Hagerty, B M; Williams, R A; Coyne, J C; Early, M R
Sense of belonging has recently been described and defined as one specific interpersonal process that influences health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sense of belonging and personal characteristics and selected indicators of social and psychological functioning in men and women. Using a sample of 379 community college students, sense of belonging was examined in relation to social support, conflict, involvement in community activities, attendance at religious services, loneliness, depression, anxiety, history of psychiatric treatment, and suicidality. Results indicated that sense of belonging is closely related to indicators of both social and psychological functioning. These relationships were generally stronger for women than for men. It appears that sense of belonging is a useful concept pertinent to exploration of social and psychological functioning.
Elaine Louise Kinsella
Full Text Available Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (N = 189 freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others. In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (N = 249 rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (N = 242, participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4a (N = 38 and 4b (N = 102, participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modelling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.
Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace
Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Weiser, E B
Although the Internet has spawned significant changes in communication and interpersonal behavior, the data concerning the social and psychological effects of its use are equivocal. Drawing on the uses and gratifications model of communications media, it was hypothesized that the social and psychological effects of Internet use depend primarily on the user's reasons and goals for using the technology. That is, the Internet's social and psychological effects depend upon the functions it serves for users. A theoretical model involving the functions of Internet use, dimensions of social integration, and dimensions of psychological well-being was examined. In study 1, participants indicated the primary reasons for which they use the Internet. Principle components analyses indicated that these reasons fell under two empirically robust dimensions accounting for about half of the total variance in Internet use. These dimensions, or functions, were labeled Socio-Affective Regulation (SAR) and Goods-and-Information Acquisition (GIA); SAR may be conceptualized as a social or an affiliative orientation toward Internet use, whereas GIA may be conceptualized as a utilitarian or practical orientation toward Internet use. In study 2, structural equation modeling revealed that Internet use driven by SAR negatively influences psychological well-being by first reducing social integration. However, Internet use motivated principally by GIA appears to have a favorable effect on psychological well-being by first increasing social integration. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Iovleva, N N; Soroko, S I
The results of the socio-psychological and psycho-physiological study of children and adolescents rural secondary school in a remote area of the Arkhangelsk region were studied. It was found that the poor situation of children in families at social risk leads to a decrease in their school performance, motivation to succeed and, in some cases, to reduce their personal social and psychological adaptation. However, in general, the level of personal social and psychological adaptation in the majority of surveyed students is high enough. As complementary social institutions, the family and the school, in some cases, can compensate for a number of adverse social and psychological factors. Pupils from social risk groups functional state of the central nervous system has been significantly reduced compared with children who are brought up in affluent families. In the North adverse social factors may increase the effects of the harsh climatic conditions and are an important risk factor for children's health.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...
Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social capital assessed in early adulthood in linking self-control in childhood with psychological and social functioning in middle age. Data collected at ages 8, 27, and 42 years were based on the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (159 females, 177 males).…
Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan
Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study.
Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory
This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.
Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360
Rook, Karen S; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H; Newsom, Jason T; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved in negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults' physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with having fewer ambivalent and exclusively problematic kin ties. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults' lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Ammerman, Robert T; Putnam, Frank W; Altaye, Mekibib; Teeters, Angelique R; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B
Depression is prevalent in mothers receiving home visiting. Little is known about the impact of treatment on associated features of maternal depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a novel, adapted treatment for depressed mothers in home visiting on psychological distress and social functioning. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat depressed mothers in home visiting. A randomized clinical trial design was used in which subjects were 93 new mothers in a home visiting program. Mothers with major depressive disorder identified at 3 months postpartum were randomized into IH-CBT and ongoing home visiting (n = 47) or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46) in which they received home visitation alone and could obtain treatment in the community. Measures of psychological distress, social support, and social network were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Clinical features of depression and home visiting parameters were examined as potential moderators. Subjects receiving IH-CBT reported decreased psychological distress at post-treatment (ES = 0.77) and follow-up (ES = 0.73). Examination of types of psychological distress indicated broad improvements at both time points. Those receiving IH-CBT reported increased social support over time relative to those in the SHV condition. Effect sizes were modest at post-treatment (ES = 0.38) but increased at follow-up (ES = 0.65). Improvements were seen in affiliative and belonginess aspects of social support, in contrast to tangible support which was statistically non-significant. Findings were not moderated by clinical features of depression or home visiting parameters. No group differences were found in size of and involvement with social networks. IH-CBT is effective in reducing psychological distress and improving perceived social support in depressed mothers receiving home visiting. To the extent that mothers are better
Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen
The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.
A feminist perspective is necessary for the continued vitality of social psychology. Major themes of the feminist perspective are reviewed, and some important women from early U.S. psychology are identified as founders of social psychology. In the future, the feminist perspective will function in social psychology as a systems theory. (SLD)
Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P adaptive functioning. Decreased social-adaptive functioning in this study was not statistically significantly associated to disease severity, pain, or level of vitality. This study shows for the first time that FD patients, particularly women, are affected by decreased social-adaptive functioning. Comprehensive treatment plans for FD should consider assessments and interventions to evaluate and improve social, occupational, and psychological functioning. Attention to the behavioral aspects of FD could lead to improved treatment outcome and improved quality of life. Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, antisocial behavior, and AD/H problems in a sampling of our male and female patients aged between 18 years and 59 years.
Case, Rosalind Jl; Anderson, Alastair; Walsh, Rodney
To examine the psychological and psychosocial service needs of mothers of children with craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Mothers (n = 55) of children from newborn to 6 years with CFA completed self-report measures of psychological distress, quality of life and perceived social support. Mothers' psychological distress levels were significantly higher than those in a normative population. Mothers reported lower quality of life than the normative sample. Social support mediated the relationship between quality of life and psychological distress. While most mothers reported a willingness to receive formal psychological support for issues relating to their child's CFA, few had been offered such services. Mothers of children with CFAs may experience increased psychological distress in comparison with the general population. Increased social support may reduce the risk of psychological distress, thus enhancing quality of life among such mothers. The majority of mothers of children with CFAs in Australia may not be routinely offered psychological support services in spite of their elevated psychological risk. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A
Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Papies, E.K.
Scientific interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially in the past decade but, until now, it has typically been approached from a clinical perspective. This volume is the first to take a social-psychological approach to mindfulness research. It provides theoretical and methodological guidance
Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan
institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...
Yoder, Janice D.; Snell, Andrea F.; Tobias, Ann
To identify a multivariate configuration of feminist beliefs best associated with optimal psychological functioning, 215 mostly White college women completed an online survey measuring their feminist beliefs (Feminist Perspectives Scale, Attitudes toward Feminism and the Women's Movement, sense of common fate, and Feminist Identity Composite) and…
Nastasi, Bonnie K.
Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…
Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan
Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.
Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly
How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…
Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Fowler, David; Gumley, Andrew; Morrison, Anthony P; Birchwood, Max; Jones, Peter B; Stewart, Suzanne L K; Wells, Adrian
Poor social functioning has been found to be present in those at risk for psychosis. This study aimed to examine metacognitive beliefs as potential predictors of structured activity (measure of social functioning) in those with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). Regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The sample included 109 young people. Age was found to be positively correlated to structured activity. Metacognitive beliefs concerning uncontrollability and danger of worry were found to negatively predict structured activity. This was after controlling for age, gender, treatment allocation, cognitive schemas, positive symptom severity, social anxiety, and depression. Metacognitive danger items were most important. Age was the only control variable found to be an independent predictor of structured activity in the regression model, despite negative bi-variate relationships with structured activity found across three cognitive schema subscales and social anxiety. This is the first study to find that higher negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger predict lower social functioning in an ARMS sample, and that the perception of thoughts being dangerous was of particular importance. Psychological interventions should consider targeting this metacognitive dimension to increase social functioning. Future longitudinal research is required to strengthen findings in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chung-Hall, Janet; Chen, Xinyin
This study examined the effects of aggressive and prosocial contexts of peer groups on children's socioemotional and school adjustment. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and different aspects of adjustment were collected from multiple sources in a sample of elementary school children (149 boys, 181 girls; M age = 10 years).…
Saeki, Elina; Quirk, Matthew
This study examined the relations between students' social-emotional/behavioral functioning, engagement, and basic psychological needs satisfaction among a sample of N = 83 sixth grade students. A mediation model was tested to examine the role of needs satisfaction on the relations between engagement and social-emotional/behavioral functioning.…
During the past lew years a number of publications regarding the negative effects of hysterectomy have been published in the professional literature as well as in the lay press. This dissertation is a report of a study on the psychological functioning of women after hysterectomy, performed because
Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith
Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.
Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.
This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji
This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...
Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of soc...
van Stekelenburg, J.; Klandermans, P.G.
Social psychological research has taught us a lot about why people protest. This article provides a theoretical and empirical overview. Discussed are grievances, efficacy, identification, emotions and social embeddedness, followed by the most recent approaches, which combine these concepts into dual
Charles, Eric P
What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).
This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Myers, Scott A.; Cortese, Juliann
A study explored the social acceptability that accompanies the expression of sexual slang. The study of gender differences in language use is nothing new. Previous research has indicated that men and women differ in their use of tentative language, topic selection, control techniques, and conversational style. However, this research has examined…
I suggest that social psychologists should stick to studying positive and negative attitudes and give up stigmatizing some attitudes as "prejudice." I recommend that we avoid assuming that race and ethnicity have no biological foundations, in order to avoid a collision course with modern biology. And I wonder how much difference the target article recommendations can make in the context of hiring a social psychologist for an academic position.
Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane
The SF-36 is a very commonly used generic measure of health outcome in osteoarthritis (OA). An important, but frequently overlooked, aspect of validating health outcome measures is to establish if items work in the same way across subgroup of a population. That is, if respondents have the same 'true' level of outcome, does the item give the same score in different subgroups or is it biased towards one subgroup or another. Differential item functioning (DIF) can identify items that may be biased for one group or another and has been applied to measuring patient reported outcomes. Items may show DIF for different conditions and between cultures, however the SF-36 has not been specifically examined in an osteoarthritis population nor in a UK population. Hence, the aim of the study was to apply the DIF method to the SF-36 for a UK OA population. The sample comprised a community sample of 763 people with OA who participated in the Somerset and Avon Survey of Health. The SF-36 was explored for DIF with respect to demographic, social, clinical and psychological factors. Well developed ordinal regression models were used to identify DIF items. DIF items were found by age (6 items), employment status (6 items), social class (2 items), mood (2 items), hip v knee (2 items), social deprivation (1 item) and body mass index (1 item). Although the impact of the DIF items rarely had a significant effect on the conclusions of group comparisons, in most cases there was a significant change in effect size. Overall, the SF-36 performed well with only a small number of DIF items identified, a reassuring finding in view of the frequent use of the SF-36 in OA. Nevertheless, where DIF items were identified it would be advisable to analyse data taking account of DIF items, especially when age effects are the focus of interest.
Mitchell, Jason P.
Summary Although typically defined as the study of how people and groups interact, the field of social psychology comprises a number of disparate domains that make only indirect contributions to understanding interpersonal interaction, such as emotion, attitudes, and the self. Although these various phenomena may appear to have little in common, recent evidence suggests that the topics at the core of social psychology form a natural group of domains with a common functional neuroanatomy, centered on the medial prefrontal cortex. That self-referential, attitudinal, affective, and other social phenomena converge on this region may reflect their shared reliance on inexact and internally-generated estimates that differ from the more precise representations underlying other psychological phenomena. PMID:19427258
Pettigrew, Thomas F.
According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)
Wingo, Aliza P; Briscione, Maria; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja; McCullough, S Ashley; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh
Patients with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common sequelae among individuals exposed to stressful or traumatic events, often report impairment in social functioning. Resilience is a multidimensional construct that enables adaptive coping with life adversity. Relationship between resilience and social functioning among veterans with depression and PTSD is not entirely clear and is the focus of this report. Resilience was assessed in 264 veterans using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, PTSD with the PTSD Symptom Scale, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, and social functioning with the Short Form Health Survey. Higher resilience was associated with more intact social functioning after PTSD and depression severity, childhood maltreatment, physical health, gender, education, marital status, and employment were simultaneously adjusted for. Childhood maltreatment, gender, marital status, education, and employment did not predict social functioning; however, greater severity of PTSD, depression, or physical health problems was each significantly associated with more impaired social functioning. Our findings suggest that higher resilience was associated with more intact social functioning regardless of the severity of PTSD and depression. Given the importance of social functioning in depression and/or PTSD recovery, studies are needed to examine if enhancing resilience presents a complementary approach to alleviating impaired social functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal
Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social
In this dissertation I aim to take a step toward a more social social psychology of power. In my opinion the existing social psychology on power is insufficiently social, and too material and physical. I believe this material and physical view has greatly influenced how social psychology has studied
Silove, D; Brooks, R; Bateman, C Steel; Steel, Z; Amaral, Z Fonseca C; Rodger, J; Soosay, I
There is growing acknowledgment that research in the postconflict field needs to include a focus on social conditions. The authors applied structural equation modeling to epidemiologic data obtained from postconflict Timor-Leste, to examine for links involving potentially traumatic events and sociodemographic factors (age, gender, educational levels, and unemployment) with psychological symptoms and functioning. Exposure to trauma and lack of education emerged as most relevant with psychological distress impacting on education in the urban area. Age and gender exerted influences at different points in the model consistent with the known history of Timor. Although based on cross-sectional data, the model supports the relevance of past trauma, posttraumatic distress, and postconflict social conditions to functioning in societies such as Timor-Leste.
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Miller, Robin Lin
Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…
Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the behavioural interaction of individual or group of population in the general public community. The objective of current study is to analyse the trend of scientific activities in the field of social psychology during the last two decades. All publication entitled as “Social Psychology” that was indexed in the database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) through 1993-2012 was extracted an...
Singleton, Royce Jr.
Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)
The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.
Awad, Sarah H.
Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...
Kampf, Christina; Walter, Uwe; Rösche, Johannes
The impact of anxiety, seizure severity, executive dysfunction, subjectively perceived psychological deficits, and depression on social function in patients with epilepsy (PWE) was analyzed. A brief cognitive screening test (EpiTrack) and an estimation of the last 6 months' cumulative seizure severity (Chalfont seizure severity scale) were performed, and questionnaires on subjectively perceived cognitive deficits (c.I.-Skala), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAIX1 and STAIX2), depression (Self Rating Depression Scale, SDS), and social function (Soziale Aktivität Selbstbeurteilungsskala, SASS) were completed. Forty PWE (aged 41.8 years, SD 16; 24 female, 16 male) were analyzed. Thirty-eight point 5 percent had a score signifying depression in the SDS; 20% had a pathological result in at least one of the anxiety scores. The ANOVA revealed that only anxiety as a trait symptom (STAIX2) had a significant influence on social function apart from the other factors (panxiety impair the social function of patients with epilepsy apart from depression, cognitive function, and seizure severity. They should be taken into account in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang
This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…
The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…
Lakin, Jessica L.; Wichman, Aaron L.
This article evaluates a writing assignment in which social psychology students gathered examples from outside the classroom (e.g., cartoons, movies) and analyzed them with course material. Compared to a control group, students who completed the assignment learned that it was easier to apply social psychology to the real world. A follow-up survey…
Amabile, Teresa M.; Pillemer, Julianna
Scholars began serious study into the social psychology of creativity about 25 years after the field of creativity research had taken root. Over the past 35 years, examination of social and environmental influences on creativity has become increasingly vigorous, with broad implications for the psychology of human performance, and with applications…
The participants in the experimental group were recruited from communities facing living space and personal privacy challenges, while the participants in the comparison group came from privileged communities with relatively adequate living space. The children's psychological functioning dimensions measured were ...
Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Snyder, Benjamin H
For the first half of the 20th century, sociology was one of the closest allies of social psychology. Over the past four decades, however, the connection with sociology has weakened, whereas new connections with neighboring disciplines (e.g., biology, economics, political science) have formed. Along the way, the sociological perspective has been largely lost in mainstream social psychology in the United States. Most social psychologists today are not concerned with collective phenomena and do not investigate social structural factors (e.g., residential mobility, socioeconomic status, dominant religion, political systems). Even when the social structural factors are included in the analysis, psychologists typically treat them as individual difference variables. Sociologist C. Wright Mills famously promoted sociological imagination, or the ability to see distal yet important social forces operating in a larger societal context. By comparing sociological perspectives to psychological perspectives, this article highlights the insights that the sociological perspective and sociological imagination can bring to social psychology.
Blanco, A; de la Corte, L
In this study, a detailed exploration is carried out of the production of research and theory in social psychology in the Spanish context. The main research areas are: Work and organizational psychology, social health psychology, community and social services psychology, environmental research, judicial and political psychology, psychosocial theory and meta-theory, social psychology of language, research on emotion, group processes and social identity. The growing importance of social psychology within the framework of Spanish psychology is emphasized, and the relation with specific social problems from the national context, and the paradoxically scarce originality of the theoretical perspectives and the leading research, strongly influenced by Anglo Saxon social psychology, is commented upon.
Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…
Full Text Available The article reflects the results of influence the conditions of work upon psychological and psychophysiologic status of stomatological staff. The results revealed that labor activity of stomatological staff influences on their functional condition and capacity for work. Changes of psychological, psychophysiologic indices and motoric characteristics proved it.
Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen
Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…
Pouw, W.; Looren De Jong, H.
This article aims to explore the scope of a Situated and Embodied Social Psychology (ESP). At first sight, social cognition seems embodied cognition par excellence. Social cognition is first and foremost a supra-individual, interactive, and dynamic process (Semin & Smith, 2013). Radical approaches
Back, Kurt W.
A course of study in social psychology should progress from the personal to the social. It should be organized around the study of four topics: (1) the boundaries of the self; (2) the relation between individuals; (3) communication between individuals; and (4) leadership and social power. (Author/RM)
Full Text Available , Social Engineering Attack Detection Model (SEADM), by proposing and incorporating a cognitive functioning psychological measure in order to determine the emotional state and decision-making ability of the call centre employee. The cognitive analysis...
Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris
We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.
Jun 15, 2011 ... psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. ... Keywords: Adjustment, blindness, Nigeria, psychological and social. Résumé. Background: ..... relationships there were children, one-third had .... effect on affected people has been well described.
Mariana Prioli Cordeiro
Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.
Peach, Donna; Erskine-Shaw, Marianne
Social media is increasingly being utilised as a means of sharing research and ideas, showing your skill-set and collecting data. This article reflects on the positives and potential pitfalls for psychology postgraduates of this burgeoning area.
Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Álvaro, José Luís
The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions...
Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E
Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.
[A 10-year community intervention for disability prevention and changes in physical, nutritional, psychological and social functions among community-dwelling older adults in Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan].
Seino, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Amano, Hidenori; Fukaya, Taro; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Hoshikawa, Natsumi; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Shinkai, Shoji
We reported previously that a 10-year community intervention for disability prevention successfully extended healthy life expectancy at 70 years and decreased the enrollment rate of the Long-Term Care Insurance in Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. In order to clarify functional factors that contributed to healthy aging, this study examined changes in physical, nutritional, psychological and social functions in older adults who participated in annual health checkups over the period. Data sources were participants in annual health checkups conducted from 2002 to 2012 and respondents to biannual monitoring surveys conducted from 2003 to 2011. The target population was all older adults aged 70 years and over living in Kusatsu. The average participation rate over the period was 34.7% for the annual health checkups and 95.0% for the monitoring surveys. First, we examined the representativeness of the participants in annual health checkups by comparing them with the responders to monitoring surveys in terms of their higher-level functional capacity, as measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) (Analysis 1). Second, we examined changes in the physical (4 measures), nutritional (3 measures), and psychological and social (4 measures) functions of participants in annual health checkups over the period. In this analysis, we standardized the data for each year on 11 measures to a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.0 using the 2002 data as the standard, and conducted statistical tests for the slopes of the linear approximate equation (intercept=0) (Analysis 2). In Analysis 1, the TMIG-IC scores for participants in the annual health checkups were significantly higher in both sexes than were those for responders to the monitoring surveys. However, there were no significant year×group interactions in the scores. The difference in scores between the two groups was small for participants in their seventies, but large for
Physiotherapists report improved understanding of and attitude toward the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after Cognitive Functional Therapy training: a qualitative study
Full Text Available Question: What are physiotherapists’ perspectives on managing the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive biopsychosocial training? Design: Qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews to explore physiotherapists’ perceptions of their identification and treatment of the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive Cognitive Functional Therapy (CFT training. Participants: Thirteen qualified physiotherapists from four countries who had received specific CFT training. The training involved supervised implementation of CFT in clinical practice with patients. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An interpretive descriptive analysis was performed using a qualitative software package. Results: Four main themes emerged from the data: self-reported changes in understanding and attitudes; self-reported changes in professional practice; altered scope of practice; and increased confidence and satisfaction. Participants described increased understanding of the nature of pain, the role of patient beliefs, and a new appreciation of the therapeutic alliance. Changes in practice included use of new assessments, changes in communication, and adoption of a functional approach. Since undertaking CFT training, participants described a greater awareness of their role and scope of practice as clinicians in identifying and addressing these factors. Conclusion: Physiotherapists expressed confidence in their capacity and skill set to manage the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after CFT training, and identified a clear role for including these skills within the physiotherapy profession. Despite this, further clinical trials are needed to justify the time and cost of training, so that intensive CFT training may be made more readily accessible to clinicians, which to date has not been the case. [Synnott A, O’Keeffe M, Bunzli S, Dankaerts W, O
Physiotherapists report improved understanding of and attitude toward the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after Cognitive Functional Therapy training: a qualitative study.
Synnott, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Mary; Bunzli, Samantha; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Robinson, Katie; O'Sullivan, Kieran
What are physiotherapists' perspectives on managing the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive biopsychosocial training? Qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews to explore physiotherapists' perceptions of their identification and treatment of the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive Cognitive Functional Therapy (CFT) training. Thirteen qualified physiotherapists from four countries who had received specific CFT training. The training involved supervised implementation of CFT in clinical practice with patients. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An interpretive descriptive analysis was performed using a qualitative software package. Four main themes emerged from the data: self-reported changes in understanding and attitudes; self-reported changes in professional practice; altered scope of practice; and increased confidence and satisfaction. Participants described increased understanding of the nature of pain, the role of patient beliefs, and a new appreciation of the therapeutic alliance. Changes in practice included use of new assessments, changes in communication, and adoption of a functional approach. Since undertaking CFT training, participants described a greater awareness of their role and scope of practice as clinicians in identifying and addressing these factors. Physiotherapists expressed confidence in their capacity and skill set to manage the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after CFT training, and identified a clear role for including these skills within the physiotherapy profession. Despite this, further clinical trials are needed to justify the time and cost of training, so that intensive CFT training may be made more readily accessible to clinicians, which to date has not been the case. [Synnott A, O'Keeffe M, Bunzli S, Dankaerts W, O'Sullivan P, Robinson K, O'Sullivan K (2016) Physiotherapists report improved
Charles, Eric P
What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.
We live in an ever-changing social world, which constantly calls forth changes to our identities and actions. Advances in science, technology and medicine, political upheaval, and economic development are just some examples of social change that can impact upon how we live our lives, how we view ourselves and each other, and how we communicate. Social change can result in the salience and visibility of particular social categories, changes in the assimilation, accommodation and evaluation of ...
Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc
Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Yogeeswaran, Kumar
The global increase in cultural and religious diversity has led to calls for toleration of group differences to achieve intergroup harmony. Although much social-psychological research has examined the nature of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and its impact on targets of these biases, little research has examined the nature and impact of toleration for intergroup relations. Toleration does not require that people give up their objections to out-group norms and practices but rather mutual accommodation. Integrating research from various social sciences, we explore the nature of intergroup tolerance including its three components-objection, acceptance, and rejection-while drawing out its implications for future social-psychological research. We then explore some psychological consequences to social groups that are the object of toleration. By doing so, we consider the complex ways in which intergroup tolerance impacts both majority and minority groups and the dynamic interplay of both in pluralistic societies.
Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter; Städtler, Christine; Huron, David
Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to 129 non-redundant functions that were then rated by 834 respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness. The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third—a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication. The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition. PMID:23964257
Full Text Available Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to 129 non-redundant functions that were then rated by 834 respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness. The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third – a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication. The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition.
Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119
Bond, M H; Smith, P B
This review considers recent theoretical and empirical developments in cross-cultural studies within social and organizational psychology. It begins with a description of the importance and the difficulties of universalizing psychological science. It then continues with an examination of theoretical work on both the internal-proximal and the external-distal constraints that mediate culture's influence on behavior. Influences on social cognition are documented by describing research on self-concept, self-esteem, emotions, attribution processes, person perception, interpersonal attraction, and justice. Group processes are addressed in the areas of leadership, decision-making, and negotiation, and research in organizational psychology is examined with respect to work motivation and work behavior. The review concludes that considerable improvement is evident in recent cross-cultural research. However, future research must include a broader range of cultures and attend more closely to the levels at which cultural effects should be analyzed, and cultural samples must be unpackaged in more psychologically useful ways.
Two classic studies published 50 years ago showed how other people provide information that shapes the activation and interpretation of emotions. The present paper traces development of the social psychology of emotions from this starting point. Subsequent research into group-based and social appraisal has advanced understanding of the impact of social information on emotions and suggested new ways of investigating associated phenomena. Although potential integrations of interpersonal and group-oriented approaches offer promise for the future, the continuing focus on emotions as cognitively mediated effects of social factors should broaden to encompass dynamic relational processes. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
To elucidate how differing theories of rationality lead to differing practices, their social rules must be analyzed. This is true not merely in science but also in society at large. This analysis of social thinking requires both the identification of innate cognitive social psychological processes and explanations of their relations with differing rules of rational practice. These new tasks can enable social psychologists to contribute to the study of how social situations facilitate or inhibit rational practice and enable cognitive psychologists to improve social psychological theory. In contrast to dominant current research strategies, social and cognitive psychologists can integrate social studies of rational practices and their consequences with studies of underlying cognitive psychological processes. In this article I do not attempt to carry out these tasks but rather point to both their lack of recognition and their importance.
Greenwood, J D
In this paper an attempt is made to specify the original conception of the social dimensions of cognition, emotion and behavior-and of a distinctively social psychology-that was held by early American social psychologists, but abandoned by later generations of social psychologists committed to Floyd Allport's individualistic experimental program. Two influential forms of "individualism" in the work of Floyd Allport are distinguished and detailed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Full Text Available Philosophical self-reflexion is a healthy practice of any science including psychology. Nevertheless, psychology has long ago outgrew the age of the search for its own identity. It is however a science sui generis, determined by a radical split into Lockean and Kantian (objective and phenomenological paradigm, each completely legitimate but also completely different in defining the objectives as well as the methods of research. That internal splitting is presented in all psychological disciplines. In social psychology, social constructivism emerged decades ago as a typical disciplinary "paradigm" (although subordinated to both previously mentioned paradigms. The present contribution is aimed to show that social constructivism could be effectively merged with the theoretical frame of cognitivism, dominant theoretical orientation in contemporaneous psychology. On the other hand, social constructivism failed to understand the proper relationship between human nature and human cultural context. Human beings are evolutionary evolved as beings genetically programmed for the construction of the culture and social milieu. Human beings are not products of the culture in the proper sense of meaning. The truth is quite opposite: the culture is a product of human biological equipment. But this is an equipment that predisposes human individual to be a social, cultural being uniquely capable of learning, uniquely capable of receiving the influence of his own products – social environment and culture.
Sliwinski, Jim; Elkins, Gary R
Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions.
Helmreich, R. L.
Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.
Gergen, Kenneth J.
Given the centennial of the publication of the first two textbooks in social psychology, the one by William McDougall and the other by Edward Alsworth Ross, the author stresses that it is an auspicious time for reflection. It is a time to reconsider the movements into which these volumes were secreted, and the resulting trajectories of…
There is analyzing of specific of social-psychological adaptation person by model of adaptation. Structure model of adaptation of women of our age group, which was named “adaptation complex” was made by theoretic analyzes of problem of adaptation adult.
Pastor, Juan; García-Izquierdo, Antonio L
This article presents complexity (nonlinearity, chaos, self-organisation, fractals...) as a new and emerging epistemological paradigm, an alternative to an old, simpler, and reductionist paradigm. According to this point of view, we try to view work organizations as complex adaptive systems (CAS). Lastly, we offer a review of the literature on the applications of complexity to Organizational Social Psychology.
Social Psychology, Unemployment and Adjustment Policies. A E AKINLO. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ifep.v6i1.23519 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R.; Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly
Explores the effectiveness of using short video clips from feature films to highlight theoretical concepts when teaching social psychology. Reveals that short video clips have many of the same advantages as showing full-length films and demonstrates that students saw the use of these clips as an effective tool. (CMK)
Semin, G.R.; Smith, E.R.
The recent rise of interest in situated and embodied cognition has a strong interdisciplinary flavor, with contributions from robotics, cognitive anthropology, cognitive psychology, and developmental psychology, among other disciplines. However, social psychology has been almost completely
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Cornelis Johannes van Stralen
Full Text Available Este artigo questiona a decisão do Conselho Federal de Psicologia de reconhecer a Psicologia Social como especialidade da Psicologia. Esta decisão foi uma resposta a reivindicações de psicólogos que, atuando no campo das políticas públicas, têm procurado uma identidade profissional própria. Ignora, porém, que a Psicologia Social constitui uma disciplina científica específica no campo das ciências sociais, à medida que articula níveis de explicação psicológicos e sociológicos. Argumento que a decisão se tornou possível, de um lado, pela dificuldade de a Psicologia Social construir um campo profissional próprio e, de outro lado, pela posição ambígua que a Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social tomou diante deste assunto. Concluo que o reconhecimento da Psicologia Social como especialidade da Psicologia poderá fortalecer a tendência de a Psicologia Social se tornar apenas uma disciplina básica no currículo da psicologia, em vez de uma disciplina autônoma que contribua para a compreensão de fenômenos coletivos.This article questions the decision of the Conselho Federal de Psicologia to recognise Social Psychology as a specialty within Psychology. This decision was an answer to the psychologists' claims working in the field of Public Politcs and serching for their own professional identity. However, the study ignores that Social Psychology is a specific scientific subject in the field of Social Sciences as it connects psychological and sociological levels of explanation. My argument is that this decision became possible partly because of the difficulties encountered by Social Psychology in forming its own professional field, and partly because of the ambiguos attitude taken by the Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social approaching this issue. It's possible to conclude that the recognition of Social Psychology as a specialty in Psychology may be able to strengthen the tendency of Social Psychology to become
Social Psychology in Brazil has been showing a progressive scientific growth since the 1970's. Such development justifies the current interest in performing an evaluation of scientific contributions of Brazilian Social Psychologists within the international context. In this respect, a literature review allowed the identification of 10 evaluative models in Social Psychology. Such models are applied to the psychological and sociological currents in Social Psychology, which are the most prominen...
Jahir Navalles Gomez
The history of social psychology in this article differs from the standard versions. This is due to the fact that I call on contribtuons from different interlocutors, some of them from outside the discipline of social psychology. Their theorical insights provide a clue to the idea hidden in the background of social psychology –the idea of "atmosphere". I begin by setting out what official social psychology has held in contempt – its own past, its own unofficial history. ...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychological, and social evaluations. 456...: Intermediate Care Facilities Medical, Psychological, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.370 Medical, psychological, and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to an ICF or before authorization for...
Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F
This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.
Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne
Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the contributions of feminist debate about intersectionality of social categories for Community Social Psychology in Brazil. This was set up as dedicated to theoretical analyze the social inequalities that characterize contemporary societies and propose methodological processes of intervention for questioning and processing of these realities. We discuss how the emergence of new actors and demands on public space, as distinct from the 60/70, is required to understand the oppression from various power systems such as gender, race and sexuality. We conclude that intersectional analysis should consider different levels of relationships between categories, the history of the same differential and common aspects of different systems of power as naturalization of inequality, the relationship between public and private relationship between equality and difference. Analyses based on intersectionality can contribute to processes of social intervention that considers the complexity of contemporary societies.
Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie
OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of he...
Soto Ramírez, Juan
This article finds fault with three practices in social psychology. The first, interpretative condescension, is visible in social psychology's use of the “person” as a term, concept, notion, and so on. Generally, “persons” are taken to be “cultural dopes”, for no compelling reason or justification. The second questionable practice, the absence of culture in psychology is the failure, in various kinds of social psychology research, to acknowledge the role or indeed the existence of ‘culture’....
Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.
Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.
Jeanne Mager Stellman; Rebecca P. Smith; Craig L. Katz; Vansh Sharma; Dennis S. Charney; Robin Herbert; Jacqueline Moline; Benjamin J. Luft; Steven Markowitz; Iris Udasin; Denise Harrison; Sherry Baron; Philip J. Landrigan; Stephen M. Levin; Steven Southwick
...: Our objective in this study was to describe mental health outcomes, social function impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity in the WTC worker cohort, as well as perceived symptomatology in workers' children. Methods...
This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…
From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sutcliffe, Alistair; Dunbar, Robin; Binder, Jens; Arrow, Holly
Psychological studies of relationships tend to focus on specific types of close personal relationships (romantic, parent-offspring, friendship) and examine characteristics of both the individuals and the dyad. This paper looks more broadly at the wider range of relationships that constitute an individual's personal social world. Recent work on the composition of personal social networks suggests that they consist of a series of layers that differ in the quality and quantity of relationships involved. Each layer increases relationship numbers by an approximate multiple of 3 (5-15-50-150) but decreasing levels of intimacy (strong, medium, and weak ties) and frequency of interaction. To account for these regularities, we draw on both social and evolutionary psychology to argue that relationships at different layers serve different functions and have different cost-benefit profiles. At each layer, the benefits are asymptotic but the costs of maintaining a relationship at that level (most obviously, the time that has to be invested in servicing it) are roughly linear with the number of relationships. The trade-off between costs and benefits at a given level, and across the different types of demands and resources typical of different levels, gives rise to a distribution of social effort that generates and maintains a hierarchy of layered sets of relationships within social networks. We suggest that, psychologically, these trade-offs are related to the level of trust in a relationship, and that this is itself a function of the time invested in the relationship. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
In this paper I make two related arguments: that peace psychology and social psychological peace research should give greater attention to discourse, and that critical discursive approaches in social psychology should explore matters of international military conflict, an area which has hitherto been somewhat neglected in this tradition of work. These arguments are developed in relation to debates concerning the nature and status of psychological ‘science’, and the neglect of language in soci...
Liebke, Lisa; Bungert, Melanie; Thome, Janine; Hauschild, Sophie; Gescher, Dorothee Maria; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie
Persistent loneliness is often reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical studies investigating this aspect of BPD psychopathology are sparse. Studies from social psychology revealed that social isolation and low social functioning contribute to loneliness, that is, the subjective feeling of being alone. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the understanding of loneliness in BPD by investigating its relation to social isolation and functioning in different domains of life. Subjective experience of loneliness was measured in 80 women (40 BPD patients, 40 healthy controls) with the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Social isolation and social functioning were assessed with the Social Network Inventory and the Social Functioning Scale. In addition, we assessed global functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning. BPD patients reported stronger feelings of loneliness compared to healthy participants. In general, the level of loneliness was linked to network size, social engagement, and prosocial behavior. Diversity of social networks and functioning in the domain of interpersonal communication were associated with the level of loneliness only in BPD. A reduced variety of roles in social life together with impairments in interpersonal communication were particularly relevant for the experience of loneliness in BPD, suggesting an indirect path to target this psychopathological feature in therapeutic interventions. However, both social isolation and social functioning were not sufficient to explain the severely increased loneliness experienced by these patients, stressing the need for further investigation of determinants of loneliness in this clinical population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Clavien, Christine; Chapuisat, Michel
Numerous studies show that humans tend to be more cooperative than expected given the assumption that they are rational maximizers of personal gain. As a result, theoreticians have proposed elaborated formal representations of human decision-making, in which utility functions including "altruistic" or "moral" preferences replace the purely self-oriented "Homo economicus" function. Here we review mathematical approaches that provide insights into the mathematical stability of alternative utility functions. Candidate utility functions may be evaluated with help of game theory, classical modeling of social evolution that focuses on behavioral strategies, and modeling of social evolution that focuses directly on utility functions. We present the advantages of the latter form of investigation and discuss one surprisingly precise result: "Homo economicus" as well as "altruistic" utility functions are less stable than a function containing a preference for the common welfare that is only expressed in social contexts composed of individuals with similar preferences. We discuss the contribution of mathematical models to our understanding of human other-oriented behavior, with a focus on the classical debate over psychological altruism. We conclude that human can be psychologically altruistic, but that psychological altruism evolved because it was generally expressed towards individuals that contributed to the actor's fitness, such as own children, romantic partners and long term reciprocators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siegal, Brittany; Kagan, Sarah H.
Matters of development and generation may create barriers in teaching millennial undergraduates psychological and social gerontology. We introduce strategy to mitigate these barriers by teaching psychological and social gerontology as undergraduate honors courses, augmented with the use of social networking tools. We detail honors programming,…
Johannes von Tiling
Full Text Available Social constructionism currently is understood as a metatheoretical alternative to positivism. It serves many social and cultural scientists as a point of reference. The possibilities to understand it as a psychological program of research that leaves space for agency and subjectivity usually are neglected. Promoting a dialogue with mainstream psychology constitutes one way of fostering social constructionist psychology. In addition, a theoretically productive conception of social constructionist psychology cannot do without reference to cultural psychology. An important advantage of such a conception lies in the increased number of possibilities for practical applications in hospitals, schools and factories. Whereas present applications of social constructionism tend to promote the postmodernization and individualization of the client, applied social constructionist psychology avoids these concomitant effects. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801446
Leyens, J P; Corneille, O
This article discusses 2 commonly held ideas about Solomon Asch's work in social psychology: (a) Asch was primarily interested in social phenomena in general and in group processes in particular, and (b) Asch was a forerunner of social cognition. Asch's studies on social influence were translations of strictly perceptual experiments. For him, social stimuli had no specificity relative to physical ones provided that the perceptual context presented similar structural properties. Moreover, and contrary to Kurt Lewin (e.g., 1948) Asch focused his attention at the individual level and may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes. Asch's studies on impression formation presaged the social cognition approach. In his work, he foresaw the importance of online processing of information, the existence of implicit theories of personality, as well as perception based on exemplars and prototypes. However, Asch's reliance on immediate perceptual experience, on isomorphism between the properties of the external object and the phenomenal experience of this object, and his holistic and dynamic perspective clash with the main stream of social cognition research.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.
Jahir Navalles Gomez
Full Text Available The history of social psychology in this article differs from the standard versions. This is due to the fact that I call on contribtuons from different interlocutors, some of them from outside the discipline of social psychology. Their theorical insights provide a clue to the idea hidden in the background of social psychology –the idea of "atmosphere". I begin by setting out what official social psychology has held in contempt – its own past, its own unofficial history. I also make a case for the work of certain authors who have been ignored within social psychology, and introduce others who have cautiously developed the idea of 'atmosphere'. I trace how 'atmosphere' became the central metaphor which historically informed the discipline of social psychology, taking account of the work of historians and philosophers, as well as sociologists and philologists. 'Atmosphere' is the origin of social psychology, an idea that results in a nostalgic psychology, an historical psychology and a collective psychology.
In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues. I speculate that understanding of habits also holds promise for reducing intergroup discrimination and for understanding lay theories of the causes for action. In short, by recognizing habit, the field gains understanding of a central mechanism by which actions persist in daily life.
Olga V. Natolochnaya
Full Text Available This article analyzes war as a social-psychological phenomenon. The author dwells upon the difficulties of war veterans’ shift from military to peaceful life. The primary sources for this work are letters, diaries, and memoirs by World War II servicemen and veterans. The author concludes the article by pointing out that the capacity for survival in the extreme conditions of the early post-war years had been buoyed up both by post-victory optimism and hopes engendered by it and the need to withstand post-war hardship – an unsettled everyday life, famine, disease, and crime. Amid all this, Soviet society exhibited a great capacity for life, which testified to its considerable mobilization potential.
Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheory for the social sciences. In this paper, the different ways in which scholars have used the concept of a metatheory in the field of evolutionary psychology is reviewed. These different ways include evolutionary psychology as a unification of
Objective: The current study sought to investigate the association between age, gender, social support and the psychological wellbeing of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) in Ghana. Method: Cross-sectional data containing information on demographics, social support and psychological well-being (stress, ...
The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant research of ...
Some of the significant observations are that; (a) within the Institute, among the members of the social science family, psychology is the least associated with the multidisciplinary “theatre” of conflict management arising from ignorance among fellow social scientists about the subject matter of psychology and rivalry ...
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
Vasquez, Melba J. T.
Much of psychological science and knowledge is significantly relevant to social justice, defined here as the goal to decrease human suffering and to promote human values of equality and justice. A commitment to social justice has evolved as a more important value in the last few decades for psychology, including for the American Psychological…
Focus and Scope. The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant ...
The article gives information on the main results of the II All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference with international participation “Social psychology in the educational space”, held in October 2017 at the Moscow State Psychological and Pedagogical University. Present-day trends in the development of social psychology of education are presented, and current trends in research in this subject area are highlighted. The author emphasizes that the development of professional ties between...
М.Е. Sachkova; O.B. Krushelnitskaya; V.А. Orlov
The article discusses the emergence of a new scientific field – social psychology of education. Most of the key phenomena that contemporary social psychology examines, cannot influence training and education success of an individual. Therefore, in addition to traditional general psychological, psycho-pedagogic, developmental, psychophysical and other approaches solving the problems of the education system; the possibility is considered of increasing the efficiency of the educational process b...
This paper describes how Cuban Psychology is related to the longstanding process of social insurgency against colonialism in Cuba. The paper suggests that the emergence of critical ideas in Psychology does not depend only upon intellectual developments; rather, social struggles can be a driving force that catalyze the development of critical ideas in Psychology. The paper is divided in three parts. First, the text briefly touches the issue of the intrinsic ties between insurgent activity, dec...
Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of maintaining psychological well-being in individuals who have experienced critical events. The research presented in this paper was carried out within the paradigm of salutogenesis, according to which the most crucial factors in preserving one’s mental and physical health are the realization of the inner potential, cognitive and physical activity, orientation towards healthy life goals, and self-actualization, and not only the absence of illness and disabilities. The authors describe a procedure of methodological triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data that enabled them to outline the social psychological conditions necessary for the positive functioning of individuals who have experienced critical events.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The historical emergence of a field devoted to the experimental investigation of effects identified as "social" required a radical break with traditional conceptions of the social. Psychological experimentation was limited to the investigation of effects that were proximal, local, short-term, and decomposable. A viable accommodation to these constraints occurred in the closely related programs of Moede's experimental crowd psychology and Floyd Allport's experimental social psychology. Later, Kurt Lewin attempted to provide a different conceptual foundation for the field by drawing on certain precepts of Gestalt psychology and the philosophy of scientific experimentation developed by Ernst Cassirer. These ideas were poorly understood and were soon replaced by a methodological regime in which a new generation of statistical procedures and experimental design shaped implicit conceptions of the social in social psychological experiments through such procedures as randomization and the additive combination of variables. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper describes how Cuban Psychology is related to the longstanding process of social insurgency against colonialism in Cuba. The paper suggests that the emergence of critical ideas in Psychology does not depend only upon intellectual developments; rather, social struggles can be a driving force that catalyze the development of critical ideas in Psychology. The paper is divided in three parts. First, the text briefly touches the issue of the intrinsic ties between insurgent activity, decolonization, and critical social sciences. Second, the paper presents a general historical description of Latin America and the challenges faced during and after the Cuban Revolution. Finally, the last part the paper offers a general overview of the historical development of Cuban Psychology history in order to analyze the dialectical relations between social and theoretical decolonization. Four developments of Cuban Psychology are presented: (a how patriotism changed studies of national identity and History of Psychology; (b professional practices that developed to better address social issues; (c theoretical debates about the "new human" and the active nature of subjectivity; and (d the influence of Soviet Psychology and the turn to Latin American Critical Psychology. Concluding notes consider the dialectical relation between, on one side, struggles for socialization of power and, on the other side, theoretical production of Critical Psychologies.
Sweet, Tracy M.
Social networks are especially applicable in educational and psychological studies involving social interactions. A social network is defined as a specific relationship among a group of individuals. Social networks arise in a variety of situations such as friendships among children, collaboration and advice seeking among teachers, and coauthorship…
McDonald, M.; Gough, B; Wearing, S.; Deville, A.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Consumer culture and neoliberal political economy are often viewed by social psychologists as topics reserved for anthropologists, economists, political scientists and sociologists. This paper takes an alternative view arguing that social psychology needs to better understand these two intertwined institutions as they can both challenge and provide a number of important insights into social psychological theories of self-identity and their related concepts. These...
Miller, Matthew J; Sendrowitz, Kerrin
Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances empirical perspectives on social justice by testing the external validity of M. J. Miller et al.'s (2009) social-cognitive model of social justice interest and commitment in a sample of 229 doctoral trainees in counseling psychology. Present findings support the ability of the model to explain, in part, counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment. In addition, the present study provides novel findings that demonstrate the direct and indirect ways in which program training environment and personal moral imperative relate to social justice interest and commitment. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for training are discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew
The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been
Reis, Harry T
The concept of situation has a long and venerable history in social psychology. The author argues that recent approaches to the concept of situation have confused certain important elements. Herein, the author proposes that attention to three of these elements will reinvigorate the concept of situation in social psychology: (a) that the analysis of situations should begin with their objective features; (b) that situations should be conceptualized as affordances; and (c) that the interpersonal core of situations, in particular the extent to which they are influenced by relationships, is the proper and most profitable focus for social psychology. These elements are consistent with recent developments in the study of situated social cognition and may help better define social psychology's position within the sciences.
In this editorial, the new incoming editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ( JPSP )addresses the upcoming challenges and the issue of replicability. Although people vary (often dramatically) in their views on the nature and extent of this issue, that we have an issue to address is something that the new editor thinks most scholars would agree on. It is her hope that engaging in these efforts will return our community to a place that young talent willingly and safely bets their futures on. It is with this sense of mission that she feel honored to serve in this role over the next five years. As Editor, she would like to address the current challenges by actively promoting three principles: rigor, innovation, and inclusiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Van Keep, P A
An inventory is made on the hindrances to the acceptance of contraception in general and oral contraception in particular. They are grouped as hindrances related to the social and psychological significance of "making children", hindrances related to the social and psychological significance of "having children" hindrances, related to the method of oral contraception itself, to be divided in social hindrances, psychological hindrances and medical hindrances and finally hindrances related to the provision of the pill to the individual user. Each of these is amply discussed, the author expresses the hope that by identification of these hindrances, lessons may be learned for the future, when other methods of contreception become available.
Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer
The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.
