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Sample records for psychological factors involved

  1. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  2. Towards a better understanding of caregiver distress in early psychosis: a systematic review of the psychological factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Gleeson, John; Cotton, Sue

    2015-02-01

    We sought to review empirical studies of psychological factors accounting for distress in caregivers of young people with early psychosis. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we included studies that empirically tested psychological models of caregiver distress in early psychosis by searching the following databases up until March 2014: PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). This was followed by additional manual searches of reference lists and relevant journals. The search identified 15 papers describing 13 studies together comprising 1056 caregivers of persons with early psychosis. The mean age of caregivers was 47.2years (SD=9.8), of whom 71.5% were female and 74.4% were parents. Nine different psychological variables were examined in the included studies, which were categorised in the following non-mutually exclusive groups: coping, appraisal/attribution and interpersonal response. There was considerable data to support the link between distress and psychological factors such as avoidant coping, appraisal and emotional over-involvement. However, the possibilities of drawing conclusions were limited by a number of methodological issues, including cross-sectional data, small sample sizes, confounding variables not being accounted for, and a wide variation in outcome measures. The strengths of the review were the systematic approach, the exclusion of non-empirical papers and the rating of methodological quality by two independent raters. Limitations were that we excluded studies published in languages other than English, that data extraction forms were developed for this study and hence not tested for validity, and that there was a potential publication bias in favour of significant findings. A better grasp of the psychological factors accounting for caregiver distress early in the course of illness may help us understand the trajectory of distress. This is an important step in preventing long-term distress in caregivers and

  3. Sharing housework can be healthy: cultural and psychological factors influencing men’s involvement in household maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasza Kosakowska-Berezecka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Following gender prescriptions can affect individuals’ quality of life. Research has shown that the unequal distribution of household labor is correlated with low psychological well-being and family conflict. Therefore, negotiations concerning household and family duties within relationships appear to be an important health-related issue. Additionally, research has shown that couples who have more gender-egalitarian arrangements within their households have better health outcomes if the wider society is more gender egalitarian. In this literature review, we aim to shed light on the relationship of the equal division of housework between women and men with their health and well-being. We also present selected results from the series of studies conducted during our PAR Migration Navigator project, which explores the practices of gender equality within households and their relationship to individual well-being among Polish couples living in Poland, Polish migrant couples living in Norway, and Norwegian couples living in Norway.

  4. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  5. Relative Effects of Psychological Flexibility, Parental Involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical analysis and understanding of secondary students' experiences and of safety in public schools are currently lacking in the literature and warrant further research. This study investigated the relative effects of psychological flexibility, parental involvement and school climate on secondary school student's school ...

  6. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  7. On the heart, the mind, and how inflammation killed the Cartesian dualism. Commentary on the 2015 Named Series: Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine M

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 Named Series on "Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease" was conceived with the idea of drawing attention to the interdisciplinary work aimed at investigating the relationships between the heart, metabolic system, brain, and mental health. In this commentary, we provide a brief overview of the manuscripts included in this Named Series and highlight how a better understanding of immune regulation will help us to move forward from the current "dualistic" perspective of the heart as separate from the mind to a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological links between cardiovascular and mental disorders. The manuscripts included in this Named Series range across a wide spectrum of topics, from understanding biological mechanisms explaining comorbidity between cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders to new insights into the dysregulation of inflammation associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Clearly, inflammation emerges as a cross-cutting theme across all studies. Data presented in this Series contribute to putting an end to an era in which the heart and the mind were considered to be separate entities in which the responses of one system did not affect the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  9. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  10. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  11. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  12. Tennis elbow: associated psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, Aurelie; De Wilde, Lieven; Hollevoet, Nadine; Henriquez, Carlos; Vandeweerdt, Marc; Ponnet, Koen; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions. Healthy controls in the same risk group were offered the same questionnaires. We recruited 69 patients (35 men, 34 women) and 100 controls (44 men, 56 women). Tennis elbow patients scored significantly lower on the personality traits extraversion and agreeableness. Men, in particular, scored significantly higher on perfectionism and were more likely to develop an anxiety disorder or a depression. Concerning work, patients indicated a significantly higher workload (especially men) and a significantly lower autonomy (especially women). Female patients also indicated less contact with colleagues. However, work satisfaction was relatively high in both groups. The results suggest that there is a relationship between complaints related to tennis elbow and psychological characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartsev, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  14. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

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    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  16. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  17. The role of psychological factors in workplace safety.

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    Kotzé, Martina; Steyn, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Workplace safety researchers and practitioners generally agree that it is necessary to understand the psychological factors that influence people's workplace safety behaviour. Yet, the search for reliable individual differences regarding psychological factors associated with workplace safety has lead to sparse results and inconclusive findings. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences between the psychological factors, cognitive ability, personality and work-wellness of employees involved in workplace incidents and accidents and/or driver vehicle accidents and those who are not. The study population (N = 279) consisted of employees employed at an electricity supply organisation in South Africa. Mann-Whitney U-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted to determine the differences in the respective psychological factors between the groups. These results showed that cognitive ability did not seem to play a role in workplace incident/accident involvement, including driver vehicle accidents, while the wellness factors burnout and sense of coherence, as well as certain personality traits, namely conscientiousness, pragmatic and gregariousness play a statistically significant role in individuals' involvement in workplace incidents/accidents/driver vehicle accidents. Safety practitioners, managers and human resource specialists should take cognisance of the role of specifically work-wellness in workplace safety behaviour, as management can influence these negative states that are often caused by continuously stressful situations, and subsequently enhance work place safety.

  18. Evaluation of some psychological factors in psoriatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Noormohammadpour

    2015-03-01

    vulnerability score.PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs.

  19. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  20. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  1. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  2. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  3. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions

  4. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  5. Psychological factors and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Pešić Marina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CAD results from an interaction of different somatic, environmental and behavioral risk factors. Commonly, development of CAD is associated with arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, sedentary life style and the like. Psychological factors in their own sake or in combination with other risk factors are also important for genesis of CAD. In this study, 170 people that were diagnosed with CAD and 170 healthy controls of corresponding sex and age were compared for anxiety, aggressiveness and Eysenck's two personality dimension. The data indicate that patients with CAD have very low level of anxiety and aggressiveness and very high level of neuroticism relative to the controls. .

  6. Psychological Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...

  7. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  8. Participatory ergonomics for psychological factors evaluation in work system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Lau, Henry Y K

    2012-01-01

    It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.

  9. Psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, M; Kavuk, I; Sayar, K

    2003-12-09

    The role of psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a matter of debate. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in IBS patients. Positive response to antidepressant therapy and presence of family history of depression in IBS patients have led speculations whether this syndrome might be regarded as an affective spectrum disorder. In this study we tried to examine the possible association of IBS with affective spectrum disorders. Forty IBS patients from gastroenterology outpatient clinics of a university hospital and state hospital, 32 controls with inflammatory bowel disease and 34 healthy hospital workers were included in the study. Psychiatric interviews were done using SCID-NP (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Non-patients) and psychological factors were assessed by the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Family histories were obtained by FH-RDC (Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria). All groups were matched for sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and mood disorders was higher in the IBS group than the control groups. Also IBS group rated higher on anxiety and depression scales than the other groups, where the differences were statistically significant. Presence of positive family history for mood disorders was higher in the IBS group. These results support the hypothesis that IBS might be linked to affective spectrum disorder. Psychiatric assessment and therapy might be useful in the course of irritable bowel syndrome.

  10. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Camille C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...

  11. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  12. Factors involved in social mobilization and empowerment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many community mobilizers in Uganda do not recognize that psychological empowerment is central in social mobilization, and that social mobilization involves an interplay among several social psychological variables including; social capital, psychological sense of community and group member satisfaction to produce ...

  13. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  14. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  15. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  16. Psychological characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients and their correlation with major organ involvement and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemati, Christina V; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the psychological characteristics of personality, depression, anxiety, social support and coping strategies of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, their inter-correlations and their association with clinical symptoms. Patients with SSc (n=85) were interviewed and compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n=120) and healthy controls (HCs [n=125]). Psychological characteristics were assessed by the following psychometric scales: centre of epidemiological studies of depression (CES-D), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD), Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ), short form of social support (SSq), life experiences survey (LES) and ways of coping (WoC). Clinical data were collected at the same time of the interview. Both control groups were matched to SSc patients in terms of gender, age and educational status. Data were analysed with SPSS software. Compared to control groups, SSc patients expressed more symptoms of depression and anxiety, showed less extraversion and reported more negative life events. They coped less often with positive reappraisal, problem solving, seeking of support and assertiveness, while they sought more often divine help, and they expressed wishing and denial. Inactive disease was associated with a lower probability of reporting depressive symptoms and negative life events and with a higher probability of positively reevaluating a problem. Lung dysfunction, skin involvement, esophageal problems and oral aperture correlated with psychological features. Complications in psychological well-being characterise patients with SSc. This finding, as well as that of psychological characteristics correlating with organic factors, is an indication for designing supportive psycho-educational programmes as complementary therapies.

  17. Mutual best friendship involvement, best friends' rejection sensitivity, and psychological maladaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Thomas, Katelyn K; Norman, Kelly E; Spencer, Sarah V

    2011-05-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to experiences of possible rejection. RS is a clear risk factor for psychological maladaptation during early adolescence. However, there is growing evidence of significant heterogeneity in the psychological correlates of RS. To investigate when RS poses the greatest psychological risk during early adolescence, this study examines mutual best friendship involvement (or lack thereof) and the best friends' RS as potential moderators of the associations between RS and psychological difficulties. Participants were 150 7th grade students (58 boys; M age = 13.05 years) who nominated their best friends, and reported on their RS, social anxiety, and self-esteem. Results from a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that mutual best friendship involvement and best friends' RS were both significant moderators when fear of negative evaluation (a type of social anxiety) served as the dependent variable. The association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was stronger for adolescents without mutual best friends than adolescents with mutual best friends. In addition, the association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was the strongest for adolescents whose best friends were highly rejection sensitive (relative to adolescents whose best friends were moderately or low in RS). Findings highlight the importance of considering best friendships in studies of RS and strongly suggest that, although having mutual best friendships may be protective for rejection sensitive adolescents, having a rejection sensitive best friend may exacerbate difficulties. The significance of friends in the lives of rejection sensitive adolescents is discussed as well as possible applied implications of the findings and study limitations.

  18. Psychological variables involved in teacher’s job performance

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Valladares, Manuel; Lajo Lazo, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the casual relations that can exist between some psychological variables (Personality Type A, Stress facing and Burnout Syndrome) and the labour performance of university teachers from  five faculties of medicine of Lima Metropolitana. The instruments used were: Blumenthal’s inventory of auto report of behaviour type A, COPE, Maslasch’s Burnout inventory and the teacher’s labour performance made by Manuel Fernández Arata. All these instruments were subj...

  19. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    calls for great efforts in dealing with competitive pressure and demands mental strength with regard to endurance, self-motivation and willpower. But while it is somewhat straightforward to specify the physical and physiological skills needed for top performance in a specific sport, it becomes less...... clear with regard to the psychological skills that are needed. Therefore, the main questions to be addressed in this chapter are: (1) which psychological skills are needed to reach top performance? And (2) (how) can these skills be developed in young talents?...

  20. Staff Perspectives of Service User Involvement on Two Clinical Psychology Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon P.; Holttum, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated both negative and positive staff perspectives of service user involvement on two clinical psychology training courses as part of an ongoing process of service evaluation. Ten clinical psychology staff from two training courses were interviewed over the telephone by a current trainee clinical psychologist using a…

  1. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  2. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  3. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, H.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Rutten, G.J.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and

  4. The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress‑related hormones.

  5. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China.

  6. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis.......A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...

  7. Psychological factors in oral mucosal and orofacial pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Alkhader, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The psychological aspects of chronic pain conditions represent a key component of the pain experience, and orofacial pain conditions are not an exception. In this review, we highlight how psychological factors affect some common oral mucosal and orofacial pain conditions (namely, oral lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome, and temporomandibular disorders) with emphasis on the significance of supplementing classical biomedical treatment modalities with appropriate psychological counseling to improve treatment outcomes in targeted patients. A literature search restricted to reports with highest relevance to the selected mucosal and orofacial pain conditions was carried out to retrieve data.

  8. Non medical factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Intikhab, K.; Saeed, K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find out major non-medial factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients. Design: An observational study conducted on adult cancer patients. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center Lahore Pakistan from January 1999. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-four newly-diagnosed adult cancer patients were interviewed by the clinical psychologist and data was collected regarding non-medical causal factors, patients age, gender family support system, general home atmosphere and marital status. Collected data was analyzed by utilizing. SPSS for windows version 10.0. Results: Of the 224 patients 142 (63.4%) reported non-medical factors causing psychological distress and 82 (36.6%) reported that medical sources are the most distressing. Ten most common non-medical sources of developing psychological disorders were identified. It was observed that family support system and general home atmosphere were significantly associated with the development of psychological disorders whereas the other variables such as age, gender and marital status had no significant relationship with the non Medical factors. Conclusion: It was concluded that non-medical factors causing psychological problems are significant in cancer patients. The results suggest that we should identify these factors and target psychosocial intervention for those patients most at risk. (author)

  9. Reading, Demographic, Social and Psychological Factors Related to Pre-adolescent Smoking and Non-smoking Behaviors and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunseri, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study examined reading, demographic, social, and psychological factors related to preadolescent smoking and nonsmoking behaviors and attitudes. Variables studied included reading achievement, family involvement, and racial and sex differences. (Authors/CJ)

  10. Fathering and adolescents' psychological adjustment: the role of fathers' involvement, residence and biology status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E

    2008-03-01

    Studies on fathering and child mental health are now increasingly looking for specificity in children's psychological adjustment, indicating whether the impact of fathering is diagnostically specific or non-specific. Data from 435 fathers of secondary school-aged children in Britain were used to explore the association between resident biological fathers', non-resident biological fathers' and stepfathers' involvement and children's total difficulties, prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems (all measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in adolescence. After controlling for child-, father- and family-related factors, fathers' involvement was negatively associated with children's total difficulties and hyperactivity, was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, and was unrelated with children's emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. There was no non-resident biological father effect. Compared with resident biological fathers, stepfathers reported more total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity in their children even after adjusting for involvement. Whether this reflects stepfathers' low tolerance levels or biological fathers' complacency, as sociobiologists would argue, or whether this is due to pre-existing predispositions of children in families which separate and restructure, to the effects of these multiple family changes or to the high exposure of children in restructured families to parental risk factors, is, given the data available and the study design, unclear. However, this study showed that, compared with their peers in biological father families, adolescents in stepfather families are perceived to be at higher risk of behaviour problems, and that father involvement is related to specific aspects of child adjustment.

  11. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type…

  12. Psychological Symptoms in Obesity and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Taner; Kalkan-Oğuzhanoğlu, Nalan; Sözeri-Varma, Gülfizar; Özdel, Osman; Fenkçi, Semin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of depression and anxiety symptoms and quality of life, self-esteem in obesity. Fifty-two subjects whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is 30 kg/m 2 and over and 43 control whose BMI is normal were recruited for this study. The socio demographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Quality of Life Scale Short Form (WHOQOL-Brief-TR), Coopersmith Self Esteem Scale (CSES), The Eating Attitudes (EAT), were applied to the participants. In this study most of the patients are women, married, postgraduated and live in urban areas. It was determined to scores of HAM-D17, HAM-A and EAT are higher in obese group than control group; WHOQOL-Brief-TR physical field scores was lower in obese group than control group. CSES scores wasn't difference between obese and control group. In obese group, there was HAM-D17 and HAM-A scores a negative correlation between quality of life physical field score, negative correlation between CSES score, positive correlation between EAT scale score. There is no correlation between scores of HAM-D17 and HAM-A and BMI. Our results suggest that depressive and anxiety levels are high in induvidual with obesity. They have problems in eating attitudes and their quality of life especially physical field is poor. The psychological symptoms have negative effects on the quality of life, self-esteem, and eating attitudes. Our results suggest that psychiatric support to improving positive effects quality of life and self-esteem in individual with obesity.

  13. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  14. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  15. Patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy and its individual psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Trachuk

    2016-09-01

    low endurance to stress, strain of defense mechanisms, emotional instability and self-esteem, impulsivity, nonconformnism, tendency to independence, stability of attitudes, commitment to relying on their own experience, conflict behavior, rigidity, self-centeredness, introversion, the need for updating their own individuality, lack of deepening into serious problems. Designed psychocorrective program, aimed at transformation of lifestyle of patients and formation of a conscious aspiring to health, showed high efficacy. Conclusions. Adherence to antihypertensive therapy in patients with arterial hypertension depends on such individual psychological factors as personality characteristics, type of subjective control, anxiety level and the level of intensity of attitudes to health, that should also be considered during treatment of hypertension to predict the level of compliance. It is reasonable to involve medical psychologists in counseling and correction of patients with hypertension in cardiology departments and clinics to diagnose personality compliance factors, intensity of attitude to health, identifying patients at risk of low adherence to antihypertensive therapy and, if necessary, adjust the level of compliance. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  16. Role of psychological factors in burning mouth syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Federica; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Vegni, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic medical condition characterised by hot, painful sensations in the lips, oral mucosa, and/or tongue mucosa. On examination, these appear healthy, and organic causes for the pain cannot be found. Several studies have yielded scant evidence of the involvement of psychological and/or psychopathological factors, and several have outlined a model for the classification of BMS. Aim This review aims to provide a systematic review of research examining the psychological, psychiatric, and/or personality factors linked to BMS. Findings Fourteen controlled studies conducted between 2000 and the present were selected based on stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. All studies but one reported at least some evidence for the involvement of psychological factors in BMS. Anxiety and depression were the most common and the most frequently studied psychopathological disorders among BMS patients. Discussion and conclusion Anxiety and depression play critical roles in this condition. Evidence on the role of personality characteristics of BMS patients has also been produced by a few studies. Further studies on the role of specific psychological factors in BMS are warranted, but the importance of a multidisciplinary approach (medical and psychological) to BMS is no matter of discussion.

  17. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Family involvement in medical decision-making: Perceptions of nursing and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Michal; Hildesheimer, Galya; Barnoy, Sivia; Katz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Family members often rely on health care professionals to guide and support them through the decision-making process. Although family involvement in medical decisions should be included in the preservice curriculum for the health care professions, perceptions of students in caring professions on family involvement in medical decision-making have not yet been examined. To examine the perceptions of nursing and psychology students on family involvement in medical decision-making for seriously ill patients. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. First year undergraduate nursing and psychology students studying for their Bachelor of Arts degree were recruited. Perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire constructed based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), which examines decision-maker preferences. The questionnaire consisted of two parts referring to the respondent once as the patient and then as the family caregiver. Questionnaires were completed by 116 nursing students and 156 psychology students. Most were of the opinion that family involvement in decision-making is appropriate, especially when the patient is incapable of making decisions. Nursing students were more inclined than psychology students to think that financial, emotional, and value-based considerations should be part of the family's involvement in decision-making. Both groups of students perceived the emotional consideration as most acceptable, whereas the financial consideration was considered the least acceptable. Nursing and psychology students perceive family involvement in medical decision-making as appropriate. In order to train students to support families in the process of decision-making, further research should examine Shared Decision-Making (SDM) programs, which involve patient and clinician collaboration in health care decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Chernobyl syndrome' (CS) signs and role of socio psychological factors in its formation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyirazyan, S.A.; Fyilyippova, S.M.; Tikhomirova, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    5200 case histories of the liquidators (1986-1990) were analyzed. The study involved 520 patients who were performed therapeutic and neurological investigation, instrumental studies (electrocardiogram, veloergometry, US examination, electroencephalogram, rheoelectrogram) as well as psycho diagnostic investigation (MMPI, Luscher's test). CS signs are formed of somatic and neurological symptoms as well as psychological peculiarities of the liquidators, which are mainly due ro socio economical factors. Correlation between the frequency of illness, frequency of visits, invalidism beginning and socio economical changes is noted. The leading role in CS formation is played by socio psychological factors, which may be one of the cause of low efficacy of the treatment

  20. [Relationships between psychological well-being, lifestyle factors and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Enikő; Szabó, Gábor; F Szigeti, Judit; Balog, Piroska

    2015-03-22

    10 to 15% of the Hungarian fertile age population struggles with reproductivity problems. Previous researches have shown that psychological well-being and lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in overall health status, which is closely related to fertility. The aim of the study was to examine fertility-related psychological and lifestyle factors in a Hungarian sample. 194 women (115 infertile and 79 fertile) took part in the study. Standardized, validated questionnaires were used for the assessment of psychological factors and self-administered questions were used for exploring lifestyle factors. The results show that infertile women are younger (33.98±4.89 vs. 36.43±5.81 years, pfertile counterparts. The number of their depressive (BDI 14.00±12.21 vs. 7.79±9.17, p40.25±10.65, pfertile women. Findings related to lifestyle factors show that lower level of fluid consumption (1.71±0.67 vs. 1.95±0.68, pfertile group (OR = 1.65, CI = 2.58-1.06), independently of body mass index and age. The results confirm the findings of international researches showing that women struggling with infertility are in worse psychological condition than their fertile counterparts. The authors conclude that the findings demand further investigations and follow-up studies in order to more specifically determine the relationship between fluid consumption and fertility.

