positively associated with optimism (r = 0.48, P = 0.01). Health professionals coping strategies (P = 0.05), less 'sharing as a coping strategy' (P = 0.05) and tended to have more symptoms of depression (P = 0.06). Paediatric medical trauma can adversely affect a health professional's well-being, particularly those coping strategies and more use of non-productive coping. These findings will assist the development of effective and meaningful interventions for health professionals working in paediatric hospitals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Blainey, Sarah Heidi; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren; Beck, Alison
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. Method: In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnai...
Full Text Available Countdown signal control is a relatively new control mode that can inform a driver in advance about the remaining time to pass through intersections or the time needed to wait for other drivers and pedestrians. At present, few countries apply vehicular countdown signals. However, in China, some cities have applied vehicular countdown signals for years, though it is unclear how and how much such signals influence driving psychologies and behaviors compared with non-countdown signal controls. The present work aims to clarify the impact of vehicular countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors on the cognitive level. A questionnaire survey with 32 questions about driving psychologies and behaviors was designed, and an online survey was conducted. A total of 1051 valid questionnaires were received. The survey data were analyzed, and the main results indicate that most of the surveyed drivers prefer countdown signal controls and think that such controls can improve not only traffic safety but also traffic operational efficiency. The surveyed drivers also think that countdown signal controls have an impact on driving psychologies and behaviors and the survey results have demonstrated that the driving behaviors of female drivers surveyed are not conservative under the clear conditions of green countdown signal control. Further studies and methods concerning the effects of countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors are discussed.
Ozturk, Yagmur; Vivanti, Giacomo; Uljarevic, Mirko; Dissanayake, Cheryl
Parents of children with autism have been found to have reduced psychological well-being that has usually been linked to the stress related to managing their child's symptoms. As children's behavior and cognitive functioning are subject to change when suitable early intervention programs are put in place, it is plausible that positive treatment-related changes in the child will have a positive impact on parental distress. We undertook an individual differences study to investigate whether maternal psychological distress is affected by the outcomes of children receiving intervention. The participants comprised 43 mothers of preschool children with ASD enrolled in an early intervention program for 12 months. Child and family factors were linked to maternal psychological distress. However treatment-related changes in children's communication, as assessed on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II, and parenting satisfaction uniquely contributed to psychological distress above and beyond other factors. A mediation analysis indicated that mothers whose children make treatment gains in communication skills experience lower levels of psychological distress as a consequence of higher levels of parenting satisfaction. The findings highlight improvements in everyday adaptive communication skills in children with ASD impact on mothers' satisfaction and distress. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Feng-Jen; Chan, Chang-Chuan
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the financial crisis on psychological work stress among financial workers and lawyers. The Chinese versions of Karasek's job content questionnaire (C-JCQ) and Siegrist's ERI questionnaire (C-ERI) were used to measure work stress, and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (C-CBI) questionnaire was used to measure personal and work-related burnout for 38 financial workers and 97 lawyers before and after the financial crisis in 2008. A paired t test was used to compare changes in work stress and burnout. A logistic regression was performed to determine the association between psychosocial work stress and burnout. After the financial crisis, financial workers reported significantly higher stress from fear of layoffs, increased experiences of undesirable changes and more fear of making mistakes during work. On the contrary, lawyers reported significantly higher scores of reward, fewer psychological demands and less exhaustion. In addition to high psychological demand and a high effort-reward ratio, high effort, over-commitment and stress of layoffs also contributed to personal and work-related burnout after the financial crisis. After the financial crisis, lawyers' personal burnout decreased with the increase of reward, and their work-related burnout decreased with the decrease in psychological demand. The financial crisis has an unequal psychological impact on financial workers and lawyers. Financial workers' psychosocial work stress and burnout were aggravated, while lawyers' psychosocial work stress and burnout were alleviated.
Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; George, Aaron; Dorner, Thomas Ernst
The aim of this analysis was to assess the impact of chronic back pain and psychological distress on the utilization of primary and secondary levels of care in the ambulatory health care sector in Austria - a country without a gatekeeping system. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the joint effect of chronic back pain and psychological distress was higher than the impact of the sum of the two single conditions. The database used for this analysis was the Austrian Health Interview Survey, with data from 15,474 individuals. Statistical methods used were descriptive tests, regression models and the calculation of synergistic effects. Both chronic back pain and psychological distress had a positive association with the utilization of the primary (OR for chronic back pain 1.53 and psychological distress 1.33) and secondary (OR for chronic back pain 1.32 and psychological distress 1.24) levels of the health care sector. In the fully adjusted model, the synergistic effect of chronic back pain and psychological distress was significant for the secondary level of care (S 1.99, PAF 0.20), but not for the primary level of care (S 1.16, PAF 0.07). Synergistic effects and associations for chronic back pain and psychological distress on the utilization of both the primary and secondary levels of the ambulatory health care sector were observed, particularly for the secondary level of care. Our results demonstrate the utilization of health care services settings by individuals with these conditions, and offer opportunities to consider reorganization and structuring of the Austrian health care system.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to identify the major factors that can positively or negatively effect the state of the socio-psychological climate in the medical team of healthcare institutions. The psychological study of the social-psychologic climate of 152 health care workers of two hospitals of Kherson region (N 1, n=80; N 2, n=72 was conducted. It is established that the level of self-esteem of climate in the institution №1 was significantly lower than in institution N 2 (р<0,007. Moreover, these two institutions differed significantly by experience of joint work of health workers (р<0.05 and length of service of the head physicians. Health care workers with less joint work experience have been working in the institution N 1, and it was headed by the head physician with less leading experience. By the opinion of health workers of both institutions, such factors as "interesting and meaningful work", "attentive head", "relations with colleagues", have the most positive impact on the state of climate the most negative influence — "unsatisfactory management style", "tensions in the team", "lack of financial motivation", "poor working conditions". Each team has its own combination of factors that positively or negatively affect the state of the climate. It is established, that depending on the work experience of the head physician and the work experience of joint work of employees, the main factors that affect the climate in the team are "attentive manager" and "relationships with colleagues". The more work experience of the leader, the more it will affect the state of the climate in the team. The less experience of joint work of employees, the more "relationship with colleagues" will affect its condition. Evaluation of the state of socio-psychological climate and its factors by the personnel may be the indicator of efficiency of personnel management in the health care institution.
Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Elmquist, JoAnna; Hecht, Michael; Miller-Day, Michelle; Stuart, Gregory L; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin
Existing literature indicates that acceptance of dating violence is a significant and robust risk factor for psychological dating abuse perpetration. Past work also indicates a significant relationship between psychological dating abuse perpetration and poor mental health. However, no known research has examined the relationship between acceptance of dating violence, perpetration of dating abuse, and mental health. In addition to exploring this complex relationship, the present study examines whether psychological abuse perpetration mediates the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and mental health (i.e., internalizing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility). Three waves of longitudinal data were obtained from 1,042 ethnically diverse high school students in Texas. Participants completed assessments of psychological dating abuse perpetration, acceptance of dating violence, and internalizing symptoms (hostility and symptoms of anxiety and depression). As predicted, results indicated that perpetration of psychological abuse was significantly associated with acceptance of dating violence and all internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, psychological abuse mediated the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and internalizing symptoms. Findings from the present study suggest that acceptance of dating violence is an important target for the prevention of dating violence and related emotional distress. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Eleonora Marzilli,1 Luca Cerniglia,2 Silvia Cimino1 1Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Psychology and Medicine Faculty, Sapienza – University of Rome, 2Department of Psychology, Psychology Faculty, International Telematic University Uninettuno, Rome, Italy Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs, with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties
Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F
Searching for a coherent meaning in life has long been proposed to be a protective factor in adolescent development. The present study aimed to examine meaning in life as a protective factor in a largely unstudied population: Romanian adolescents. Additionally, we sought to provide a novel, multidimensional assessment of several health-related variables (substance abuse, health risk behaviors, psychological health). Potential gender differences were explored regarding the role of life meaning in adolescent health. Data were collected in 2006 from students enrolled in the secondary schools of the Middle Transylvanian Region, Romania (n = 1,977). Self-administered questionnaires were used as a method of data collection including items of life meaning and psychological health. Meaning in life played a protective role with regard to health risk behaviors except smoking and binge drinking. Among males, meaning in life was found to be correlated only to illicit drug and sedative use, whereas among females, meaning in life was associated with binge drinking, unsafe sex, and lack of exercise and diet control. Psychological health was strongly related to meaning in life. In Romanian adolescents, meaning in life is a protective factor against health risk behaviors and poor psychological health.
Iannotti, Ronald J; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto
To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and Life Satisfaction were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences.
Zhang, Jie; Qi, Qing; Delprino, Robert P
The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it relates to suicide by those from urban and rural areas have been rare. Studying the psychological health of college students from rural China in comparison with students who originate from urban areas may shed light on the mental health disparities of the two populations. This study examined the relationship of psychological health and rural/urban origins of college students in China. Data was obtained from 2 400 college students who completed a survey questionnaire while in attendance at a key university in Beijing China in 2013. Four standardised psychological health scales were administered to obtain measures of participants' self-esteem, depression, social support, and suicide ideation. Findings indicated that urban students had significantly higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of depression and suicide ideation.