Living with idiopathic short stature (ISS) may entail significant risks to psychological functioning and quality of life. Apparent inconsistency among study findings can be resolved if methodological differences among study designs are taken into account (i.e., definition of particular endpoints, sample selection from clinic or population, source of report, specific or generic assessment instruments, statistical control of confounders). Some individuals fail and others succeed in mastering the challenges of ISS. The principles of multifinality and equifinality may explain the emergence of a broad variation of individuals with ISS as a result of an interaction of the individual medical and auxological features on the one side, and psychosocial risk and protective factors on the other. As a result, patients may show heterogeneous developmental outcomes ranging from clinical psychopathology to development of resilience. A taxonomy of four distinct pathways of adaptation to ISS is delineated as a basis for case formulation and treatment planning. Psychological intervention in ISS includes counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy and assertiveness training to improve psychological functioning via enhancement of target coping behaviors for critical situations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Tomata, Yasutake; Tsuji, Ichiro
The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association of psychological distress with a partner's disability in an older Japanese population, as well as the effect modification of social support on this association. The baseline survey was carried out between 1 December and 15 December 2006, and included 6809 participants from whom we collected data regarding functional disability and psychological distress. We defined functional disability as certification for long-term care insurance in Japan, and psychological distress as a Kessler 6 score of ≥10 out of 24. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increased psychological distress according to the categories of functional disability among partners. Stratified analyses were also carried out to investigate whether social support significantly affected the association between a partner's functional disability and psychological distress. The multiple-adjusted OR for psychological distress was 1.48 (95% CI 1.06-2.04) among participants whose partners had functional disabilities (vs those whose partners did not have functional disabilities). In the social support-stratified analysis, a significant association with psychological distress was observed among participants lacking social support for help with their daily housework (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.23-4.83), but not among those with social support (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.79-1.72); P for interaction = 0.03). A partner with functional disability conferred a significantly higher risk of psychological distress on older Japanese individuals, and this association was modified by social support. We conclude that social support might buffer psychological distress in this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheory for the social sciences. In this paper, the different ways in which scholars have used the concept of a metatheory in the field of evolutionary psychology is reviewed. These different ways include evolutionary psychology as a unification of different subdisciplines, as a nomological network of evidence, as Lakatosian hard core, as a tool for conceptual integration, and as a theory that addresses the major issues in the social sciences. It is concluded that evolutionary psychology has been successful as Lakatosian hard core, that is, it has been fruitful in generating new hypotheses. However, it has been less successful in unifying different subdisciplines. It is also concluded that evolutionary psychology needs to broaden its scope by including insights from evolutionary developmental biology in order to become a unifying framework for the social sciences.
Devine, Katie A; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Freddo, Marianna; Humphrey, Jamie L; Silverstein, Janet H
This article evaluates the relations between peer victimization and child and parent reports of social-psychological variables 1.5 years later. Thirty-six children diagnosed with endocrine disorders and their parents completed questionnaires regarding social-psychological functioning. Peer victimization at time 2 was significantly related to concurrent depression, loneliness, externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression equations indicated that peer victimization at baseline was not a significant predictor of time 2 social-psychological functioning when baseline levels of each variable were controlled. Significant correlations were found between baseline and time 2 levels of social anxiety, loneliness, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, with medium to large effect sizes. Peer victimization, social anxiety, loneliness, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems are relatively stable across time. Peer victimization is related to concurrent adjustment problems but may not contribute to the development of new problems. Early identification and intervention is imperative. Medical visits are an opportunity to assess and refer for treatment.
Miller, Matthew J.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin
Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances…
Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
This study examined the similarities and differences in the topics and references in selected chapters of eight introductory social psychology textbooks and six developmental psychology textbooks. We wanted to determine the extent to which there were core concepts and references presented in these chapters. We found a relatively small set of core…
Gregory D. Webster
Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.
Glăveanu, Vlad; Yamamoto, Koji
This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other's work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can "test" these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special issue amply demonstrate, psychology's "historical turn" has the potential to shed a new light on striking, yet underexplored, similarities between contemporary public spheres and their pre-modern counterparts. This issue thereby calls into question the dichotomy between traditional and de-traditionalized societies-a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines be bridged? and Why we cross this interdisciplinary bridge? In the end a reflection on the future of this collaboration will be offered.
Author Guidelines. The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the scientific investigation of psychological issues and related phenomena in Africa. The Journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of content, but intends rather to reflect current significant research in ...
Stead, Graham B.
This paper reflects on the need to re-examine cultural and cross-cultural psychology with a view to re-invigorating them and placing them at the center of discourse in career psychology. One perspective that can be employed to achieve these goals is social constructionism in that it questions the centrality of post-positivism in cultural and…
Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.
Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…
McKenzie, Karen; Fawns, Tim
The paper discusses some of the issues faced by clinical psychology trainees when integrating their 'personal' 'student' and 'professional' images. This is in the context of the increasing use of social networking sites for both personal and educational processes.
Rey, Fernando Luis Gonzalez
O presente trabalho debate a relação da teoria desenvolvida por Sílvia Lane com os autores soviéticos, em particular com Vygotsky e Leontiev. No trabalho se analisam os diferentes momentos do pensamento de Sílvia Lane, especificando suas contribuições para o desenvolvimento de uma psicologia social comprometida com a realidade social brasileira, assim como com a elaboração de categorias e problemas de relevância geral para a psicologia.The present paper discusses the link between Lane's theor...
Full Text Available The article discusses the emergence of a new scientific field – social psychology of education. Most of the key phenomena that contemporary social psychology examines, cannot influence training and education success of an individual. Therefore, in addition to traditional general psychological, psycho-pedagogic, developmental, psychophysical and other approaches solving the problems of the education system; the possibility is considered of increasing the efficiency of the educational process by means of a rapidly growing social psychology. The prospects of this approach is evidenced by the results of numerous Russian and international research, including those performed in Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. The article discusses ways to develop the concept of the social psychology of education, approaches to the definition of its subject, goals and objectives, as well as new methods of the discipline. The possibilities of further use of the potential of social psychology are analyzed to address the efficiency of the educational process and the full personal development of students.
Barenbaum, N B
This paper investigates three conflicting reconstructions of the historical relationship between personality and social psychology and addresses questions they raise regarding the subdisciplinary status of personality in the 1920s and the way in which the field gradually emerged as a separate area of psychology. Contesting claims that Floyd Allport first connected social psychology to a separate "branch" of personality psychology in the 1920s, I argue that he drew upon earlier work of psychologists and sociologists who treated personality as a central topic of social psychology. I compare Floyd Allport's views with those of Gordon Allport, who endeavored to establish personality as a separate subdiscipline. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pham, Andy V.
Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…
Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.
This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.
Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.
Dietrich, Frederick; Shipherd, Amber M; Gershgoren, Lael; Filho, Edson Medeiros; Basevitch, Itay
A social networking Web site, Facebook, was used to deliver long-term sport psychology consultation services to student-athletes (i.e., soccer players) in 30- to 60-min weekly sessions. Additional short-term team building, group cohesion, communication, anger management, injury rehabilitation, mental toughness, commitment, and leadership workshops were provided. Cohesion and overall relationships between both the student-athletes and the sport psychology consultants benefited from this process. Social networking Web sites offer a practical way of providing sport psychology consulting services that does not require use of major resources. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Shakurova Anna Vasilyevna
Purpose: To summarize, organize, and clarify the available scientific literature, theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of social identity with the socio-psychological and sociological positions. Methodology...
This paper reviews recent evidence on the causes and maintenance of aggressive and disruptive behaviours in childhood and adolescence. It considers the relative merits of several different ways of conceptualising such problems, in relation to the contribution of biological, psychological and social factors. It focuses on conduct problems appearing in young childhood, which greatly increase the likelihood of persistent antisocial behaviours in adolescence and adult life in association with wider interpersonal and social role impairments. It considers the contribution of individual factors, including impaired verbal skills, deficits in executive functions, and an imbalance between behavioural activation and inhibition systems. These are viewed in interaction with commonly associated environmental disadvantages such as hostile or intrusive parenting. The roles of attributional biases, unrealistic self-evaluations, and insecure attachment are considered in relation to affect regulation, and effective social action. The contributions of the wider social environments of peers, neighbourhood and socio-economic conditions are evaluated. The paper concludes that, although considerable progress has been made over the past ten years, there is a need to further refine our conceptualisation of the behaviours to be explained, to develop a coherent theory of the causal and maintaining processes, and to carry out prospective studies with adequate numbers of high risk children.
Vasquez, Melba J T
Much of psychological science and knowledge is significantly relevant to social justice, defined here as the goal to decrease human suffering and to promote human values of equality and justice. A commitment to social justice has evolved as a more important value in the last few decades for psychology, including for the American Psychological Association (APA). The mission, vision, goals, Ethics Code, and strategic plan of APA all provide a rationale for psychologists' involvement in systematic and visible ways of applying our knowledge to social issues. Although psychology has not been immune to the application of psychological knowledge in destructive ways, overall, psychology, many psychologists, and APA have demonstrated a commitment to social justice. This article provides a brief review of the key proponents, debates, and controversies involved in applying psychological science and knowledge to complex societal problems. Psychologists often find themselves in conflict and honest disagreement when the association addresses complex and controversial issues. An important goal is that we continue to find ways to agree or disagree in a respectful manner regardless of where each of us stands on the various positions that APA takes.
Binning, Kevin R; Sears, David O
We argue that the history of political diversity in social psychology may be better characterized by stability than by a large shift toward liberalism. The branch of social psychology that focuses on political issues has defined social problems from a liberal perspective since at least the 1930s. Although a lack of ideological diversity within the discipline can pose many of the problems noted by Duarte et al., we suggest that these problems (a) are less apparent when the insights of social psychology are pitted against the insights from other social science disciplines, and (b) are less pressing than the need for other types of diversity in the field, especially ethnic and racial diversity.
Full Text Available This paper traces some salient aspects of my research career, focusing largely on work in West Africa. From this lessons are drawn about the shortcomings of social psychology, especially in its laboratory version. It tends to tacitly ignore the effects of cultural influences, assuming that its findings are universally valid. Studies are mainly conducted with adults, generally college students, who are unrepresentative even of the general population of the United States where the bulk of social psychological studies are concentrated. This is justified in terms an alleged ‘psychic unity’. Social psychology pays little attention to the processes whereby children become socialized into particular cultures, which then governs their social behaviour. Methods are usually formal, and observational ones are eschewed, so that research takes place in artificial setting. This brings me to the almost complete absence of links with cognate disciplines, notably anthropology, which could greatly enrich social psychology. Suggestions are made for more wide-ranging approaches which would overcome the aridity of a great deal of current experimental social psychological research.
Walsh, R Stephen; Fortune, Donal G; Gallagher, Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T
This theoretical paper reviews an emerging literature which attempts to bring together an important area of social psychology and neuropsychology. The paper presents a rationale for the integration of the social identity and clinical neuropsychological approaches in the study of acquired brain injury (ABI). The paper begins by reviewing the social and neuropsychological perspectives of ABI. Subsequently, theoretical and empirical studies that demonstrate the social influences on neuropsychology and the inherently social nature of mind are considered. Neuropsychological understandings of social identities and their potential relationships to the variability in ABIs are also discussed. The values of these understandings to ABI rehabilitation are then examined. The paper concludes by suggesting an agenda for future research that integrates the social identity and neuropsychological paradigms so that psychology might grow in its store of applicable knowledge to enhance support and rehabilitation for those with ABI.
Jimena del Carmen Gallardo Góngora
Full Text Available This doctoral thesis aims to study some of the aspects of the work of young unemployed Chileans. This was done through the analysis of their “centrality” by taking into account the influence of values and concepts they have about work, in the process of their identity construction. The research was divided into two different sections. The first one is the theoretical framework, which consists of studies and analysis from a social psychological perspective in relation to the phenomena that come up from the main purpose of the study. For example, youth as a psychosocial phenomenon; work as meaning, centrality and psychosocial functions; Identity under a psychosocial approach as well as psychosocial effects due to the unemployment they suffer. The second section of the research is the qualitative analysis, which considers work factors regarding to young unemployed Chileans as well as the influence of such factors in the process of their identity construction.
Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III
Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F
This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Locke, John L; Flanagan, Catherine M
Van de Vliert embraces a "supply side" model of human needs, underplaying a "demand" model whereby individuals, motivated by psychological needs, develop coping strategies that help them meet their personal goals and collectively exert an influence on social and economic systems. Undesirable climates may inflate the value of financial capital, but they also boost the value of social capital.
Recalls the publication of the 1948 special issue of "Journal of Social Issues" on the social psychology of disability, speculates on the magazine's influence on changes in the field between 1948 and 1988, and discusses possible future developments. (Author/BJV)
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.
Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose
Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…
Full Text Available The article contains a theoretical review of both Russian (T.O. Gordeeva A.G. Bugrimenko, O.A. Tchadenkova etc. and foreign (R. Rayan, and E. Dasy, A. Elliot and H. Makgregor, etc approaches, classifications and researches of motivation of educational-professional activity, and special attention is paid to the socially-psychological features of this motivation: external conditionality of structural components, including achievement motivation, the mechanism of its formation in changing conditions of social environment, as well as nature of correlation of socially-psychological features of personality, in particular, processes of its socially-psychological adaptation, with characteristics of its motivational sphere. The article considers researches of external educational environment, (M. Bokarts, etc. and inner personality settings (К. Dvak, А. Bandura on becoming and development of motivation training are considered. Also there are researches of dynamics of motivation of educational-professional activity on various phases of educational process are described.
Whittingham, Koa; Bodimeade, Harriet L; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N
To identify whether executive functioning mediates the effect of having unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) on executive functioning in everyday life, psychological functioning, and social functioning. A cross-sectional cohort of 46 children with unilateral CP (25 males, 21 females; mean age 11y 1mo, SD 2y 5mo; 24 right-sided, 22 left-sided) and 20 children with typical development (nine males, 11 females; mean age 10y 10mo, SD 2y 4mo). Cognitive executive functioning was tested using a neuropsychological battery. Executive functioning in everyday life was measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; teacher and parent reports) and psychological and social functioning by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Analysis included analysis of covariance and bootstrapping. Children with unilateral CP were found to have significantly decreased functioning, compared with children with typical development, on the BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index, the BRIEF Metacognition Index, and on the SDQ emotion, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems subscales. Group differences were mediated by cognitive executive functioning for the BRIEF Metacognition Index (teacher and parent report), the BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (parent report only), the SDQ conduct subscale, and the SDQ hyperactivity subscale. This study suggests that the increased risk of children with unilateral CP experiencing executive functioning difficulties in everyday life, conduct problems, and hyperactivity can be partly explained by decreased cognitive executive functioning abilities relative to children with typical development. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Casellas-Grau, Anna; Vives, Jaume; Font, Antoni; Ochoa, Cristian
This integrative review aimed to analyze the research into positive psychological functioning after breast cancer, and to integrate the most relevant findings relating to sociodemographic, medical and psychosocial factors. Relevant outcomes were identified from electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Wiley Online Library) up to July 2015. A Google search was performed to identify unindexed literature. Dissertations and theses were searched on Proquest Dissertations and Theses, DIALNET and TDX. Selection criteria included empirical studies assessing relationships between breast cancer and positive functioning, without restrictions on type of participants. In total, 134 studies met the inclusion criteria. The sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial characteristics associated with well-being, posttraumatic growth, finding benefit and meaning were being young, undergoing chemotherapy, and having social support. The last two of these characteristics were time-oriented. The culture of the different samples and positive dispositional characteristics like optimism had an influence on the women's coping styles. Socioeconomic status and level of education were also associated with positive psychological functioning. The perceived impact of breast cancer on patient, as well as the perceived support from significant others can result in better functioning in women with breast cancer. The results highlight that oncology health professionals should take into account not only the individual and medical characteristics, but also the stage of the oncological process and the psychosocial environment of patients in order to promote their positive functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de la Sablonnière, Roxane
Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC.
de la Sablonnière, Roxane
Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC. PMID:28400739
Jones, Candace; Barrera, Ingrid; Brothers, Shaun; Ring, Robert; Wahlestedt, Claes
Social anxiety is a form of anxiety characterized by continuous fear of one or more social or performance situations. Although multiple treatment modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines) exist for social anxiety, they are effective for only 60% to 70% of patients. Thus, researchers have looked for other candidates for social anxiety treatment. Our review focuses on the peptide oxytocin as a potential therapeutic option for individuals with social anxiety. Animal research both in nonprimates and primates supports oxytocin's role in facilitation of prosocial behaviors and its anxiolytic effects. Human studies indicate significant associations between social anxiety and oxytocin receptor gene alleles, as well as social anxiety and oxytocin plasma levels. In addition, intranasal administration of oxytocin in humans has favorable effects on social anxiety symptomology. Other disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, and anorexia, have components of social anxiety in their pathophysiology. The therapeutic role of oxytocin for social dysfunction in these disorders is discussed.
There is almost no current textbook of social psychology, in which the chapter of conformism would not start with the description of the Asch's experiment with line-length and Sherif's experiment with auto kinetic effect. Social norm is the bonding topic of the two. Sherif is supposed to have shown the shaping of social norms, whereas Asch is supposed to have demonstrated how they are maintained through the pressure on the subject to conform. Both authors are usually cited together an...
Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Aderka, Idan M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decre...
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
symptoms (SMD -0.52, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.07). However, the quality of evidence was very low, and risk of bias resulted from researcher/therapist allegiance to treatment methods, effects of uncertain asylum status of some people and real-time non-standardised translation of assessment measures. No measures of adverse events were described, nor of participation, social functioning, quantity of social or family relationships, proxy measures by third parties or satisfaction with treatment. Too few studies were identified for review authors to attempt sensitivity analyses. Very low-quality evidence suggests no differences between psychological therapies and controls in terms of immediate effects on post-traumatic symptoms, distress or quality of life; however, NET and CBT were found to confer moderate benefits in reducing distress and PTSD symptoms over the medium term (six months after treatment). Evidence was of very low quality, mainly because non-standardised assessment methods using interpreters were applied, and sample sizes were very small. Most eligible trials also revealed medium to high risk of bias. Further, attention to the cultural appropriateness of interventions or to their psychometric qualities was inadequate, and assessment measures used were unsuitable. As such, these findings should be interpreted with caution.No data were available on whether symptom reduction enabled improvements in quality of life, participation in community life, or in social and family relationships in the medium term. Details of adverse events and treatment satisfaction were not available immediately after treatment nor in the medium term. Future research should aim to address these gaps in the evidence and should include larger sample sizes when possible. Problems of torture survivors need to be defined far more broadly than by PTSD symptoms, and recognition given to the contextual influences of being a torture survivor, including as an asylum seeker or refugee, on psychological and
Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas
Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
K A Ivanenko
Full Text Available This article reviews the current models of the voter behavior and proves the need in creating a new overarching conceptual framework, finding the integral social-psychological factor of the voter decision making. The public opinion is regarded as such a factor. The article presents the findings of the latest psychological research, devoted to the analysis of the connection between the different components of public opinion and electoral behavior.
Jul 4, 2017 ... business practices. This is borne from the assertion by Crane and Matten (2010) that business should contribute to solving social problems which may be caused by their activities. (such as ... recognizes the importance of corporate social responsibility ... activities that hinge on ethical considerations of.
In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
Jul 4, 2017 ... (2): 237-241. doi:10.2307/259079. Ejumudo, K., Edo, Z., Avweromre, L and Sagay, J.,. 2012. Environmental issues and corporate social responsibility(CSR) in Nigeria. Niger Delta region: the need for a pragmatic approach. Journal of Social. Science and Public Policy, 4, 1-21. Evuleocha, S. U., 2005.
M.J.J. Wubben (Maarten)
textabstractSocial dilemmas, or situations in which individual and collective interests collide, elicit strong emotions. But are these emotions socially functional in that they help establish cooperation? Generally, they are, as four empirical chapters showed. In dyadic relations, refusal to return
House, James S.
Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…
Full Text Available In this paper I try to show the value that the study of the relationship between Social Psychology and Literature would have to improve our psychosocial knowledge of the human being. On one hand, the psychosocial analysis of the novel would provide us with the wide and deep knowledge that is contained in the classic literary works. On the other hand, it is also useful to analyze how these literary works have been reflecting both their own time as well as the social changes in the last centuries and, furthermore, its effect on the readers, their mentality, their behaviour and even the way they relate each other. This approach would be of great value for a Social Psychology that pretends to look beyond a positivist perspective, a perspective that is pervasive in Psychology for the last century.
The social-psychological consequences of hiv/aids stigmatization on social Relations ... questions about the Social-Psychological effects of the pandemic affecting ... People's behavioural response to the disease and relationship with victims is ...
Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T; Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G
Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders. In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decreases in body dysmorphic symptom severity. In Study 2, we found that an attention retraining intervention for social anxiety disorder was associated with a reduction in body dysmorphic concerns, compared to a placebo control condition. These findings support the notion that psychological treatments for individuals with primary social anxiety disorder improve co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark
Relatively little research has examined the relations between growing up in a community with a history of protracted violent political conflict and subsequent generations’ well-being. The current article examines relations between mothers’ self-report of the impact that the historical political violence in Northern Ireland (known as the Troubles) has on her and her child’s current mental health. These relations are framed within the social identity model of stress, which provides a framework for understanding coping responses within societies that have experienced intergroup conflict. Mother-child dyads (N = 695) living in Belfast completed interviews. Results suggest that the mother-reported impact of the Troubles continue to be associated with mothers’ mental health, which, in turn, is associated with her child’s adjustment. The strength of mothers’ social identity moderated pathways between the impact of the Troubles and her mental health, consistent with the social identity model of stress. PMID:21686048
The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality.
"Two studies examined interventions to increase compliance with seat belt laws. Both studies : included physical reminder objects and social influence elements. The first study with a lower : base rate (and lower SES profile) showed a 20% improvement...
Dunn, Dana S
A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them.
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Choi, Yeon Jin; Matz-Costa, Christina
We aimed to investigate the interactive effects of perceived neighborhood safety and social cohesion on the psychological health of older adults with and without functional impairments. This cross-sectional study included 13,897 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65 years and older) from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Hypotheses were tested using weighted moderated ordinary least squared regression analysis. Perceived neighborhood safety was significantly associated with psychological health regardless of respondents' physical functioning, although the effect was greater among older adults with functional limitations. Perceived social cohesion, however, was only significantly related to psychological health among those with functional limitations. Among physically impaired respondents, social cohesion buffered the ill-effect of an unsafe neighborhood on psychological health. Findings suggest that efforts to promote perceived neighborhood safety and social cohesion are essential to the well-being of older adults. Special attention should be paid to older adults with functional limitations, who appear to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of neighborhood environments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Teaching and learning are fundamentally social enterprises. In attempting to understand, explain, and predict social behavior, social psychologists have amassed scores of empirically grounded, fundamental principles. Yet, many such principles have yet to be applied to classrooms despite the social nature of these settings. This article illustrates…
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Vail, Kenneth E; Rothschild, Zachary K; Weise, Dave R; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff
From a terror management theory (TMT) perspective, religion serves to manage the potential terror engendered by the uniquely human awareness of death by affording a sense of psychological security and hope of immortality. Although secular beliefs can also serve a terror management function, religious beliefs are particularly well suited to mitigate death anxiety because they are all encompassing, rely on concepts that are not easily disconfirmed, and promise literal immortality. Research is reviewed demonstrating that mortality salience produces increased belief in afterlife, supernatural agency, human ascension from nature, and spiritual distinctions between mind and body. The social costs and benefits of religious beliefs are considered and compared to those of secular worldviews. The terror management functions of, and benefits and costs associated with, different types of religious orientation, such as intrinsic religiosity, quest, and religious fundamentalism, are then examined. Finally, the TMT analysis is compared to other accounts of religion.
O presente artigo discute questões teóricas e metodológicas referentes à pesquisa de campo em Psicologia Social. Procura trazer contribuições à pesquisa qualitativa, enfocando especialmente a situação de entrevista e o tratamento dos dados. Utiliza o conceito de habitus de classe de Pierre Bourdieu para debater a relação indivíduo-grupo-sociedade, problema teórico-metodológico de fundo, e tema, fundamental para a Psicologia Social.This article discusses theoretical and methodological issues r...
Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Sherman, Jeffrey W
The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences largely conform to social and personality researchers' stereotypes about each subgroup; (c) despite their methodological and philosophical differences, the 2 subgroups study many of the same research topics; and (d) the structure of social-personality research practices can be characterized as having 2 independent factors, which closely correspond to L. J. Cronbach's (1957) correlational and experimental "streams of research."
Abell, Jackie; Walton, Chris
This commentary does not aim to engage with the epistemological and ontological technicalities of the discursive psychology maintained by epistemological constructionism and discursive psychology reliant on ontological constructionism approaches that form the basis of the two papers under discussion; other commentators, both in this issue and in the future, are likely to do that. Instead, this commentary aims to situate both papers within a broader frame of contemporary, primarily British social psychology, to ponder the circumstances that gave rise to them and their implications for social psychologists, discursive and non-discursive, alike. We have organized this commentary into two parts. The first part considers two simple questions. First, why does Corcoran critique DPEC for failing to do things that other discursive approaches provide for? And, second, why does Corcoran take DPEC research to task for having too little potential for or made too little contribution to improving the lives and subjectivities of people in general? These two questions are not unrelated, but for clarity's sake we will try to answer them separately. The second part of this commentary will consider the influence of discursive psychology on social psychology more generally.