  1. Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Boyd, Lori A; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Binks, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Human food intake is regulated by physiological energy homeostatic mechanisms and hedonic mechanisms. These are affected by both very short-term and longer-term calorie restriction (CR). To date, there are parallel discussions in the literature that fail to integrate across these disciplines and topics. First, much of the available neuroimaging research focusses on specific functional paradigms (e.g. reward, energy homeostasis). These paradigms often fail to consider more complex and inclusive models that examine how potential brain regions of interest interact to influence ingestion. Second, the paradigms used focus primarily on short-term CR (fasting) which has limited generalizability to clinical application. Finally, the behavioral literature, while frequently examining longer-term CR and related psychological constructs in the context of weight management (e.g. hedonic restraint, 'liking', 'wanting' and food craving), fails to adequately tie these phenomena to underlying neural mechanisms. The result is a less than complete picture of the brain's role in the complexity of the human experience of ingestion. This disconnect highlights a major limitation in the CR literature, where attempts are persistently made to exert behavioral control over ingestion, without fully understanding the complex bio behavioral systems involved. In this review we attempt to summarize all potential brain regions important for human ingestion, present a broad conceptual overview of the brain's multifaceted role in ingestive behavior, the human (psychological) experiences related to ingestion and to examine how these factors differ according to three forms of CR. These include short-term fasting, extended CR, and restrained eating. We aim to bring together the neuroimaging literature with the behavioral literature within a conceptual framework that may inform future translational research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-12-22

    To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.

  3. Comparison of Psychological and Social Characteristics among Traditional, Cyber, Combined Bullies, and Non-Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Misung; Oh, Insoo

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the psychological and social characteristics of bullies involved in traditional and cyberbullying. The responses of 11,117 Korean elementary, middle, and high school students were analysed. Results indicate that the rate of traditional bullying was higher than the rate of cyberbullying. The four groups (traditional bullies,…

  4. Psychological Factors Associated with Smartphone Addiction in South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeewon; Sung, Min-Je; Song, Sook-Hyung; Lee, Young-Moon; Lee, Je-Jung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2018-01-01

    The smartphone has many attractive attributes and characteristics that could make it highly addictive, particularly in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of young adolescents in risk of smartphone addiction and the psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction. Four hundred ninety middle school…

  5. The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated adolescent students' cigarette smoking behaviour as correlates of the challenges socio-psychological factors in Cross River State. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 200 participants across the state who were male and female. Their ages ranged between 14 and 19 years with a mean ...

  6. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  7. Effects of two psychological factors on perceived conflict-handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the predictive power of two psychological factors: assertiveness and emotional intelligence on perceived conflict-handling behaviour of labour leaders in Lagos State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted and 250 labour leaders were randomly selected from ten (10) industrial unions in Lagos ...

  8. Path dependence in social and psychological risk factors for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Abstract This article focuses on social and psychological risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment and presents some key points for prevention in developing countries based on previous studies, a social science theory, and our preliminary survey. Previous population-based studies found that educational and occupational attainment, income, participation in social and mental activities, and psychological distress were associated with dementia risk. According to the theory of path dependence, earlier factors largely determine successive ones, where education is one of these early experiences in life. Our preliminary survey suggested that education sets a path that several psychosocial risk factors are dependent on. The expansion of basic education is indispensable. Resources for prevention should be concentrated on individuals with a low level of education. In order to break from a path creating self-reinforcement of risk factors, it is necessary to implement early and active interventions.

  9. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zubkova A.A.; Oshevsky D.S.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that r...

  10. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Garry J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF STYLISTIC FEATURES MANIFESTATION IN PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Arendachuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the contemporary theoretical approaches to defining such concepts as “pedagogical communication” and “the style of pedagogical communication”, the substantial features of pedagogical communication in the system of the teachers’ attitude to their students, their professional work and themselves are revealed. The results of the empirical research conducted on a sample of Saratov secondary school teachers ( n = 67; average age of 42 years old; average length of service of 18 years, intended to identify the relationships between the style of pedagogical communication and its psychological factors (personal and practical are demonstrated in the article. We used the methods of determining the style of interpersonal interaction (S.V. Maksimov, Yu.A. Lobeiko, diagnostics of dominant emotional modality in teachers (L.A. Rabinovich in T.G. Syritso’s modification, satisfaction evaluation of the profession of a teacher and identification of crisis factors and factors of overcoming the professional crisis of teachers (O.M. Chorosova, R.E. Gerasimova; the method of “psychological portrait of a teacher” (Z.V. Rezapkina, G.V. Rezapkina. The article demonstrates that the more constructive the style of pedagogical communication is, the larger number of psychological factors it has, and the system of these factors is dominated by the factors that characterize the individual features of the teacher’s personality.

  12. Investigation on maternal physiological and psychological factors of cheilopalatognathus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Zhao, W; Ma, R M; Li, X J; Wen, Z H; Liu, X F; Hu, W D; Zhang, C B

    2013-01-01

    Case-control study on mothers of cheilopalatognathus children was conducted, to investigate the maternal physiological and psychological factors for occurrence of cheilopalatognathus. One hundred ten mothers of cheilopalatognathus children who were scheduled for one-stage surgery were selected as a research group, and 110 mothers of normal children served as a normal control group at the same time. Trait Anxiety Inventory (T-AI), Life Events Scale (LES), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Type C Behavior Scale (CBS), adult Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and homemade general questionnaire survey were employed for the investigation. Compared with the control group, the scores for negative event tension value, anxiety, and depressive factors were higher in the study group (p introvert and extrovert personalities. The study results suggest that pregnant women's physiological and psychological factors can cause changes in cheilopalatognathus incidence, which is expected to be guidance for healthcare during pregnancy, to prevent the occurrence of cheilopalatognathus.

  13. Personality and psychological factors: Effects on dental beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Hathiwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment can be highly unpleasant for anxious patients. Despite all advancements, dental anxiety continues to upset the dentist-patient relationship. The psychological factors like individual personality and familial and peer influence may alter the dental beliefs of a patient. Aim: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among young adolescents to investigate the relationship among various psychological factors and the dental beliefs of an individual. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among higher secondary school children, aged 15−17 years in Udupi district. The dental anxiety of the participants was measured using Modified Dental Beliefs scale and the personality traits were assessed using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Pearson′s correlation and chi-square analysis were performed among these scales. Independent t-test was performed to compare dental anxiety scores with different socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Results: In all 198 students, with a mean age of 16.6 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority of the participants had lower MDBS scores. The personality traits like Emotional Stability and Openness to New Experiences showed a negative correlation with the Dental Belief scores. Apart from these, the experience at first dental visit and peer support also affected the dental beliefs of the adolescents. Conclusion: Various psychological traits of adolescents influence their dental anxiety.

  14. Psychological Factors and Reference Potential of Market Mavens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofi Puspa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.

  15. The Effect of Emotional Labor on Job Involvement in Preschool Teachers: Verifying the Mediating Effect of Psychological Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ching-Sheue

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the participants comprised 385 preschool teachers. The relationship among their emotional labor, Job Involvement, and psychological capital were examined using hierarchical regression analysis. In addition, whether psychological capital exerted a mediating effect on Job Involvement was investigated. The results show that "deep…

  16. Analysis of psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’ behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Pujals

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’s behaviour, juvenile and infant categories. 40 athletes from a soccer school in Maringá – PR were studied and the instruments used were: inventories, interviews, questionnaires and research diary. Data were collected individually and in group. Intervention occurred for 12 months through observation, evaluation and showed the following factors: motivation, anxiety, aggression and self confidence. Results pointed out that the positive emotions expressed by the athletes were good mood, happiness, relaxation, interest in improving and hope while negative emotions were anxiety, rage, aggressiveness, low self-confidence, lack of motivation, insecurity, feeling of failure, pessimism and group instability. Relatives and coach were also generating factors of stress and anxiety. Thus, this sporting context shows that the sports psychology seems to be highly efficient to reduce anxiety and agression indexes as well as to increase motivation and self-confidence, demonstrating the importance of psychological preparation for sporting training.

  17. Personal involvement as a special style of Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takhir Yu. Bazarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author, being a former student of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and now is teacher, professor, remembers those who created and maintained such traditions of the Department as depth of knowledge and coherence of ideas, methodological clarity and dialogue, holistic view of the issue and using problem solving in teaching, and also the joint work of professors and students in the way of perceiving the truth. According to the author the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology is an occasion to both recall the path members of the Department went over the years, including several epochs, and to outline the prospects for further development. Considerable attention is paid to the personality of G.M. Andreeva, who is a gifted teacher, a brilliant scholar, and one of the founders of social psychology in the Russia. Particular attention is drawn to Galina Andreeva collecting the brightest staff of the Chair of Social Psychology, whose key feature was involvement in both the scientific and also collective life of the Department, which contributed to the development of the new important branch of psychology. The author also singles out the figure of the wonderful teacher L.A. Petrovskaya who encouraged the students to cherish their individuality as she believed it to be the main tool of the professional psychologist. With much gratitude the author recalls tips for organizing the teaching process received from A.U. Kharash. The paper characterizes the current state and the importance of the Department, and outlines the prospects for further development. In particular, the author speaks of the need for developing student personal involvement in professional activities, and also of creating favourable conditions at the Deaprtment for a student successful transition from training to real life.

  18. Factors associated with academic performance in psychology students of UNMSM

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana Manrique, Oswaldo; Canales Quevedo, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    In the present job is studied the factors related to the academic performance in to university group of students of the Faculty of Psychology of the UN MSM, among the factors has been considered the motivation, the strategies of learning and the self-esteem and in it pertaining to the academic performance the average of notices there is been considered obtained by the students in the three first cycles of study. The sample studied was constituted by the ingresantes in the year 1,999 to the Fa...

  19. Social and psychologic factors related to falls among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, J M

    1985-08-01

    Studies on falls are reviewed. Little information exists on which social or psychologic factors predispose an older person to fall or to sustain a fall-related injury. Risk of falling appears to be greater among females, the cognitively impaired, and those who use hypnotics, tranquilizers, and diuretics. The potential significance of depression and senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type on the risk of falling is explored. It is suggested that because of the associated impaired judgment, distraction, and psychomotor retardation, the presence of either clinical condition may increase an individual's risk of falling. In the final section of the article, directions for future research are discussed. Development of a systematic research program is suggested including epidemiologic studies of all falls and of medically treated falls. Such studies should be multidisciplinary and include assessment of social and psychologic factors as well as physical and functional health status, ambulatory function, perceptual acuity, and the circumstances surrounding the fall. The psychologic consequences of falling, particularly in the absence of a serious fall-related injury, is identified as an important research area.

  20. Exploratory factor analysis in Rehabilitation Psychology: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Richard B; Elliott, Timothy R; Chang, Jessica E; Hill, Jessica N

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, sample size, factor retention method(s), extraction and rotation method(s), and whether the pattern coefficients, structure coefficients, and the matrix of association were reported. The primary use of the EFAs was scale development, but the most widely used extraction and rotation method was principle component analysis, with varimax rotation. When determining how many factors to retain, multiple methods (e.g., scree plot, parallel analysis) were used most often. Many articles did not report enough information to allow for the duplication of their results. EFA relies on authors' choices (e.g., factor retention rules extraction, rotation methods), and few articles adhered to all of the best practices. The current findings are compared to other empirical investigations into the use of EFA in published research. Recommendations for improving EFA reporting practices in rehabilitation psychology research are provided.

  1. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Inluencing Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hue Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  study  applies  a  second-order  conirmatory  factor  analysis  (CFA  approach  to investigate  psychological  factors  inluencing  individuals'  investment  decision-making.  A second-order  CFA  approach  consists  of  ive  irst-order  psychological  factors  in  terms  of mental  accounting,  regret  avoidance,  self-control,  heuristic  and  overconidence,  and  one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure.  The  results  reveal  that  there  exist  statistically  signiicant  relationships  between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions  are  advised  to  provide  their  potential  customers  with  multi-function  products. Since self-control is  a  signiicant self-imposed mechanism  for  investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. ";} // -->activate javascript

  2. Psychological factors of development and chronicity of technological addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Emelin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming, which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation.

  3. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    taken to involve men in reproductive health must therefore consider addressing these two factors. A review of the ... masculinity involve violence against women, alcohol consumption ..... the use of mass media and mobile phone technology.

  4. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant relationships with functional

  5. Supportive Group Factors, Course Pedagogy, and Multicultural Competency within Multicultural Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Michael Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…

  6. The influence of social psychological factors on behaviour, stress and dose in Chernobyl affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)

  7. Psychological Factors in the Development of Communicative Competence in the English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results related to the role of psychological factors in the development of communicative competence in English, in students from Foreign Language Studies at the University of Pinar del Río; the sample belongs to the year course 2014-2015. Primary data is obtained using the methods of survey, interview and self-reflection, about the relation between attitude, learning method and academic outcome, which are the variables controlled. The relation between these variables is shown and actions are oriented to the strengthening of the psychological factors so as to achieve a new culture of learning of English, which involves outside classroom learning, in different scenarios, with technological resources, as well as the psychology of success and the student´s connectivity. These psychological factors are: need, emotion, motivation, energy, relaxation, self-esteem, confidence, security and future plans, which shape the student´ attitude, determinant of the efficiency of language learning, opposed to the study method, as has been traditionally believed.

  8. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

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    Astrid Lebert-Charron

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified.Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants.Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72 completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study.Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent.Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and

  9. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert-Charron, Astrid; Dorard, Géraldine; Boujut, Emilie; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2018-01-01

    Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified. Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants. Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72) completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study. Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent. Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and intervention strategies

  10. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Abstract. Purpose: To explore the literature regarding prevalance, risk factors and the involvement of ..... Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology.

  11. Association of Psychologic and Nonpsychologic Factors With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Salmalian, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea seems to be one the most common gynecologic condition in women of childbearing age. Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate psychologic and nonpsychologic risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical sciences students of Babol University of Medical Sciences. In this study, 180 females with dysmenorrhea and 180 females without dysmenorrhea were enrolled. Psychological risk factors were evaluated in four domains including affect, social support, personality, and alexithymia. Four questionnaires were used to assessed aforementioned domains, namely, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), depression, anxiety, stress (DAS-21), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory of Personality (NEO-FFI). In addition, nonpsychologic factors were evaluated in three domains including demographic characteristics, habits, and gynecologic factors. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The strongest predictor of primary dysmenorrhea was low social support (OR = 4.25; 95% CI, 2.43-7.41). Risk of dysmenorrhea was approximately 3.3 times higher in women with alexithymia (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.88-5.62), 3.1 times higher in women with menstrual bleeding duration ≥ 7 days (OR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.73-5.41), 2.5 times higher in women with a neurotic character (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), 2.4 times higher in women with a family history of dysmenorrhea (OR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), and twice higher in women with high caffeine intake (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09-3.59). Conclusions: Low social support, alexithymia, neuroticism trait, long menstrual bleeding, family history of dysmenorrhea, and high-caffeine diet are important risk factors for women with primary dysmenorrhea. This study recommended considering psychologic factors as an adjuvant to medical risks in evaluation and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

  12. The Influence of psychological-sociological factors on self-employment

    OpenAIRE

    Remeikienė, Rita; Startienė, Gražina; Vasauskaitė, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the influence of psychological-sociological factors on a self-employed person, which is little explored in business literature. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that the psychological-sociological factors of self-employment can be divided into groups based on certain personal characteristics and individual psychological states, and the influence of psychological-sociological factors of self-employment is threefold: positive, negative, and unclear (both positiv...

  13. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  14. Paternal involvement in pediatric Type 1 diabetes: fathers' and mothers' psychological functioning and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jennifer A; Weissbrod, Carol; Schwartz, David D; Taylor, W Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Psychological functioning in fathers of children with Type 1 diabetes has received relatively little attention compared to mothers. This study examined fathers' perceived involvement in their children's diabetes care as it related to mothers' and fathers' pediatric parenting stress, depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction, and sleep, and to their children's diabetes regimen adherence and glycemic control. Eighty-two mothers and 43 fathers completed questionnaires. Multivariate linear regressions were conducted separately for mothers and fathers to determine the relationships between the perceived amount and the perceived helpfulness of father involvement in child diabetes care on parental psychosocial functioning and child diabetes control. Maternal perceptions of father helpfulness and amount of involvement in illness care were related to improved marital satisfaction and fewer depressive symptoms in mothers. In fathers, perception of their own amount of involvement was related to increased pediatric parenting stress and anxiety. Better child regimen adherence was associated with maternal perceptions of father helpfulness but not the amount of their involvement, while paternal perceptions of their own helpfulness were related to poorer glycemic control. These findings suggest that fathers and mothers may react differently to their roles in childhood illness and that perceptions of their involvement may be differently associated with children's glycemic control and regimen adherence.

  15. [Preliminary investigation of psychologic factors in 76 tinnitus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Kunhua; Jiang, Wen; Feng, Yong

    2011-08-01

    To study the psychological aspects of tinnitus patients, to analyze the distribution of psychologic obstacle in tinnitus patients, and then to provide information for diagnosing and treating tinnitus clinically. All patients were detected their frequency and loudness of tinnitus. Then they were evaluated by symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90), life satisfaction scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI). All data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS11.0. (1)There was no straight line correlation between frequency, loudness of tinnitus and the patient's scores from SCL-90, life satisfaction rating scale (LSR), life satisfaction index A (LSIA), LSIB, PSQI, THI. (2) To 76 tinnitus patients, some factors of SCL-90 were higher than internal nom. Compared with internal nom, tinnitus patients' score of LSR, LSIA and LSIB were all lower than it. Many of tinnitus patients had sleep disorder, the ratio was higher than internal nom. (3) Grouping these patients, based on the score of THI. To THI four grade group and THI five grade group, their satisfaction of lives were lower, some factors of SCL-90 were higher than internal nom. To THI five grade group, the ratio about sleep disorder was higher than internal nom. There is no straight line correlation between frequency, loudness of tinnitus and the patient's scores from SCL-90, LSR, LSIA, LSIB, PSQ1, THI. Grouping based on the score of THI, the groups of THI four grade and THI five grade are approved that they have psychologic obstacle obviously, they should be paid close attention.

  16. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group.