Merrick, Alistair D; Grieve, Alan; Cogan, Nicola
Despite increased risk of experiencing challenging behaviour, psychological impacts on community and residential staff supporting adults with autistic spectrum conditions are under-explored. Studies examining related roles indicate protective psychological factors may help maintain staff well-being. This study investigated relationships between motivational orientation (eudaimonic or hedonic), challenging behaviour frequency and type (physical, verbal or self-injurious) and psychological impacts (anxiety, depression and life satisfaction). Participants (N = 99) were recruited from six organisations providing autism-specific adult services within Scotland. A series of binary logistic regressions demonstrated weekly challenging behaviour exposure (compared to monthly or daily) significantly increased the likelihood of anxiety caseness. Increased eudaimonic motivation significantly reduced the likelihood of anxiety caseness while also predicting higher life satisfaction. Furthermore, having high levels of eudaimonic motivation appeared to moderate the impact of weekly challenging behaviour exposure on anxiety. No motivational orientation or challenging behaviour factor significantly predicted depression. This sample also demonstrated higher anxiety, lower depression and equivalent life satisfaction levels compared with general population norms. The results highlight the need for considering staff's motivational orientations, their frequency of exposure to challenging behaviour, and both positive and negative psychological outcomes, if seeking to accurately quantify or improve well-being in this staff population.
Fitzgerald, Carey J; Danner, Kimberly M
We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs). Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.
Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas
The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological
Tang, Yi-qun; Wan, Peng-bo; Qu, Dong-lin
To investigate the effects of psychological nursing on anxiety of patients during extraction of impacted teeth. Seventy patients who required impacted tooth extraction were randomly divided into intervention group (n=35) and control group (n=35). In the intervention group, psychological nursing was performed by special nurses before, during and after the surgical procedure; In the control group, patients were informed the general knowledge of the routine treatment and care. Anxiety was evaluate with anxiety scale at the end of surgical procedure. The data was analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package for X2 test. The number of patients with anxiety in the intervention group was significantly reduced compared with the control. The difference was statistically significant (Pnursing assists to relieve anxiety of patients during impacted teeth removal.
Full Text Available Although we have made significant progress in the development of preventive tools and especially in the efficacy of the psychological treatments, we are still far from an optimal situation. This paper focuses on two major issues which we consider fundamental challenges and urges in this area: (a the need for improving and spreading prevention, early intervention, and the promotion of mental health and (b the need for greater dissemination of effective psychological treatments, the development of new interventions and greater understanding of the mechanisms of action of psychological treatments. The aim is to promote discussion among all stakeholders and debate on those lines we think as priority.
Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to determine the effects of different short-term exercise programs on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Forty-two women were chosen from volunteering postmenopausal women presenting to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Bayındır Hospital between March and December 2009. The women aged 45–60 years and experiencing menopause naturally were included in the study. They were randomly divided into aerobic (=18 and resistance (=18 exercise groups. The women exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Aerobic exercise training was performed through a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the training, lipid profiles were measured and menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and the quality of life were assessed through questionnaires. Results. In both exercise groups, no significant changes in lipid profiles were observed. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the urogenital complaints, there were significant improvements in all subscales of Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the phobic anxiety, there were significant improvements in all subscales of The Symptom Checklist. Depression levels significantly decreased in both groups. Improvements were observed in all subscales of menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire in both groups except for sexual symptoms. Conclusion. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise were found to have a positive impact on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and quality of life.