There is growing concern about the activities of business in society. Much attention is drawn to the changing nature of the relationship between corporations and society which has increased the demand for organisations to recognise their corporate social responsibility (CSR). This research explores an understanding of the ...
Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K
Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.
The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward-specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology.
The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward—specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology. PMID:26909055
Full Text Available The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward—specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology.
Beaty, Lee A.
The empirical research on psychological and social adjustment of children and adolescents with visual impairments is reviewed. The dichotomy between deficit and nondeficit functioning of these youths is explored. Personality research suggests that some youth with visual impairments display minor deficits in self-concept and self-esteem. It is…
Abstract: This paper develops a historical social psychology that can be used to understand young children’s social development. It compares the theoretical frameworks of three of the most important relational thinkers in the 20th century – Norbert Elias, Pierre Bourdieu, and Erich Fromm – to shed light on their attempts to integrate the insights of psychoanalysis into their sociological perspectives. I begin by exploring Bourdieu’s “uneasy” relationship with psychoanalysis, arguing that this...
Full Text Available The article gives information on the main results of the II All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference with international participation “Social psychology in the educational space”, held in October 2017 at the Moscow State Psychological and Pedagogical University. Present-day trends in the development of social psychology of education are presented, and current trends in research in this subject area are highlighted. The author emphasizes that the development of professional ties between various specialists — school psychologists, teachers, heads of educational institutions, researchers and teachers of higher educational institutions, training teachers and psychologists — is a necessary condition for the effective improvement of the modern educational space.
Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom
Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies......., and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...
Schick, Matthis; Zumwald, Andre; Knöpfli, Bina; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia; Morina, Naser
Refugees have been shown to present high prevalence rates of trauma-related mental disorders. Despite their psychological impairment, they are expected to meet high functional requirements in terms of social integration into, and financial independence from, the host society. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of mental health problems, post-migration living difficulties (PMLD), and social integration in a sample of 104 refugees seeking treatment for severe posttraumatic stress and comorbid symptoms in two outpatient clinics in Switzerland. Despite an average time of residence in Switzerland of over 10 years, participants showed poor integration and a high number of PMLD. Integration difficulties were closely associated with psychological symptoms, but not with socio-demographic parameters such as education or visa status. Psychological impairment in treatment-seeking traumatized refugees is associated with poor integration. To foster social integration, it is crucial to better understand and address the specific needs of this highly vulnerable population.
Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne
This 1-year longitudinal study examined the effects of membership in socially withdrawn peer groups on children's social and psychological adjustment in a sample of 979 children (417 boys, 562 girls, M age = 11.84 years). Data on children's social and psychological adjustment and problems were collected from peer nominations and self-reports in the fall and spring of a single academic year. Using the Social Cognitive Map, 162 peer groups were identified. Multilevel analyses showed that affiliation with withdrawn groups negatively predicted social competence and school attitude, and positively predicted victimization and depression. The results suggest that affiliation with socially withdrawn groups is a risk factor for the development of social and psychological problems.
Moore, Margaret A.; Britt, Thomas W.; Leary, Mark R.
Examine obstacles to the successful bridging of social and counseling psychology and highlights areas ripe for collaboration within the arenas of professional training and development, theory, practice, methodology, metatheory, and epistemology. Identifies cultural, interpersonal, developmental, motivational, evaluative, regulatory, structural,…
Crittle, Chelsea; Maddox, Keith B.
Research in social psychology has the potential to address real-world issues involving racial stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Literature on confrontation suggests that addressing racism can be seen as a persuasive act that will allow for more effective interpersonal interactions. In this article, we explore the persuasive…
Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan
This study aimed to identify Bolu central district secondary school teachers' views on organizational deviance, psychological ownership and social innovation and to determine whether these views were related. The universe of the study conducted with relational screening model was composed of 360 teachers employed in Bolu central district secondary…
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Douglas, Nancy L.
Examines changes in definitions of critical thinking. Explores two strands of social psychology research, one providing evidence for the notion that people find it much easier to believe than to disbelieve, and the other suggesting that once beliefs are formed, they are extremely resistant to change. Discusses how these tendencies are able to…
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.
Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…
Full Text Available The paper addresses a relatively new phenomenon of job insecurity. It provides an analysis of the various interpretations of the phenomenon given by Russian and foreign researchers, focuses on its social economical determinants and consequences for individuals and organizations. The paper concludes with an outline of some possible ways of overcoming the negative consequences of job insecurity — as for individuals, as for organizations, as for the society as a whole.
Kryter, K. D.
The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.
A. O. Pocelujko
In materialist epistemology image understanding from the beginning associated with the body, psyche and society, giving rise to talk about objectivism, psychological and sociological interpretations in social perception of sociological concepts that rely on this epistemology. This means that social acceptance will be investigated as a product of the social environment, its individual and social group characteristics, and of society as a whole. In idealist epistemology in the interpretation of social perception prevails fiktsionalistske understanding. This means that social acceptance is seen in his phenomenal dimension (dimension phenomena at the same time, this phenomenal dimension idealist epistemology contrasts noumenal dimension, and therefore the social acceptance is made out of true knowledge. Depending on a particular epistemological concepts differently solved the question of the source of social perception. In the rationalistic conceptions source of social perception is thinking mostly scientific. Because of this social acceptance is seen as something that allows you to categorize the various phenomena of sociality, that is, create frames like scientific certainty .. The epistemological empiricism social acceptance is considered based on the prevalence of sensory components in it, which can be either that ensures that social perception Indeed, and that is the source of various distortions.
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
This paper presents the author's position on the question how to write social psychology. It reflects the author's long-term interest in rhetoric and his more recent concerns about the writing of social scientists. The author argues that social psychologists tend to produce unpopulated texts, writing about 'fictional things' rather than people. Social psychologists assume that their technical terms are more precise than ordinary language terms. The author contests this assumption. He suggests that when it comes to describing human actions, ordinary language on the whole tends to be more precise. The paper analyses why this should be the case, drawing on ideas from linguistics and Vaihinger's notion of fictions. The author presents examples to show how psychological writers, by using passives and nominals, can omit information about the agents of action and the nature of the actions that they are performing. Although their texts may appear impressively technical, they can, in fact, be highly imprecise. Moreover, social psychologists, by using this nominal style of writing, tend to write about processes as if they were things and then attribute actions to these things. In so doing, they create 'fictional things', which they treat as if they were real things. The author offers six recommendations for writing in simpler, clearer ways. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
This study utilizes a qualitative thematic analysis methodology and a social identity theory framework to explore ways in which early midlife gay men report enhancing their social identities through social and psychological creativity. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty early midlife gay men (aged 40-53) in four US cities. Men discussed the collective and individual essences of their age and gay identities, including attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours that they embraced to self-enhance at midlife. These discussions emphasized differences from the younger gay outgroup, often in the context of intergenerational interaction. Identified were three strategies (and seven substrategies) that summarized the ways that interviewees constructed their identities in the interest of self-enhancement, specifically in the context of intergenerational comparisons with younger gay men. These strategies may be considered as extensions to social creativity strategies presented in Tajfel and Turner's (Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson, 1986: 7) social identity theory. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The family and its function as a social institution has an important role in children’s psychological development. The Aim of this study is to investigate the relations of family functioning and the level of psychological basic needs of adolescents with their mental health. Research design is descriptive -correlational and the sample has been recruited from four military areas in Tehran city via simple random sampling method. A total number of 200 families with their youth (14 to 22 year old completed three questionnaires: Family Assessment Device (FAD, Psychological Needs Questionnaire (PNQ, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The resultsindicate that there are significant correlations between family functionig subscales and mental health of their adolescences. Other finding show that low family functioning has negative correlation with psychological basic needs (including three subscales: competence, autonomy, and relatednessof adolescents. We discuss the results in the light of previous findings and provide suggestions to improve family function.
Full Text Available There is almost no current textbook of social psychology, in which the chapter of conformism would not start with the description of the Asch's experiment with line-length and Sherif's experiment with auto kinetic effect. Social norm is the bonding topic of the two. Sherif is supposed to have shown the shaping of social norms, whereas Asch is supposed to have demonstrated how they are maintained through the pressure on the subject to conform. Both authors are usually cited together and because they are connected with the same phenomenon, one can get the impression that they are talking about two dimensions of the same socio-psychological topic, discussed from similar theoretical standpoints. But detailed analysis of both experiments and comparison of the cognitive models of the authors that led to these experiments suggest that such an impression could be wrong. In fact, two different theoretical models are in question, which have barely anything in common.
Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana
Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846
Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana
Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.
Shakurova, Anna Vasilyevna
Purpose: To summarize, organize, and clarify the available scientific literature, theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of social identity with the socio-psychological and sociological positions. Methodology: a theoretical analysis of scientific sources. Scope of the results: Identified in the theoretical analysis of the socio-psychological interpretation of the phenomenon of social identity: its structure, and specific types of manifestations, may be useful in explaining the many problems...
Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura
In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology. The current article describes conceptual and methodological issues involved with translational research, including considerations about time frame, scope of hypothesis tested, dose of treatment, contraindication, and sampling. Translational concepts and methods are illustrated with areas of social psychology that are promising for translation into solutions for pressing questions in psychotherapy research. Copyright 2006 APA.
In this short article, I celebrate the plurality and eclecticism of the British Journal of Social Psychology. I argue that this approach offers the best hope for an uncertain future. The powerful narrative on which social psychology was once based is fragmenting in part due to Research Assessment Exercise (RAE/REF) pressures. Social psychological topics and research are migrating outside institutional Psychology, and the BJSP needs to follow. Examples of recent social research on affect and emotion are used to illustrate the new spreading and reach of social psychological topics and issues. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Ploeger, A.; van der Hoort, B.
Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a new metatheory for the social sciences (Buss, 1995). Evolutionary psychology is an approach that emphasizes the evolutionary background of psychological phenomena (e.g., cognition, motivation, perception), with the expectation that knowledge about this
Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.
The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…
Golynchik E.O.; Solovyeva O.V.; Malysheva N.G.
The article presents a report on the Eighteenth Roundtable of heads and members of Departments of Social Psychology and Departments affiliated to socio-psychological disciplines of the Universities of Moscow and the Moscow region, devoted to the theme «Social and Cultural Context: Challenges to Social Psychology». This Roundtable continues the tradition of regular Roundtables on key issues in socio-psychological science and teaching socio-psychological disciplines. The Department of Social Ps...
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that has negative effect on physical function, psychological condition, interpersonal, family and social relationship and in general, on psychological well being. The aim of this study was to investigate of psychological profile in diabetic patients and it's relatioship with social support. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 120 diabetic patients have been selected among of those that systematically refered to Diabetes Clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in order to follow their therapeutic process in Ardabil . Data gathering was accomplished by two tests: SCL-90-R and Social Support Scale. Finally data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test on SPSS-17 software and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: Results showed that 70% of diabetic patients had problems in somatic complaint and obsession, 62.5% in sensitivity, 72.5% in depression, 62.5% in anxiety, 55% in hostility, 67.5% in paranoid thoughts, 27.5% in phobia and 37.5% in psychosis. Correlations between social support with somatic complaint, obsession, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid thoughts were negatively significant. Family support associated significantly with all of the psychological variables but friend Support had no significant correlation with them. Conclusion: The range of psychological problems experienced by diabetic patients is more extensive and these problems have significant relationship with social support. Thus, attention to different dimensions of psychological health is necessary and social support-based interventions can be more effective.
Rinder, I D
BECAUSE OF MARIJUANA'S apparent widespread and growing use, and possible future decriminalization, there is understandable concern about the effects of marijuana on behavior. However, in any serious deliberation about effects on behavior, two divergent views are equally unacceptable: that of the naive medical moralizer, who believes that marijuana turns people into vicious criminals; and that of the uncritical humanist, who holds that it affects everyone differently. The first position, characterized here as medical, moves from drug to behavior as though the latter were wholly physiological and a more or less predictably invariant function of the former. The second position, uncritical humanism, views the world as a composite of more of less free human elements which remain inscrutable and unpredictable, regardless of whether any individual is straight or high. Somewhere between these antipodal positions of absolute uniformity and absolute uniformity and absolute diversity lies the reality of patterned variability--i.e., types of users and types of effects of use. Situational factors such as when, where, with whom, and the like are admittedly important, but I propose here to limit attention to the user as social psychological actor in order to reduce analysis to a manageable number of parameters.
Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Cao, Ruixin
The purpose of this study was to examine how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in rural Chinese children. Participants were third- to fifth-grade students (N = 820; M age = 10 years) in rural schools in P. R. China. Data on shyness-sensitivity, unsociability, and adjustment were obtained from multiple sources including peer assessments, sociometric nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that unsociability was associated with social, school, and psychological problems, whereas shyness was generally associated with indexes of adjustment such as social status, teacher-rated competence, and academic achievement. The results indicate that rural Chinese context may play an important role in defining the functional meanings of children's social behaviors. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo
This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hvalbye, Kristin Gudmundsen; Myrland, Sandra Elvebakken
Master i produktdesign Sustainability is about both economical, social and environmental sustainability. This master thesis focuses on social sustainability in the form of well-being and empowerment of people through social integration. This has been addressed with a human centered design process, and with methods from system oriented design and service design, along with theories based on psychology, social change and gamification. The research question and problem statement and h...
Silva, Mabile Francine Ferreira
Full Text Available Introduction: The peripheral facial paralysis (PFP results from the reduction or interruption of the axonal transport to the seventh cranial nerve resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial movements. The facial deformity and limitation of movements, besides affecting the aesthetics and functionality, can significantly interfere with interpersonal communication. Objective: Investigate the psychological contents and other social effects associated to PFP in adult subjects, performing a comparative analysis in three groups of subjects with PFP: at flaccid, recovery and sequel phases. Method: Quantitative and qualitative research. 16 adult subjects, from both sexes, aging between 43 and 88 years old, with PFP. Procedure: Open interviews with subjects. The material was recorded in audio and video, literally transcribed, systematized through categorical and statistical analysis. Results: The subjects bearing sequels presented higher statistical significance of psychological contents and social effects associated to PFP. Followed, respectively, by those that were on flaccid and recovery phases. The results suggest that the speech-language therapist, besides performing functional and aesthetical rehabilitation with the subject with PFP, needs to be aware of psychological and social aspects that may be involved, in order to evaluate and seek to reduce the degree of psychological distress and promote the social adjustment of these patients. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial approach to patients with PFP revealed a wide and significant range of subjective contents that warrant new studies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the speech-language clinical method to approach this medical condition.
Sun, Liang; Sun, Li-Na; Sun, Ye-Huan; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Cao, Hong-Yuan; Sun, Ying
To assess the prevalence of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety) among Chinese medical students and to find the possible relationships between psychological symptoms and social relationships. A sample of 10,140 medical students was investigated with a structured questionnaire, that included the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Rating Scale, and Family APGAR Index (adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, resolve). The present study revealed that 16.8% of the medical students suffered from depressive symptoms and 14.1% from anxiety symptoms. Female students were more likely to have anxiety, the second-year students had higher levels of psychological symptoms than the first-year students. Likewise, significant differences were found among college, satisfaction of specialty, and economic condition of the family in anxiety and depression symptoms. Social support, family function, and all dimensions were significantly negatively associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that less social support, poor family function, the second-year students, and unsatisfactory specialty were associated with more psychological symptoms, after adjusting the effects of sex, age, and college. Medical students have a relatively high level of depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings support the hypothesis that if medical students are better supported and cared for, negative psychosocial consequences might be prevented or at least reduced.
Jonas, Kai J; Huguet, Pascal
Social-psychological research on time has pointed to the social construct of time rather than a mere physical entity that we reflect cognitively. Using two paradigms (day retrieval process and goal priming), the authors show that the time orientation is strongly prone to social influences and argue that a self-regulatory process underlies these findings. The degree of social comparison orientation in Study 1 and the degree of identification with groups for which the landmark is relevant (Study 2) both moderate the functionality of the landmarks within time orientation. Consistent with these findings, Studies 3 and 4 offer evidence that the activation of a personally relevant goal activates the day of goal attainment, a process that again can be moderated by social comparison orientation and identification. Overall, these results suggest a socially regulated time orientation. The internal clock (if any) is at least partly a "social clock."
Eagly, Alice H
Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.
The progress in fundamental social psychological research has become smaller and because of this, our society increasingly pushes scientific social psychology, and other sciences, into the direction of utility and valorisation. At the same time there is a painful short of use of social psychological
Lewis, Charlie; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.
The term executive function is used increasingly within developmental psychology and is often taken to refer to unfolding brain processes. We trace the origins of research on executive function to show that the link with social interaction has a long history. We suggest that a recent frenzy of research exploring methods for studying individual…
A twelve-week randomized controlled study of the cognitive-behavioral Integrated Psychological Therapy program: positive effect on the social functioning of schizophrenic patients Estudo controlado randomizado de 12 semanas do programa cognitivo-comportamental IPT (Terapia Psicológica Integrada com efeito positivo sobre o funcionamento social em pacientes com esquizofrenia
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of twelve weekly sessions of the cognitive-behavioral program originally known as the Integriertes Psychologisches Therapieprogramm für Schizophrene Patienten, designated the Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT program in English, on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life in schizophrenic outpatients, comparing it to the effect of treating such patients as usual. METHOD: Fifty-six adult outpatients (from 18 to 65 years of age with ICD-10-based diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to two different groups: active intervention (IPT group; and treatment as usual (control group. Outcome measures were quality of life (as determined using the WHOQOL-Bref, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination and Word Recall Test, global functioning (DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, social functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and social adjustment (Social Adjustment Scale. RESULTS: The findings suggest that, in comparison with treatment as usual (control group, the twelve-session IPT program had a positive effect on several outcome measures: cognition in the domains of spatiotemporal orientation (p = 0.051 and memory (p = 0.031; overall social adjustment (p = 0.037, leisure/social life (p = 0.051 and family relations (p = 0.008; overall functioning (p = 0.000; social-occupational functioning (p = 0.000; and quality of life in the psychological domain (p = 0.021. CONCLUSIONS: The twelve-session cognitive-behavioral IPT intervention demonstrated superiority over treatment as usual in its effects on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life. Studies involving larger samples, longer follow-up periods and additional outcome measures are needed in order to assess the specific effects on dimensions of social functioning, cognitive functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo foi
Dobermann, Darja; Hamilton, Ian S
Interest in publication patterns has been steady. Journals have instituted policies in an effort to curb bias and provide globally representative research. This study aimed to examine if publication patterns were present in two developmental psychology journals. It also explored the social networks of prominent authors and the prevalence of informal author-editor relationships, searching for any potential power groups. Data were taken from empirical articles published between 2005 and 2014 in Child Development (CD) and The International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC) data points were geographical authorship affiliation, informal author relationships as established by co-publishing, and connections to journal editors via identical affiliation. Results confirmed the previously established North American dominance in published research. In CD a strongly interlinked social network was identified between authors over the 10 years, with 15 chief influentialists binding groups of authors together. Results suggest that patterns are still present in published research in the realm of developmental psychology. To conclude, the potential implications of these patterns within developmental psychology are presented. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D
We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich
Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients
Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.
Francesco La Barbera
Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
La Barbera, Francesco
The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Montgomery, Paul; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Hopewell, Sally; Macdonald, Geraldine; Moher, David; Grant, Sean
Understanding randomized controlled trials of complex social and psychological interventions requires a detailed description of the interventions tested and the methods used to evaluate them. However, randomized controlled trial reports often omit, or inadequately report, this information. Incomplete and inaccurate reporting hinders the optimal use of research, wastes resources, and fails to meet ethical obligations to research participants and consumers. We explain how reporting guidelines have improved the quality of reports in medicine, and describe the ongoing development of a new reporting guideline for randomized controlled trials: an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials for social and psychological interventions. We invite readers to participate in the project by visiting our Web site, to help us reach the best-informed consensus on these guidelines ( http://tinyurl.com/consort-study ).
In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents) or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST). Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interd...
Although Duarte et al.'s claims about the potential benefits of greater political diversity in the ranks of social psychology are apt, their discussion of the decline in such diversity, the role played by self-selection, and the specific domains they cite in discussing an anti-conservative bias raise issues that merit closer examination. The claim that sound research and analysis challenging liberal orthodoxies fails to receive a fair hearing in our journals and professional discourse is also disputed.
This paper traces some salient aspects of my research career, focusing largely on work in West Africa. From this lessons are drawn about the shortcomings of social psychology, especially in its laboratory version. It tends to tacitly ignore the effects of cultural influences, assuming that its findings are universally valid. Studies are mainly conducted with adults, generally college students, who are unrepresentative even of the general population of the United States where the bulk of socia...
The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizatio...
Havighurst, Robert J.
An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…
M E Sachkova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of social representations in students about the high status in a society where psychological well-being acts as an integral component. During the analysis of literature it has been revealed that at youthful age, a key factor in determining psychological well-being is a successful self-identity in society, as well as the achievement of a certain status. In addition, during this period there can be observed the formation of social representations in the context of personal and professional self-determination. The object of our research was to study the structure and specificity of the social representations in students about the high status in modern society. We hypothesized that the perceptions of students about the high position in society must include the components of psychological well-being. In the course of the research P. Verges’ method was used to study the structure of social representations. The 594 associations obtained were subjected to a categorical analysis. In the study it was found out that the structural components of psychological well-being (K. Riff are reflected in the characteristics of the social representations of high status. It was concluded that according to the social representations of the modern young people a person of a high status is represented as a psychologically prosperous person, which confirms the hypothesis of the study.
Authors in this collection offer both critique and contextualist counterpoint to the standard, "official" histories of the field-successive editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology in 1954, 1968, 1985, and 1998. Unlike mainstream histories, the collected studies do not together constitute a seamless chronicle of continual progress for practitioners in a research area seeking social science status, viability, and legitimacy. Rather the authors focus on choice points, crises, and debates (some still ongoing), pay special heed to non-mainstream branches and voices, question numerous assumptions concerning the interrelationships among social psychological methodology, ontology (Danziger; MacMartin & Winston; Stam, Radtke, & Lubek), boundaries (Good), and individualisms (moral, political, and/or methodological). The specific contributions of Floyd and Gordon Allport are discussed from several perspectives as they helped define and shape and write the history of the field (Lubek & Apfelbaum; Parkovnick; Greenwood; Chung), and bridge it to neighboring areas (personality) and disciplines (psychology and sociology) (Nicholson; Barenbaum; Cherry). The constraints, origin myths, insensitivities, and omissions of standard histories are pointed out (Samelson), some partial correctives are advanced, and a more generative role for future historical studies is suggested. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shvalb, Y. [Ukrainian Institute of Psychology (Ukraine)
Emerging and development of crises in the communities leads to considerable increase of individual's risks' quality and quantity. Irrespectively of risk scale - partial or total influence on a community - a number of tendencies of risks increase could be identified. On social level risks result from the tendency of social protection decrease and restriction in free choice of activities' forms and kinds. On group level confrontation and clashes emerge, increase intolerance and decrease tolerance are identified. On interpersonal (micro group) level aggression and abuse intensify. On individual level a complex of negative psychological statuses develops, which is diverse both as for its content and forms. Reasons of crisis development and its dynamics determine the content and concrete forms of risks on all levels. Systematic description of risks and development of psychological support programmes for population in risk presupposes organization and delivering of comprehensive social and psychological expertise of situation. Such an expertise makes it possible to unite in a comprehensive model of the multi-professional descriptions of crisis situations on the above mentioned levels, the subjective concepts of the population (or its separate groups) together with evaluation of various projects and programmes on crisis coping and risks decrease options. (author)
Pablo Palomero Fernández
Full Text Available The social and emotional competences of teachers have a notable influence on the type of teaching that is carried out and on the type of relationships that are built in the classroom. Training teachers in personal aspects is a current urging need. Since the end of the last century there have a great deal of enriching research, courses and publications on teachers' emotional and social intelligence. From the point of view of training, this article presents some limitations of certain emerging proposals. Next, an alternative is proposed, based on the principles of humanistic psychology and promoting the development of five attitudes directly related to the teacher's emotional and social competence: phenomenological disposition, autonomy, responsibility, criteria independence and cooperative disposition. Finally, some the possible shortcomings and negative aspects of the proposed model are discussed, highlighting the need to further investigate the efficiency and relevance of training proposals such as the one presented here in order to increase their social impact.