  17. Serious Suicide Attempts: Systematic Review of Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yari Gvion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOne of the main obstacles in studying suicide risk factors is the difference between cases in which the individual died by suicide and those in which the individual engaged in suicidal behavior. A promising strategy that overcomes this obstacle is the study of survivors of serious suicide attempt (SSA, i.e., an attempt that would have been lethal had it not been for the provision of rapid and effective emergency treatment. Serious suicide attempters are epidemiologically very much like those who died by suicide, and thus may serve as valid proxies for studying suicides. This paper aims to define the specific risk factors for SSAs by conducting a qualitative data synthesis of existing studies.MethodsFollowing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we conducted a systematic search of the literature in PubMed, ProQuest, and Psychlit electronic research-literature databases. Search terms were “serious” “OR” “near lethal,” combined with the Boolean “AND” operator with “suicide*.” In addition, we performed a manual search on Google Scholar for further studies not yet identified.ResultsThe preliminary search identified 683 citations. A total of 39 research reports that met the predefined criteria were analyzed. Mental pain, communication difficulties, decision-making impulsivity, and aggression, as well as several demographic variables, were found to be major risk factors for SSAs.LimitationsWe found a variability of definitions for SSA that hamper the ability to draw a model for the risk factors and processes that facilitate it. Moreover, the role of suicide intent and planning in SSA is still unclear. Further studies should aim to clarify and refine the concepts and measures of SSA, thereby enabling more specific and concrete modeling of the psychological element in its formation.ConclusionSSA is a distinguishable phenomenon that needs to be addressed specifically within the scope

  18. Socializing the human factors analysis and classification system: incorporating social psychological phenomena into a human factors error classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Bearman, Christopher; Orasanu, Judith; Holbrook, Jon

    2009-08-01

    The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. Using a critical incident method, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe a situation involving weather when they were pilot in command and found their skills challenged. They were asked to describe the incident in detail but were not explicitly asked to identify social pressures. Pressures were extracted from transcripts in a bottom-up manner and then clustered into themes. Of the 28 pilots, 16 described social psychological pressures on their decision making, specifically, informational social influence, the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique, normalization of deviance, and impression management and self-consistency motives. We believe accident and incident investigations can benefit from explicit inclusion of common social psychological pressures. We recommend specific ways of incorporating these pressures into theHuman Factors Analysis and Classification System.

  19. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  20. Social and psychological factors under realization of radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, S.N.; Malenchenko, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the experiments with mice of Af line, irradiated by gamma-radiation with doses of up to 1.0 Gy and subjected to psycho-emotional effect (the model of 'the provoked aggression') have been investigated the processes of tumour formation. The index of cariogenic efficiency of effects is the number of the induced adenomas in lungs. It has been shown that under separate effect of these factors the frequency of adenomas increases. Under the combined effect the additional number of adenomas per mouse is registered, which exceeds theoretically the expected value assuming additivity of effects, the synergism coefficient was 1.57 (for females). It has been marked that the character of tumour reaction on separate and the combined effect of radiation, as well as the stress-factor has sex distinctions. It has been shown that that real assessment of the radiation risk and the development of the measures system on minimization of medical and biological consequences of the accident should take into account not only the radiation factor, but also a psychological one, especially in those cases when realization of the risk of combined effect of radiation and non-radiation factors can manifest synergism

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INVOLVEMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN EXTREMIST GROUPS IN THE INTERNET ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kruzhkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is to consider the psychological characteristics of involvement of youth in extremist community through the Internet.Methods. The theoretical analysis and modeling were used as the main methods.Results. The Internet is described as a means and space of psychological influence on young people, which can be both positive and negative. Absorption of teenagers, boys and young men, in a virtual space essentially converts their activity and, as a result, transform the leading activity, which in turn leads to different mental tumors. Three main effects from the exposure of the Internet are found out: «the effect of the goals of drift», mythology and «the effect of excitement»; their impact on the individual in each age periods is noted. Consideration of the main motivational reasons, taking into account the specifics of building human interaction with the environment made it possible to identify and describe the main types of behavioural patterns exhibited by young people on the Internet. The degree of activity of young people in the network is described from the perspective of integrated strategies of behaviour: information blocking, changes in the distance, control, transformations. Risk groups of users, the most susceptible to extremist manipulations are designated. «Vulnerability areas» of representatives of each group are summarized and described; a step-by-step algorithm of victims’ involvement in extremist communities by recruiters is described.Scientific novelty of the present study consists in discussion of one of the most acute problems of the present – the changed conditions of a growing and socialization of younger generation; constant stay in network virtual space is an integral part of today’s existence, wherein unformed and immature person is very vulnerable to the influence of extremist content. To prevent the increased potential threat of involvement of young people in destructive, asocial

  2. Review: Psychological Factors Affecting Rehabilitation of Neurologic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Foroughan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological factors imply their negative effects on neurologic patients in two ways. Directly, through pathogenic processes of central nervous system, and indirectly, through maladaptive reactions toward disability. Depression: is a common finding in many neurologic diseases and may interfere with rehabilitation process. Correcting patient's attitude toward disability, reducing environmental stresses and potentiating social support network along with antidepressant drugs often help these patients remain in rehabilitation program. Chronic fatigue: decreases the activity levels of patients and the possibility for them to achieve set goals of rehabilitation in proper times. Support, reassurance and sometimes antidepressant drugs may help. Conversion reactions: often accompany chronic illnesses and disabilities and make evaluation and diagnosis difficult. Application of behavioral Techniques may lead to better results. Altered self image: is a prominent feature in patients with spinal cord injury. Counseling and Free discussion on altered self image and sexual problems are essential and other forms of sexual expression must be taught to these patients. Chronic pain: is a disabling condition. Usually physical findings are minor and it seems psychological factors play a more important role in causing it. Antidepressant drugs are effective in most cases. Intensive physical and occupational therapy must be avoided. Excessive emotionality: is a consequence of executive dysfunction arising from frontal lobe injury and mostly seen in stroke, brain injured, and demented patients, Impulsivity and disinhibition may lead to aggressive behavior and socially inappropriate forms of sexual expression. Judicious administration of psychotherapy drugs, behavioral techniques and short-term hospitalization may be helpful. Altered cognition: is a common feature of many pathological conditions of brain. Attention deficit, slowed information processing, disturbed

  3. Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the management of infertile couples at the Kenyatta National Hospital. ... that may influence male participation in the management of the infertile couples attending the KNH Infertility Clinic.

  4. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Vebrová; Kateřina Venclová; Stanislav Rojík

    2016-01-01

    Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary ...

  5. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Vebrová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary data were acquired through the method of questionnaire survey. In total, the questionnaire was completed by 340 respondents, of which 319 respondents owned their mobile phones for private purposes only. For more accurate interpretation of the identified factors the Exploratory Factor Analysis method was used. Four factors of brand loyalty were extracted, which account for 75 % of the variability of the original parameters: (1 Cognitive affective loyalty, (2 Trustworthiness, (3 Attitudinal loyalty and (4 Commitment and three factors of customer involvement were found to account for 71 % variability of the original parameters: (1 Social involvement, (2 Centrality, (3 Importance. High loyalty customers mostly have only one SIM card and 73 % of them use a tariff. In a further group of highly involved customers own from 80 % only one SIM card. This study forms part of a research programme investigating the influence of customer involvement on brand loyalty.

  6. [The knowledge, involvement and feelings of students graduating in medicine, nursing and psychology about orthothanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luís Roberto Gonçalves; Menezes, Mariana Pires; Gradvohl, Silvia Mayumi Obana

    2013-09-01

    Orthothanasia involves the suspension of medical procedures for terminal phase patients, which leads to a natural death, relieving the symptoms that cause suffering. In this process, professionals such as physicians, nurses and psychologists, interact with patients and their families. Therefore, it is desirable that during undergraduate studies these professionals should take subjects geared to handle this aspect. The scope of this qualitative study was to evaluate the awareness with respect to orthothanasia of undergraduates in medicine, nursing and psychology courses in a university. Trigger questions in semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 students. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for content analysis and core identification themes. Three categories were identified: knowledge about orthothanasia; who should be involved in this process; and feelings experienced when facing death. The data revealed that students have scant knowledge about the subject, consider the family involvement in the orthothanasia decision to be important and they do not feel prepared to deal with death situations. The conclusion points to the need to change the focus on the end-of-life issue in the undergraduate courses in the area of health care in order to prepare the future professional adequately.

  7. Socio-psychological stressors as risk factors for low back pain in Chinese middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Y B; Ho, S C; Chan, S G

    2001-11-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between socio-psychological stress and low back pain (LBP) prevalence among Chinese middle-aged women. Women in mid-life experience increasing socio-psychological stress because of midlife transitions, stressful life events and housework or work factors. Encountering socio-psychological stress itself may result in the manifestation of LBP. A case-control study of Hong Kong community-based middle-aged women was conducted. The study subjects were either from the University Family Medicine Clinic or from a previous population-based cross-sectional study of middle-aged women conducted by Department of Community and Family Medicine. Among the 928 potential eligible subjects from both sources, a total of 182 cases and 235 controls participated in this study. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and included demographic factors, menopausal status, socio-psychological stress and occurrence of LBP. Socio-psychological stress covered social factors, self-reported nature of housework/work, housework/work stress and stressful life events. Among the 182 cases who entered this study, 83 women (45.6%) had experienced 1-work stress had an increased risk of suffering both types of LBP of nearly two- and half-fold (95% CI 1.61-3.85). The results indicate that an association exists between high socio-psychological stress and LBP prevalence. Alleviating the impact of housework or work related factors would, however, involve improving both the work and home environment.

  8. Dynamics of context and psychological well-being : the role of subjective health perceptions, personality factors and spirituality / Qambeshile Michael Temane

    OpenAIRE

    Temane, Qambeshile Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is a lacuna in the field of positive psychology as far as the conceptualisation of influences of environmental contexts on psychological well-being is concerned, and there is also a lack of credible empirical findings on the dynamics of processes involved. The aim of the current study was to test various models on the possible mediating role of subjective perceptions of health, personality factors and spirituality in the dynamics of context and psychological well-being. ...

  9. Psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylova Yu.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the aims, tasks and fundamental principles of psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors as a one of the aspects of criminalistical support of the preliminary investigation in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation are revealed. Discusses the following areas of psychological support of investigation of criminal cases with participation of minors: participation of a psychologist in the investigative actions, the preliminary interviews with the aim of preparing minors for investigation, the business of the investigator in the choice of tactics of investigative actions and other issues, psychological examination of the minor, the receipt of additional information from minors using methods of applied psychology, compiling a subjective portrait of the alleged offender, psychological analysis of testimonies of minors and others. Also this article discusses the basic principles end actual techniques of interview of minor sexual abuses victims are examined including NICHD Protocol developed by the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NICHD.

  10. Qualitative analysis of factors that increase and reduce involvement in gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the rapid development of gambling business, the number of pathological gamblers is increasing as well. The problem of pathological gambling is just as important as alcoholism or drug addiction. However, there is a lack of information and research of this topicin Lithuania. The aim of work: to investigate and analyse the factors that increase or reduce involvement in gambling. Research questions: 1 What factors increase involvement in gambling? 2 What factors reduce involvement in gambling? Critical case sampling was used for selection of the participants. Subjects were required to a have experience of involvement in gambling for at least one year; b have experience of negative impact of gambling on quality of life; c have at least 6 months of gambling abstinence. Five individuals participated in the research; all of them were males who live in Vilnius. Age of the participants varied from 19 to 45. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The matic analysis of the data led to the identification of four major the matic categories: psychological factors; social relations; material well being; quality of life. There search results show that negatyve childhood experience, gambling friends, escaping from various troubles, disputes in family and high financial needs can increase involvement in gambling. Factors that reduce involvement in gambling are: feeling support of social environment, proper evaluation of financial position, awareness of one‘s own addiction to gambling and desire to change life.

  11. Positive Psychology Factors as Predictors of Latina/o College Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…

  12. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  13. Adolescents' viewing of suicide-related web-content and psychological problems: differentiating the roles of cyberbullying involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviours have also been linked with viewing of associated web-content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviours and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The curr...

  14. Psychological factors of social anxiety in Russian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Pavlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers, using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales and the Social

  15. Socio-psychological factors driving adult vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Wheelock

    Full Text Available While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≥65 s (73% and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52% in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines.20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1 perceived health and health behaviors; 2 knowledge; 3 vaccination influences; 4 disease appraisal; and 5 vaccination appraisal.The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines, policy should be better

  16. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.

  17. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.

  19. Overlap and distinctiveness of psychological risk factors in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Denollet, Johan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the importance of psychological factors in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this research has been criticized due to overlap between psychological constructs. We examined whether psychological questionnaires frequently used...

  20. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  1. Measurement of psychological factors associated with genetic testing for hereditary breast, ovarian and colon cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Ropka, Mary; Stefanek, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Despite numerous individual studies of psychological factors (depression, anxiety, distress) related to genetic testing for inherited cancer syndromes (CGT), there has been no systematic review of the psychological factors are measured among individuals at increased risk for hereditary breast, ovarian, or colon cancer. Our review provides an analysis of psychological factors in studies of CGT and discusses the instruments most commonly used to measure them. We performed a literature search using three major OVID databases from 1993 to January 2003. In the 19 studies that met our inclusion criteria, the most commonly assessed psychological factors were distress, anxiety, and depression. These factors were most often measured by the impact of event scale (IES), the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), and the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies and Depression scale (CES-D), respectively. Our results show deficits in the existing body of literature on psychological factors associated with CGT including limited documentation of psychometrics and variability in instrumentation.

  2. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  3. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-03-24

    Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator. A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity). Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement related to increased weight loss preoccupation varied by bullying role: in bullies the effect was direct, in victims the effect was indirect (via reduced psychological functioning) and in bully-victims the effect was both direct and indirect. Sex significantly moderated the relationship in bullies: weight loss preoccupation was only statistically significant in bullies who were

  4. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  5. Factors Responsible for Students' Involvement in Internet Fraud as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet fraud is one of the most rapidly increasing forms of cybercrime. It has become rampant among students generally because they make use of different Internet devices in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors responsible for students' involvement in Internet fraud as expressed by tertiary ...

  6. Factors related to food involvement in the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de ALENCAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate aspects associated with food involvement and to ascertain whether individuals with higher food involvement consume larger amounts of fruits and vegetables. Methods This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted with 301 adults (19-59 years old from the Federal District, Brazil. Sample size calculation was based on numbers from the Brazilian Demographic Census and on consumption data for fruits and vegetables obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Interviews survey. Data were collected in October of 2012. The questionnaire comprised 28 questions and included socio-demographic variables, reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and an adapted food involvement scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed to determine population characteristics . Results Women and older individuals displayed a higher degree of food involvement than did men and younger individuals ( p <0.001. Among the factors included in food involvement, the highest influence was attributed to satisfaction in preparing food (cooking, pre-preparation of food, and pleasure in cooking for other people ( p <0.001. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that food involvement can be stimulated through innovative strategies of communication that go beyond the biological arguments and focus on the cultural expression of the elements of socialization, whose relationship with eating is well established.

  7. The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    by stressful disabling symptoms complex of spontaneous episodic vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness.[1-3] The ... its psychological aspects as it affects the disease's impact on the daily life of ... chronic disease.

  8. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  9. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Đurišić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the system of integrated support for their students’, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for childrens’ success in the educational system. In this way, parental involement are increased, parents’ effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to a successful educational system. Considering the importance of parents’ participation and involvement in school activities, in this paper, we will analyse the positive effects of parental involvement, summarize leading principles for the successful partnership of parents and school and present six factors (Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision-making and Collaborating with the community and six models (Protective Model, Expert Model, Transmission Model, Curriculum-Enrichment Model, Consumer Model and Partnership Model of parental involvement. In addition, we will draw conclusions and make recommendations that are important for planning programs that are focused on the improvement of parent involvement.

  10. Psychological factors in pregnancy and mixed-handedness in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that psychological factors may interfere with the development of brain asymmetry during gestation. We evaluated whether psychological exposure in pregnancy was associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In a follow-up design study, 824 Danish-speaking women with sin......Animal studies suggest that psychological factors may interfere with the development of brain asymmetry during gestation. We evaluated whether psychological exposure in pregnancy was associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In a follow-up design study, 824 Danish-speaking women...

  11. Psychological factors impacting transition from paediatric to adult care by childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Nathan, Paul C; Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; D'Agostino, Norma; Amin, Leila; Barr, Ronald D; Greenberg, Mark L; Hodgson, David; Boydell, Katherine; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood cancer survivors require life-long care focused on the specific late effects that may arise from their cancer and its treatment. In many centers, survivors are required to transition from follow-up care in a paediatric cancer center, to care provided in an adult care setting. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological factors involved in this transition to adult care long-term follow-up clinics. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten paediatric survivors still in paediatric care, as well as 28 adult survivors of whom 11 had transitioned successfully to adult care (attended three long-term follow-up (LTFU) appointments consecutively); ten who failed to transition (attended at least one LTFU appointment as an adult, but were inconsistent with subsequent attendance); and seven who had never transitioned (did not attend any LTFU care as an adult). Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and themes. Constant comparison was used to examine relationships within and across codes and categories. Two overall categories and four subthemes were identified: (1) Identification with being a cancer survivor included the subthemes of 'cancer identity' and 'cancer a thing of the past' and; (2) Emotional components included the subthemes of 'fear and anxiety' and 'gratitude and gaining perspective'. The analysis revealed that the same factor could act as either a motivator or a hindrance to successful transition in different survivors (e.g., fear of recurrence of cancer might be a barrier or a facilitator depending on the survivor's life experience). Psychological factors are an important consideration when preparing cancer survivors for transition to adult long-term follow-up care. Identifying and addressing the individual psychological needs of childhood cancer survivors may improve the likelihood of their successful transition to adult care.

  12. A model of real estate and psychological factors in decision-making to buy real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.

  13. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  14. Application of factor analysis in psychological diagnostics (sample: study of students’ social safety

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    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2015-10-01

    Our recommendations for the use of factor analysis, with necessary restrictions and clear reasons of a possible ambiguity of solutions, will be useful to everyone interested in mastering an adequate mathematical tool for solving problems pertaining to the humanities, in particular, those of practical psychology. As a practical example is presented the research of the psychological factors which provide students’ social safety. With the help of the factor analysis relevant personal and professional qualities of a teacher were revealed which are the subjective factors of students’ social safety, namely: social anticipation, socio-psychological stress resistance, social tolerance, professional orientation, responsibility, communication skills.

  15. Psychological factors are associated with subjective cognitive complaints 2 months post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Mierlo, Marloes L; Post, Marcel W M; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients were assessed at 2 months post-stroke, using the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) to identify cognitive complaints. Psychological factors were: proactive coping, passive coping, self-efficacy, optimism, pessimism, extraversion, and neuroticism. Associations between CLCE-24 cognition score and psychological factors, emotional problems (depressive symptoms and anxiety), cognitive deficits, and demographic and stroke characteristics were examined using Spearman correlations and multiple regression analyses. Results showed that 2 months post-stroke, 270 patients (68.4%) reported at least one cognitive complaint. Age, sex, presence of recurrent stroke(s), comorbidity, cognitive deficits, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and all psychological factors were significantly associated with the CLCE-24 cognition score in bivariate analyses. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological factors explained 34.7% of the variance of cognitive complaints independently, and 8.5% (p psychological factors, proactive coping was independently associated with cognitive complaints (p cognitive complaints. Because cognitive complaints are common after stroke and are associated with psychological factors, it is important to focus on these factors in rehabilitation programmes.

  16. Factors associated with father involvement in infant care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falceto, Olga G; Fernandes, Carmen L; Baratojo, Claudia; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2008-12-01

    To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with their children. Among families whose parents lived together (78% of all), 33% of the fathers reported not actively participating in their children's care. Problematic couple relationship and mother as a housewife were associated with lack of father involvement in infant care. High prevalence of families whose father is not actively involved with infant care, especially when couple relationship is problematic and the mother does not have a paid job.

  17. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

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    Benditz A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits

  18. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

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    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  19. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

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    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  20. IDENTIFYING MOTIVATION FACTOR INVOLVEMENT OF SARAWAK MALAY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

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    Masyantie Mohamad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak multilayered cake among Sarawak product signature famous among the local as well as international tourist visiting Sarawak. In fact, Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurs have become very necessary players in the entrepreneurial field specifically in this cottage industries from the early introduction of this business, they have facing various problem in this businesses. Thus, this research aims to build an understanding of motivational factor that encourage Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurial experiences especially in multilayered cake businesses. Using qualitative methods, this research aims to identify the entrepreneurial motivations factors; with regards to start-up motivation by Sarawak Malay women. The finding shows that the motivations that influence Malay women within Kuching, Sarawak areas to start and grow their business are involve self-driven and context driven that motivate them involve in multilayered cakes businesses.