Ford, Brett Q; Lam, Phoebe; John, Oliver P; Mauss, Iris B
Individuals differ in the degree to which they tend to habitually accept their emotions and thoughts without judging them-a process here referred to as habitual acceptance. Acceptance has been linked with greater psychological health, which we propose may be due to the role acceptance plays in negative emotional responses to stressors: acceptance helps keep individuals from reacting to-and thus exacerbating-their negative mental experiences. Over time, experiencing lower negative emotion should promote psychological health. To test these hypotheses, Study 1 (N = 1,003) verified that habitually accepting mental experiences broadly predicted psychological health (psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and depressive and anxiety symptoms), even when controlling for potentially related constructs (reappraisal, rumination, and other mindfulness facets including observing, describing, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity). Next, in a laboratory study (Study 2, N = 156), habitual acceptance predicted lower negative (but not positive) emotional responses to a standardized stressor. Finally, in a longitudinal design (Study 3, N = 222), acceptance predicted lower negative (but not positive) emotion experienced during daily stressors that, in turn, accounted for the link between acceptance and psychological health 6 months later. This link between acceptance and psychological health was unique to accepting mental experiences and was not observed for accepting situations. Additionally, we ruled out potential confounding effects of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and life stress severity. Overall, these results suggest that individuals who accept rather than judge their mental experiences may attain better psychological health, in part because acceptance helps them experience less negative emotion in response to stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examined the effects of a sexual health curriculum developed for school psychological counsellors in Turkey on the sexual health knowledge of the participating candidates, their beliefs in sexual myths and their tendencies towards ambivalent sexism and sexism in romantic relationships. The study adopted a semi-experimental design. Study…
Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Ryan, Matthew E; Francis, Andrew J P
Theistic and spiritually based beliefs and behaviors have been demonstrated to consistently predict physical and mental health, although the psychological processes underlying these relationships are unclear. This study investigated associative relationships and pathways of mediation between religious functioning, locus of control (LOC) and health. The sample consisted of 122 Christians (79 women, 43 men) who were predominately Catholic, ranging in age from 18 to 80 (M = 45.47, SD = 15.0). Participants were recruited from churches in the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia, and completed a questionnaire package measuring (1) psychological and physical health, (2) the religious variables of awareness of God, instability and impression management, and (3) God, internal and external LOC domains. Results indicated that awareness of God and internal LOC were associated with better health, whereas external LOC and instability were associated with poorer health. God LOC and impression management were not significantly associated with health. Sobel tests were used to analyse mediation hypotheses. Internal LOC was found to mediate the relationship between awareness of God and better psychological health, and external LOC was found to mediate the relationship between instability and poorer psychological health. These findings are of considerable clinical significance.
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.
BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related
Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris
Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related
Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bolognino, Sarah J.
The present study reports on the psychometric defensibility of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener (PWDS), which is a 10-item self-report behavior rating scale for measuring youth's bidimensional (also known as dual-factor or two-continua) mental health. The PWDS was developed using preexisting items within the Health Behavior in…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asbestos exposure has a negative impact on both the physical health of the population, and on its psychological and community components. Usually such issues are addressed via top-down strategies, but this approach is unable to address the interpersonal processes connected to living in a specific context. METHOD: The work carried on in Casale Monferrato since 2006 proceeds in the opposite direction: promoting a different interaction between health system policy-makers and administrators, field actions, and system thinking. Our goal was to create a reliable model that could fit into other contexts, while being flexible and adapting to specific backgrounds. Starting from the results obtained during a first assessment phase, a psychoanalytic group was arranged, aimed at promoting the symbolization and signification of the emotions related to the ill-fated prognosis. RESULTS: The clinical work offers a space for handling the illness and its psychological impact, in order to achieve: 1 a subjective perception of themselves as not impotent and alone; 2 improved abilities of caregivers to manage the disease; 3 enhanced quality of residual life. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated multidimensional intervention promotes resilience in the community, but it requires time, for patients, relatives, and the professionals involved. Only with the combined support of oncologists and the entire ward staff will an internal trust be free to grow within a somato-psychic space able to accommodate and sustain the participants during the final stages of their own life, or that of someone close to them.
Khanjari, Sedigheh; Langius-Eklöf, Ann; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Sundberg, Kay
To explore how family caregivers of women with breast cancer in Iran describe the areas in life which are important to their quality of life (QoL), and to determine which areas in life that are influenced by having a family member with breast cancer. The study is descriptive and prospective. A total of 88 family caregivers of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were interviewed using the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL-DW) at a time close to diagnosis and then again at 6 months after. Interviews were analyzed by manifest inductive qualitative content analysis. Areas related to the categories Own and Family health, and Relationships were considered to be the most important to QoL. A majority of the family caregivers reported that concerns categorised as Psychological impact had high influence on QoL shortly after diagnosis and the following six months. Other areas that were frequently mentioned at both time points were categorized as Focus on family health, Concerns about the disease, and Change in family relationship. Positive aspects in life were also reported as a consequence to the breast cancer diagnosis. High psychological impact is a concern of family caregivers six months after diagnosis of breast cancer. It is imperative that family caregivers are given early attention, and the opportunity to express their perceptions and needs, as this may lead to a better understanding of their experience, thus providing guidance for supportive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir
Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.
It was, therefore, recommended that efforts should be intensified and health communication approach redefined and readjusted to meet the health needs of the people. Finally, it was also recommended that the people be reached through communication channels readily available and accessible to them. Key Words: Health ...