Fondacaro, Mark R; Weinberg, Darin
In this paper we address the pervasive tendency in community psychology to treat values like social justice only as general objectives rather than contested theoretical concepts possessing identifiable empirical content. First we discuss how distinctive concepts of social justice have figured in three major intellectual traditions within community psychology: (1) the prevention and health promotion tradition, (2) the empowerment tradition, and most recently, (3) the critical tradition. We point out the epistemological gains and limitations of these respective concepts and argue for greater sensitivity to the context dependency of normative concepts like social justice. More specifically, we point to a pressing need in community psychology for an epistemology that: (1) subsumes both descriptive and evaluative concepts, and (2) acknowledges its own embeddedness in history and culture without thereby reducing all knowledge claims to the status of ideology. Finally, we describe and demonstrate the promise of what we are calling a social ecological epistemology for fulfilling this need.
Rosane Neves da Silva
Full Text Available A partir de uma "desnaturalização" do conceito de social, pretende-se situar as condições de possibilidade para a invenção da psicologia social. Utilizando uma estratégia genealógica, nosso objetivo é mostrar que, no lugar da psicologia explicar o social, é o próprio social que deve explicar o surgimento da psicologia moderna. Para tanto, é preciso deixar de considerar o social como sinônimo da noção de sociabilidade e passar a considerá-lo como algo essencialmente construído a partir de determinadas práticas humanas. Tal problematização permite entender como se produzem, no final do século XIX, as primeiras aproximações da psicologia moderna em direção ao social a partir das questões relacionadas ao fenômeno das multidões.The "denaturalization" of the concept "social" allow us to situate the conditions to the invention of social psychology. Using the genealogy strategy, our goal is to show that it is not psychology that explains the "social" but it is the "social" itself that explains the emergence of modern psychology. In order to attain our goal it is necessary to abandon the use of social as a synonym of sociability and to consider the "social" as a product essentially constructed by determinate human practices. This strategy allows us to understand how, at the end of the XIX century, modern psychology's firsts theoretical approaches towards the "social" were produced from matters related to the phenomena of the masses.
Tatiana S. Pavlova
Full Text Available Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers, using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales and the Social
Michelson, Nicole; Riis, Jenna L; Johnson, Sara B
Introduction Perceptions of social standing have increasingly well-documented relationships with health. Higher subjective social status (SSS) is associated with better psychological well-being among women, and mothers of newborns. The relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of young children, however, is largely unknown. SSS may provide insight into aspects of maternal functioning that are relevant to parenting capacity, as well as insight into future health; in addition, SSS is brief, and may be perceived as less intrusive than other measures of socioeconomic status or mental health. We evaluated the relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of 5-year-old children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and sixty-two mothers of 5-year old children, who participated in a study of child self-regulation, completed surveys that assessed sociodemographics, mental health, and perceived social support. The MacArthur Scale of SSS used pictures of ten-rung ladders to assess respondents' social position in relation to the US (SES ladder) and their community (community ladder). Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between maternal psychological distress (perceived social support, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and the ladders (individually and together), adjusting for maternal age, race, education, and number of children. To examine whether the SSS-health relationships differed by race, the models were also stratified by race. Results Community ladder ranking was positively associated with social support (β = 1.34, SE = 0.33, p support (β = 1.17, SE = 0.52, p maternal psychological well-being. Community SSS may be particularly influential for Black/African-American mothers' well-being.
Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Van Lange, Paul A M
Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions. We synthesize and extend these two perspectives to introduce a new theory: functional interdependence theory (FIT). FIT can generate testable hypotheses about the function and structure of the psychological mechanisms for inferring interdependence. This new perspective offers insight into how people initiate and maintain cooperative relationships, select social partners and allies, and identify opportunities to signal social motives.
Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Zardeckaite-Matulaitiene, Kristina; Marksaityte, Rasa; Endriulaitiene, Aukse; Tillman, Douglas R; Hof, David D
This cross-sectional study aimed to compare desire for social distance from people with mental illness in the disciplines of social work and psychology, and among students and professionals having different professional experience. 948 respondents (715 students and 233 professionals) from Lithuanian educational and mental health-care institutions participated in an anonymous survey. Social distance was measured using Lithuanian Social Distance Scale which was created for this study. Participants also answered questions about familiarity with mental illness. Bias of social desirability was measured using the balanced inventory of desirable responding. Series of ANCOVA analysis revealed that psychology and social work master's and PhD students reported less social distance from people with mental illness when compared with bachelor's students. Familiarity with mental illness was significantly related to less social distance in the student sample, but not in professionals' sample. The strongest desire for social distance in the professionals' sample was observed in social workers having less than 5 years of professional practice and most experienced psychologists with more than 10 years of professional practice. Social distance from people with mental illness decreases through the study years; however, results of professional psychologists and social workers illustrate different trajectories in social distance through the professional career. The results of this study support the need for anti-stigma programmes and initiatives orientated towards mental health professionals.
Griffith, James L; Kohrt, Brandon A
Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients' family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma.
Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.
Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane
Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.
Jensen, Lasse Meinert
. In this paper, I will discuss how studies of persons’ time-use and their experience of everyday life can illuminate contemporary social problems. The study of what people “actually do” in their everyday lives mirrors the theoretical debate in current Personality Psychology about the importance of “behavior......” for understanding personality – and problems in the latter debate can thus shed light on how to understand the former. I will draw on empirical material from my PhD-project, where I’ve carried out a survey study, combining time-use and diary methods. The empirical material contains information about not only...... everyday activities, but also how they were experienced and how they mattered to the participant. I’ll argue that studying persons as not just “individuals”, but as participants in structures of social practice, provides important clues to the understanding of social pathologies: That studying...
Simonsen, Erik; Evensen, Julie; Røsberg, Jan Ivar
Background: Affective flattening has been described as enduring, but long term follow-up studies of first episode psychosis patients are lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to follow the symptom development of flat affect (FA), over a 10 year follow-up period, with focus on prevalence...... as having never-present, improving, deteriorating, fluctuating or enduring FA. The groups were compared on baseline variables, variables at 10 year follow-up, and social functioning throughout the follow-up period. Results: Twenty nine percent never displayed FA, 66% had improving, deteriorating...... or fluctuating FA, while 5% of patients had enduring FA. Premorbid social function predicted enduring FA. The patients with enduring, fluctuating and deteriorating FA did poorer on all outcome variables, including remission and recovery rates. The enduring FA group did significantly poorer in social functioning...
Huygen, A C; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G
To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients. Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study. Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support. In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system.
Innes, John Michael; Chambers, Timothy Peter
In teaching social psychology, the process of identifying a particular theorist can lead to an enhanced understanding of the theories associated with that individual. Employing this process into a summative assessment, this article outlines an exercise that facilitated the teaching of introductory social psychology to 147 undergraduate students.…
Logan, Deirdre E; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Scharff, Lisa
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between social desirability response bias and self-report of pain, disability, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) in a sample of children presenting to a multidisciplinary pediatric chronic pain clinic. A retrospective review was conducted on 414 consecutive clinic patients, ages 12-17 years, with chronic pain complaints of at least 3 months' duration. As part of a clinical battery, children completed self-report psychological questionnaires including the Children's Depression Inventory, Children's Somatization Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale including the Lie Scale, an indicator of social desirability influence. Children also provided self report of pain intensity, pain duration and functional disability. Clinician ratings of anxiety and depressive symptoms also were collected. Results show that children scoring high on the measure of social desirability reported fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety compared to children scoring low on the social desirability index. No differences arose between these groups on reports of somatic symptoms, pain duration, or pain-related disability. These findings suggest that social desirability response bias may have implications for the self-report of psychological distress among pediatric chronic pain patients. The limits of self-report of symptoms should be considered in the clinical and research contexts.
Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam; Dobbins, Emily M.; Jason R., Jason R.
We analyzed the first 10 editions of Baron and Byrne's social psychology textbook. Modeling our methodology on Griggs and Jackson's (1996) longitudinal analysis of Hilgard's (1953) introductory psychology text, we ascertained changes in objective features, content, and contributors and contributions to social psychology. Changes in objective…
In this paper, I start by describing the role played by British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) in nurturing two important new paradigms in social psychology - the social identity approach and discourse psychology. I then consider the forces in contemporary academia, in general, and psychology, in particular, that militate against innovation. I conclude by suggesting some ways in which individual social psychologists and our journals, particularly BJSP, can contribute to the development of an innovative and intellectually dynamic discipline. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Valdes, José Manuel Delgado; Eisenstein, Jacob; De Choudhury, Munmun
Exposure to frequent crime incidents has been found to have a negative bearing on the well-being of city residents, even if they are not themselves a direct victim. We pursue the research question of whether naturalistic data shared on Twitter may provide a "lens" to understand changes in psychological attributes of urban communities (1) immediately following crime incidents, as well as (2) due to long-term exposure to crime. We analyze half a million Twitter posts from the City of Atlanta in 2014, where the rate of violent crime is three times of the national average. In a first study, we develop a statistical method to detect changes in social media psychological attributes in the immediate aftermath of a crime event. Second, we develop a regression model that uses historical (yearlong) crime to predict Twitter negative emotion, anxiety, anger, and sadness. We do not find significant changes in social media affect immediately following crime in Atlanta. However we do observe significant ability of historical crime to account for heightened negative emotion and anger in the future. Our findings have implications in gauging the utility of social media to infer longitudinal and population-scale patterns of urban well-being.
Brummelman, E.; Walton, G.M.
We argue that social psychology has unique potential for advancing understanding of resilience. An exciting development that illustrates this is the emergence of social-psychological interventions - brief, stealthy, and psychologically precise interventions - that can yield broad and lasting
Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn
The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991
Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn
The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children's social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Schou, K C; Hewison, J
Traditional social psychology has largely located the origins of the social in the mental and emotional processes of individuals. Interview and questionnaire approaches have focused on the personal account as a route to cognitive processes and personality structures. In contrast, qualitative approaches like grounded theory have highlighted the importance of discourse in the constitution of the social world, and the function of talk and text in the construction of meaning. It is argued here that the use of such approaches, informed by insights from discourse analysis and current thinking on textuality, can enable analysts to read the personal account as a socially constructed, and constructing, text. This article uses examples from psychosocial oncology and from original research on the treatment experiences of a group of cancer patients to discuss new ways of reading personal accounts as social texts.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja
Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.
Earp, Brian D.; David eTrafimow
The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt “fails”—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should “failed” replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consi...
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the psychological and social implications of infertility.After describing the evolution of current theoretical understanding in this area, it outlines typicalemotional and gender-specific reactions as well as the impact of infertility on the concept of identityand loss. Key questions are presented that medical professionals can use in order to facilitatecommunication with patients and in order to gain a first understanding of the psychosocial impactinfertility has for them. In concludes by highlighting the need to integrate psychosocial counsellinginto medical treatment, not only as counselling provides vital emotional support, but also becauseit can contribute towards reducing the drop-out rate in treatment.
Lucia Maria COŞTIUG
Full Text Available The article presents the opinion according to which today we can speak rather of a relative character of ownership, while the social function of it is ever more present and the rights of the owner are subject to multiple legal requirements and limited in order to meet general interests of the community.
Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard
Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales-local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.
Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard
Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.
Daniel A. DeCaro
Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.
This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.
The personal functions of autobiographical memory build on the basic biological functions of memory common to most mammals that, however, do not have the kind of episodic memories that compose human autobiographical memory according to present theory. The thesis here is that personal autobiographical memory is functionally and structurally related to the use of cultural myths and social narratives, and that the relative emphasis put on the self in different cultural and social contexts influences the form and function of autobiographical memory and the need for developing a uniquely personal life narrative in those contexts. Historical and cross-cultural trends revealed in psychological and literary research are invoked to support this thesis.
Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.
A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy.
Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Altaye, Mekibib; Teeters, Angelique R.; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B.
Objectives Depression is prevalent in mothers receiving home visiting. Little is known about the impact of treatment on associated features of maternal depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a novel, adapted treatment for depressed mothers in home visiting on psychological distress and social functioning. Methods In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat depressed mothers in home visiting. A randomized clinical trial design was used in which subjects were 93 new mothers in a home visiting program. Mothers with major depressive disorder identified at 3 months postpartum were randomized into IH-CBT and ongoing home visiting (n = 47) or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46) in which they received home visitation alone and could obtain treatment in the community. Measures of psychological distress, social support, and social network were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Clinical features of depression and home visiting parameters were examined as potential moderators. Results Subjects receiving IH-CBT reported decreased psychological distress at post-treatment (ES = 0.77) and follow-up (ES = 0.73). Examination of types of psychological distress indicated broad improvements at both time points. Those receiving IH-CBT reported increased social support over time relative to those in the SHV condition. Effect sizes were modest at post-treatment (ES = 0.38) but increased at follow-up (ES = 0.65). Improvements were seen in affiliative and belonginess aspects of social support, in contrast to tangible support which was statistically non-significant. Findings were not moderated by clinical features of depression or home visiting parameters. No group differences were found in size of and involvement with social networks. Conclusions IH-CBT is effective in reducing psychological distress and improving perceived social support in depressed mothers receiving home visiting
Nelis, Delphine; Kotsou, Ilios; Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel; Weytens, Fanny; Dupuis, Pauline; Mikolajczak, Moïra
This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that 18 hr of training with e-mail follow-up was sufficient to significantly improve emotion regulation, emotion understanding, and overall EC. These changes led in turn to long-term significant increases in extraversion and agreeableness as well as a decrease in neuroticism. Results of Study 2 showed that the development of EC brought about positive changes in psychological well-being, subjective health, quality of social relationships, and employability. The effect sizes were sufficiently large for the changes to be considered as meaningful in people's lives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
S. A. Nemkova
Full Text Available The article deals with psychological aspects of complex medical and social rehabilitation of disabled children with cerebral palsy in detail. Residual-organic cerebral insufficiency at cerebral palsy may be a basis for development of both cognitive disorders and psychogenic reactions, pathological personality formations due to the adverse psychosocial influences caused by disorders of motor and mental functions, which is necessary to take into consideration when conducting rehabilitation measures. The authors considered actual problems of diagnosing and treating the psychological disorders at cerebral palsy and suggested a system of complex mental pathology rehabilitation for this disease, which is aimed at correcting psychoemotional, cognitive and behavioral disorders and also restoring the social adaptation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.
This paper explores the relevance of psychology and the social and human sciences in a changing South Africa. The new South Africa embraces a liberal democratic approach to government. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is a policy document that articulates the goals of this liberal democratic ...
Weinberg, Thomas S
Recent literature about sadomasochism in Sociology and Social Psychology is reviewed. Studies include survey research and questionnaire studies, content analyses, ethnographic research, and critical essays. The current state of our knowledge of sadomasochism, including its defining characteristics, sadomasochistic identities, and sadomasochistic subcultures is briefly summarized.
Glavin, Ronnie J
Effective practice is informed by underlying theoretical models. Better awareness and understanding of such models can enhance reflection by practitioners on their current educational activities and so help drive the cycle of continuing improvement. In this article the author reflects on three ways in which a better understanding of social psychology gave insights into why some practices appeared to be more effective than others and some ways in which future practice could be altered. Social psychology places great emphasis on the importance of the situation in which people find themselves an how this impacts on their subsequent behaviour. The three areas specifically addressed in the article include factors which motivate and drive human activities, especially the importance of self-esteem. Secondly, the relevance of the fundamental attribution error, which looks at our tendency as humans to ascribe personal attributes as the cause of the behaviour of others rather than the influence of external events. The third area to be explored is the role of acquiring scripts or heuristics that can broaden the range of activities than can be performed at a subconscious or intuitive level. For each concept, the author has included a brief illustration of its application to the practice of a simulation educator.
Autism is a developmental disorder with variable severity, occurring at all levels of cognitive ability and having a number of slightly different clinical presentations. It is associated with neuropsychological deficits that occur in other conditions also, but its pattern may be specific to autism. Genetic and environmental early insults to brain development are etiological determinants of the disorder. Brain circuitries important for social, communicative, and integrational purposes have been suggested to be dysfunctional in autism. There could be at least two different pathways to autism, one connected with primary temporofrontal dysfunction (and late prenatal-early postnatal origins) and another linked to primary brain-stem dysfunction (and early prenatal origins). Further study of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychological processes in autism will help elucidate not only the pathological mechanisms involved in the specific syndromes but also the underpinnings of normal brain development.
Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph
Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…
Social psychology has been defined as “a branch of psychology that is concerned with those aspects of mental life which relate to social interaction and social phenomena in general” 1. Hewstone defines it thus: “the scientific study of how personal, situational and societal factors influence the cognition, motivation and ...
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Bleske-Rechek, April L.
Focuses on an activity used in an introductory psychology course that enabled students (n=65) to comprehend the concepts of obedience, conformity, and social roles in the area of social psychology. Explains that the students found the activity to be helpful in understanding the role of social influence. (CMK)
Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Diaz, Elissa; Schamberger, Antú; Carollo, Olivia
Psychological sense of community (PSOC) is a construct that may facilitate social action in university students. Similarly, a social justice-focused university mission statement might also facilitate social action and interest. The current study investigated whether psychological sense of community, agreeing with the mission statement, and taking…
Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin
This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Objective: to study the psychological characteristics of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, ulcerative colitis (UC, Crohn's disease (CD. Material and methods. The study group included 98 patients with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease and IBS, the control group included 30 healthy individuals. Set of psychological tests included questionnaire (multifactorial systemic examination of the person, the Luscher color test, Beck Depression Inventory, a test on health, activity, mood. Results. Premorbid personality traits, communication disorders with stress have been revieled. According to the nosology different types of emotional response to the disease, changes in health and activity have been marked. There is a high level of frustration needs, increased frequency of anxiety and depression in all patients. Conclusion. Psychological mechanisms of pathology are similar in functional and organic bowel diseases with the greatest influence on the course of functional disorders.
Tenorio, Kimberly A; Lo, Celia C
In the United States, social stratification has generally led individuals occupying lower social locations to have more health problems than other individuals, even acknowledging that social groups are distinguished by their particular manifestations of health problems. This study examined whether two social integration factors, marriage and religiosity, mediate the relationship between social location and co-occurrence of substance abuse and psychological distress and the nature of this relationship. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted on data from a national sample of 34,650 adults mostly between the ages of 18 to 35, collected through the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. White males who were lesser educated and living in poverty were more likely to exhibit co-occuring substance abuse and psychological distress than their demographically similar counterparts. Additionally, being married and religious appeared to be protective factors within the overall study cohort with fewer co-occurring behaviors reported. The data generally confirm the hypothesis concerning mediating roles for religiosity and marriage. Confirmation that marriage and religiosity can protect adults against co-occurring substance abuse and psychological distress potentially provides the information necessary to better target health policy and interventions that serve to further enhance the population?s mental health.
Spitzer, Brian; Aronson, Joshua
Achievement gaps continue to garner a great deal of attention both in academic and in popular circles. Many students continue to struggle despite broad educational reforms aimed at narrowing these gaps in learning and performance. In this article, we review a number of social psychological interventions that show promise in reducing gaps in achievement, not by addressing structural barriers to achievement, but by helping students cope with threats to their identity that impair intellectual functioning and motivation. For example, interventions involving meditation, role models, emotional reappraisal, growth mindsets, imagining possible selves, self-affirmations, belongingness and cooperative learning have been shown to ameliorate threats to identity and raise achievement. We describe and evaluate these social psychological interventions. Many achievement gaps involve a psychological predicament: a threat to one's social identity or to one's sense of belonging. Students' implicit theories - how they mind the gap - can act as barriers to their success. By helping students cope with these threats, these theory-based interventions represent a genuine advance in the way schools may reduce gaps in achievement. These interventions show how students' educational success depends partly on fluid aspects of context - how tasks are framed, who else is in the room, or what they believe about intelligence. Because of this fluidity, these interventions may not work in all settings. Achievement gaps are ultimately caused by a variety of factors, both objective and subjective that produce inequality. The research reviewed here suggests that even without changes in objective barriers to success, brief psychological interventions can narrow what many see as intractable gaps in academic achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Dang, Rui; Wang, Yishen; Li, Na; He, Ting; Shi, Mengna; Liang, Yanyan; Zhu, Chan; Zhou, Yongbo; Qi, Zongshi; Hu, Dahai
To explore the effects of group psychological counseling on the self-confidence and social adaptation of burn patients during the course of rehabilitation. Sixty-four burn patients conforming to the inclusion criteria and hospitalized from January 2012 to January 2014 in Xijing Hospital were divided into trial group and control group according to the method of rehabilitation, with 32 cases in each group. Patients in the two groups were given ordinary rehabilitation training for 8 weeks, and the patients in trial group were given a course of group psychological counseling in addition. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate the changes in self-confidence levels, and the number of patients with inferiority complex, normal feeling, self-confidence, and over self-confidence were counted before and after treatment. The Abbreviated Burn-Specific Health Scale was used to evaluate physical function, psychological function, social relationship, health condition, and general condition before and after treatment to evaluate the social adaptation of patients. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon test. (1) After treatment, the self-confidence levels of patients in trial group were significantly higher than those in control group (Z = -2.573, P self-confidence were 8 (25.0%) and 4 (12.5%) before treatment, which were respectively increased to 13 (40.6%) and 10 (31.3%) after treatment. The overall difference in trial group was obvious between before and after treatment (Z = -4.123, P self-confidence level of patients in control group between before and after treatment (Z = -1.000, P > 0.05). (2) After treatment, the scores of psychological function, social relationship, health condition, and general condition were (87 ± 3), (47.8 ± 3.6), (49 ± 3), and (239 ± 10) points in trial group, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(79 ± 4), (38.3 ± 5.6), (46 ± 4), and (231 ± 9) points, with t
Andrés Almagro González
Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history.
Almagro González, Andrés
Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history.
Full Text Available Psychological well-being is one of the greatest concerns in children and adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF. Those youths are frequently exposed to stress and social inequality, and they are particularly prone to developing mental health issues which persist through adolescence and into adult life. The purpose of this article is to introduce a framework for promoting psychological resilience in children and adolescents with BIF. Three interrelated and complementary factors require professional attention and efforts to improve resilience in children with borderline intelligence: a protecting a child’s self-worth, b generating sources of social support, c training of adaptive coping skills. The significance of early diagnosis and continuous monitoring of a child’s development is also discussed. Children with BIF should be provided with internal (self-worth, coping skills and external (social support resources to enhance their resilience and ability to confront adversities, and to reduce the risk of mental health issues.
Erdem, Özcan; Prins, Richard G; Voorham, Toon A J J; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex
Neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress are well reported, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The main purposes of this study were to investigate associations between structural neighbourhood conditions and psychological distress, and to explore the potential mediating role of neighbourhood social cohesion. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged ≥ 16 years (response 49%) from the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Structural environmental factors under study were neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood green, urbanity and home maintenance. Neighbourhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighbourhood level by using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations of neighbourhoods characteristics with psychological distress, adjusted for individual level characteristics. High neighbourhood SES and neighbourhood social cohesion were associated with decreased psychological distress. Adjusted for individual level characteristics and neighbourhood SES, only neighbourhood social cohesion remained significantly associated with psychological distress. Neighbourhood social cohesion accounted for 38% of the differences in the association between neighbourhood SES and psychological distress. High neighbourhood social cohesion is significantly associated with decreased psychological distress among residents of the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Reducing neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress may require increasing social interactions among neighbourhood residents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya
This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.