  1. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

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    Imogen eAujla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  2. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-12-27

    Background : Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods : Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results : The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions : These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

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    Mi Jung Rho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29280953

  5. Psychological factors in patients with peptic ulcerand functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Mosavi, Shokofeh; Zarini, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    The role of psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) has not been clearly determined. In this study the role of conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were assessed in patients with PUD and FD and in the healthy individuals. Ninety subjects [30 PUD (15 women, 15 men), 30 FD (15 women, 15 men), and 30 healthy individuals (15 women, 15 men)] in two endoscopy wards of Babol University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. Three groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were evaluated by appropriate questionnaires. The patients with PUD reported less mean scores on psychiatric symptoms than the FD patients (depression 12.6±7.5 vs 28±9.5, anxiety 8.2±5.9 vs 18.7±6. obsessive-compulsive disorder 15.7±7.5 vs 21.8±8.4, interpersonal sensitivity 9.5±7.4 vs 16±7, psychoticism 8.03±4.5 vs 14.3±6.3, somatization 12.5±10.8 vs 20.7±8.1, and the total score of psychiatric symptoms 94.4±49.9 vs 160.1±46.6). The mean scores use of unconstructive conflict management styles in PUD patients were lower than FD (dominating 17.7±3.5 vs 20.2±2.7, avoiding 17.5±3 vs 23.8±4.4). Alexithymia symptoms were higher in FD patients than PUD individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 23.5±6.3 vs 27.8±3.9, difficulty in describing feeling 16.5±4.4 vs 17.3±3.6). The PUD and FD patients had higher scores regarding these variables than the healthy subjects. The results show that both PUD and FD patients experienced more psychiatric symptoms, unconstructive conflict management styles, and alexithymia than the healthy subjects. FD patients had worse psychiatric problems than PUD.

  6. Building a Model of Employee Training through Holistic Analysis of Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While theories of adult learning and motivation are often framed as being either biological, psychological, or sociocultural, they represent a more complex, integral process. To gain a more holistic perspective of this process, a study was designed to concurrently investigate relationships between a biological factor (age), psychological factors…

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT

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    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the psychological and pedagogical factors of effective implementation and use of electronic educational tools in secondary schools. Determination of individual development by complex of psychological and pedagogical, ergonomic, aesthetic and hygienic factors of information technology use is grounded. The basic psychological and educational factors that influence child development are considered. Main groups of ergonomic requirements, which should emphasize the development and evaluation of electronic tools to maximize development and mental and physical health of the child, are described.

  8. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C

    2015-04-01

    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  10. Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

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    Ana Safranoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  11. [Obesity and adolescence: psychological factors and family relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Elena

    2007-02-01

    The importance of psychological problems for children obesity and the role of the family context in favouring both pathology appearance and maintenance and eventually the failure of a correct dietetic therapy are presented. Particularly, maternal attitudes are underlined: obese children's mothers tend to make the family their exclusive centre of interest. They also tend to dedicate themselves to their children with possessiveness and hyper-protection. They seem to have an insistent requirement of idealisation of their own role as parents and reward expectations that confirm the efficiency of the care they provide their children. Moreover the psychological features of obese adolescents with anxious and depressive personality traits related to impulsivity and emotional immaturity are analysed.

  12. Appreciating Complexity in Adolescent Self-Harm Risk Factors: Psychological Profiling in a Longitudinal Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Past research identifies a number of risk factors for adolescent self-harm, but often fails to account for overlap between these factors. This study investigated the underlying, broader concepts by identifying different psychological profiles among adolescents. We then compared new self-harm rates over a six-month period across different psychological profiles. Australian high school students (n = 326, 68.1% female) completed a questionnaire including a broad range of psychological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis produced six groups with different psychological profiles at baseline and rate of new self-harm at follow-up. The lowest rate was 1.4% in a group that appeared psychologically healthy; the highest rate was 37.5% in a group that displayed numerous psychological difficulties. Four groups with average self-harm had varied psychological profiles including low impulsivity, anxiety, impulsivity, and poor use of positive coping strategies. Identifying multiple profiles with distinct psychological characteristics can improve detection, guide prevention, and tailor treatment.

  13. Factors Affecting Adolescents' Involvement in Cyberbullying: What Divides the 20% from the 80%?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Namin; Ahn, Hwasil

    2015-07-01

    Despite some variations among cyberbullying studies, about 20% of the youth population surveyed appears to be involved in cyberbullying. Coincidentally, the current study found that exactly 20% of the students surveyed were involved in cyberbullying as bullies (7.8%), victims (7.5%), and bully/victims (4.7%). What divides those 20% from the 80% of noninvolved students? This study aimed to produce a parsimonious and accurate model that can predict the occurrence of involvement in cyberbullying among youth. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey administered to 1,036 students enrolled in secondary schools in South Korea. Stepwise logistic regression (SLR) was carried out to predict the dichotomous dependent variable (involved/noninvolved) with 10 independent variables grouped into three categories: (a) demographic, (b) media-related, and (c) school and psychology factors. The result of the SLR analysis yielded a four-step model including the variables of cyber-confidence, weekday game time, mobile activities, and age as being significant in explaining the 20/80 division (model χ(2)=34.306, df=4, pcyberbullying than other students. In particular, the construct of cyber-confidence calls for further elaboration and research, given its controversial function with respect to adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying. Also, this study may bring about insights into practical considerations needed for concerned researchers, teachers, and parents to identify who is inside the group involved in cyberbullying so as to help the participating adolescents escape from the circle of cyberbullying.

  14. Factors Associated with Involvement in Bullying: A Study in Nicaragua

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    Eva M. Romera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available School bullying is one of the main problems affecting the quality of peer relationships in schools and in general the coexistence. At European level, there are scientific findings that indicate its nature, characteristics and factors related to its involvement. However, in poor and developing countries, where the problem is more serious, there is a high degree of awareness on this matter. The present study aimed to identify what factors may be influencing the occurrence of bullying in a representative sample of primary schools in the Nicaraguan capital. For this propose, 3042 students from Managua and its metropolitan area were explored with instruments comparable to those used in Europe. A multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that being a boy, to show antisocial behaviors and attitudes and contact with drugs were the three factors most related with the role of aggressor, as well as negative relationships had a significant influence on involvement in this phenomenon, either as a victim, aggressor or victimized aggressor. Results are discussed in relation to the profiles of aggressor and victim of bullying in international studies focusing on differences in developed countries.

  15. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J; Luippold, R S; Nagy, L; Liese, B; Bigelow, C; Mundt, K A

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.

  16. Psychological stress as a risk factor for postoperative keloid recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Hochman, Bernardo; Farber, Paulo Luiz; Muller, Marisa Campio; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-04-01

    To investigate psychological stress on the prognosis of the postoperative recurrence of keloids. Patients with keloids (n=25), candidates for surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy, had their psychological stress evaluated on the day before the surgical procedure. The parameters evaluated were pain and itching (Visual Numerical Scale), quality of life (Questionnaire QualiFibro/Cirurgia Plástica-UNIFESP), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), salivary cortisol and minimum and maximum galvanic skin responses (GSR) at rest and under stress (i.e., while the questionnaires were being filled out). Patients were evaluated during the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th months of postoperative care. During each return visit, two experts classified the lesions as non-recurrent and recurrent. The recurrence group presented the greatest values in GSR during a stressful situation. The chance of recurrence increased by 34% at each increase of 1000 arbitrary units in maximum GSR during stress. Psychological stress influenced the recurrence of keloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  18. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  19. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  20. Does empowerment mediate the effects of psychological factors on mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Annmarie; Tai, Sara; Hunter, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Murrells, Trevor; Morrison, Anthony P

    2017-09-01

    There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems. A cross-sectional, Internet-based questionnaire study recruited 423 young people aged between 16 and 29 attending universities in England (n = 336) and Ireland (n = 87). Psychological factors, mental well-being, empowerment, and recovery from personal problems were measured using self-report measures. Mediation analysis in both the single and one over-arching mediator models revealed that empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, self-efficacy, thinking style, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from general life problems. This study demonstrates the importance of empowerment, showing that it mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinical implications for working with young people within mental health services, and facilitating their empowerment are discussed. Empowerment is currently a poorly defined concept. This study demonstrates how empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinicians working with young people might benefit from a structured means of understanding and assessing the different ways in which individuals manage their thinking styles. Empowerment in young people is influenced by the manner in which clinicians facilitate them in establishing social

  1. Psychological factors of performance in ski jumping : a quantitative study of World Cup ski jumpers

    OpenAIRE

    Sklett, Vegard Haukø

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The present study investigated the relationship between psychological factors (self-efficacy, flow, positive- and negative affect, worry) and ski jumping performance, as well as the influential functions these psychological factors have on ski jumping performance. Method – World Cup ski jumpers (N = 40) responded to four questionnaires in the middle of the World Cup season, reporting their subjective experience during a competitive setting. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura...

  2. [Activity involvement and extraversion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between extraversion and wellbeing has been discussed in the literature, however, the impact that this trait has on the wellbeing of older people has been studied to a lesser extent. The relationship between extraversion, participation in activities and psychological wellbeing in older people is analysed in this study. The sample comprised 139 individuals over 55 years from rural and urban areas of the province of Granada who completed the extraversion subscale of the NEO-FFI and the Ryff Scales of the Psychological Wellbeing, as well as responding to questions that evaluated their social participation. A greater social participation was found in rural areas and among women. The activities more frequently performed by the participants were educational and religious activities, walking, everyday chores, crafts, and home improvements. A low positive correlation between extraversion and wellbeing was observed. The multiple regression analysis revealed that extraversion explained 19.9% of the variance in psychological wellbeing, which increased to 25.3% when social participation, gender, and the origin of the sample were considered. Psychological wellbeing appears to be associated with personality traits, such as extraversion. In addition this personality trait is linked to the number and type of activities the elderly perform which also contributes to wellbeing in old age. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The Home-School Psychological Contract: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renihan, Patrick J.; Renihan, Frederick J.

    1995-01-01

    Contends that social change has created a need for parents and teachers to develop strategies to improve communication, mutual understanding, and effective ways to nurture and educate young adolescents. Addresses the psychological contract between school and home, strategies and stances, and considerations and strategies for strengthening the…

  4. Emotional Involvement as a Factor in the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Sexual items on a pre-post vocabulary test of little known words in college level abnormal psychology produced the greatest evidence of learning; word associations and no aid'' conditions were used in comparison. (Editor)

  5. Factors associated with male involvement in reproductive care in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men’s active involvement in reproductive healthcare has shown to be positively associated with maternal and child health outcomes. Bangladesh has made appreciable progress in its pursuance of maternal mortality related goals in the framework of the MDGs. However, there remains a lot to be accomplished to realise the long-term goals for which active participation of male counterparts in reproductive care is crucial. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate factors associated with male involvement in reproductive health among Bangladeshi men. Methods We used data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS conducted in 2011. Study participants were 1196 married men, aged between 15 and 69 years and living in both urban and rural households. Level of male involvement (outcome variable was measured based on the responses on knowledge, awareness and practice regarding reproductive health. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models were performed for data analysis. Results Out of 1196 participants, only 40% were found to be active about partners’ reproductive healthcare. Chi-square test showed significant association between active involvement and ever hearing about family planning (FP in television, learning about FP through community health events, community health workers and poster/billboard. Results from logistic regression analysis revealed that type of residency [p = 0.004, AOR = 0.666, 95% CI = 0.504–0.879], literacy [secondary/higher education- p = 0.006. AOR = 0.579, 95% CI = 0.165–0.509], learning about family planning from Newspaper [p < 0.001. AOR = 1.952, 95% CI = 1.429–2.664], and television [p = 0.017. AOR = 1.514 95% CI = 1.298–1.886], and having been communicated about family planning by community health workers [p = 0.017. AOR = 1.946, 95% CI = 1.129–3.356] were significantly associated

  6. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  7. Psychological commitment as a mediator of the relationship between involvement and loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohyun Lee; Alan Graefe

    2002-01-01

    This study tested the ill-understood issues of involvement and loyalty relations. Even though many studies have indicated that loyalty is a function of involvement, only minimal agreement has been reached on the extent to which the constructs of involvement would predict repeat participation. A structural model is developed that relates members' involvement and...

  8. [Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Pchildren: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.

  9. [Factors associated with psychological distress among military police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates factors associated with psychological distress among military police (n = 1,120) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article describes their social, economic, and demographic characteristics, quality of life, mental health, and work conditions. Measurement of psychological distress used the Self-Reported Questionnaire. Analysis of associations used logistic regression, considering factors associated with psychological distress. The results indicate an association between psychological distress and factors such as ability to react to difficult situations, dissatisfaction with life, health problems (especially digestive, nervous, and musculoskeletal symptoms), and adverse work conditions such as excessive workload, constant stress, and victimization. The article concludes by highlighting the need for health promotion interventions for the military police, focusing especially on their mental health.

  10. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress.

  11. Psychological Factors of Innovativeness among Nomadic Micro-Entrepreneurs for Achieving Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the psychological factors of innovativeness that drives nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth in Malaysia. Nomadic micro entrepreneurs refer to those who regularly change the location of their business. To meet the research objective, the current study carried out in-depth interviews among the Nomadic MEs operating their business in Northern region, Malaysia. Twenty Nomadic MEs were interviewed on voluntary basis. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the recurring themes that delineate psychological factors that may influence innovativeness. Interestingly, the findings revealed that the innovativeness of Nomadic MEs is influenced by four psychological characteristics namely sense of curiosity, interest, risk taking, and risk avoidance. The contribution of this study lies in the identification of four substantial psychological factors that act as a foundation for innovativeness among nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth.

  12. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  13. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  14. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-01-18

    Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  15. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  16. Multiple sclerosis and employment: Associations of psychological factors and work instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charlotte Rose; Ward, Karl; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan; Ford, Helen L

    2016-10-12

    People with multiple sclerosis often stop working earlier than expected. Psychological factors may have an impact on job retention. Investigation may inform interventions to help people stay in work. To investigate the associations between psychological factors and work instability in people with multiple sclerosis. A multi-method, 2-phased study. Focus groups were held to identify key themes. Questionnaire packs using validated scales of the key themes were completed at baseline and at 8-month follow-up. Four key psychological themes emerged. Out of 208 study subjects 57.2% reported medium/high risk of job loss, with marginal changes at 8 months. Some psychological variables fluctuated significantly, e.g. depression fell from 24.6% to 14.5%. Work instability and anxiety and depression were strongly correlated (χ2 p work instability, and baseline depression levels also predicted later work instability (Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.899; Nagelkerke R Square 0.579). Psychological factors fluctuated over the 8-month follow-up period. Some psychological variables, including anxiety and depression, were significantly associated with, and predictive of, work instability. Longitudinal analysis should further identify how these psychological attributes impact on work instability and potential job loss in the longer term.

  17. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  18. Husband and wife with sarcoidosis: possible environmental factors involved

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    Leli Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystem disorder of unclear etiology that involves any organ, most commonly the lung and the lymph nodes. It is hypothesized that the disease derives from the interaction between single or multiple environmental factors and genetically determined host factors. Multiple potential etiologic agents for sarcoidosis have been proposed without any definitive demonstration of causality. We report the case of two patients, husband (57 years old and wife (55 years old, both suffering from sarcoidosis. They underwent a lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy which showed a “granulomatous epithelioid giant cell non-necrotising chronic lymphadenitis”. They had lived up to 3 years ago in the country in a farm, in contact with organic dusts, animals such as dogs, chickens, rabbits, pigeons; now they have lived since about 3 years in an urban area where there are numerous chemical industries and stone quarries. The aim of this case report was to focus on environmental factors that might be related to the pathogenesis of the sarcoidosis.

  19. Relating psychological and social factors to academic performance: A longitudinal investigation of high-poverty middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Allen, Jeff; Casillas, Alex

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the relations between middle school students' psychological factors (academic commitment and emotional control), social perceptions (family involvement and school climate), and academic performance over time. Gender differences in these relations were also examined. Based on a two-year longitudinal data set of 942 middle-school students from a high-poverty district in the United States, we found that all four factors measured in 6th grade were predictive of GPA at the end of the 7th grade above and beyond gender, race, and home intellectual materials. Among these factors, emotional control had the strongest relation with GPA, and the importance of family involvement increased over time, especially for female students. The results also revealed the indirect effects of the social factors on GPA through the psychological factors, and mostly through emotional control. These findings highlight the complex relation between the social-emotional factors and academic outcomes in early adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, József; Nagy, Imre; Szirtes, László; Pórszász, János

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Continuous heart rate (HR) recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder - Bioport (ZAK, Germany). The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, "instrument stress," presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination) on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA). The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12-18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm) and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm). During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001). When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25-75 percentiles) = 23, 20-26 bmp vs. 28, 25-31.3 bpm, p < 0.001). Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The results can be used to implement preventive and health promotion measures. This

  1. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  2. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Allen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  3. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  4. The effects of psychological factors in sports medicine rehabilitation adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, C C; Lambert, M E; Yost, R

    1993-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation and self-esteem on injury treatment adherence in a general sample of injured patients receiving treatment in a sports medicine clinic. Subjects consisted of both injured athletes and workers who had incurred an on-the-job injury. Based on scales of self-esteem and achievement motivation, patients were categorized as either high or low in self-esteem certainty, self-esteem level, tendency to be task-involved, and tendency to ego-involved in tasks. Treatment adherence was measured by number of missed appointments and by physical therapist ratings of effort and progress. It was found that patients low in self-esteem certainty and high in ego-involvement tended to miss the most treatment appointments. Contrary to previous findings, task-involvement was not found to be related to treatment adherence.

  5. Multiplicative Effects of Social and Psychological Risk Factors on College Students’ Suicidal Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016–2017, is a national online survey of college students in the United States. Social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, violence victimization, financial difficulty, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, and drug use risk/protective factors were assessed among 27,961 individuals. Three aspects of suicidality, including ideation, plan, and attempt, were also assessed. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Financial difficulty, violence victimization, identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, anxiety, depression, and drug use increased, while religiosity reduced the odds of suicidal behaviors. Multiplicative effects were found between the following social and psychological risk factors: (1 financial difficulty and anxiety; (2 financial difficulty and depression; (3 depression and drug use; (4 problem alcohol use and drug use; and (5 depression and problem alcohol use. There is a considerable overlap in the social and psychological processes, such as financial stress, mood disorders, and substance use problems, on risk of suicide in college students. As social and psychological risk factors do not operate independently, comprehensive suicidal risk evaluations that simultaneously address multiple social and psychological risk factors may be superior to programs that only address a single risk factor.

  6. Factors influencing the psychology and quality of life in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Hao, Nan; Zhang, Xun

    2017-09-01

    To determine the factors closely correlated with the unhealthy psychological status of patients with lung cancer and to ascertain whether the unhealthy psychology adversely affects their quality-of-life (QOL). Methods: Patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer between May 2013 and December 2015 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin 4th Centre Hospital, Tianjin, China were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patients were asked to complete the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) survey. From the responses, the correlation between the patient's psychological status and QOL were analyzed with respect to several variables. Results: From the total of 258 patients subjected to the test, 168 belonged to the unhealthy psychology group and 90 to the healthy psychology group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that significant factors related to poor QOL among the 2 groups are gender (p=0.02), younger age (p=0.001), surgical history (p=0.04), employment status (p=0.03), and medical insurance (p=0.01) significantly predicted the severity of unhealthy psychology in lung cancer patients. A significantly negative correlation was noted between the points of SCL-90 and the general QOL in all included patients (p=0.03). Conclusion: Gender, younger age, surgical history, employment status, and medical insurance significantly predicted the severity of unhealthy psychology in lung cancer patients.

  7. Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-08-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms.

  8. Factors influencing the psychology and quality of life in lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin; Hao, Nan; Zhang, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the factors closely correlated with the unhealthy psychological status of patients with lung cancer and to ascertain whether the unhealthy psychology adversely affects their quality-of-life (QOL). Methods: Patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer between May 2013 and December 2015 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin 4th Centre Hospital, Tianjin, China were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patients were asked to complete the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL...

  9. Factors influencing the psychology and quality of life in lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin; Hao, Nan; Zhang, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the factors closely correlated with the unhealthy psychological status of patients with lung cancer and to ascertain whether the unhealthy psychology adversely affects their quality-of-life (QOL). Methods: Patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer between May 2013 and December 2015 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin 4th Centre Hospital, Tianjin, China were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patients were asked to complete the Symptom Checkli...

  10. Factors influencing involvement of youth in crime as perceived by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... some recommendations were made. It was specifically recommended that parents should be careful in handling their adolescents and that there is the need for adequate counselling programme for adolescents/youth on the kind of company to keep. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics Vol.