American Psychologist, 2013
Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…
Herman, Keith C.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Ferdinand, Lisa A.; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Hasan, Nadia T.; Beato, Cristina
This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on counseling psychologists' roles in addressing health disparities through culturally sensitive health care research and interventions. First, the authors provide a rationale for conducting research focused on culturally sensitive health care and then offer definitions of…
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by complex symptoms and medication-induced motor complications that fluctuate in onset, severity, responsiveness to treatment, and disability. The unpredictable and debilitating nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in psychological stress. Psychological stress may exacerbate biological mechanisms believed to contribute to neuronal loss in PD and lead to poorer symptom and health outcomes. The purpose of this integrated review is to summarize and appraise animal and human research studies focused on biological mechanisms, symptom, and health outcomes of psychological stress in PD. A search of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and CINAHL from 1980 to the present using the key words Parkinson's disease and stress, psychological stress, mental stress, and chronic stress resulted in 11 articles that met inclusion criteria. The results revealed significant associations between psychological stress and increased motor symptom severity and loss of dopamine-producing neurons in animal models of PD and between psychological stress and increased symptom severity and poorer health outcomes in human subjects with PD. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for these relationships, for the ultimate purpose of designing targeted interventions that may modify the disease trajectory. PMID:28058129
Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi
To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Out of the 180,604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59,807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32-1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94-2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress.
The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches.
Fledderus, M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
Objectives: We assessed whether an intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness was successful in promoting positive mental health by enhancing psychological flexibility. Methods: Participants were 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress. They were
Lengerke, T. von; Vinck, J.; Rütten, A.; Reitmeir, P.; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Zee, J. van der
Associations of health policy perception with health behaviours are analysed. Policy perception is differentiated in information about programmes and appraisal of health policy’s contribution to policy goals, and conceptualized on the level of: (1) individuals; and (2) populations (as a social
Farber, Eugene W; Ali, Mana K; Van Sickle, Kristi S; Kaslow, Nadine J
With persisting health disparities contributing to a disproportionate impact on the health and well-being of socially disenfranchised and medically underserved populations, the emerging patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model offers promise in bridging the health disparities divide. Because behavioral health care is an important component of the PCMH, psychologists have significant opportunity to contribute to the development and implementation of PCMH services in settings that primarily serve medically underserved communities. In this article, after briefly defining the PCMH model and its role in clinical settings for medically underserved populations for whom health disparities are present, roles of psychologists as interprofessional collaborators on PCMH medical care teams are explored. Next, the constellation of competencies that position psychologists as behavioral health specialists to contribute to PCMH care teams for medically underserved groups are characterized. The article concludes with reflections on the prospects for psychologists to make tangible contributions as health care team members toward reducing health disparities and promoting health equity in patients served in the PCMH. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wang, Huey-Fen; Yeh, Mei Chang
An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Consequently, to meet the prospective demands of technical manpower, not only do nursing students in college and vocational schools pursue further studies, but they also take competitive entrance exams. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam. The subjects were 441 third-year nursing students of vocational high schools in northern Taiwan, recruited by convenience sampling. Three measurements were adopted: Stress perceived scale, Coping behavior inventory, and a Chinese health questionnaire. Results showed that the five main stressors of entrance exam stress, in descending order, were taking tests, the student's own aspirations, learning tasks, teacher's aspirations and parent's aspirations. Students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including optimistic action and social support to deal with the entrance exam stress, but use of emotion-focused coping strategies including avoidance and emotional disturbance was significantly increased as perceived level of stress rose. Two-way analyses of variance (2-way ANOVA) revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect of alleviating psychological distress. A significant interaction was observed between stress perceived and problem-focused coping used for psychological health. Further examination of the interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially
Páez, D; Velasco, C; González, J L
Psychology students were randomly assigned to a condition in which they had to write for 20 min on 3 days or for 3 min on 1 day a factual description of disclosed traumas, undisclosed traumas, or recent social events. In the case of undisclosed traumatic events, intensive writing about these events showed a beneficial effect on affect and on the affective impact of remembering the event and appraisal. Participants who wrote briefly about an undisclosed traumatic event showed a more negative appraisal. Participants who wrote intensively about a traumatic event and had a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure, measured by a Toronto Alexithymia Scale subscale, showed a positive effect on self-reported measures of affect. Difficulty in describing feelings, an alexythimia dimension, correlated with psychological health problems, emotional inhibition, and a less introspective content of written essays about the emotional events.
Gallego, M.J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; L'Abate, L.; Kaiser, D.A.
Our world is changing and changing quickly. One can be certain that the impact of technology will only become more pervasive in the decades to come and we cannot ignore how it will impact our profession. The juggernaut of technological development has and will continue to dramatically alter how we
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.