Gill, Diane L
In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.
Full Text Available System theorists believe that organizations that function as an open system have a greater chance of survival than organizations that function as a closed system due to the exchange of inputs and outputs between the organization and its publics. Public relations researchers have proposed adopting a dialogic approach to public relations where interaction between the organization and its publics are mutual, which is the underpinning to an open systems approach. This paper posits that organizations can function within an open systems approach to public relations by employing social media. Adoption of a functional approach is a fruitful way to look at the social functions various social media serve in the system of organizations and their publics. Research has considered the gratifications publics receive from social media; however, limited research has considered what social media do for the organization-public relationship system. It has been argued that organizations also have psychological and social motivations; therefore, applying a functional analysis approach might be a good of way determining what functions social media serve in the organization-public relationship system. Four functions are proposed in which social media may serve the system: maintenance of organizational identity, opportunity to build relationships with publics, ability to control issues management, and the chance to promote social corporate responsibility. Understanding social media’s role in the system can help practitioners identify the functions that may contribute to an open systems approach to public relations and ultimately an organization’s survival.
Full Text Available Background: Refugees have been shown to present high prevalence rates of trauma-related mental disorders. Despite their psychological impairment, they are expected to meet high functional requirements in terms of social integration into, and financial independence from, the host society. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of mental health problems, post-migration living difficulties (PMLD, and social integration in a sample of 104 refugees seeking treatment for severe posttraumatic stress and comorbid symptoms in two outpatient clinics in Switzerland. Results: Despite an average time of residence in Switzerland of over 10 years, participants showed poor integration and a high number of PMLD. Integration difficulties were closely associated with psychological symptoms, but not with socio-demographic parameters such as education or visa status. Conclusions: Psychological impairment in treatment-seeking traumatized refugees is associated with poor integration. To foster social integration, it is crucial to better understand and address the specific needs of this highly vulnerable population.
This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.
Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F
Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.
The process of psychological commitment, its adaptive functions and some of the difficulties that go along with it are specific. A description of the multimodal model of commitment provides an illustration of how motivational, affective, cognitive and behavioural mechanisms can be combined. These lead to different ways of entering into the commitment, with differing consequences on how the individual functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...
Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R
This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.
Earp, Brian D; Trafimow, David
The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt "fails"-does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should "failed" replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing "failed" replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings.
María de la Villa Moral Jiménez
Full Text Available As a descendant of the Enlightenment, the school is still a vital modern institution, albeit in contemporary post-modern conditions. This article takes a Foucaultian perspective to analyse the power / knowledge and the regimes of truth involved. The arguments is that the power of the school comes from the inertial force of custom, which normalises the school's disciplinary, sanctionary, instructional, and corrective practices. The modern educational project uses disciplinary methods that promote autoidiscipline and auto-regulation. Its instructional processes promote individualist learning, and its rituals turn habituation into internalisation. Consistent with the critical sentiments of a Social Psychology of Education, we propose a comprehensive approach to education and its links to acculturation, instruction, and schooling. We use a critical radical pedagogy and post-structuralist analysis to argue for the need to rethink contemporary education.
Brian D. Earp
Full Text Available The (latest crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how such replication should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. What does it mean if a replication attempt fails—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should failed replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing failed replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in purported findings.
Munro, Geoffrey D.; Behlen, Margaret M.
Students often have little understanding of the role psychological science plays in informing us about the impact of human behavior when addressing climate change. We designed an assignment for a social psychology course based on Frantz and Mayer's use of the decision tree model of helping behavior to identify the psychological barriers that…
King, Marcie L; Tranel, Daniel
Psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy has been assessed primarily with self-report measures. In the current work, we investigated pre- to postoperative changes in various dimensions of personality and behavior from the perspective of a well-known family member or friend for 27 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy. For each patient, a close family member or friend ("informant") provided pre- and postoperative ratings on five dimensions of personality and behavior. All ratings were collected during the chronic epoch of recovery, when personality and behavior of the patients are relatively stable. Self-report measures were also used to examine the relation between self-report and informant-report assessment of psychological adjustment. Lastly, the relation between seizure outcomes and psychological adjustment was investigated. Personality and behavior characteristics, as rated by an informant, remained stable and within a normal range of functioning following surgery for epilepsy. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative levels of executive functioning, social behavior, hypo-emotionality, irascibility, or distress. Informant-ratings on levels of current depression and overall current psychological functioning were significantly related to patient reports of current depression and global personality characteristics derived from the MMPI-2 (e.g., psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, psychopathic deviation, social introversion). There was no significant relationship between seizure outcome and psychological adjustment. Informant-based reports on psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy provide a unique perspective on important aspects of the success of the intervention. Assessing outcomes beyond seizure status is important for developing a comprehensive understanding of the potential consequences of surgery for epilepsy. Based on the current work, personality and behavior seem to be
Psychological effects of the pandemic affecting social relationship and networks have become pronounced. People's behavioural response to the disease and relationship with victims is often shaped by their beliefs, values and social ...
Góis, Cezar Wagner de Lima; de Oliveira, Luciane Alves; Góis, Sara Cavalcante; Silva, Alexsandra Maria Sousa
In this article, we problematize the approximation between Community Psychology and the idea of Deep America, considering it capable of contributing through mediations and translations in the construction of knowledge and the recreation of social, ethnic, and human life as local diversity. We want to clarify the matter from Liberation and Southern epistemologies' point of views, and to present experiences that confirm this Community Psychology method. We talk about coloniality, connecting it to the Community Psychology method and emphasizing the importance of the social-psychological/ethnic mediation, of view interpretation, and the aspects that constitute mediation: dialogic, experiential, and participant. Finally, we briefly report some facilitation and research experiences performed by us in Ceará, mainly in the capital, Fortaleza, and in Sobral County.
This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission. HIV prevention requires social transformation and such change is produced via changes in the social practices and social norms of communities and networks rather than by changes in the behaviours of individuals. While the input of social and biomedical scientists was and continues to be of central importance to the success of HIV prevention, so also is the input of the expertise of the members of the communities and networks most affected by HIV - collectivities of gay men, people who inject drugs and sex workers. It was the members of these communities and networks who collectively transformed their practices and made them safer. The article outlines the ways in which the research participants in research studies made me re-examine notions of knowledge and evidence. Over time, my colleagues and I developed a 'social health': a model of social transformation that involves enabling communities and their members to modify their social practices by building on emergent community responses, responses that were identified by the use of a reflexive research methodology.
Mary Jane P. Spink
Full Text Available Partindo da definição de representação social como forma de conhecimento prático, este artigo procura situar a abordagem da Psicologia Social entre as demais correntes que se debruçam sobre a questão do conhecimento. Acatando a interdisciplinaridade intrínseca ao campo de estudos das representações sociais, são analisados tanto os aspectos comuns às diversas disciplinas como a contribuição específica da Psicologia Social. Na perspectiva transdisciplinar, as representações sociais emergem como um campo multidimensional que possibilita questionar, de um lado, a natureza do conhecimento e, de outro, a relação indivíduo-sociedade, inserindo este campo de estudos entre as correntes epistemológicas pós-modernas. A contribuição específica da Psicologia Social é analisada, num primeiro momento, do ponto de vista teórico, sendo enfatizada a vocação desta disciplina de trabalhar as representações simultaneamente como campos socialmente estruturados e núcleos estruturantes da realidade social. Num segundo momento é destacada a contribuição metodológica que abre espaço para a utilização de metodologias qualitativas e, mais especificamente, para o uso do caso único.Taking as a starting point the definition of social representation as a form of practical knowledge, this paper aims at situating the social psychology approach among the other disciplines which deal with the issue of knowledge. Accepting the implicit interdisciplinarity of this field of study, the paper analyzes both the common aspects of the field and the specific contribution of social psychology. In the transdisciplinary perspective, social representations emerge as a multidimensional concept which allows for a critical analysis of both the nature of knowledge and the relationship between the individual and society demonstrating its compatibility with post-modern epistemology. The specific contribution of social psychology is analyzed first from a
Cohen, Geoffrey L; Sherman, David K
People have a basic need to maintain the integrity of the self, a global sense of personal adequacy. Events that threaten self-integrity arouse stress and self-protective defenses that can hamper performance and growth. However, an intervention known as self-affirmation can curb these negative outcomes. Self-affirmation interventions typically have people write about core personal values. The interventions bring about a more expansive view of the self and its resources, weakening the implications of a threat for personal integrity. Timely affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and relationship outcomes, with benefits that sometimes persist for months and years. Like other interventions and experiences, self-affirmations can have lasting benefits when they touch off a cycle of adaptive potential, a positive feedback loop between the self-system and the social system that propagates adaptive outcomes over time. The present review highlights both connections with other disciplines and lessons for a social psychological understanding of intervention and change.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Chan, David W.
The relationships among emotional intelligence, social coping, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 624 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that emotional intelligence had an effect on psychological distress mediated by social coping was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.
Objectives: We sought the answer to one major research question--Does psychology have a more defined culture of research than social work? Methods: Using "U.S. News and World Report" 2012 and 2013 rankings, we compared psychology faculty (N = 969) from their 25 top ranked programs with a controlled sample of social work faculty (N = 970)…
Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J
Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.
Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry
School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac
The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…
Benson, Paul R
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Maria Helena Santos
Full Text Available Research in social and political psychology contributes towards understanding the persistence of job market gender segregation prevailing in recent decades, the consequences for those involved and their reactions when having to cope with gender inequality. Within the framework of the literature on shared ideologies that justify and legitimize discrimination against women, this article focuses on Portugal and analyses the particular case of women in two highly qualified professions traditionally carried out by men – politics and medicine. Drawing on the results of quantitative and qualitative studies, our analytical approach demonstrates how while a majority of participants show awareness of the existence of gender inequality in these markedly masculine professions, meritocratic individualism and personal attributions to discrimination are the recurring explanations rather than any gender-based account. These results allow us to highlight the relevance of gender-based analysis as an ideology and furthermore to argue that ignoring this perspective not only diminishes individual responsibility for social change but also perpetuates gender asymmetries.
Diomidous, Marianna; Chardalias, Kostis; Magita, Adrianna; Koutonias, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulou, Paraskevi; Mantas, John
Over the past two decades there was an upsurge of the use of Internet in human life. With this continuous development, Internet users are able to communicate with any part of the globe, to shop online, to use it as a mean of education, to work remotely and to conduct financial transactions. Unfortunately, this rapid development of the Internet has a detrimental impact in our life, which leads to various phenomena such as cyber bullying, cyber porn, cyber suicide, Internet addiction, social isolation, cyber racism etc. The main purpose of this paper is to record and analyze all these social and psychological effects that appears to users due to the extensive use of the Internet. This review study was a thorough search of bibliography data conducted through Internet and library research studies. Key words were extracted from search engines and data bases including Google, Yahoo, Scholar Google, PubMed. The findings of this study showed that the Internet offers a quick access to information and facilitates communication however; it is quite dangerous, especially for young users. For this reason, users should be aware of it and face critically any information that is handed from the website.
種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎
This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...
III, R.D.E.; Axtell, C.; McGlynn, S.
Research on organizational behavior is fundamentally an application of social psychology theory and phenomena. While much of organizational psychology is inherently grounded in social psychological research, these two disciplines are largely disconnected from one another. More visibility of the commonalities may encourage discussion, collaboration, and integration between these two fields—an integration that will only benefit each discipline. The present article briefly reviews the historic o...
Full Text Available The aim of this special thematic section is to bring together recent social psychological research on the topic of citizenship with a view to discerning the emerging trends within the field and its potential contributions to the broader interdisciplinary area of citizenship studies. Eight papers spanning diverse theoretical traditions (including social identity, social representations and discursive approaches apply an array of methods to consider different aspects of citizenship across a variety of cultural and national contexts. Some focus on individuals’ perceptions and discussions of citizenship, others examine the group dynamics which flow from these understandings, and the rest examine the potential for citizenship to exclude as well as include marginalised communities. While diverse, the contributions share some core commonalities: all share a concern in trying to understand citizenship from the perspective of the citizen; all conceptualise citizenship as an active and reflective process occurring between members of a community; and all highlight the irreducibly social and collective nature of the experience and practice of citizenship in everyday life. We propose that these elements of convergence have the potential to give the social psychology of citizenship a solid basis and recognisable profile in order to contribute to the broader arena of citizenship studies.
Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D
The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed "AIDS Exceptionalism"- departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for "Prevention for Positives," supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven "prevention" that only served a particular political agenda.Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS . American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961).
Juan F. Díaz-Morales
Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the role of circadian preference in psychological functioning of adolescents taking into account their shift to eveningness during this stage of life. After a brief explanation about morningness/eveningness and other terms related, an overview of the changes that occur on three of the most important areas in the adolescent's life is presented: school performance, personality styles, and health. Consequences of evening preference on school achievement are considered from the analysis of the relevance of sleep debt and time-of-day in cognition and mood aspects. In general, students who are able to choose activity times coinciding with their preferred times may have a greater opportunity to optimize their performance. The personality styles and health of morning and evening types are also important factors related to school and family adaptation. At last, some recommendations and conclusions in order to promote a healthy psychological functioning are described.
Rangel, Ulrike; Keller, Johannes
Individuals tend to explain the characteristics of others with reference to an underlying essence, a tendency that has been termed psychological essentialism. Drawing on current conceptualizations of essentialism as a fundamental mode of social thinking, and on prior studies investigating belief in genetic determinism (BGD) as a component of essentialism, we argue that BGD cannot constitute the sole basis of individuals' essentialist reasoning. Accordingly, we propose belief in social determinism (BSD) as a complementary component of essentialism, which relies on the belief that a person's essential character is shaped by social factors (e.g., upbringing, social background). We developed a scale to measure this social component of essentialism. Results of five correlational studies indicate that (a) BGD and BSD are largely independent, (b) BGD and BSD are related to important correlates of essentialist thinking (e.g., dispositionism, perceived group homogeneity), (c) BGD and BSD are associated with indicators of fundamental epistemic and ideological motives, and (d) the endorsement of each lay theory is associated with vital social-cognitive consequences (particularly stereotyping and prejudice). Two experimental studies examined the idea that the relationship between BSD and prejudice is bidirectional in nature. Study 6 reveals that rendering social-deterministic explanations salient results in increased levels of ingroup favoritism in individuals who chronically endorse BSD. Results of Study 7 show that priming of prejudice enhances endorsement of social-deterministic explanations particularly in persons habitually endorsing prejudiced attitudes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Gergen, Kenneth J; Lightfoot, Cynthia; Sydow, Lisa
We explore here the potentials of a social constructionist orientation to knowledge for research and clinical practice. Dialogues on social construction emphasize the communal origins of knowledge. They stress the cultural basis of knowledge claims, the significance of language, the value saturation of all knowledge, and the significance of relationships as opposed to individuals. An initial illustration of constructionism in action centers on adolescent risk behavior. Such behavior is often constructed negatively within popular writings and the social science and thus ignores the meaning of such actions to the adolescents themselves. Discourse analysis indicates that for adolescents risky behavior serves important functions of enhancing group solidarity and establishing positive identity. A second illustration, exploring the implications of constructionism for therapy, places a strong emphasis on the therapist as a collaborator in the building of meaning. Traditional investments in diagnosis and treatment are replaced with the collaborative creation of new possibilities for action.
Olga I. Makhovskaya
Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to analyze the domestic and foreign psychological researches on influence of TV-programs on social, cognitive and emotional development of children. Methods. Methods involve a comparative historical and psychological analysis of papers, manuscripts and archival records of television companies. Results. The present study demonstrates that educational television, subsequently on-line resources for children, affect operative cognitive functions, increase cognitive motivation, and contribute to the formation of other important cognitive and social skills. However, the impact on children on-screen resources depends on the status and education level of the family. Scientific novelty. Much attention is given to the fact that it is the first attempt to provide historical and psychological analysis of world-wide studies of the effects of children’s television, from the main countries-producers of TV and video programs for children of different age – Russia, USA, Germany, France, Israel, etc. Criteria and matrix for comparison of heterogeneous researches, the domestic theory of child development, cultural-historical approach, the theory of stage formation of mental actions, activity theory had been chosen. Practical significance of the research is that these criteria can be used to assess any of the videos, their educational potential. Psychologists involved in the process of television production, this article will help to simulate the learning process taking into account the age of the children and their socio-cultural origin.
Vleugels, L; Pfennings, L E; Pouwer, F
Psychological functioning in two types of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is assessed: primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) patients. On the basis of differences in clinical course and underlying pathology we hypothesized that primary progressive patients and secondary......-MS scored significantly better on 5 out of 14 subscales than patients with SP-MS (p diagnosis of MS, amongst patients attending an MS unit, primary progressive...
The concept of human functional states (HFS) is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers states are discussed. Three diff erent strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplifi ed with the help of two empirical studies conce...
Combs, Dennis R; Finn, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Whitney; Penn, David L; Basso, Michael R
Persons with nonclinical paranoia show many of the same biases as those with clinical paranoia, suggesting that paranoia exists on a continuum. However, little is known about the various social cognitive processes found in paranoia and how these relate to social functioning and social behaviours in general. This study will examine performance on emotion perception and attributional style measures and their relationship to social functioning, social problem solving, and social skill. A key element in this study will be the incorporation of ambiguity in the perception of emotional expressions and the assignment of attributional blame, which appears to be an important, yet neglected, construct in paranoia. Twenty-six persons with high levels of nonclinical paranoia and 31 persons with low levels of paranoia completed measures of emotion perception, attributional style, social functioning, and social problem solving. Salient and subtle emotional expressions were used to examine how ambiguity impacts emotion perception in paranoia. The group high in nonclinical paranoia showed reduced accuracy for subtle negative emotional expressions and showed more perceived hostility and blame for ambiguous social situations as compared to the group low in nonclinical paranoia. Also, the high nonclinical paranoia group reported less social engagement, fewer social contacts, and more problems in social perception and social skill than the group low in nonclinical paranoia. Social cognitive and social functioning biases are found in persons with high levels of nonclinical paranoia. Possible mechanisms of these biases and relevance for treatment approaches are discussed.
Positive social relationships are important for both our physical and psychological well-being, and depend on the ability to engage appropriately with other people across different situational contexts. Although qualitative and clinical reports indicate that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle with their everyday interactions, there is a paucity of experimental work examining the nature and severity of their difficulties, especially those of higher-functioning adults. In the p...
Takashi X Fujisawa
Full Text Available Over the past decade, research on the aftereffects of stressful or traumatic events has emphasized the negative outcomes from these experiences. However, the positive outcomes deriving from adversity are increasingly being examined, and such positive changes are described as posttraumatic growth (PTG. To investigate the relationship between basal whole-brain functional connectivity and PTG, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the neural networks using independent component analysis in a sample of 33 healthy controls. Correlations were calculated between the network connectivity strength and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI score. There were positive associations between the PTGI scores and brain activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal lobule (SPL within the left central executive network (CEN (respectively, r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.49, p < 0.001. Individuals with higher psychological growth following adverse experiences had stronger activation in prospective or working memory areas within the executive function network than did individuals with lower psychological growth (r = 0.40, p < 0.001. Moreover, we found that individuals with higher PTG demonstrated stronger connectivity between the SPL and supramarginal gyrus (SMG. The SMG is one of the brain regions associated with the ability to reason about the mental states of others, otherwise known as mentalizing. These findings suggest that individuals with higher psychological growth may have stronger functional connectivity between memory functions within the CEN and social functioning in the SMG, and that their better sociality may result from using more memory for mentalizing during their daily social interactions.
Schnittger, Rebecca I B; Walsh, Cathal D; Casey, Anne-Marie; Wherton, Joseph P; McHugh, Joanna E; Lawlor, Brian A
To explore the key components representative of measures of psychosocial functioning with a focus on identifying the constituents of psychological distress in an Irish sample of community-dwelling older adults and to examine the relationship between these components and health outcomes such as frailty. Cross-sectional observational study at the Technology Research for Independent Living (TRIL) Clinic, a comprehensive geriatric assessment facility in St. James's Hospital, Dublin. In this study, 579 participants were given eight primary assessments (Centre for Epidemiological Studies of Depression, Geriatric Adverse Life Events Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, De Jong-Gierveld Scale, Practitioner Assessment of Network Type, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Lubben Social Network Scale) and a broad range of health and demographic secondary assessments. Principal factor analysis identified the core components relating to psychosocial functioning. Following this, the regression factors of these components were correlated with health outcomes. The first of three components identified accounted for 9.08% of the variance and related to a core internal component of psychological distress. The two other components related to external and physiological functioning, specifically social support networks and sleep. Spearman's Rho correlations indicated significant associations of walking speed, age, Berg Balance Scale and living alone with all three components. Additionally, the core component of psychological distress significantly correlated with the Fried Frailty Index, illness co-morbidity, ADL, IADL and nutrition. These results characterise the variation in psychosocial functioning in older adults and identifies psychological distress as a core facet of psychosocial functioning which has associations with frailty.
Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen
Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
In successive editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology (Lindzey, 1954), the focus of the history of the field shifted from the substantive ideas of nineteenth-century thinkers to the successful emergence of a psychological experimental social psychology in the twentieth. Countering this whiggish account, the dominant themes in the present issue involve attempts to portray two parallel paradigm shifts: from a "social" to an "asocial" social psychology, and from a broad-ranging theoretical-philosophical subject to a narrow experimental (psychological) science-changes initiated by Floyd Allport. But such a formulation may be called into question as another version of retrospective history-with inverted, anti-Whig valuations. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad
We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.
This article provides a personal account of how discursive social psychology has been used to understand social and political change in South Africa and to reflect on the strengths and limitations of the approach. While celebrating the shift from the perception paradigm to the genuinely social constructionist focus on discursive interaction, the article also argues for an expanded focus on embodied action. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David
Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, soc...
In this paper I discuss two basic theses about the formalization of cultural psychology. First, I claim that formalization is a relevant, even necessary stage of development of this domain of science. This is so because formalization allows the scientific language to achieve a much needed autonomy from the commonsensical language of the phenomena that this science deals with. Second, I envisage the two main functions that formalization has to perform in the field of cultural psychology: on the one hand, it has to provide formal rules grounding and constraining the deductive construction of the general theory; on the other hand, it has to provide the devices for supporting the interpretation of local phenomena, in terms of the abductive reconstruction of the network of linkages among empirical occurrences comprising the local phenomena.
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
Gill, Diane L.
In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity." Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower bio-psycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather…
Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Prins, Rick G; Voorham, Toon A J J; Burdorf, Alex
Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10-50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health.
Marcos Emanoel Pereira; José Luís Álvaro
The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions...
Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W
Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication
Pereira, Diana; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work may result in long-term health impairments if recovery is insufficient. In the present psychophysiological field study, we tested whether the inability to psychologically detach from work issues mediates the negative effect of social stressors at work on sleep during weekends. Sixty full-time employees participated in the study. Daily assessment included diaries on psychological detachment and continuous ambulatory actigraphy to assess psychophysiological indicators of sleep. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that enduring social stressors at work were negatively related with psychological detachment on Sunday evening and negatively related with various sleep indicators on Sunday night. Furthermore, psychological detachment from work on Sunday evening partially mediated the effect of social stressors at work on two sleep indicators. Social stressors at work may threaten recovery processes just before the working week starts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P
HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.
Lee, David L.
Managing social dynamics is a critical aspect of creating a positive learning environment in classrooms. In this paper three key interrelated ideas, reinforcement, function, and motivating operations, are discussed with relation to managing social behavior.
Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Brenneman, Miranda M.; Glass, Jamie N.; Brito, Gabriela R.; Terranova, Andrew M.; Kim, JongHan; Meyersburg, C. A.; Piroch, Joan
College students (N = 297) completed a perceptions of psychology as a science survey before and after completion of psychology courses. Psychology as a science scores increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the research methods courses, but scores in introductory psychology courses did not change and scores for students in…
Miles, James B
Over the last few years, a number of works have been published asserting both the putative prosocial benefits of belief in free will and the possible dangers of disclosing doubts about the existence of free will. Although concerns have been raised over the disservice of keeping such doubts from the public, this does not highlight the full danger that is presented by social psychology's newly found interest in the 'hard problem' of human free will. Almost all of the work on free will published to date by social psychologists appears methodologically flawed, misrepresents the state of academic knowledge, and risks linking social psychology with the irrational. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Wolf, Max; Krause, Jens
We outline three main ways how personality differences can affect social functioning and social structure. By highlighting the broad and significant consequences that personality differences can have for social processes, our article might serve as a starting point for a research focus that aims at a systematic understanding of these consequences. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David
Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users’ psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users’ psychological well-being through oﬄine social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online–oﬄine social contexts. PMID:28197114
Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D; Reynolds, Katherine J
John Turner, whose pioneering work on social identity and self-categorization theories changed the face of modern social psychology, died in July 2011. This unique virtual special issue celebrates Turner's life and work by reproducing a number of key articles that were published in the British Journal of Social Psychology and the European Journal of Social Psychology over the course of his career. These articles are of three types: first, key position papers, on which Turner was the leading or sole author; second, papers that he published with collaborators (typically PhD students) that explored key theoretical propositions; third, short commentary papers, in which Turner engaged in debate around key issues within social psychology. Together, these papers map out a clear and compelling vision. This seeks to explain the distinctly social nature of the human mind by showing how all important forms of social behaviour - and in particular, the propensity for social influence and social change -are grounded in the sense of social identity that people derive from their group memberships. As we discuss in this editorial, Turner's great contribution was to formalize this understanding in terms of testable hypotheses and generative theory and then to work intensively but imaginatively with others to take this vision forward. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.
Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Abali, Osman; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoc; Bilici, Mustafa
This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical features of functional constipation (FC) at preschool age, as well as emotional and behavioral characteristics of the children, psychological symptom level and parental attitudes of the mothers, and compared these with that of non-referred typically developing controls with normal intestinal habits. Participants included 65 children with FC (mean age, 43.6 ± 15.4 months; range, 25-72 months), 59 healthy controls (mean age, 46.9 ± 14.5 months; range, 25-72 months) and the mothers of the children. The Childhood Behavior Checklist, Symptom Checklist 90 and Parental Attitude Research Instrument were filled in by the mothers. Participants with FC had higher problem scores than the comparison children in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. Approximately half exhibited internalizing and one-third had externalizing problems in the clinical range. The mothers of the patient group had higher levels of psychological distress, overprotective parenting and strict discipline. On multiple logistic regression analysis child psychopathology, maternal education level and maternal distress were independently associated with FC. Behavior problems are common in children with FC from an early age. Low level of education and high psychological distress of the mothers seem to be important risk factors for constipation and should be assessed carefully in the management of these cases. © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Tatarko, A. N.
Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of
Shim, Sungok Serena; Wang, Cen; Makara, Kara A.; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Xie, Li-Na; Zhong, Ming
University life can be stressful and students may struggle to adjust socially. We examined students' social achievement goals--their orientations towards their relationships with their peers--as one important factor underlying students' social and psychological adjustment in college. When investigating the direct and indirect effects of social…
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.
Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…
Jonas, K.J.; Huguet, P.
Social-psychological research on time has pointed to the social construct of time rather than a mere physical entity that we reflect cognitively. Using two paradigms (day retrieval process and goal priming), the authors show that the time orientation is strongly prone to social influences and argue
Cottone, R. Rocco
A social constructivism model of ethical decision-making is summarized and related to the Canadian Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Social constructivism is described as an intellectual movement that allows for a biological and social conception of human understanding, thereby superceding or displacing psychological theory. The theoretical…
Ângela Regina de Vasconcelos Silva
Full Text Available During a long time, the understanding and the treatment of the symptoms and upset of the climacteric were attributed to the modifications of physical order with emotional reflexes. This work tried to identify the most frequent psychological, social and biological alterations in the climacteric, seeking to the adaptation and effectiveness of the nursing interventions.It is a study of exploratory and descriptive character that tends, as main focus, to know and to contribute for the solution of the problems of the group of the climacteric women. The collection of data was accomplished through interviews, of the which took part in 36 women in the climacteric and post-climacteric phases that frequented the Center of Health, in Fortaleza–CE, selected in the consultations of nursing during the months of November of 2001 to January of 2002. We verified that 25 of the women said to feel irritability, 23, feel fatigues; 22, anxiety, 19, decrease of the libido; 21, stress, 20, insomnia and, 20, depression. On the other hand, we noticed that 24 women felt several changes related to the companion, indicating the couple’s sexual frigidity, abuse and the partner’s isolation and decrease of the libido, associated to the discomforts in the sexual act. Besides, we observed in the depositions that only 05 women understood that the climacteric is a phase of cares and treatments, while 24 demonstrated total ignorance on the subject. This in the group to end that there is deficiency of information in the services of health and that, in practice of nursing, prevention measures and attention should be implemented to the climacteric women, with base in their perceptions and experiences, for help them to overcome the difficulties of the situation.
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; McGuire, Lynanne; Robles, Theodore F; Glaser, Ronald
This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade. Issues discussed include the routes through which psychological factors influence immune function, how a stressor's duration may influence the changes observed, individual difference variables, the ability of interventions to modulate immune function, and the health consequences of psychosocially mediated immune dysregulation. The importance of negative affect and supportive personal relationships are highlighted. Recent data suggest that immune dysregulation may be one core mechanism for a spectrum of conditions associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and frailty and functional decline; production of proinflammatory cytokines that influence these and other conditions can be stimulated directly by negative emotions and indirectly by prolonged infection.
One fundamental question in psychology is what makes humans such intensely social beings. Probing the developmental and neural origins of our social capacities is a way of addressing this question. In the last 10 years the field of social-cognitive development has witnessed a surge in studies using neuroscience methods to elucidate the development of social information processing during infancy. While the use of electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has revealed a great deal about the timing and localization of the cortical processes involved in early social cognition, the principles underpinning the early development of social brain functioning remain largely unexplored. Here I provide a framework that delineates the essential processes implicated in the early development of the social brain. In particular, I argue that the development of social brain functions in infancy is characterized by the following key principles: (a) self-relevance, (b) joint engagement, (c) predictability, (d) categorization, (e) discrimination, and (f) integration. For all of the proposed principles, I provide empirical examples to illustrate when in infancy they emerge. Moreover, I discuss to what extent they are in fact specifically social in nature or share properties with more domain-general developmental principles. Taken together, this article provides a conceptual integration of the existing EEG/ERPs and fNIRS work on infant social brain function and thereby offers the basis for a principle-based approach to studying the neural correlates of early social cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Huebner, Daniel R
Mind, Self, and Society, the posthumously published volume by which George Herbert Mead is primarily known, poses acute problems of interpretation so long as scholarship does not consider the actual process of its construction. This paper utilizes extensive archival correspondence and notes in order to analyze this process in depth. The analysis demonstrates that the published form of the book is the result of a consequential interpretive process in which social actors manipulated textual documents within given practical constraints over a course of time. The paper contributes to scholarship on Mead by indicating how this process made possible certain understandings of his social psychology and by relocating the materials that make up the single published text within the disparate contexts from which they were originally drawn. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Funder, David C
Reasonable conservatives are in short supply and will not arrive to save social psychology any time soon. The field needs to save itself through de-biasing. The effects of a liberal worldview permeate and distort discussion of many topics that are not overtly political, including behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, the fundamental attribution error, and the remarkably persistent consistency controversy.
King, Sara B.
This project teaches students about persuasion techniques, especially as governments use them. Most project examples came from the work of the U.S. military's modern Psychological Operations division. Social psychology students (a) reviewed influence techniques; (b) examined posters, leaflets, and other persuasion tools used in World War II, the…
Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.
Women's involvement in the research process, the types of research methods used, and substantive concerns were examined in selected issues of the "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" between 1963 and 1983. Comparisons with studies published in the "Psychology of Women Quarterly" suggest that the impact of the feminist challenge is more…
The history of social psychology has been dogged by crises based on different approaches to understanding ... Akin-Ogundeji argued that the history of psychology in. Africa is synonymous with the history of colonialism. .... equity principles, with the result that the sustainability of the development project is compromised.
Shriberg, David; Clinton, Amanda
In as much as school psychology practice is based on the goals of supporting the rights, access, and treatment of children as related to their education, social justice has the potential to be a moral framework for training, research, and practice in school psychology. Accordingly, this article seeks to achieve many objectives. First, a definition…
Lawrence, Natalie Kerr
Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…
Pascarella, Christina Bechle
This study examined play therapy training across the nation among school psychology, social work, and school counseling graduate training programs. It also compared current training to previous training among school psychology and school counseling programs. A random sample of trainers was selected from lists of graduate programs provided by…
Rutherford, Alexandra; Vaughn-Blount, Kelli; Ball, Laura C.
Feminist psychology began as an avowedly political project with an explicit social change agenda. However, over the last two decades, a number of critics have argued that feminist psychology has become mired in an epistemological impasse where positivist commitments effectively mute its political project, rendering the field acceptable to…
Green, Christopher D.
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G
relationship emerges after controlling for important clinical and mental health variables. Understanding the relationship between feeling stereotyped and social function may assist practitioners in their treatment. The study is cross-sectional, and thus, experimental or longitudinal research is required to determine the causal direction between stereotype threat and social function. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study
Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan
Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems
Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J
Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Nafstad, Hilde Eileen; Blakar, Rolv Mikkel
In our article we will first briefly review developments within critical psychology in Norway in the years after we prepared a review for Annual Review of Critical Psychology (in 2006). The substantial part of the article, however, will be an analysis and critical discussion of social psychology based on the assumption that social psychology (and the other social sciences) has a moral obligation to contribute in resolving pressing problems of our time; problems representing real threats to ma...
This paper explores relations between narrative, memory and social representations by examining how social representations express the ways in which communities deal with the historical past. Drawing on a case study of social representations of the Brazilian public sphere, it shows how a specific narrative of origins re-invents history as a useful mythological resource for defending identity, building inter-group solidarity and maintaining social cohesion. Produced by a time-travelling dialogue between multiple sources, this historical narrative is functional both to transform, to stabilise and give resilience to specific social representations of public life. The Brazilian case shows that historical narratives, which tend to be considered as part of the stable core of representational fields, are neither homogenous nor consensual but open polyphasic platforms for the construction of alternative, often contradictory, representations. These representations do not go away because they are ever changing and situated, recruit multiple ways of thinking and fulfil functions of identity, inter-group solidarity and social cohesion. In the disjunction between historiography and the past as social representation are the challenges and opportunities for the dialogue between historians and social psychologists.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.
Stevenson, Clifford; Hopkins, Nick; Luyt, Russell; Dixon, John
In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive) understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contribut...
Marsman, Maarten; Sch?nbrodt, Felix D.; Morey, Richard D.; Yao, Yuling; Gelman, Andrew; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
We applied three Bayesian methods to reanalyse the preregistered contributions to the Social Psychology special issue ?Replications of Important Results in Social Psychology? (Nosek & Lakens. 2014 Registered reports: a method to increase the credibility of published results. Soc. Psychol. 45, 137?141. (doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000192)). First, individual-experiment Bayesian parameter estimation revealed that for directed effect size measures, only three out of 44 central 95% credible intervals ...
Damian Haslett; Ben Fitzpatrick; Gavin Breslin
Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM) of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007). Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured...
Callé, N; Plainfossé, C; Georget, P; Sénémeaud, C; Rasonglès, P
The supply of blood cell products requires from the National French Blood Institute (Établissement Français du Sang - EFS) to rely upon regular blood donors. Contact with donors, tailored to individuals as much as possible, helps them to donate on a regular basis. Within the context of a research program conducted with the Psychology Department of the Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, persuasive theoretical models from social psychology have been tested. These models allow adapting messages according to the motivation of donors. The content is centred on the previous donation, differently labelled according to two types of labelling: functional labelling and social labelling. Functional labelling points out the efficiency of what "has been done" (the previous blood donation), whereas social labelling emphasizes the social value of the individual. Different types of mailing invitations have been sent to 1917 donors from the Normandy database, invited to three different blood collections. Every experimental letter worked better than the standard EFS letter (which was used as the "control" letter) in terms of effective blood donation after reception of the letter. Some of the letters are more efficient in motivating donors than other ones. The letters labelling the previous blood donation as functional (efficiency of the donation) appeared more efficient than those with social label (social value) in whichever motivation induced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Robyn Lewis Claar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore how adolescents’ pain coping profiles relate to their expectations regarding psychological treatment recommendations, and to examine patients’ functioning and engagement in psychological treatment three months following a multidisciplinary pain clinic evaluation.
Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.
Lai, Kaisheng; Lee, Yan Xin; Chen, Hao; Yu, Rongjun
The widespread use of web searches in daily life has allowed researchers to study people's online social and psychological behavior. Using web search data has advantages in terms of data objectivity, ecological validity, temporal resolution, and unique application value. This review integrates existing studies on web search data that have explored topics including sexual behavior, suicidal behavior, mental health, social prejudice, social inequality, public responses to policies, and other psychosocial issues. These studies are categorized as descriptive, correlational, inferential, predictive, and policy evaluation research. The integration of theory-based hypothesis testing in future web search research will result in even stronger contributions to social psychology.
Adams, G. R.
This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay
This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.
Full Text Available Parental acceptance is important for children. Children need to receive positive responses from their parents. Based on the literature, children who are neglected by their mothers are more significantly associated with psychological and social maladjustment. On the contrary, if children are accepted by their mothers, this is connected with psychological and social adjustment in their life. This study was conducted to analyze to the relationship between perceived maternal acceptance-rejection and control and psychological, social maladjustment in a sample of primary school students residing in a rural community. This study also aimed to investigate correlations between socio-demographic characteristic of mothers and their acceptance-rejection and control and their children’s psychological and social maladjustment. This study was a correlational descriptive research. The participants were a group of 36 primary school students aged between 9 to 11 and their 2 class teachers and a vice chair of the school in Karpaz of İskele district, North Cyprus. Socio-demographical Information Sheet, Child/Adult: PAR/Control Mother Version Questionnaire and Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale –Revised Long Form was used. The main findings indicated that perceptions of children maternal rejection were significantly correlated with children psychological and social maladjustment. However, no significant relationships were found between mother’s education, occupation and perceived maternal acceptance, rejection and control and children’s psychological and social maladjustment. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed.
Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J
School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna
Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology. By the 1980s, I adopted an even broader multi-disciplinary approach to health, as the HIV/AIDS epidemic urgently challenedg health researchers/practitioners, in France and worldwide.
Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Bicks, Lucy; Hasler, Gregor
Depression is associated with social risk factors, social impairments and poor social functioning. This paper gives an overview of these social aspects using the NIMH Research and Domain Criteria 'Systems for Social Processes' as a framework. In particular, it describes the bio-psycho-social interplay regarding impaired affiliation and attachment (social anhedonia, hyper-sensitivity to social rejection, competition avoidance, increased altruistic punishment), impaired social communication (impaired emotion recognition, diminished cooperativeness), impaired social perception (reduced empathy, theory-of-mind deficits) and their impact on social networks and the use of social media. It describes these dysfunctional social processes at the behavioural, neuroanatomical, neurochemical and genetic levels, and with respect to animal models of social stress. We discuss the diagnostic specificity of these social deficit constructs for depression and in relation to depression severity. Since social factors are importantly involved in the pathogenesis and the consequences of depression, such research will likely contribute to better diagnostic assessments and concepts, treatments and preventative strategies both at the diagnostic and transdiagnostic level. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kretova, I G; Belyaeva, O V; Shiraeva, O I; Komarova, M V; Chygarina, S E; Kostsova, E A
There was performed an assessment of anthropometric indices of physical development and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system, psychological and social status in 770 students of the higher educational institutions in the city ofSamara. There was revealed the presence of I-III degree obesity in 13.2% of young males and underweight in 19.1% of young females. Stress and disruption of the processes of the adaptation process were shown to be observed in 7.6% and 6.1% of students, respectively. There was found a tendency to hypertension in 12.6% of young males. Revealed changes are related to lifestyle of the modern student. The main factors for the improvement of the life quality is the duration of sleep and ultimate nutrition. Initially, the lower level of physical and functional capabilities is compensated by virtue of the correct organization of social and psychological factors and prevents possible deviations from the part of health.
Winegard, Bo; Winegard, Benjamin; Geary, David C
We agree with Duarte et al. that bias in social psychology is a serious problem that researchers should confront. However, we are skeptical that most social psychologists adhere to a liberal progress narrative. We suggest, instead, that most social psychologists are paranoid egalitarian meliorists (PEMs). We explain the term and suggest possible remedies to bias in social psychology.
Lifintsev D.V.; Lifintseva A.A.; Serykh A.B.
This article is a theoretical overview of the main standardized techniques for assessment of the social relations of the individual. The study of these techniques allows professionals to get the basic information about the microsocial environment of people. Theoretical analysis shows that the study of the social network of an individual involves the analysis of its structure, composition and function of its components. Described and analyzed the most common techniques for asses...
DuRant, R H; Jay, M S
A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral
Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Álvaro; Burgueño, Rafael
This study aimed to determine the usefulness of integrating basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and relational frames theory (RFT) in order to explain the effects of social physique anxiety (SPA) - in the context of exercise - on exercisers' mental health. A total of 296 recreational cyclists and triathletes (100% males) aged 18 to 60 years old (M age = 35.65, SD = 9.49) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the target variables. Two models of structural equations with multiple mediators were tested using 5000 bootstrap samples. While the BPNT-based model explained 20% of variance in satisfaction with life (SWL) and 25% of variance in mental health (MH), the model that also incorporated RFT explained 43% of variance in both of those variables. Results showed that SPA negatively impacted exercisers' mental health via two different mechanisms: a) through a decrease in perceived satisfaction of basic psychological needs (β = -.05, p = .045 for SWL; β = -.07, p = .002 for MH); b) through an increase in psychological inflexibility, generated directly by SPA (β = -.24, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.20, p < .001 for MH) and also mediated by basic psychological need thwarting (β = -.09, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.08, p = .002 for MH). Results supported integrating the two theories, elucidating the processes by which a controlling social factor like SPA can affect the potential benefits of exercise.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning
This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong
The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Brosnan, Sarah F; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E; van Vugt, Mark
Social and personality psychology and behavioral primatology both enjoy long histories of research aimed at uncovering the proximate and ultimate determinants of primate-human and nonhuman-social behavior. Although they share research themes, methodologies, and theories, and although their studied species are closely related, there is currently very little interaction between the fields. This separation means that researchers in these disciplines miss out on opportunities to advance understanding by combining insights from both fields. Social and personality psychologists also miss the opportunity for a phylogenetic analysis. The time has come to integrate perspectives on primate social psychology. Here, the authors provide a historical background and document the main similarities and differences in approaches. Next, they present some examples of research programs that may benefit from an integrated primate perspective. Finally, the authors propose a framework for developing a social psychology inclusive of all primates. Such a melding of minds promises to greatly benefit those who undertake the challenge.
Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan
This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.
Gokani, Ravi; Walsh, Richard T G
We examine historical and conceptual literature in community psychology in order to understand the field's potential to be the socially transformative subdiscipline of psychology to which it aspires. By reviewing papers from two prominent journals and other literature, we conclude that the claim that community psychology is well-suited to social transformation, because it is a product of Sixties' radicalism and is theoretically equipped, is untenable. Systematic accounts of the subdiscipline's origins suggest that the transformative aspirations of current community psychologists do not correspond to the subdiscipline's reformist past. Furthermore, in analyzing three related concepts currently employed in the field-social justice, power, and praxis-we show that each suffers from conceptual ambiguity and a restricted political scope. These conceptual flaws, coupled with community psychology's historical inclination toward social reform, inhibit the possibility of contributing to radical social transformation. We conclude that neither questionable historical claims nor ambiguous and politically dubious concepts support a community psychology of social transformation. We offer solutions for the historical and conceptual problems we identify and, as a broader solution to the problem of engaging in socially transformative work, propose that community psychologists should seek direct political engagement in solidarity with other citizens as fellow citizens not as psychologists. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Perinelli, Enrico; Gremigni, Paola
There is still an open debate about the utility of social desirability indicators. This report systematically reviewed the use of social desirability scales in studies addressing social desirability in clinical psychology. A systematic review (January 2010-March 2015) was conducted, including 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals and describing quantitative findings about an association of social desirability with clinical psychology variables using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Social desirability was associated with self-reports of various clinical-psychological dimensions. Most of the included studies treated social desirability as a 1-dimensional variable and only 10 of 35 disentangled the impression management and self-deception components. Although theoretical literature does not consider social desirability a mere response bias, only 4 of the reviewed articles controlled for the possible suppressor effect of personality variables on social desirability, while the majority focused upon the stylistic (response bias) rather than the substantive (personality) nature of this construct. The present review highlighted some limitations in the use of social desirability scales in recent clinical psychology research and tried to offer a few suggestions for handling this issue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brown, Steven D; Lunt, Peter
This paper explores how social psychology has theorized the relationship between the individual and society. This is done through a genealogical analysis of the Social Identity Tradition (SIT). It is argued that the current state of SIT is profoundly shaped by a range of intellectual and moral strategies derived from the work of Henri Tajfel. This 'Tajfel effect' manifests itself as a way of settling theoretical, practical and moral disputes through the invocation of Tajfel as a founding figure. However, this strategy also ties SIT into a model of the subject and an understanding of society that is increasingly seen as problematic. The paper then goes on to show how a range of core concepts at the heart of SIT may be usefully reformulated by drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari. Their work offers SIT a way of thinking about individuals and groups as sites for connection and differentiation. This is illustrated using the example of Nazi social relations that was originally deployed by Tajfel. Potential issues and direction for SIT as reinvigorated by the encounter with Deleuze and Guattari are then sketched out.
Raffaele De Luca Picione
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one’s own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process – as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context – involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms.
De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Valsiner, Jaan
In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one's own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process - as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context - involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms.
De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Valsiner, Jaan
In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one’s own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process – as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context – involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms. PMID:28904600
Geraldo José de Paiva
Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.
Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan
Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.
Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.
Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard
A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....
Anna B. Leonova
Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.
Gardner, Andrew; Cotton, Sue M; Allott, Kelly; Filia, Kate M; Hester, Robert; Killackey, Eóin
People with psychosis are at risk of social exclusion. Research is needed in this area due to the lack of direct measurement of social inclusion, which becomes salient in adolescence and is relevant to first-episode psychosis (FEP; the onset of which typically occurs during or shortly after adolescence). Social inclusion may be impacted by impaired social cognition and social functioning, which are related features observed in psychosis. The aim of this study was to explore interrelationship(s) between social cognition, social functioning and social inclusion in FEP while controlling for symptomatology (positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and demographic characteristics. A series of cross-sectional hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to examine whether: social cognition (theory of mind, emotion recognition) predicted social functioning; social functioning predicted social inclusion, and whether social functioning mediated the relationship between social cognition and social inclusion in people aged 15 to 25 (M = 20.49, SD = 2.41) with FEP (N = 146). Age, sex, premorbid IQ, positive and negative psychotic symptoms and depression were control variables. Poor facial emotion recognition (β = -.22, P social functioning. Role-specific social functioning (ie, current employment) predicted greater social inclusion (β = .17, P social inclusion (β = -.43, P Social functioning did not mediate the relationship between social cognition and inclusion. Psychotic symptoms were unrelated to social inclusion. Employment and depression may influence social inclusion somewhat independently of psychotic symptomatology in FEP. Inferences should be viewed with caution given this study did not involve longitudinal data. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Stutterheim, S; Pryor, J.B; Bos, A.E.R; Hoogendijk, R; Muris, P; Schaalma, H.P
... in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings...
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed. 2007 APA
I reflect on the contribution that BJSP has made to the conceptualization of the group within social psychology by highlighting two cases studies from the social identity tradition published in 1990. These illustrate BJSP's distinctive strength and openness to theoretical innovation over the last
Chan, David W.
Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…
Subasic, E.; Reynolds, K.; Reicher, S.; Klandermans, P.G.
For a vibrant and viable psychology of social change it is necessary to examine its place and contribution to the societal processes it seeks to understand, explain, and (potentially) affect. In this article, we first consider the impact that research and theorizing on social change (should) have
Haslam, S.A.; Jetten, J; Postmes, T.; Haslam, C.
The social environment comprising communities, families, neighbourhoods, work teams, and various other forms of social group is not simply an external feature of the world that provides a context for individual behaviour. Instead these groups impact on the psychology of individuals through their
Takahashi, Kyo; Sase, Eriko; Kato, Atsushi; Igari, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine
Incontinence restricts participation in social activities among older adults. However, some older adults participate in social activities despite this condition. This study aimed to describe how older adults with incontinence could be resilient and actively participate in social activities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 socially active older adults with incontinence (age 70-90; nine women and two men) at their homes or in private areas of day-service centres in Chiba, Japan. We coded salient narratives by using thematic analysis and extracted themes. Finally, we developed a conceptual model and illustrated the interactions among themes. We identified seven themes that affected active social participation; five of these pertained to psychological characteristics ('motivation to be socially active', 'psychological stress of incontinence', 'desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') and the remaining two pertained to supporting environmental factors ('assistive devices' and 'accessible toilet'). Three psychological themes ('desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') were intertwined with supporting environmental factors and increased the participants' 'motivation to be socially active'. Older adults with incontinence can actively participate in the society when they have desire to interact with others, willingness to perform physical exercise, and confidence in managing incontinence. These psychological characteristics are important for being resilient in the face of incontinence and for active social participation.
Shriberg, David; Desai, Poonam
This article describes the overlap between the common goals of social justice and children's rights advocates as applied to scholarship and practice in school psychology. We argue that these frameworks overlap a great deal, with a primary distinction being the roots of each approach. Specifically, the origins of social justice movements in…
Explores home-school relations by using three social psychology theories: (1) symbolic interactionism; (2) social exchange theory; and (3) reference group theory. States that these theories can contribute to the understanding and development of home-school relations in Hong Kong (China). (CMK)
"Sentiment" is a potentially appealing concept for social and personality psychologists. It can render some complex affective phenomena theoretically tractable, help refine accounts of social perception, and illuminate some personality dispositions. The success of a future sentimental psychology depends on whether "sentiment" can be delimited as a distinct domain, and whether a credible classification of sentiments can be developed.
Brandt, Mark J; Proulx, Travis
One possible consequence of ideological homogeneity is the misinterpretation of data collected with otherwise solid methods. To help identify these issues outside of politically relevant research, we name and give broad descriptions to three questionable interpretive practices described by Duarte et al. and introduce three additional questionable theoretical practices that also reduce the theoretical power and paradigmatic scope of psychology.
Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura
In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology.…
Infertility is one of the major health problems of public concern. It is more so not only for its clinical consequences, but also for its socio-psychological damages on both the individual and the family/society. The purpose of this study was to appraise the knowledge and attitude of couples towards infertility in Abakiliki Local ...
Janssen, M.A; Jager, W.
Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. in a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation
Cozzolino, Philip J
Research suggests that in modern Western culture there is a positive relationship between the equality of resources and the formation of trust and cooperation, two psychological components of social capital. Two studies elucidate the psychological processes underlying that relationship. Study 1 experimentally tested the influence of resource distributions on the formation of trust and intentions to cooperate; individuals receiving a deficit of resources and a surplus of resources evidenced lower levels of social capital (i.e., trust and cooperation) than did individuals receiving equal amounts. Analyses revealed the process was affective for deficit participants and cognitive for surplus participants. Study 2 provided suggestive support for the affective-model of equality and social capital using proxy variables in the 1996 General Social Survey data set. Results suggest support for a causal path of unequal resource distributions generating affective experiences and cognitive concerns of justice, which mediate disengagement and distrust of others. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Guadagno, Rosanna E; Cialdini, Robert B; Evron, Gadi
In April 2007, the First Internet War began. Owing to the relocation of a World War II-era Soviet war memorial in Estonia, angry protestors, primarily of Russian descent, engaged in a month-long series of coordinated online attacks on Estonia's Internet infrastructure that disabled it for several days. We analyze this real-world event from a social psychological perspective. Specifically, we review the details surrounding the event and examine why protest manifested in this form of online attack and discuss how it was successfully orchestrated from a framework provided by social psychology, the science of human social interaction. We argue that the psychological principles of loss, relative anonymity of online interaction, group membership and adherence to group norms, social validation, and contagion all contributed to the success of the attacks.
Ledgerwood, Alison; Callahan, Shannon P
Intuition suggests that a distanced or abstract thinker should be immune to social influence, and on its surface, the current literature could seem to support this view. The present research builds on recent theorizing to suggest a different possibility. Drawing on the notion that psychological distance regulates the extent to which evaluations incorporate context-specific or context-independent information, we suggest that psychological distance should actually increase susceptibility to sources of social influence that tend to be consistently encountered across contexts, such as group norms. Consistent with this hypothesis, two studies showed that psychological distance and abstraction increased conformity to group opinion and that this effect persisted in a novel voting-booth paradigm in which participants believed their voting behavior was both anonymous and consequential. We discuss implications of these findings for understanding the social side of abstraction as well as the conditions under which different types of social influence are likely to be most influential.
Hodgetts, Darrin J; Stolte, Ottilie; Chamberlain, Kerry; Radley, Alan; Groot, Shiloh; Nikora, Linda Waimarie
This article explores aspects of a homeless man's everyday life and his use of material objects to maintain a sense of place in the city. We are interested in the complex functions of walking, listening and reading as social practices central to how this man forges a life as a mobile hermit across physical and imagined locales. This highlights connections between physical place, use of material objects, imagination, and sense of self. Our analysis illustrates the value of paying attention to geographical locations and objects in social psychological research on homelessness.
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman
AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968
Kotake, Kumiko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Kai, Ichiro; Iwanaga, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya
The objective is to clarify whether social support and acquisition of alternative voice enhance the psychological adjustment of laryngectomized patients and which part of the psychological adjustment structure would be influenced by social support. We contacted 1445 patients enrolled in a patient association using mail surveys and 679 patients agreed to participate in the study. The survey items included age, sex, occupation, post-surgery duration, communication method, psychological adjustment (by the Nottingham Adjustment Scale Japanese Laryngectomy Version: NAS-J-L), and the formal support (by Hospital Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-25: HPSQ-25). Social support and communication methods were added to the three-tier structural model of psychological adjustment shown in our previous study, and a covariance structure analysis was conducted. Formal/informal supports and acquisition of alternative voice influence only the "recognition of oneself as voluntary agent", the first tier of the three-tier structure of psychological adjustment. The results suggest that social support and acquisition of alternative voice may enhance the recognition of oneself as voluntary agent and promote the psychological adjustment.
Full Text Available Scopo del presente lavoro è proporre l'analisi di testi letterari per lo studio delle rappresentazioni sociali dell'invecchiamento. Dopo un'introduzione al tema, con cenni ai recenti sviluppi in termini di invecchiamento positivo e all'utilità di un maggiore interscambio tra psicologia sociale e letteratura, vengono presentati i risultati di analisi quali-quantitative e qualitative di due recenti opere italiane. Sia l'analisi delle corrispondenze, sia una lettura più qualitativa dei testi, restituiscono indicazioni preziose rispetto all'intento di co-costruire un modo di Invecchiare Bene. Assonanze e divergenze rispetto alla letteratura psico-sociale sull'invecchiamento contribuiscono ad una lettura critica e generativa dell'ultimo 'dono del tempo'.O objetivo deste trabalho é propor a análise de textos literários para o estudo das representações sociais do envelhecimento. Após uma introdução ao tema, com referências a recente evolução positiva em termos de envelhecimento e à utilidade de um maior intercâmbio entre a psicologia social e a literatura, apresentamos os resultados da análise e as características quantitativas e qualitativas de duas recentes obras italianas. Tanto a análise de correspondência, quanto uma leitura mais qualitativa dos textos fornecem indicações valiosas sobre a intenção de co-construir um caminho para Envelhecer Bem. Semelhanças e diferenças em relação à literatura psico-social sobre o envelhecimento contribuem para uma leitura crítica e generativa do último "dom do tempo".Aim of the present paper is to propose the analysis of literary texts in order to study social representations of Ageing. After introducing the theme, with reference to recent developments in terms of positive ageing and to the usefulness of a stronger interchange between social psychology and literature, the results of quali-quantitative and qualitative analyses of two Italian recent books are presented. Both
Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.
Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Jaspers, JPC; Kamps, WA; Klip, EC
Objective: To investigate levels of support and the concurrent and prospective effects of support on the psychological functioning of parents of children with cancer in a prospective longitudinal study. Methods: Parents' (n = 128) self-perceived level of psychological distress, quantity of support,
Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao
Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures,…
Feierabend, I. K.; Klicperová-Baker, Martina
Roč. 45, č. 4 (2015), s. 564-577 ISSN 0081-2463 Grant - others:Nadace Pangea(CZ) Pangea 12014 Fenomén slušnosti ve světovém kontextu, vztahu k demokratičnosti, prosperitě a životní spokojenosti Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : civility * democracy * democratic peace * freedom * nonviolence * proximity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2015
Iaroslavskaia, M A; Petrovskaia, A N
The objective of the present work was to highlight and systematize the current scientific concepts of the role of psychological factors in the psycho-social adaptation of the patients presenting the Meniere's disease. The authors analysed the data concerning the psycho-social adaptation of the patients presenting with this condition that were published in the scientific literature during many years. The detailed analysis of the psychological characteristics of the patients allowed to reveal peculiarities of their psychological response to the disease and conserved personal-environmental resources that can be used in the development of stress-adaptation models for the psychological correction and psychotherapeutic treatment with a view to their subsequent introduction into the routine clinical practice of healthcare service institutions.
Simonet, Daniel V; Narayan, Anupama; Nelson, Courtney A
This study examines the indirect role of psychological safety in shaping the four cognitions of psychological empowerment (i.e., meaning, competence, self-determination, impact) through three social mechanisms: authentic interactions, spiritual development, and perceived organizational voice. Data were collected from 229 congregation members of a nondenominational church. Preliminary analyses reveal psychological safety is: (a) linked to all four empowerment cognitions, (b) associated with the three proximal social mechanisms, and (c) indirectly predicts three of the four empowerment cognitions through heightened level of authentic interactions, spiritual development, and perceived organizational voice. Moreover, extraversion moderated the relationship of psychological safety with authentic interactions which, in turn, strengthened the size of the indirect effect for the meaning subcomponent of empowerment. Overall, this study suggests empowerment research can draw upon the potential, but frequently untapped, benefits of cultivating a secure space to facilitate member motivation through sincerity, personal development, and perceived voice.
Geyh, Szilvia; Kunz, Simon; Müller, Rachel; Peter, Claudio
To describe and explore functioning and health of persons with spinal cord injury from the perspective of psychological-personal factors in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Data from 511 participants regarding feelings, thoughts and beliefs, motives, and patterns of experience and behaviour were analysed. Measurement instruments included the Mental Health Index-5, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Appraisal of Life Events Scale, 5 items from the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, Purpose in Life Test-Short Form, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Big Five Inventory-21, Social Skills Inventory-SF, Brief COPE. The distribution of the selected psychological-personal factors-indicators was examined using descriptive statistics. Differences between SCI subgroups by sex, age, age at injury, time since injury, aetiology and severity of injury were explored using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-tests. Participants who were older and sustained their spinal cord injury more recently experienced more depressed mood, less positive affect, less challenge appraisal, lower life satisfaction, lower purpose in life, and lower self-efficacy. They reported lower social skills, less usage of the coping strategies humour, positive reframing, and acceptance, and more usage of the coping strategies denial and self-distraction. Overall, effect sizes were small. Although study participants appeared to be well adjusted to spinal cord injury, those who sustained their injury at an older age and more recently reported more negative experiences. Quantitative description and exploration of the psychological-personal aspects of health will enable hypotheses to be formulated for further research, and suggest a need for tailored interventions for those at risk of less favourable outcomes.
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Stott, Clifford; Drury, John
This article explores the origins and ideology of classical crowd psychology, a body of theory reflected in contemporary popularised understandings such as of the 2011 English 'riots'. This article argues that during the nineteenth century, the crowd came to symbolise a fear of 'mass society' and that 'classical' crowd psychology was a product of these fears. Classical crowd psychology pathologised, reified and decontextualised the crowd, offering the ruling elites a perceived opportunity to control it. We contend that classical theory misrepresents crowd psychology and survives in contemporary understanding because it is ideological. We conclude by discussing how classical theory has been supplanted in academic contexts by an identity-based crowd psychology that restores the meaning to crowd action, replaces it in its social context and in so doing transforms theoretical understanding of 'riots' and the nature of the self. © The Author(s) 2016.
The place of staining which is established in today’s cosmetic perception as a creative way forbeauty, charm and attraction, had been split the path of the fed formatting of the social necessity ofthe past. The adventure of staining person who constantly reshapes the area based for needing, initiallypointed to similar meanings in the mind and body of every individual in the society. A personwho finds self-expression using non-verbal superior language by staining; has created a new sourceof id...
Cultural experience of silence and individual vicissitudes between talking and being silent influence the way individuals form an alliance and pursue the analytic process. This is of relevance both for the patient and for the psychoanalyst/therapist. The author describes a patient, whose silent phase occurred in the fifth and sixth year of intensive psychoanalytic psychotherapy. She suggests that a) the silence functioned as a protection of a space for the core self and promoted inner transformation and psychological development; b) the silence involved a transference-countertransference matrix with projective identifications of the patient's internalized mother- and father-related objects that caused a tenuous balance between maintaining and erasing the relationship between the patient and the author; c) the silence phase was highly influenced by the author's own cultural background and what she brought into the relationship of tolerance of being silent in the presence of another, and understanding of the many complex functions of silence. During the silent phase the patient moved from simply describing and naming her affects and inner experiences or expressing them as somatic processes, to being able to internally access and verbally convey her own affects and experiences in the therapeutic alliance. This process involved both affect desomatization, affect differentiation, and affect verbalization.
Simsek, Eylem; Balaban Sali, Jale
How Internet addiction affects happiness of university students in terms of their cognitive and emotional resources was not adequately investigated. One of the inner resources of life satisfaction and happiness is defined as psychological capital (PsyCap), under the paradigm of positive psychology. PsyCap consists of four main sub-factors: hope, resilience, self-efficacy, and optimism. The major purpose of this study is to examine the role of Internet addiction and social media membership on...
Justin H. Park
Inclusive fitness theory and kin selection theory are among the most recognizable theories associated with evolutionary biology and psychology—they are also among the most widely misunderstood. The problem begins early, in undergraduate psychology textbooks. Here, ten social psychology textbooks were reviewed, and they were all found to contain at least one form of misunderstanding. Because these misunderstandings appear to result partly from people's intuitions about kinship and adaptive beh...
Gergen, Kenneth J.; Lightfoot, Cynthia; Sydow, Lisa
We explore here the potentials of a social constructionist orientation to knowledge for research and clinical practice. Dialogues on social construction emphasize the communal origins of knowledge. They stress the cultural basis of knowledge claims, the significance of language, the value saturation of all knowledge, and the significance of…
McIntyre, Jason C; Wickham, Sophie; Barr, Ben; Bentall, Richard P
Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge. Here, we examined the relationship between social identity and mental health (paranoia, auditory verbal hallucinations [AVHs], and depression), and tested the mediating role of self-esteem. In study 1, we analyzed data collected from 4319 UK residents as part of the NIHR CLAHRC NWC Household Health Survey. Study 2 comprised data collected from 1167 students attending a large UK university. The studies provided convergent evidence that social identification reduces symptoms of paranoia and depression by furnishing people with self-esteem. There was no consistent effect of social identification on AVHs. People developing mental health assessments, treatments, and policies are encouraged to consider the notion that joining and identifying with social groups may reduce people's risk of paranoia and depression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.
An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)
Ana Raquel Rosas Torres
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is still present today. We then present the results of research conducted with 150 Brazilian social psychologists concerning the definition of social psychology, the academic training perspective, and the theories used in the conduct of research. The results point to the existence of several contradictions, since, among other matters, they highlight the fact that while most participants advocate research practices tied to a more sociological perspective, the definitions given indicate a more psychological view of social psychology.O objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir a psicologia social que vem sendo desenvolvida no Brasil inserindo-a no cenário teórico-metodológico internacional. Para alcançar este objetivo, inicialmente apresentamos um breve relato histórico da fundação da Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social e da Associação Latino Americana de Psicologia Social, fornecendo subsídios para o entendimento do embate político que envolveu o surgimento dessas duas organizações e que, de certa forma, ainda está presente na atualidade. Em seguida, apresentamos os resultados da pesquisa realizada com 150 psicólogos sociais brasileiros sobre a definição de psicologia social, sobre a perspectiva de formação e sobre as teorias utilizadas na atividade de pesquisa. Os resultados indicam a existência de algumas contradições, pois, dentre outros aspectos, destaca-se o fato que, embora a maioria dos participantes advogue uma prática de
Full Text Available Social dysfunction is commonly reported by survivors of brain insult, and is often rated as the most debilitating of all sequelae, impacting on many areas of daily life, as well as overall quality of life. Within the early brain insult (EBI literature, physical and cognitive domains have been of primary interest and social skills have received scant attention. As a result it remains unclear how common these problems are, and whether factors predictive of recovery (insult severity, lesion location, age at insult, environment in other functional domains (motor, speech, cognition also contribute to social outcome. This study compared social outcomes for children sustaining EBI at different times from gestation to late childhood to determine whether EBI was associated with an increased risk of problems. Children with focal brain insults were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i Congenital (n = 38: EBI: first–second trimester; (ii Perinatal (n = 33; EBI: third trimester to 1 month post-natal; (iii Infancy (n=23: EBI: 2 months–2 years post-birth; (iv Preschool (n = 19: EBI: 3–6 years; (v Middle Childhood (n = 31: EBI: 7–9 years; and (vi Late Childhood (n = 19: EBI: after age 10. Children’s teachers completed questionnaires measuring social function (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Walker McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. Results showed that children with EBI were at increased risk for social impairment compared to normative expectations. EBI before age 2 years was associated with most significant social impairment, while children with EBI in the preschool years and in late childhood recorded scores closer to normal. Lesion location and laterality were not predictive of social outcome, and nor was social risk. In contrast, presence of disability (seizures and family function were shown to contribute to aspects of social function.
Buckner, Julia D; Lemke, Austin W; Jeffries, Emily R; Shah, Sonia M
Social anxiety is related to greater suicidality, even after controlling for depression and other psychopathology. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) proposes that people are vulnerable to wanting to die by suicide if they experience both perceived burdensomeness (sense that one is a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a greater sense of alienation from others). Socially anxious persons may be especially vulnerable to these interpersonal factors. The current study tested whether interpersonal IPTS components independently and additively mediate the social anxiety-suicidal ideation (SI) relation among 780 (80.5% female) undergraduates. Social anxiety was significantly, robustly related to SI and to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Social anxiety was indirectly related to SI via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. The sum of these indirect effects was significant. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that perceived burdensomeness only mediated the relation between social anxiety and SI at higher levels of thwarted belongingness. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.
Boman, U W; Bryman, I; Halling, K; Möller, A
Psychological well-being, self-rated health and social situation were investigated in a cross-sectional multidisciplinary study of 63 women with Turner syndrome (TS; mean age 31.5 years, range 18-59 years). The psychological examination included a semi-structured interview, and use of two standardized self-rating scales, the Psychological General Well-being Index (PGWB) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Psychological well-being and self-rated health were similar in the women with TS and Swedish female normative data, matched for age. However, the women with TS reported more social isolation than the normative group. Within the TS group, the oldest women reported more psychological distress and poorer health than the youngest. Those with impaired self-rated health reported more emotional distress. The women with TS were studying or in employment to the same degree as the general population, although fewer were cohabiting. In the interview, both negative and positive consequences of TS were reported. This study did not find any evidence for impaired psychological well-being, although it did indicate that women with TS experience more difficulties in the area of social and partner relationships.
Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Melançon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred.
Doherty, Anne M; Gayle, Carol; Morgan-Jones, Ruth; Archer, Nicola; Laura-Lee; Ismail, Khalida; Werner, Anne
Many people with persistent suboptimal diabetes control also have psychiatric morbidity and social problems which interfere with their ability to self-manage their diabetes. Current models of care in the UK do not integrate these different dimensions of care or address inequalities between physical and mental health. 3DFD (3 Dimensions of Care For Diabetes) integrated medical, psychological, and social care in diabetes for patients with persistent suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c > 75 mmol/mol) despite guideline-based routine diabetes care, to improve glycemic control, reduce psychological distress, and improve social functioning. The service delivered interventions including brief psychological therapies, mental health assessments, psychotropic medications, and social support, enhanced by patient-led case conferences aiming to optimize diabetes care. 3DFD measured changes in HbA1c, psychological functioning, quality of life, rates of unscheduled care, and levels of engagement with routine diabetes care at baseline and at 12 months. At 12-month follow-up, 3DFD patients achieved significant reductions in HbA1c of 15 mmol/mol, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (1.4% Diabetes Control and Complications Trial) and improvements in depression scores and patient satisfaction. This model of care demonstrates that integrated care can improve diabetes outcomes in people with psychological and social comorbidities. © The Author(s) 2015.
Reyes Cruz, Mariolga; Sonn, Christopher C
Since its inception, community psychology has been interested in cultural matters relating to issues of diversity and marginalization. However, the field has tended to understand culture as static social markers or as the background for understanding group differences. In this article the authors contend that culture is inseparable from who we are and what we do as social beings. Moreover, culture is continually shaped by socio-historical and political processes intertwined within the globalized history of power. The authors propose a decolonizing standpoint grounded in critical social science to disrupt understandings of cultural matters that marginalize others. This standpoint would move the field toward deeper critical thinking, reflexivity and emancipatory action. The authors present their work to illustrate how they integrate a decolonizing standpoint to community psychology research and teaching. They conclude that community psychology must aim towards intercultural work engaging its political nature from a place of ontological/epistemological/methodological parity.
Bishop, Brian J; Dzidic, Peta L
Causal layered analysis (CLA) is an emerging qualitative methodology adopted in the discipline of planning as an approach to deconstruct complex social issues. With psychologists increasingly confronted with complex, and "wicked" social and community issues, we argue that the discipline of psychology would benefit from adopting CLA as an analytical method. Until now, the application of CLA for data interpretation has generally been poorly defined and overwhelming for the novice. In this paper we propose an approach to CLA that provides a method for the deconstruction and analysis of complex social psychological issues. We introduce CLA as a qualitative methodology well suited for psychology, introduce the epistemological foundations of CLA, define a space for it adoption within the discipline, and, outline the steps for conducting a CLA using an applied example.
Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L
Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.
Koller, M; Lorenz, W
Social psychology is the discipline that investigates thought processes, emotions, and behaviors in the interpersonal context. There are three broad topic domains: understanding oneself and other persons, interpersonal relations, and group influence. The most important method is the experiment. The value of the social psychological perspective is illustrated with regard to the following surgical research questions: How do surgeons arrive at their decisions? How do surgeons confirm their decisions? Why do decision aids (computer support, guidelines) receive so little acceptance? How should patients be informed? Which group processes play a role in the operating theatre? What are the determinants of patient outcomes? Social psychology can extend surgical research in three respects: better understanding of everyday phenomena in the clinical and surgical arena, methodologically refined and stronger patient-oriented study designs, and new perspectives for improved patient outcomes.
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling
PURPOSE: The vast majority of studies investigating the association between social and psychological factors and anxiety disorders have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. The purpose of the study was to investigate in a prospective longitudinal study whether...... social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted to a hospital and receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorders. METHOD: The study population comprised 4,497 members of The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC) who in 1993 answered a mailed questionnaire containing questions...... on a range of social and psychological factors. In 2007, the study population was linked to The Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to obtain information on registration with anxiety disorders. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk of anxiety...