  11. Hereditary Factors Involved in Radiation-Induced Leukaemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplan, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The hereditary factors involved in radiation-induced leukaemogenesis were studied in pure AKR and C57BL strains, their first-generation hybrids and their back-crosses. It is known that the heredity of spontaneous lymphoid leukaemias is attributable to hereditary factors, of which only some are chromosomal, and the same situation can be considered to exist as regards the heredity of radiation-induced leukoses. In order to identify the various chromosomal and non-chromosomal factors concerned, three types of experiment were conducted with the pure strains and with each of the crosses, intended to evaluate (a) the incidence of spontaneous lymphoid leukoses, (b) the incidence of radiation-induced leukoses and (c) the inhibition of radioleukaemo- genesis by the injection of isogenic haematopoietic cells. The results show that the main non-chromosomal factor is the leukaemogenic Gross virus (VG) in the case of the AKR strain and the radioleukaemia virus (VRL) in that of the C57BL strain; these two agents are transmitted by the mother to her progeny. The VG may be responsible for radioleukaemias as well as for spontaneous leukoses, but the VRL does not produce spontaneous leukaemias even in back-crosses possessing a substantial fraction of the AKR genome, which is particularly conducive to leukaemogenesis. Restoration using C57BL bone marrow brings about a distinct inhibition of leukaemogenesis in all animals deriving from crossings for which this material is histocompatible; AKR marrow, however, never exhibits any restorative activity. Three hypotheses may be put forward to explain these results. The first is that C57BL bone marrow contains many more precursor elements than AKR marrow, these cells being necessary for inhibition of the leukaemogenic process. The second hypothesis is that the AKR strain lacks a factor which is essential for the utilization of these precursors. Finally the third hypothesis, which seems the least probable, is that AKR cells are much more

  12. Factores psicosociales en alcohólicos dependientes Psychological and social factors in dependent alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Revilla Cervantes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 4 casos clínicos de pacientes alcohólicos dependientes no complicados pertenecientes al Consultorio Médico de Familia No. 5 del Policlínico Docente "Frank País García", con vistas a identificar los factores psicosociales que influían en estos. Como principales condicionantes de la conducta adictiva en el grupo estudiado se observaron: la influencia del medio, las tradiciones culturales y la participación de eventos vitales de prevalencia negativa. Además, los afectados mostraron un fuerte arraigo a la conducta alcohólica y el deseo de continuarla.Four case reports of uncomplicated dependent alcoholic patients belonging to the Family Doctor's Office No. 5 from «Frank País García Teaching Polyclinic are presented with the aim of identifying the psychological and social factors influencing on them. As main conditions of the addictive behavior in the studied group there were: the influence of the environment, the cultural traditions and the participation in vital events of negative prevalence. Also, those affected showed a strong dependence on the alcoholic behavior and the desire of continuing it.

  13. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Psychological and Related Factors Associated with Drunkenness Episodes in Adolescent Students in Guadalajara, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lidia Nuño Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify psychological and related factors linked with drunkenness episodes in 1134 adoles-cent students in Guadalajara, Mexico. The study evaluated ten psychological and related factors. The outcome variable was the number of episodes of drunkenness in the last month. We found 26.5% more episodes of drunkenness in men. A logistic regression analysis indicated that factors associated with drunkenness were smoking, high self-esteem, high impulsiveness, low self-control, presence of daily stress and distant relationship with father. The study concluded that the psychological and related factors associated with drunkenness episodes were related to a highly impressionable omnipo-tence profile and emotional indifference, with excessive consumption of alcohol as a safety strategy.

  15. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Involving Unilateral Double Ureter: Management, Treatment and Psychological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Leanza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted to our university hospital for polymenorrhea, weight gain and pain in the left iliac region is reported. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a 9.5 × 5.2-cm, hypoechoic and inhomogeneous mass located on the left side of the pelvis and behind the ovary. The patient underwent surgery. The pelvic mass was firmly anchored to the small intestine, colon, sigma and uterine fundus. After removing the adhesions, double ureters, which had been incorporated in the mass, were observed on the left side. Resection of the unilateral double ureters was necessary in order to remove the entire mass, and thereafter, a left salpingoophorectomy was performed. A histological examination showed a malignant retroperitoneal mass. Termino-terminal ureteral anastomosis with two double-J stents was carried out. Total hysterectomy with preservation of the right adenexum and regional lymphadenectomy was performed. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the physical and psychological implications related to the combination of two rare entities: leiomyosarcoma and a double ureter located within the mass. A literature review on the clinical management and psychological aspects from a female cancer patient's perspective undergoing surgery with the aforementioned disorders will be discussed.

  16. [Investigation of psychological state and its influencing factors in children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lu, Sheng-Li; Hong, Fei

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the psychological state of children with epilepsy and analyze its influencing factors. The Mental Health Scale for Child and Adolescent was used to survey 113 children with epilepsy and 114 normal children to evaluate and compare their psychological state. Questionnaires were used to investigate the general status of all subjects and the disease condition and treatment of children with epilepsy. The possible influencing factors for the psychological state of children with epilepsy were analyzed. The mental health status of children with epilepsy was poorer than that of normal children in cognition, thinking, emotion, will-behavior, and personality traits (Pchildren with epilepsy. There is a wider range of psychological health problems in children with epilepsy than in normal children. Poor family living environment, poor seizure control, and use of many antiepileptic drugs are the risk factors affecting the psychological state of children with epilepsy. Improving family living environment, controlling seizures, and monotherapy help to improve the psychological state of children with epilepsy.

  17. Psychological, behavioral and familial factors in obese Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.

  18. Gingivitis, Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.

  19. Moral transgression during the Vietnam War: a path analysis of the psychological impact of veterans' involvement in wartime atrocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Paul A; Dennis, Nora M; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2017-03-01

    Involvement in wartime combat often conveys a number of deleterious outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, hostility, aggression, and suicidal ideation. Less studied is the effect of engagement in wartime atrocities, including witnessing and perpetrating abusive violence. This study employed path analysis to examine the direct effects of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation independent of combat exposure, as well as the indirect effects via guilt and PTSD symptom severity among 603 help-seeking male Vietnam War veterans. Involvement in wartime atrocities was predictive of increased guilt, PTSD severity, hostility, aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation after controlling for overall combat exposure. Combat-related guilt played a minor role in mediating the effect of atrocity involvement on depression and suicidal ideation. PTSD severity had a larger mediational effect. However, it still accounted for less than half of the total effect of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, and suicidal ideation. These findings highlight the heightened risk conveyed by involvement in wartime atrocities and suggest that the psychological sequelae experienced following atrocity involvement may extend well beyond guilt and PTSD.

  20. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, a...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies.......Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social......, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...

  1. Relationship between Psychological Factors and Cancer: An Update of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    There is a widely held perception that cancer is influenced by psychological factors, and that both the onset and progression of the disease are affected by factors such as stress, depression, social isolation and coping style. This article reviews the evidence for the mind-cancer link. Although hundreds of studies have reported on this issue,…

  2. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on

  3. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  4. Mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Gennarelli, T A; Maltese, M R; Eppinger, R H

    2001-11-01

    This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec. Injuries were not apparent in three tests. Eight tests resulted in trauma. Fractures involving the pelvis including the acetabulum and proximal femur occurred in five out of the eight tests, and distal femoral bone fracture occurred in one test. These results underscore the importance of leg pre-positioning and the orientation of the impacting axis to produce specific types of trauma to the pelvic region of the lower extremity.

  5. Psychological problems and family functioning as risk factors in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sajida; Zia, Hamid; Irfan, Syed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine the role of family functioning and psychological problems of drug addicts and non addicts by assessing the difference between the two groups. After detailed literature review it was hypothesized that scores on the variable of communication, affective expression and control among family members of addicts will be higher than non addicts. Furthermore scores on the variables of anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self will also be higher of addicts. This was a cohort study. A cluster sampling method was used. Sample of present research consisted of 240 adolescents divided into two groups of 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts each from different socio-economic status. General scale of Family Assessment Measure-Version III (FAM-III) was administered in order to measure the level of communication, value and norms whereas dyadic Relationship Scale was used to measure affective expression and control among the family members of addicts and non addicts. Renold Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory was administered in order to assess anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self in addicts and non addicts. t-test was calculated in order to determine the difference in the level of communication, value and norms, affective expression and control among families of addicts and non addicts. Furthermore difference in anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self between the addicts and non addicts was also determined by calculating t-test. Results showed significant differences in the variables among the family members and there is also a significant difference between addicts and non addicts. Avenues for further research have been suggested.

  6. Psychological Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Neurorehabilitation and Psychological Factors Predictive of Therapeutic Response: Evidence and Recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Giusti, Emanuele M; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Saviola, Donatella; Gatti, Arianna; Gabrielli, Samantha; Lacerenza, Marco; Pietrabissa, Giada; Cattivelli, Roberto; Spatola, Chiara A M; Corti, Stefania; Novelli, Margherita; Villa, Valentina; Cottini, Andrea; Lai, Carlo; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelli, Lorys; Tavola, Mario; Torta, Riccardo; Arreghini, Marco; Zanini, Loredana; Brunani, Amelia; Capodaglio, Paolo; D'Aniello, Guido E; Scarpina, Federica; Brioschi, Andrea; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe; Repetto, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Molinari, Enrico; Notaro, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Simpson, Susan G; Wiederhold, Brenda; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. To determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. Two reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation. The first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies, and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy, and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the psychological aspects that are involved. The

  7. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  8. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  9. The role of psychological factors in oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints....

  11. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...... screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. Conclusions: This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons.This study included...

  12. Factors That Influence the Decision to Undergo Labiaplasty: Media, Relationships, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Managing wildland fire incidents can be fraught with complexity and uncertainty. Myriad human factors can exert significant influence on incident decision making, and can contribute additional uncertainty regarding programmatic evaluations of wildfire management and attainment of policy goals. This article develops a framework within which human sources of uncertainty...

  14. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  15. Psychological considerations in the assessment and treatment of pain in neurorehabilitation and psychological factors predictive of therapeutic response: evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. ObjectivesTo determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. MethodsTwo reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation.ResultsThe first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the

  16. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. The relationship between yoga involvement, mindfulness and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiswinkler, L; Unterrainer, H F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how different levels of yoga involvement are related to different parameters of mental health and illness. A total sample of 455 participants (410 females) were investigated by means of an internet survey. 362 yoga practitioners (327 females) rated their degree of yoga involvement on the Yoga Immersion Scale. A control group was comprised of 93 gymnastics practitioners (83 females). All participants completed the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, the Freiburger Mindfulness Inventory and the Brief Symptom Inventory for psychiatric symptoms. Highly involved yoga practitioners exhibited a significantly increased amount of mindfulness and religious/spiritual well-being (both pyoga-involved or who were in the gymnastics control group. In accordance with the literature, yoga practice might have its biggest impact on mental health when it is part of a practitioner's worldview. Further research focusing on the impact of yoga involvement in clinical groups is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Crisis Management: Psychological and Sociological Factors in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Section A. Cognitive Prooeaes While what has been a Ued the " rational model" of decision - making may not adequately account for the operation of the...obstacles blocking rational decision - making . 7. What part does fatigue play in reacting to a crisis? Fatigue results from two factors. First...further important question of the impact of these variables on decision - making . It is a difficult theoretical problem to link the maladaptive emotional

  19. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological factor is a factor that is mentally or spiritually concerned with the aspects in students’ acquisition. At least, four of many factors, such as anxiety, attitude, aptitude, and motivation influence the students’ process of language acquisition. However, to cope the psychological problems of learning second language, Kando, D. suggests the five strategies for coping with language anxiety, among of them are preparation strategy, relaxation, positive thinking, peer, and labeled resignation. Therefore, in maximizing the result of second language acquisition, the five strategies illustrated by Kando are important as an alternative solution.

  20. Psychological factors affecting medical condition: a new proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Fabbri, Stefania; Sirri, Laura; Wise, Thomas N

    2007-01-01

    The DSM category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" had virtually no impact on clinical practice. However, several clinically relevant psychosomatic syndromes have been described in the literature: disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, and irritable mood. These syndromes, in addition to the DSM definition of hypochondriasis, can yield clinical specification in the category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" and eliminate the need for the highly criticized DSM classification of somatoform disorders. This new classification is supported by a growing body of research evidence and is in line with psychosomatic medicine as a recognized subspecialty.

  1. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on only one or a few factors (which increases the chances of reporting spurious results) and reliance on use of a single measure of bereavement outcome. We avoided these pitfalls by simultaneously exami...

  2. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  3. Student Belief and Involvement in the Paranormal and Performance in Introductory Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Wayne S.; Griggs, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses student belief and involvement in 10 paranormal phenomena. Findings show 99 percent of the sample expressed belief in at least one. Students expressing these beliefs achieved significantly lower course grades. Discusses instructor's role in combating unfounded beliefs and fostering critical thinking. (NL)

  4. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  5. [The role of psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in skin diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.

  6. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  7. Risk and resilience factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of individuals deployed in humanitarian relief roles after a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Sage, Clara A M; Amlôt, Richard; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James

    2015-12-01

    When disasters occur, humanitarian relief workers frequently deploy to assist in rescue/recovery efforts. To conduct a systematic review of factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of disaster relief workers and identify recommendations for interventions. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO® and Web of Science for relevant studies, supplemented by hand searches. We performed thematic analysis on their results to identify factors predicting wellbeing. Sixty-one publications were included. Key themes were: pre-deployment factors (preparedness/training); peri-deployment factors (deployment length/timing; traumatic exposure; emotional involvement; leadership; inter-agency cooperation; support; role; demands and workload; safety/equipment; self-doubt/guilt; coping strategies) and post-deployment factors (support; media; personal and professional growth). As well as role-specific stressors, many occupational stressors not specific to humanitarian relief (e.g. poor leadership, poor support) present a significant health hazard to relief workers. Humanitarian organisations should prioritise strengthening relationships between team members and supervisors, and dealing effectively with non-role-specific stressors, to improve the psychological resilience of their workforce.

  8. The socio-psychological factors of family planning with special reference to Iran: a theoretical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, M T

    1995-03-01

    Iran's explosive population growth, which increases the country's population by about 1.9 million people annually, is causing a considerable strain on resources and the environment, and the coming generations will be facing a serious situation unless this trend is reversed. The strength of cultural values has not encouraged a declining population growth rate in parallel with the Iranian wave of modernization before and after the revolution. A special cultural revolution is the prerequisite for a demographic revolution. This study is placing main emphasis on the social and psychological factors involved in family planning. The general findings of surveys conducted so far demonstrate that few people know anything about family planning and methods of contraception. Social, cultural, and religious institutions seem to inhibit the expansion of family planning. Moreover, the lack of economic and social security promotes a large family size and prevents contraceptive use. However, social change in Iranian society will eventually be brought about by urbanization, industrialization, and education, and the ensuing modernization of values is expected to increase the use of contraceptives and lead to changes in the associated social and cultural institutions.

  9. Awareness of the Family History as a Factor in Psychological Well-being in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimova T.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of connection of psychological well-being of adolescents with their awareness of their own family history. We briefly overview the main trends and individual empirical studies on the influence of family history of psychological well-being of the individual. In the present study, we focuses not on pathological influence of family history, but on its resource and supporting effect during the difficulties of adolescence. The study involved 32 teenagers. The empirical study is based on data obtained using a questionnaire designed to examine the links of teenager with extended family members and his awareness of family history. We found that adolescents who know their family history, have an interest in it and keep in touch with the extended family, are characterized by high values of the level of psychological well-being.

  10. A Systematic, Thematic Review of Social and Occupational Factors Associated With Psychological Outcomes in Healthcare Employees During an Infectious Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha Kelly; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, Gideon James; Greenberg, Neil

    2018-03-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to identify social and occupational factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of healthcare workers involved in the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis. Four literature databases were searched and data extracted from relevant papers. Eighteen thousand five papers were found and 22 included in the review. The psychological impact of SARS on employees appeared to be associated with occupational role; training/preparedness; high-risk work environments; quarantine; role-related stressors; perceived risk; social support; social rejection/isolation; and impact of SARS on personal or professional life. To minimize the psychological impact of future outbreaks of infectious diseases, healthcare workers should be prepared for the potential psychological impact; employers should encourage a supportive environment in the workplace and ensure that support is in place for those most at risk, for example, those with the most patient contact.

  11. [Analysis of etiological factors involved in noncarious cervical lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Małgorzata

    2006-01-01

    The etiopathology of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCL) is multifactorial and still not fully understood. Tooth wear is defined as loss of dental hard tissue by a chemical or mechanical process that does not involve bacteria. This form of tooth surface loss includes attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction. Noncarious cervical lesions represent loss of tooth structure at the cementoenamel junction. The purpose of this clinical study of NCCL was to analyze the etiology in relation to age and to identify the most important risk factors associated with cervical lesions, as well as patients and teeth more susceptible to NCCL with a focus on more effective treatment of this condition. The study group comprised 124 patients with NCCL, aged 15-75 years (mean = 44). A questionnaire was distributed addressing medical history--gastric disorders, dietary habits--consumption of acidic drinks, dental history, oral hygiene practices, and parafunctional habits. Clinical examination of tooth wear was performed on four tooth surfaces after air-drying. The distribution and severity of tooth wear was graded using the tooth wear index (TWI) calculated with a computer programme allowing for tooth characteristic to be determined for each decade of life. Depth of the cervical defect was measured with a periodontal probe. TWI was devised to reveal the extent of tooth surface wear irrespective of the cause. Raw scores were compared with the computer using predetermined threshold values which are set to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable pathological levels of tooth wear for each decade of life and each tooth surface. Dentition status, oral hygiene, periodontal status, gingival recession, number of teeth and their mobility, oral symptoms of parafunction and relationship to lateral and protrusive tooth contact schemes was assessed and analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed with the Stata Statistical Software: release 5. The risk of NCCL formation was estimated with

  12. A prospective study of the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Ying Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional prospective study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer incidence. Methods: The subjects who scheduled to receive mammography screening were recruited from a medical center′s outpatient department in Taiwan. Psychological factors used for measurement were stress, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 1160 questionnaires were completed, which underwent statistical analysis using independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation, and multiple logistic regression. There were statistically significant differences in the average scores of the two groups with and without breast cancer for psychological factors of anxiety (t = −2.071; P = 0.039, depression (t = −3.035; P = 0.002, and stress (t = −4.087; P < 0.001. The crude odds ratio of the two groups showed that subjects with borderline anxiety were 2.576 times ( P = 0.001 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no anxiety. Subjects with depression were 4.078 times (P = 0.03 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no depression. Every point added to the average total stress score increased the additional risk of breast cancer by 1.124 times (P < 0.001. Conclusions: After making adjustments on educational factors, the results conclude that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can be considered predictors of breast cancer risk. To prevent and control breast cancer in women, the findings suggest that nurses should consider adding emphasis on psychological factors in women′s health education.

  13. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  14. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  15. The Factors Affecting the Intercultural Sensitivity Perception Level of Psychological Counseling and Guidance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Ibrahim; Aricioglu, Ahu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the intercultural sensitivity perception levels of Psychological Counseling and Guidance students. This study was conducted in Pamukkale University which is located in the western part of Turkey. Data were gathered from 524 freshmen, sophomore, junior and senior students who are…

  16. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  17. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  18. Contributing and Damaging Factors Related to the Psychological Capital of Teachers: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Ismail; Özgan, Habib

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, psychological capital has gained prominence in the literature on positive organisational behaviour. However, further investigation is still needed in relation to this issue, particularly in the context of educational organisations. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the contributing and damaging factors relating to…

  19. Quality of Life after Young Ischemic Stroke of Mild Severity Is Mainly Influenced by Psychological Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, M.A. de; Synhaeve, N.E.; Rijsbergen, M.W. van; Leeuw, F.E. de; Mark, R.E.; Jansen, B.P.; Kort, P.L. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term prognosis in terms of quality of life (QoL) in young stroke patients is of importance because they usually have a long life expectancy and extensive daily life demands. We aimed at determining which medical and psychological factors influence the QoL in young stroke patients

  20. Quality of life after young ischemic stroke of mild severity is mainly influenced by psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, M.; Synhaeve, N.A.; van Rijsbergen, Marielle; de Leeuw, F.-E.; Mark, Ruth; Jansen, B.; de Kort, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term prognosis in terms of quality of life (QoL) in young stroke patients is of importance because they usually have a long life expectancy and extensive daily life demands. We aimed at determining which medical and psychological factors influence the QoL in young stroke patients

  1. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  2. Fear of Falling in Patients With Hip Fractures: Prevalence and Related Psychological Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, J.; Van Balen, R.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Achterberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fear of falling (FoF) in patients after a hip fracture, to investigate the relation with time after fracture, and to assess associations between FoF and other psychological factors. Design: Cross-sectional study performed between September 2010 and March

  3. What Are the Social, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors That Drive Individuals to Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMattina, Lina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold; first, to uncover the social, psychological, and cognitive factors core to the entrepreneurial individual; and secondly, to provide accurate data to be used in curriculum development to fill the existing educational gap that exists in the current literature regarding understanding the inner workings of the…

  4. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  5. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  6. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  7. [The role of some psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors in the intensity of postpartum blues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Denis, A; Theux, G; Chabrol, H

    2008-04-01

    Within days following birth, most women show signs of mood changes, commonly named baby blues. Baby blues can result in postpartum depression. Hence it appears important to explore in more details the clinical background related to the intensity of postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors to the intensity of postpartum blues. One hundred and forty-eight women participated in the study and completed questionnaires three days after delivery. A questionnaire was built to collect information on psychosocial and obstetrical factors. The Maternity Blues (Kennerley and Gath, 1989) was used to assess postpartum blues. Psychological factors were measured with the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (Shea et Tronick, 1988), the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarch et Mermelstein, 1983) and the Sarason's Social Support Questionnaire (1983). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict the intensity of postpartum blues by entering psychosocial factors, history of depression, obstetrical factors and psychological and relational factors. Significant predictors (maternal self-esteem, marital status, previous psychotherapeutic treatment, previous antidepressant treatment) were entered in a multiple regression analysis predicting the intensity of postpartum blues. This model accounted for 31% of the variance in the intensity of postpartum blues (F(4, 143)=17.9; Pself-esteem (beta=-0.37; Porder to detect women who exhibit risk factors.

  8. Psychological Factors as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. Method The present study examined psychological factors (i.e....

  9. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking dur...

  10. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  11. Perceived heart risk factors can predict experienced psychological stress in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was done to investigate the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs in the prediction of psychological symptoms of cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 124 CR patients referred to Kermanshah Hospital of Imam Ali were assessed during April–July 2015. PHRFs scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale-21 used for data collection. The data were analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean age of samples (69.4% male was 58.9 ± 9.7 years. The results of regression analysis evidenced that there is no significant relationship between any of the PHRFs with depression and anxiety (P > 0.05; however, biological (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.019 risk factors significantly can predict stress. The model generally can explain 6.4% of the stress variance. Conclusion: PHRFs are included some significant predictors for experienced stress among the CR patients. Given that the biological and psychological risk factors are more effective in experienced stress by the patients, it is recommended that specialists pay more attention to the potential psychological outcomes of this group of patients.

  12. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-07-25

    The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  13. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  14. Discrimination, religious and cultural factors, and Middle Eastern/Arab Americans' psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, Ayse S; Szymanski, Dawn M

    2018-01-11

    We investigated (1) the moderating role of religiosity in the link between religious affiliation and ethnic discrimination and (2) the moderating roles of religiosity, ethnic identity, and family connectedness in the relations between ethnic discrimination and psychological distress. Our sample consisted of 122 (60% women, 40% men) Middle Eastern/Arab Americans (MEAAs), ranging in age from 18 to 82 years old, who completed an online survey. Muslim identification predicted discrimination for MEAAs with high but not low religiosity. Higher levels of discrimination, more family connectedness, the interaction of discrimination and religiosity, and the interaction of discrimination and family connectedness were unique predictors of psychological distress. Religiosity is a risk factor for experiencing ethnic discrimination among Muslim identified MEAAs. MEAAs who have high religiosity and low to moderate levels of family connectedness are vulnerable to psychological distress associated with ethnic discrimination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Psychological Factors and Their Association with Ideal Cardiovascular Health Among Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Lena; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Utuama, Ovie A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Veledar, Emir; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur; Zhao, Di; Michos, Erin D

    2018-01-29

    The cardiovascular effects of stress and other psychological factors may be different between women and men. We assessed whether self-perceived adverse psychological factors were associated with achievement of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as measured by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven (LS7) and whether this differed by sex. This was a cross-sectional study of employees from a large healthcare organization. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), intermediate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were categorized as optimal (11-14), average (9-10), and inadequate (0-8). Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychological factors obtained by questionnaire (self-perceived stress, low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, depression, and anxiety) were associated with CVH, after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and education. Among 9,056 participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (12) years, 74% were women, 57% Hispanic/Latino, 17% white, and 16% black. Stress was associated with reduced odds of having optimal/average CVH [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50-0.66) and 0.63 (0.50-0.81), for women and men, respectively]. Similarly, depression was associated with reduced odds of optimal/average CVH [0.58 (0.43-0.78) and 0.44 (0.26-0.76), for women and men, respectively]. Low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, and anxiety were also associated with statistically significantly lower odds of optimal/average CVH in women, but not in men; however, there were no interactions by sex. In an ethnically diverse population, both women and men with several adverse self-perceived psychological factors were less likely to have optimal or adequate CVH. Future studies are needed to determine whether addressing psychological stressors can improve CVH.

  16. Factors Associated with Perceived Paternal Involvement in Childrearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Susan; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed African American and white fathers living with their young children and the children's mothers regarding variables associated with perceived paternal involvement in child care. Results indicated that ethnicity, gender role orientation, and perceived skill at child care related to higher levels of perceived paternal engagement in and…

  17. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurišic, Maša; Bunijevac, Mila

    2017-01-01

    To comply with the system of integrated support for their students, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for children's success in the educational system. In this way, parental involvement are increased, parents' effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to…

  18. Psychosocial factors as predictors of job involvement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predictive influence of incentives, staff discipline, religiosity, self-esteem, and length of service on job involvement among secondary school teachers was examined in this study. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected through a structured questionnaire. Eighty (80) teachers comprising of ...

  19. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    discuss matters of sexuality with his female children. This cultural belief not only protects men from discussing issues of reproductive health; it contributes to the general lack of male involvement in reproductive health. Although the majority of participants mentioned that most married men. (especially the older generation) ...

  20. Psychological factors and mental health in persons with spinal cord injury: : An exploration of change or stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    Objectives: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. Design: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3

  1. Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K; Pensgaard, A M; Bahr, R

    2009-06-01

    Identifying and understanding injury risk factors are necessary to target the injury-prone athlete and develop injury prevention measurements. The influence of psychological factors on injuries in football is poorly documented. The purpose of this 8-month prospective cohort study therefore was to examine whether psychological player characteristics assessed by a self-administered questionnaire represent risk factors for injury. At baseline, female football players (14-16 years) were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire covering player history, previous injuries, perception of success and motivational climate, life stress, anxiety and coping strategies. During the 2005 season, a total of 1430 players were followed up to record injuries. A history of a previous injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.9 (1.4; 2.5), Pfemale football players.

  2. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  3. ROLE OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF SATISFACTION WITH EDUCATION IN THE QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Sharok

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate role of socio-psychological factors of satisfaction with university education. Study was conducted in 2 stages. On the first stage data were obtained from 350 respondents, on the second stage from 127 respondents. Sample was divided into four groups: satisfied and dissatisfied with university education students; satisfied and dissatisfied with future profession students. The main factor contributing to students' adaptation to the university, and, consequently, indirectly affecting the satisfaction with educational process is a factor of interpersonal communication: relationship with other students, professors and curator of the group, satisfaction with surroundings and emotional acceptance of other people, social status in the group. Emotional sphere, motivation and socio-psychological adaptation besides methodological aspect are the main factors of satisfaction with university education. Satisfied with university education and future profession individuals are characterized by psychological well-being, while for dissatisfied individuals indifference, renunciation and negation are typical. Conscious choice of university and future profession are also preconditions of satisfaction with education. Results of this study make it possible to expand the existing ideas about components of satisfaction with education at the university. Thus, knowing the possible causes of students' dissatisfaction, we can eliminate negative factors and thereby improve not only satisfaction with university, but university rating, which is very important in today's world.

  4. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Marie-Claude; Duchaine, Caroline S; Aubé, Karine; Talbot, Denis; Mantha-Bélisle, Marie-Michèle; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; St-Hilaire, France; Biron, Caroline; Vézina, Michel; Brisson, Chantal

    2018-02-28

    Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES), is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849) and 2-3 years following (T2, n = 2560) QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs) = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91) and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77-1.03). Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.998). Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers' mental health.

  5. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Letellier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES, is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849 and 2–3 years following (T2, n = 2560 QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.91 and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77–1.03. Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75–0.998. Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers’ mental health.

  6. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results.  Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b Panneerselvam (2012 Singh et al. (2013 and Poduval & Pramod (2015 in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  7. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results. Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b) Panneerselvam (2012) Singh et al. (2013) and Poduval & Pramod (2015) in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others) in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological) that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM) that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  8. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results. Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b) Panneerselvam (2012) Singh et al. (2013) and Poduval & Pramod (2015) in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others) in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological) that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM) that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  9. An assay system for factors involved in mammalian DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.; Maillart, P.; Schluchter, M.; Gautschi, J.R.; Schindler, R.

    1979-01-01

    An assay for cellular factors stimulating DNA synthesis by partially lysed CHO cells is presented. The assay is based on the observation that in highly lysed cells, DNA synthesis, as determined by [ 3 H]dTTP incorporation, was only 2-5% of that in gently lysed cells, and that this low level of DNA synthesis could be increased by a factor of approx. 50 by the addition of CHO cell extract (i.e. supernatant of a cell homogenate subjected to high-speed centrifugation.) (Auth.)

  10. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-vic...

  11. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  12. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The present review indicates the need for research to unravel the role of β-blockers in the manifestation of ED in hypertensive males, whom there are no contributory factors such as sedentary lifestyle, aging, stress and anxiety, etc. Keywords: Hypertension, Antihypertensive drugs, β-Blockers, Propranolol, ...

  13. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The CogBIAS longitudinal study protocol: cognitive and genetic factors influencing psychological functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Songco, Annabel; Parsons, Sam; Heathcote, Lauren; Vincent, John; Keers, Robert; Fox, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    Optimal psychological development is dependent upon a complex interplay between individual and situational factors. Investigating the development of these factors in adolescence will help to improve understanding of emotional vulnerability and resilience. The CogBIAS longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to combine cognitive and genetic approaches to investigate risk and protective factors associated with the development of mood and impulsivity-related outcomes in an adolescent sample. CogBIAS-L-S is a three-wave longitudinal study of typically developing adolescents conducted over 4 years, with data collection at age 12, 14 and 16. At each wave participants will undergo multiple assessments including a range of selective cognitive processing tasks (e.g. attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias) and psychological self-report measures (e.g. anxiety, depression, resilience). Saliva samples will also be collected at the baseline assessment for genetic analyses. Multilevel statistical analyses will be performed to investigate the developmental trajectory of cognitive biases on psychological functioning, as well as the influence of genetic moderation on these relationships. CogBIAS-L-S represents the first longitudinal study to assess multiple cognitive biases across adolescent development and the largest study of its kind to collect genetic data. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how genes and the environment influence the development and maintenance of cognitive biases and provide insight into risk and protective factors that may be key targets for intervention.

  15. The assessment of psychological factors on upper extremity disability: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Joy C; Valdes, Kristin; Szekeres, Mike; Naughton, Nancy; Algar, Lori

    2017-11-29

    The primary purpose of this scoping review was to describe the nature and extent of the published research that assesses the relationship between psychological features and patient-reported outcome following surgery or rehabilitation of upper extremity disease or injury. Twenty-two included studies were examined for quantitative study design, outcome measure, inclusion/exclusion criteria, follow-up and recruitment strategy. Patient population and psychological assessment tools were examined for validity. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria for this study. Only 7 of the 22 studies were longitudinal and the rest were cross sectional studies. Depression was the most common psychological status of interest and was included in 17 studies. Pain catastrophizing was the psychological status of interest in 5 of the studies. Four studies considered anxiety, 3 considered pain anxiety, 3 considered distress, 2 considered coping, 2 considered catastrophic thinking, and 2 considered fear avoidance beliefs. The majority of studies in this review were cross-sectional studies. Cross-sectional studies may not provide conclusive information about cause-and-effect relationships. This review encourages clinicians to be mindful of the psychological implications found in rehabilitation of individuals with upper extremity disease or injury along with being cognizant of choosing appropriate measurement tools that best represent each patient's characteristics and diagnoses. The nature of the research addressing psychological factors affecting outcomes after hand injury focus on negative traits and have limited strength to suggest causation as most have used cross-sectional designs. Stronger longitudinal designs and consideration of positive traits are needed in future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The psychology of chronic post-surgical pain: new frontiers in risk factor identification, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrib, Aliza Z; Azam, Muhammad A; Birnie, Kathryn A; Burns, Lindsay C; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel

    2017-11-01

    In an era of considerable advances in anaesthesiology and pain medicine, chronic pain after major surgery continues to be problematic. This article briefly reviews the known psychological risk and protective factors associated with the development of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). We begin with a definition of CPSP and then explain what we mean by a risk/protective factor. Next, we summarize known psychological risk and protective factors for CPSP. Psychological interventions that target risk factors and may impact postsurgical pain are reviewed, including the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based approach to CPSP prevention and management we use in the Transitional Pain Service (TPS) at the Toronto General Hospital. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for research in risk factor identification and psychological interventions to prevent CPSP. Several pre-surgical psychological risk factors for CPSP have been consistently identified in recent years. These include negative affective constructs, such as anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing and general psychological distress. In contrast, relatively few studies have examined psychological protective factors for CPSP. Psychological interventions that target known psychological risk factors while enhancing protective psychological factors may reduce new incidence of CPSP. The primary goal of our ACT intervention is to teach patients a mindful way of responding to their postsurgical pain that empowers them to interrupt the negative cycle of pain, distress, behavioural avoidance and escalating opioid use that can limit functioning and quality of life while paradoxically amplifying pain over time. Early clinical outcome data suggest that patients who receive care from TPS physicians reduce their pain and opioid use, yet patients who also receive our ACT intervention have a larger decrease in daily opioid dose while reporting less pain interference and lower depression scores.

  17. Psychological risk factors of social maladjustment and protective factors in alcohol-dependent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshakova E.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychological characteristics of alcohol-dependent women, including the particularities of subjective psychological symptomatic status, psychological well-being, motivation, social desirability and self-esteem. We tested the hypothesis that: 1 alcohol-dependent women expressed less motivation of social desirability and expressed more subjectively perceived symptoms in comparison with normal; 2 alcohol-dependent women have lower levels of well-being, self-esteem and level of aspiration in comparison with the conventional norm. The experimental group consisted of 46 women (mean age 45 years who are dependent on alcohol. The comparison group included 33 women with normal behavior who are not dependent on alcohol (the average age 33 years. We have found that a statistically significant contribution to the classification of women in a group of alcohol-dependent is made by low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, low real self-evaluation of their success in business, willpower and mental health, low ideal self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and mind, achievable self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and visual attractiveness, the average level of the personal growth as basic component of well-being.

  18. Some individual psychological characteristics as protective or risk factors for occurrence of conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 30 pairs of siblings aged 12-18 years; one sibling with and one without conduct disorder in each pair. The aim of the study was to assess individual characteristics of those siblings, i.e. to determine differences in psychological characteristics of the siblings with regard to locus of control, stress coping strategies and frequency and structure of behavioral problems and emotions. The results suggested significant differences in individual characteristics of children with conduct disorder and their healthy siblings. These results mainly confirm previous results of foreign research on a sample of our population. Exception of findings was related to strategies for coping with stress: religious behavior that didn’t turn out as a protective factor and avoiding confrontation and withdrawal which are shown as a protective factor. These results suggest the importance of individual psychological characteristics for the occurrence of conduct disorders and have implications in therapy and in preventive work with adolescents.

  19. Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

  20. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  1. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  2. Aging and low back pain among exercise participants: a follow-up study with psychological adaptation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.

  3. Association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Nurul Diyana Mat Sanusi,1 Azad Hassan Abdul Razack,3 Raymond Mark1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Clinical Investigation Center, University of Malaya Medical Centre, 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man’s psychological well-being and overall health. Purpose: To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among ED patients. Patients and methods: A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study. Results: It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001, guilt (P=0.001, anger or bitterness (P=0.001, depression (P=0.001, feeling like a failure (P=0.001, and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001 were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients’ psychological scale (P=0.004. In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients’ knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics. Conclusion: This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient’s knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, management

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL AMORTIZATION FACTORS FOR MEDIA IMPACT IN DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Makhovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to analyze the domestic and foreign psychological researches on influence of TV-programs on social, cognitive and emotional development of children. Methods. Methods involve a comparative historical and psychological analysis of papers, manuscripts and archival records of television companies. Results. The present study demonstrates that educational television, subsequently on-line resources for children, affect operative cognitive functions, increase cognitive motivation, and contribute to the formation of other important cognitive and social skills. However, the impact on children on-screen resources depends on the status and education level of the family. Scientific novelty. Much attention is given to the fact that it is the first attempt to provide historical and psychological analysis of world-wide studies of the effects of children’s television, from the main countries-producers of TV and video programs for children of different age – Russia, USA, Germany, France, Israel, etc. Criteria and matrix for comparison of heterogeneous researches, the domestic theory of child development, cultural-historical approach, the theory of stage formation of mental actions, activity theory had been chosen. Practical significance of the research is that these criteria can be used to assess any of the videos, their educational potential. Psychologists involved in the process of television production, this article will help to simulate the learning process taking into account the age of the children and their socio-cultural origin. 

  5. Mechanical sensitivity and psychological factors in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mika; Iida, Takashi; Kamiyama, Hirona; Masuda, Manabu; Kawara, Misao; Svensson, Peter; Komiyama, Osamu

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study was to compare mechanical sensitivity on the tongue using quantitative sensory testing (QST) and psychological factors using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) between burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients and healthy participants. Participants comprised 20 female BMS patients (68.1 ± 7.4 years) and 20 healthy females (65.4 ± 4.6 years). Psychological factors were evaluated with GHQ. Tactile detection thresholds (TDT) and filament-prick pain detection thresholds (FPT) were used to evaluate mechanical sensitivity on the tongue in all participants. TDT and FPT were measured on the tongue within both the painful area and the non-painful area in BMS patients, and on the tongue on both sides in healthy participants. As controls, TDT and FPT were measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments on the skin of the mentum and palm in all participants. GHQ scores were significantly higher in BMS patients than in healthy participants (P = 0.024). No significant differences in TDT or FPT on the tongue, mentum, or palm were seen between BMS patients and healthy participants (P > 0.05). BMS patients showed no significant differences in TDT or FPT between the painful and non-painful areas on the tongue (P > 0.05). There were no significant correlations among TDT/FPT and GHQ score in BMS patients (P > 0.05). These findings could indicate a more important role for psychological factors than mechanical sensitivity in BMS pathophysiology. Pain on the tongue in elderly female patients with BMS may be more related to psychological factors.

  6. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  7. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    József Varga; Imre Nagy; László Szirtes; János Pórszász

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR) recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany). The w...

  8. The Influence of Psychological Factors Towards Buying Intentions of Macbook in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Tampone, Sindy Novia

    2014-01-01

    Computer becomes a part in human life. Computers serve as a source of entertainment in addition to its role as resource and productivity tool. Apple is the big company that offer computer product called Macbook. This research is conduct in Manado, North Sulawesi. The objectives of this research are to analyze influence of psychological factors towards buying intentions of Macbook simultaneously and partially. This research is the causal type of research where it will investigate the influence...

  9. Ethnic differences in family member diabetes involvement and psychological outcomes: results from the second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Mark; Egede, Leonard E; Funnell, Martha M; Hsu, William C; Ruggiero, Laurie; Siminerio, Linda M; Stuckey, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    To assess differences among USA ethnic groups in psychological status of adult family members (FMs) and their involvement with the diabetes of another adult. Data are from the FM survey of the USA DAWN2 study, including 105 White non-Hispanics, 47 African Americans, 46 Hispanic Americans and 40 Chinese Americans. All FMs lived with and cared for an adult with diabetes. Analysis of covariance controlled for respondent and patient characteristics to assess ethnic group differences (P ethnic minority groups. African Americans reported the highest well-being and lowest negative life impact, Chinese Americans reported the most diabetes burden, Hispanic Americans reported the highest distress. There were no ethnic group differences in QoL. Ethnic minority FMs reported having more involvement with diabetes, greater support success, and more access to a diabetes support network than White non-Hispanics. Higher FM diabetes involvement was associated with negative psychological outcomes, while diabetes education, support success and diabetes support network size were associated with better psychological outcomes. Potential limitations are the sample sizes and representativeness. Minority ethnic FMs experienced both advantages and disadvantages in psychological outcomes relative to each other and to White non-Hispanics. Ethnic minority FMs had more involvement in diabetes care, support success and support from others, with the first associated with worse and the latter two with better psychological outcomes. Additional studies are needed with larger samples and broader representation of ethnic groups to better understand these associations and identify areas for intervention.

  10. Stress, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy: investigating the relationship between psychological factors and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Ajay; Kerr, Michael; Harold, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to examine the interrelationship between psychological factors (anxiety, stress, and depression) and seizures. In this longitudinal cohort study, data on anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and seizure recency (time since last seizure) and frequency were collected at two time points using standard validated questionnaire measures. Empirically based models with psychological factors explaining change in (1) seizure recency and (2) seizure frequency scores across time were specified. We then tested how these psychological factors acted together in predicting seizure recency and frequency. Our data were used to test whether these models were valid for the study population. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. Four hundred thirty-three of the 558 individuals who initially consented to participate provided two waves of data for this analysis. Stress (beta=0.25, Panxiety (beta=0.30, Pdepression (beta=0.30, Pdepression that mediated the relationship of both anxiety and stress with modeled change in seizure recency (beta=0.19, PDepression mediates the relationship between stress and anxiety and change in seizure recency and seizure frequency. These findings highlight the importance of depression management in addition to seizure management in the assessment and treatment of epilepsy in an adult population.

  11. The role of sociodemographic factors in maternal psychological distress and mother-preterm infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Do Sleep and Psychological Distress Mediate the Association Between Neighborhood Factors and Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Buysse, Daniel; Hale, Lauren; Buman, Matthew; Troxel, Wendy

    2018-05-14

    Pain affects millions of American adults. However, individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups experience higher rates of pain, and individuals from racial/ethnic minorities report greater pain severity and pain-related disability. Some studies find an association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and pain. The present study aimed to further understand the association between neighborhood disadvantage and pain, including the role of objective (e.g., crime rates) and subjective neighborhood characteristics (e.g., perceived safety, neighborhood satisfaction), and to examine sleep and psychological distress as potential mediators of these associations. The sample included 820 participants from two predominantly African American socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Trained data collectors interviewed participants on a number of self-report measures, and objective neighborhood characteristics were obtained from city crime data and street segment audits. Subjective characteristics, specifically perceived infrastructure and perceived safety, were associated with pain. Based on bootstrapped regression models, sleep efficiency and psychological distress were tested as mediators of the association between these neighborhood factors and pain. Results of mediation testing indicated that psychological distress served as a significant mediator. Though sleep efficiency was not a mediator, it had a significant independent association with pain. Understanding the contribution of sleep problems and psychological distress to pain among at-risk individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods is important to identifying ways that individual- and neighborhood-level interventions may be leveraged to reduce pain-related disparities.

  13. Underlying causal factors associated with construction worker fatalities involving stepladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneurin Thomas James Grant

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stepladders are frequently utilized on construction projects as a means of access to elevation. Stepladder heights commonly range from 4 feet (1.2 m to 14 feet (4.3 m. Since these heights are not extreme, there is a common misperception that stepladder use presents a low risk. On the contrary, extreme care must be exercised to ensure that work on stepladders is performed safely, as described in the conspicuously located recommendations and brightly-colored warnings that adorn virtually all newly-purchased equipment. Despite this, accidents involving stepladders occur on a regular basis.  This study was conducted to better understand the underlying causes of these accidents. The narrative descriptions of 180 stepladder-related fatalities were obtained from the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and were analyzed to identify the at-risk behaviors that preceded the fatality incidents. The results showed that most of the incidents should have been anticipated and could have been avoided. Unsafe practices such as improper lockout-tagout of electrical equipment, loss of balance, working on a folded stepladder, over-reaching, straddling the ladder, “walking” the ladder, poor footing, and unstable/shifting ladders, among others were identified. Virtually all of these fatalities could have been avoided by adhering to the guidelines posted on the stepladders and by complying with basic safe construction practices. 

  14. Underlying causal factors associated with construction worker fatalities involving stepladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneurin Thomas James Grant

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stepladders are frequently utilized on construction projects as a means of access to elevation. Stepladder heights commonly range from 4 feet (1.2 m to 14 feet (4.3 m. Since these heights are not extreme, there is a common misperception that stepladder use presents a low risk. On the contrary, extreme care must be exercised to ensure that work on stepladders is performed safely, as described in the conspicuously located recommendations and brightly-colored warnings that adorn virtually all newly-purchased equipment. Despite this, accidents involving stepladders occur on a regular basis.  This study was conducted to better understand the underlying causes of these accidents. The narrative descriptions of 180 stepladder-related fatalities were obtained from the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and were analyzed to identify the at-risk behaviors that preceded the fatality incidents. The results showed that most of the incidents should have been anticipated and could have been avoided. Unsafe practices such as improper lockout-tagout of electrical equipment, loss of balance, working on a folded stepladder, over-reaching, straddling the ladder, “walking” the ladder, poor footing, and unstable/shifting ladders, among others were identified. Virtually all of these fatalities could have been avoided by adhering to the guidelines posted on the stepladders and by complying with basic safe construction practices.

  15. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    age (motor AO or mAO). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample......Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim...... of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO), and the first motor symptoms...

  16. Factors involved in the paradox of reverse epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ponce, Esther; Santolaria, Francisco; Alemán-Valls, María-Remedios; González-Reimers, Emilio; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gaspar, Melchor; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis of reverse epidemiology holds that some cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, in the elderly or in some chronic diseases are not harmful but permit better survival. However, this phenomenon is controversial and the underlying reasons are poorly understood. To search for factors simultaneously linked to reverse epidemiology and to short or long term survival. We included 400 patients, older than 60 years, hospitalized in a general internal medicine unit; 61 died in hospital and 338 were followed up by telephone. Obesity, higher blood pressure and serum cholesterol, besides being related to lower mortality both in hospital and after discharge, were associated with better nutrition and functional capacity, less intense acute phase reaction and organ dysfunction, and lower incidence of high-mortality diseases such as dementia, pneumonia, sepsis or cancer. These associations may explain why obesity and other reverse epidemiology data are inversely related to mortality. Weight loss was related to mortality independently of BMI. Patients with BMI under 30 kg/m(2) who died in hospital showed more weight loss than those who survived; the lower the BMI, the greater the weight loss. In contrast, patients with BMI over 30 kg/m(2) who died in hospital gained more weight than those who survived; the higher the BMI, the greater the weight gain. In patients over 60 years of age admitted to an internal medicine ward, obesity did not show independent survival value, being displaced by other nutritional parameters, functional capacity, acute phase reaction, organ dysfunction and diseases with poor prognosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological factors related to donation behaviour among Chinese adults: results from a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Wang, T; Fu, Q

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the psychological factors currently influencing blood donation in China. This study investigated the structure of psychological factors and their correlation with donation behaviour of adults in a transforming city in China over a 6-month period. Participants were recruited in Nanjing from May 2013 to April 2014. Preliminary focus group interviews with 102 participants were conducted to generate new items for a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by 300 participants, and responses were subjected to factor analysis. We confirmed the resulting factorial structure with 861 respondents and examined the associations between these factors and donation behaviour during the next 6 months using structural equation modelling. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling of the data supported an extended TPB model with self-reported past donation behaviour as a covariate. After controlling for past donation behaviour, attitudes towards blood donation (β = 0·288), subjective norm (β = 0·149), self-efficacy (β = 0·199), trust in third-party health professionals (β = 0·237), mistrust towards blood collection agencies (BCAs) (β = -0·085) and traditional Chinese beliefs (β = -0·046) were significantly related to donation intention, whilst donation intention was positively (β = 0·212) associated with donation behaviour. These findings confirm that psychological factors such as attitudes are predictors of blood donation. Recruitment efforts using public information campaigns and interpersonal communications should focus on strengthening positive attitudes, increasing trust in third-party health professionals, elevating self-efficacy, changing traditional Chinese beliefs and relieving mistrust in blood collection agencies (BCAs). © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joanne; King, Ross; Skouteris, Helen

    2014-11-01

    Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Psychological Health Problems Among Adolescent Workers and Associated Factors in Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Koseoglu Ornek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work and work environment have a critical influence on adolescent workers' health. They are subjected to more risks than adults. The aim of this study is to examine psychological health outcomes in adolescent workers in the areas of depression, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and negative self-concept, and to investigate any related factors. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. Research samples were collected from adolescent workers between 15 and 18 years old attending a 1-day mandatory education course at vocational training centers, working 5 days per week in small enterprises. Data were collected using the following instruments: Brief Symptom Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Descriptive Characteristics of Children's Assessment Form. Results: The investigation covers 837 young workers, of whom 675 were males and 162 were females. The majority of the families had low incomes (68.1%. Overall, 33.5% of the adolescents had been hospitalized because of health problems. Their average weekly working hours were 78.1 ± 10.7. Almost 50% of adolescent workers scored above the mean average in the Brief Symptom Inventory, indicating serious pschological health symptoms.Those who scored high for hostility, depression, negative self-concept, anxiety, and somatization were between 45.4% and 48.9% of the sample. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factors: a perception of “feeling very bad” health conditions was 2.07-fold whereas the rate of “no annual leave” was 0.73-fold, and both were found to be effective on psychological problems. Conclusion: In this study, it seems likely that psychological health problems are the result of multiple adverse factors including working conditions, annual leave, and health considerations. Keywords: adolescent workers, child Workers, occupational health, psychological problems, social support

  20. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  1. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  2. Positive psychological interventions for people with epilepsy: An assessment on factors related to intervention participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siew-Tim; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tang, Venus; Low, Wah-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services. A total of 154 patients with epilepsy participated, with a mean age of 37.3years (range 16-86years). Most patients had focal epilepsy (68.2%), and drug-resistant (59.1%). Majority (71.4%) of them indicated a strong willingness to participate in PPI. Out of nine types of PPI, character strengths, mindfulness-based and expressive-based interventions were highly preferred. Those with negative illness perception (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.004), and being unemployed (p=0.048) were more willing to participate in PPI. Most participants preferred group rather than individual session, and a shorter duration (30min) was favored by most. This study captured the self-report willingness to participate in psychological interventions. Findings suggested that psychological interventions delivered in short-group session were highly preferred. Future study is required to determine the feasibility of such design for patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Provision of Psychological Therapy to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Investigation into Some of the Relevant Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…

  4. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. Acute Psychological Stress Modulates the Expression of Enzymes Involved in the Kynurenine Pathway throughout Corticolimbic Circuits in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley A. Vecchiarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan is an essential dietary amino acid that is necessary for protein synthesis, but also serves as the precursor for serotonin. However, in addition to these biological functions, tryptophan also serves as a precursor for the kynurenine pathway, which has neurotoxic (quinolinic acid and neuroprotective (kynurenic acid metabolites. Glucocorticoid hormones and inflammatory mediators, both of which are increased by stress, have been shown to bias tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway and away from serotonin synthesis; however, to date, there is no published data regarding the effects of stress on enzymes regulating the kynurenine pathway in a regional manner throughout the brain. Herein, we examined the effects of an acute psychological stress (120 min restraint on gene expression patterns of enzymes along the kynurenine pathway over a protracted time-course (1–24 h post-stress termination within the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and medial prefrontal cortex. Time-dependent changes in differential enzymes along the kynurenine metabolism pathway, particularly those involved in the production of quinolinic acid, were found within the amygdala, hypothalamus, and medial prefrontal cortex, with no changes seen in the hippocampus. These regional differences acutely may provide mechanistic insight into processes that become dysregulated chronically in stress-associated disorders.

  6. [Psychological characteristics in patients with allergic rhinitis and its associated factors analysis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lin; Han, De-Min; Lü, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Luo

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the psychological characteristics of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and its associated factors. Three hundred and seventy-seven patients with AR were evaluated by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). The results were compared with a standard, obtained from healthy Chinese population, including factors of gender, age, educational level, medical history of AR, presence of complications, type of allergenic sensitizations and nasal symptoms (using logistic regression analysis). An abnormal psychological state was found in 10% of AR patients, 13% with deuto-healthy, and remaining 77% of AR patients were completely healthy. The SCL-90 scores of the 377 patients were significantly higher than those of the normal standard population, including symptoms of somatization, compulsion, anxiety, rivalry and psychosis (t equals 7.128, 3.943, 2.777, 6.423, 7.507, respectively, all P horror were respectively different in different AR case history (F equals respectively 2.379, 2.255, all P types, educational level, allergen types (all P > 0.05). Snuffle, sneeze and snivel had no influence on patient's SCL-90 scores (all P > 0.05). Itchy nose was a major symptom that affect on AR patients' SCL-90 scores of depression (standard regression b = 0.126, t = 2.076, P < 0.05). AR patients' psychological status was worse than that of the healthy adults.

  7. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Vivi I; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P W

    2013-09-01

    Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment.

  8. Psychological disorders and ecological factors affect the development of executive functions: Some perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafika ZEBDI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The links between deficits in executive functions (EF (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities..., and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders has been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults’ population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic of these EF/psychological disorders relations. We suggest two axis on which to focus in future research: (i relations between EF and anxiety traits through development; and (ii the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  9. Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebdi, Rafika; Goyet, Louise; Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Guellaï, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders. We suggest to focus on the following two axes in future research: (i) relations between EF and anxiety traits through development and (ii) the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  10. [Psychological conditions and the influence factors of the Sichuan Three Gorges immigrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jianni; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yang; Li, Ge

    2009-01-01

    To learn and analyze the psychological conditions and the influence factors of Sichuan immigrations so as to provide the science basis for the government. Take residents generally questionnaire, symptom checklist (SCL90), psychosocial stress survey for groups(PSSG) and social support rating scale (SSRS) four questionnaires to collect and analyze the mental conditions and influences of Sichuan immigrations and local residents by cluster stratified random sampling. There is no difference in the sex, age, marriage, culture, occupation, economy and character between immigrations and local residents. Immigrations owned medical safeguard are less than local residents (P marriage, the occupation, psychological stress and social support of migrants relate to the mental health of migrants. The mental health of Sichuan immigrations is bad, so the government should strengthen their financial support and pay attention to their humanist concern.

  11. Psychological factors of propensity for alcoholism (social anxiety, hostility, Machiavellianism in depressive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popinako A.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of psychosocial models of alcoholism and depression the general and specific factors of occurrence and course of illness are identified in the present study. The authors put forward hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of activation of psychological addiction to alcohol as an ineffective coping strategy. The necessity of empirical research needed to refine the techniques and targets of patient care within the psychiatric and psychological care is justified. The results of the pilot study show that depressed patients who are subject to alcohol dependence feature marked distress in interpersonal relations, coupled with hostility and aim at gaining profit and pleasure by manipulating other people. These patients are hostile to others, while in interpersonal relationships personal safety is important to them, so they may be more likely to resort to manipulation. In their attitudes with respect to health the communication of these patients is characterized by hedonistic tendencies and histrionic traits in interpersonal contacts.

  12. Pilot study of the psychological factors in the professional health of managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingaev S.M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic

  13. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  14. Turning men into machines? Scientific management, industrial psychology, and the "human factor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-09-01

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  16. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Levenstein

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millenium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  18. Psychological factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain: Which are most important to target?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; de Haan, Else; Derkx, H. H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain leaves room for improvement. We studied which factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy relate most strongly to the physical and psychological functioning of children with functional abdominal pain and

  19. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Biological and psychological factors associated with learning performance in adult distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these

  20. Relationship between psychological factors and performance-based and self-reported disability in chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, P.U.; Versteegen, G.J.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cross sectional study, performed in an outpatient university based pain rehabilitation setting. To analyze the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial distress, depression, self efficacy, self-esteem, fear of movement, pain cognitions and coping reactions) and performance-based and

  1. Psychological factors determining success in a medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Malgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Systemic review of predictors of success in medical career is an important tool to recognize the indicators of proper training. To determine psychological factors that predict success in a medical career. The success is defined as professional competence, satisfaction with medicine as a career, occupational stress and burnout and quality of life (QOF). Part I (1999-2005), medical students were examined each subsequent year, beginning with admission. Assessment included academic achievement (high school final examination results, entrance exam results, academic results during medical school) and psychological characteristics (sense of coherence (SOC), depression, anxiety, coping styles, value system and need for social approval). Part II (2008-2009), the same participants completed an Internet survey 4 years after graduation. Results of the postgraduate medical exam were taken under consideration. Academic achievement predicts only professional competence. Coping styles are significant indicators of satisfaction with medicine as a career. SOC, while assessed with anxiety and depression during studies, enabled us to recognize future QOF of medical graduates. Professional stress is not predictable to such an extent as other success indicators. There are significant psychological qualities useful to draw the outline of the future job and life performance of medical graduates.

  2. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  3. Assessment of significant psychological distress at the end of pregnancy and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p Psychological distress at the end of a full-term pregnancy and in the postpartum period occurs frequently and was associated mainly with stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.

  4. The Analysis of Customer Purchase Intention of Houses Using Real Estate Agent in Manado Based on Psychological Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ticoalu, Vinny O.

    2015-01-01

    Real estate agent business field is become a trend nowadays. Real estate agent helped customers to buy or sell a house. Psychological factors has an influence in real estate agent busniess, customers mostly asked the opinion from others about the real estate agent in case they do not want to choose a wrong real estate agent. This research aims to analyze the influence of psychological factors on customers purchase intention in using real estate agent in Manado. This research used a multiple l...

  5. DSM-IV-TR "pain disorder associated with psychological factors" as a nonhysterical form of somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; De Nitto, Serena; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Elevated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores on the hysteria (Hy) scale are reported in several forms of pain. Previous results were possibly biased by diagnostic heterogeneity (psychogenic, somatic and mixed pain syndromes included in the same index sample) or Hy heterogeneity (failure to differentiate Hy scores into clinically meaningful subscales, such as admission of symptoms [Ad] and denial of symptoms [Dn]). To overcome this drawback, 48 patients diagnosed as having a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of "pain disorder associated with psychological factors" were compared with 48 patients experiencing somatic pain excluding psychological factors, and 42 somatic controls without pain. MMPI Hy and hypochondriasis (Hs) scores were significantly higher in the pain disorder group than in control groups, who scored similarly. MMPI correction (K) scores and Dn scores were similar in the three groups, whereas Ad was significantly higher in the pain disorder group and lower and similar in the two control groups, respectively. In the pain disorder group, Ad and Dn were negatively correlated, whereas in control groups they were unrelated. These findings suggest that whereas a pattern of high Hs and Hy scores together with a normal K score might characterize patients with a pain disorder associated with psychological factors, elevated Hy scores per se do not indicate hysterical traits. In the pain disorder group, elevated Hy scores reflected the Ad subscale alone, indicating a strikingly high frequency of distressing somatic symptoms. They tend not to repress or deny the emotional malaise linked to symptoms, as the hysterical construct expects. The pain disorder designation should be considered a nonhysterical form of somatization.

  6. Quality of Life after Young Ischemic Stroke of Mild Severity Is Mainly Influenced by Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Marienke A A M; Synhaeve, Nathalie E; van Rijsbergen, Mariëlle W A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Mark, Ruth E; Jansen, Ben P W; de Kort, Paul L M

    2015-10-01

    Long-term prognosis in terms of quality of life (QoL) in young stroke patients is of importance because they usually have a long life expectancy and extensive daily life demands. We aimed at determining which medical and psychological factors influence the QoL in young stroke patients (Young ischemic stroke patients admitted to the St. Elisabeth Hospital and the TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg, the Netherlands, between 2000 and 2010 were included. One hundred seventy patients and 61 controls filled out the following questionnaires: (1) the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, (2) the Fatigue Assessment Scale, and (3) the shortened World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. Using linear multiple regression analysis, we assessed the factors influencing QoL. QoL did not differ significantly between patients (median modified Rankin Scale score at follow-up, 0) and controls after a mean follow-up of 4.5 (standard deviation, 2.8) years. The presence of excessive fatigue was associated with lower scores on all domains of the QoL (P ≤ .003), but not for general health domain (P = .010). Similarly, depression was associated with worse QoL on the physical (P = .004) and psychological (P = .001) domains and anxiety with lower scores on the psychological (P stroke-specific factors and QoL. Fatigue and to a lesser extent depression and anxiety affect the QoL in young adults after ischemic stroke of mild severity. Therefore, young stroke patients should be informed about, screened, and, if possible, treated for fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial factors and pre-abortion psychological health: The significance of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M; Furgerson, Dorothy; Harper, Cynthia C

    2016-02-01

    Most research in mental health and abortion has examined factors associated with post-abortion psychological health. However, research that follows women from before to after their abortion consistently finds that depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are highest just before an abortion compared to any time afterwards. This finding suggests that studies investigating psychosocial factors related to pre-abortion mental health are warranted. The current study uses data from 353 women seeking abortions at three community reproductive health clinics to examine predictors of pre-abortion psychological health. Drawing from three perspectives in the abortion and mental health literature, common risks, stress and coping, and sociocultural context, we conducted multivariable analyses to examine the contribution of important factors on depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms just before an abortion, including sociodemographics, abortion characteristics, childhood adversities, recent adversities with an intimate partner, relationship context, future pregnancy desires, and perceived abortion stigma. Childhood and partner adversities, including reproductive coercion, were associated with negative mental health symptoms, as was perceived abortion stigma. Before perceived abortion stigma was entered into the model, 18.6%, 20.7%, and 16.8% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms respectively, was explained. Perceived abortion stigma explained an additional 13.2%, 9.7%, and 10.7% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms pre-abortion. This study, one of the first to focus on pre-abortion mental health as an outcome, suggests that addressing stigma among women seeking abortions may significantly lower their psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  9. Factors associated with psychological distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  10. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  12. Comparison of Effective Socio-Cultural and Psychological Factors in Women Suicide in Iran and Tajikistan

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    S. Abolhassan Ryazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study socio-cultural and psychological effective factors contributing to suicide, as well as comparing these factors among Iranian and Tajik women who attempted suicide. The present study was a qualitative study in which 60 patients (30 from each country participated. Each of these participants went through an in-depth interview. Results of the study showed that the most important factors considering suicide attempt in both groups were as follows: domestic violence, cultural induction, family cold relations, forced marriages, too much responsibility, lack of privacy, polygamy, irrational biases and lack of communication between generations. Tajik men, despite the law of monogamy, prefer polygamy and marry more than one woman. Tajik people also, prohibit burring body of a woman who is dead after a suicide atempt in Muslim cemetery.

  13. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  14. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention.

  15. Exploring the psychological factors involved in the Ladbroke Grove rail accident

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Neville A.; Walker, Guy H.

    2011-01-01

    Ten years after the event and the question as to exactly why a driver passed a signal at danger to cause the Ladbroke Grove rail disaster is still an open one. This paper uses the literature on human error and cognition, combined with critical path analysis, to provide further insight. Five aspects of train operation are drawn out of the known facts surrounding the incident: custom and practice in the use of the Driver's Reminder Appliance, operation and use of the Automatic Warning System, t...

  16. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778

  17. Ethnic differences in the association between cardiovascular risk factors and psychological distress in a population study in the Netherlands

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    Schrier Agnes C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing body of evidence of an association between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these associations are similar in ethnic minority groups. Methods A random urban population sample, aged 18+, stratified by ethnicity (484 native Dutch subjects, 383 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 316 Moroccan-Dutch subjects, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was interviewed with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10 in combination with measurements of several cardiovascular risk factors. The association of psychological distress (defined as a K10 score above cut-off of 20 with cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL cholesterol levels or diabetes, ethnicity and their interaction was analyzed using logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and adjusted for age. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with psychological distress in any of the gender/ethnic groups, with the exception of a positive association of obesity and hypertension with psychological distress in native Dutch women and a negative association of hypertension and psychological distress in Turkish men. Interaction terms of cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity were approaching significance only in the association of obesity with the K10 in women. Conclusion In this cross-sectional multi-ethnic adult population sample the majority of the investigated cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with psychological distress. The association of obesity with psychological distress varies by gender and ethnicity. Our findings indicate that the prevention of obesity and psychological distress calls for an integrated approach in native Dutch women, but not necessarily in Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch women, in whom these problems may be targeted separately.

  18. Factors associated with oncology patients' involvement in shared decision making during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Alexis; Halpern, Jodi; Paul, Steven; Micco, Guy; Lahiff, Maureen; Wright, Fay; Levine, Jon D; Mastick, Judy; Hammer, Marilyn J; Miaskowski, Christine; Dunn, Laura B

    2017-11-01

    Oncology patients are increasingly encouraged to play an active role in treatment decision making. While previous studies have evaluated relationships between demographic characteristics and decision-making roles, less is known about the association of symptoms and psychological adjustment characteristics (eg, coping styles and personality traits) and decision-making roles. As part of a larger study of symptom clusters, patients (n = 765) receiving chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer provided information on demographic, clinical, symptom, and psychological adjustment characteristics. Patient-reported treatment decision-making roles (ie, preferred role and role actually played) were assessed using the Control Preferences Scale. Differences among patients, who were classified as passive, collaborative, or active, were evaluated using χ 2 analyses and analyses of variance. Over half (56.3%) of the patients reported that they both preferred and actually played a collaborative role. Among those patients with concordant roles, those who were older, those with less education and lower income, and those who were less resilient were more likely to prefer a passive role. Several psychological adjustment characteristics were associated with decision-making role, including coping style, personality, and fatalism. Oncology patients' preferences for involvement in treatment decision making are associated with demographic characteristics as well as with symptoms and psychological adjustment characteristics, such as coping style and personality. These results reaffirm the complexities of predicting patients' preferences for involvement in decision making. Further study is needed to determine if role or coping style may be influenced by interventions designed to teach adaptive coping skills. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  20. Psychological factors and personality traits associated with patients in chronic foot and ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivarathre, Deepak Gubbi; Howard, Nicholas; Krishna, Sowmya; Cowan, Chris; Platt, Simon R

    2014-11-01

    The impact of psychosocial factors and personality traits in chronic pain is well established. However, there has been limited literature analyzing the influence of psychological issues in chronic foot and ankle pain. The aim of our study was to identify the association of certain psychosocial factors and personality traits in individuals with chronic painful foot and ankle disorders. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain were recruited from the specialist foot and ankle clinic. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale were administered in the form of questionnaires. An age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as the control group. Sample size was determined after power calculation, and a total of 90 participants were recruited with informed consent with 45 participants in each arm. Results were analyzed and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain had significantly higher neuroticism scores than the control group (P pain (P pain. Clinicians should recognize the influence of these specific psychological issues to provide a more holistic approach to the clinical problem. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Interaction of Psychological Factors in Shaping Entrepreneurial Intention among Computer and Electrical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous technopreneurs start their ventures at college age, but the entrepreneurship of computer and electrical engineering (CEE students remains under-studied. This study analysed both the combined and interactive effects of psychological factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of CEE students. In this study, entrepreneurial intention comprised two dimensions, conviction and preparation. Regarding the direct effects, the results indicated that self-efficacy affected entrepreneurial conviction the most, followed by negative emotion, intrinsic motivation, and metacognition. Negative emotion affected entrepreneurial preparation the most, followed by self-efficacy and positive emotion. The results also revealed several crucial interactive effects resulting from psychological factors. An increase in cognitive load increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high intrinsic motivation and reduced the intention of students exhibiting low intrinsic motivation. An increase in metacognition increased the entrepreneurial conviction of students exhibiting either high or low intrinsic motivation. An increase in positive emotion reduced the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high negative emotion and increased the intention of students exhibiting low negative emotion. An increase in self-efficacy increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting either high or low negative emotion.

  2. Does spinal stenosis correlate with MRI findings and pain, psychologic factor and quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Su Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate and analyze MRI findings in relation to visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), psychological-factor, sleep-quality, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores among patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) for the purpose of elucidating a correlation. Methods From July 2013 to May 2014, 117 consecutive patients with central LSS were included in this study. All of the MRIs were evaluated by one of the authors, and the evaluated items were the dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA), the number of stenotic levels, and the presence and levels of spondylolisthesis. The ODI, VAS, 36-item SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to evaluate the participants. Results There are no correlations between the ODI, VAS, BDI, BAI, PSQI, and SF-36 scores and the minimum DSCSA; however, a significant correlation was found between the ODI scores and multilevel LSS. The BDI, BAI, and PSQI scores are higher for multilevel LSS compared with single-level LSS, but the difference of this mean value is not statistically significant. Conclusions A significant correlation was shown between those patients with multilevel LSS and the ODI scores; however, significant correlations were not found between the MRI findings and the psychological factors pertaining to sleep and life qualities. PMID:26495059

  3. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  4. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation

  5. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE (MEN AND WOMEN PRIOR TO CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING DEPENDING ON THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN THE INDIVIDUAL PSYCHO-CORRECTION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Starunskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. The study of psychological characteristics of patients is important for the creation and planning of psychological correction and improve the efficiency of the treatment of coronary heart disease.Тhe purpose. This research is devoted to the study of the psychological features in patients with coronary artery disease (CHD in the preoperative period, depending on their involvement in psycho-correction program.Material and methods. We observed 30 patients with coronary heart disease before coronary bypass surgery. Clinical-psychological method (observation, conversation and psychological testing were used.Results  and conclusions. We found that patients who participated in psycho-correction program had lower values of «anxiety», «phobic anxiety» and «obsessive-compulsive» symptoms. In both groups of patients, on average, we identified the prevalence  of the coping-strategies «self-control» and «planning solution». Furthermore, on average, the «self-awareness» and «extraversion» were more manifested features in the structure of the personality traits of the surveyed patients. The revealed features should be taken into account in planning the programs of psycho-correction for patients with CHD prior to CABG surgery.

  7. [DEONTOLOGICAL QUESTIONS IN PROPHYLACTIC OF ENDOSCOPIC COMPLICATIONS: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS (analytical overview)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernik, N V; Ivantsova, M A; Yashin, D I

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the ways of reduction complications during endoscopic procedures based on principals of professional ethics and improving the quality of working area. Data of fundamental literature, evidence based medicine, science publications and internet portals. Deontology is the fundamental principle of medical practice and one of the main factors of professional effectiveness. Complications in endoscopy are often the investigations of deviation from the deontological principals. The whole number of psychological factors influences on professional activity of endoscopists, where the emotional "burn-out" syndrome (EBS) occupies one of the main places. Prophylactic and timely relief of EBS serves improvement of the practical work quality. Creation of favorable working area is the strategically important task in prophylactics of endoscopy complications. The questions of practical realization of deontological principles in endoscopy are the subject of further discussion.

  8. The influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kicińska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research concerning the influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers in Poland and in the world. The research confirms that children and the youth constitute a separate market group and the age determines their market independence. Making decisions regarding purchase of goods young consumers tend to ask for help those whom they rely on, which is connected with their small market experience. The need to do market shopping is mainly influenced by the feeling of lack of young people and then parents’ suggestions and peers’ advice. Young consumers buy goods also on impulse. It regards mainly comestibles. Fashion is the most important for children and the youth in case of clothing articles and shoes. The factor of market novelty is not a determinant of a big importance in the choice of goods purchased by children and the youth.

  9. Substance use behavior among early-adolescent Asian American girls: the impact of psychological and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD=0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD=6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls' substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls.

  10. Are Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorders the Product of an Interaction Between Psychological Factors and Self-Reported Bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selms, Maurits Ka; Muzalev, Konstantin; Visscher, Corine M; Koutris, Michail; Bulut, Melike; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the product of an interaction between psychological factors and self-reported bruxism activities. Patients referred to a specialized clinic for complaints of orofacial pain and dysfunction completed a digital questionnaire prior to the first clinical visit. The patient sample was then split into a case group consisting of 268 patients diagnosed with TMD pain according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (85.8% women; mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 40.1 ± 14.5 years) and a control group consisting of 254 patients without any pain in the orofacial area (50.8% women; 46.9 ± 13.6 years). The possible moderating roles of six psychological factors (depression, somatic symptoms, anxiety, stress, optimism, and prior psychological treatment) on the relationship between self-reported bruxism and the clinical presence of TMD pain were examined. Patients with TMD pain reported significantly more bruxism than patients without any report of orofacial pain. Furthermore, bruxism intensity was associated with a variety of psychological factors; however, there were no significant interactions between any of the psychological factors and bruxism with respect to the clinical presence of TMD pain. These findings do not support the view that the effect of bruxism on TMD pain is stronger in patients who experience higher levels of psychological distress compared to those with lower levels of distress.

  11. The relationships between father involvement and parental acceptance on the psychological adjustment of children and adolescents: The moderating effects of clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ruiz, Mercedes; Holgado-Tello, Francisco Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzes how a child's clinical condition modifies the relationship of father involvement, parental (fathers and mothers) acceptance and the child´s psychological adjustment, including the internalizing and externalizing problems. The cohort studied was composed of 226 subjects (61.94% males) with a mean age of 14.08 years, of which 113 children were from an incidental clinical sample and 113 from the general population. Both groups were matched by sex, age and family status, and the data show that the same structure of parent-child relationships that predict the child´s psychological adjustment can be accepted for both the clinical and non-clinical groups of children. However, the intensity of the relationships between the variables father involvement, parental acceptance and the child´s outcomes differed in function of the child's clinical status. Specifically, in the clinically-referred sample compared to non-clinical sample father involvement had a stronger effect on the children´s internalizing (but not the externalizing) problems and on their global psychological adjustment via their perceived maternal acceptance. The role of father involvement in the family relationships of clinical children is discussed. This study provides important evidence to support the need for enhanced paternal participation in the intervention programs for families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  13. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Importance-performance matrix analysis of the factors influencing international students’ psychological and sociocultural adaptations using SmartPLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in international mobility in higher education especially in Asia, the issue of cross-cultural adaptation becomes paramount since international students try to overcome challenges and flourish psychologically and socioculturally in a new environment. Therefore, this study is conducted to identify the factors influencing international postgraduate students’ psychological and sociocultural adaptations in Malaysian public universities, an emerging education hub in the region. It...

  15. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlations Between Quality of Life and Psychological Factors in Patients With Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Fong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL and associated factors in patients with chronic neck pain (CNP. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was assessed by the Short Form-36 questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. To evaluate the psychological factors related to HRQOL, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. The scores for the eight subscales of Short Form-36 were all lower than the Taiwanese age-matched normative values (p < 0.001. The two most strongly affected subscales were the role–physical subscale and the bodily pain sub-scale; both scores were below half the score of the age-/sex-matched normative values. The physical components summary score, a summary measure, was moderately correlated with age (ρ = −0.43, education level (ρ = 0.37 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.36. The mental components summary score was moderately to highly correlated with the Chinese Health Questionnaire score (ρ = −0.72, the neuroticism domain of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (ρ = −0.52 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.41. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was worse than that of normal subjects across all domains. Furthermore, patients with a neurotic personality, minor psychiatric morbidity and higher anxiety status showed poor mental health, as measured by the Short Form-36. We found that patients with CNP had multiple physical and mental health problems in terms of. The mental health of patients with CNP was strongly associated with various psychological factors. Comprehensive assessment of the physical and mental functioning of patients with CNP can improve the management and care of these patients.

  17. Psychological distress of rescue workers eight and one-half years after professional involvement in the Amsterdam air disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Anke B.; Bramsen, Inge; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Huizink, Anja C.; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe; van der Ploeg, Henk M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined specific and general psychological distress 8.5 years following the 1992 cargo aircraft crash in Amsterdam. Participants included 334 occupationally exposed fire fighters and 834 occupationally exposed police officers compared with reference groups of 194 fire fighters and 634

  18. Influence of psychological factors on pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín Morales

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze different psychological factors (personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, beliefs about delivery, locus of control, coping styles and its relation to clinical symptomatology and the presence of complications during pregnancy, quality of life indicators, perception and coping with labour pain, type of delivery, neonatal well-being indicators, delivery satisfaction, maternal bond development and care of the baby and presence of post-partum depression.To achieve this we will develop a prospective correlational longitudinal study. The sample will be composed by pregnant women from the area 9 from the Madrid Community that voluntarily accept the inclusion in this research.Structured questionnaires will be used to evaluate all the psychological variables in the following moments in time:- during the first and third trimester the following variables will be assessed: personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, delivery beliefs, locus of control, coping styles, first trimester physical sintomatology, quality of life indicators,- during the inmediate post-partum: pain during labour and after delivery, childbirth satisfaction,- during the puerperium: post-partum depression and anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, child bond, neonatal care, personality, psychiatric symptomatology.From the clinical record the following data will be obtained: sociodemographic variables, and parameters related to pregnancy evolution, delivery and puerperium that are relevant to the research.

  19. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

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    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  20. Psychological factors and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2007-01-01

    Psychological factors may have an influence on disease processes and therefore they were investigated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Overall there were very few consistent associations with cancer death. Persons with 'ikigai', defined as 'that which most makes one's life seem worth living', demonstrated decreased risk of mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD).There was no consistent link with being quick to judge, although those answering no to quick judgement were at increased risk of all cause, IHD and CVD mortality. psychological stress was related to a slightly elevated risk of all cause death, IHD in men and CVD in women. However, a sense of hurry was linked to a slightly reduced risk for mortality from all causes and CVD. Persons who were likely to be angry had an increased risk for mortality from all causes. In women not likely to be angry there were also positive links to death from cancers like breast. Joyfulness was associated with decreased mortality, especially from CVD. A feeling of being trusted was also protective, again particularly for CVD.

  1. Childhood Cancer in Context: Sociodemographic Factors, Stress, and Psychological Distress Among Mothers and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Heather; Yarboi, Janet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Desjardins, Leandra; Murphy, Lexa K; Rodriguez, Erin M; Compas, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations between sociodemographic factors (single parenthood, family income, education level, race), stress, and psychological distress among pediatric cancer patients and their mothers. Participants completed measures assessing sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, general stress, and cancer-related stress within the first year of the child's (ages 5-17 years) cancer diagnosis or relapse. Mothers (N = 318) provided self-reports and parent report of their children; children aged 10-17 years (N = 151) completed self-reports. Each sociodemographic variable demonstrated unique associations with mothers' and children's stress and distress in bivariate analyses. A cumulative sociodemographic risk measure was positively correlated with all stress and distress variables. In regression analyses predicting mothers' and children's distress, independent and cumulative sociodemographic measures were no longer significant when accounting for levels of stress. Findings highlight the need to consider the ecological context of pediatric cancer, particularly the impact of sociodemographic disadvantage on stress and distress in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF STUDENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SPEAKING ACTIVITY AT SMP PROGRESIF BUMI SHALAWAT

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    M.A. Nurul Haikal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to know what factors that influence the students’ involvement in speaking activity in order to practice their speaking skill and what strategies that the teacher used to encourage those external factors. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. There are two instruments used for this research, namely, class observation and interview. Based on the results of class observation and interview, the researcher concludes that teacher factor gives the greatest impact on students’ involvement and the appropriate strategies can support those external factors.

  3. Generalized Identities Involving Common Factors of Generalized Fibonacci, Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas Numbers

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    Yashwant K. Panwar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present generalized identities involving common factors of generalized Fibonacci, Jacobsthal and jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. Binet’s formula will employ to obtain the identities.

  4. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

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    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  5. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio; Muraoka, Isao

    2009-08-28

    Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 +/- 13.0 years), who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social (social support, health professional advice), environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area), and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status) variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs.hour per week), respondents were divided into two categories-recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive)-according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55-2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82-4.08) and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97) for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09-2.36) for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33-0.67) and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) were negatively associated with meeting the physical activity recommendations. In the psychological, social, and

  6. Does Tai Chi improve psychological well-being and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or cardiovascular risk factors? A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoyan; Li, Wenyuan; Cao, Huijuan; Klupp, Nerida; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen; Chang, Dennis

    2017-08-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Psychological risk factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are known to play a significant and independent role in the development and progression of CVD and its risk factors. Tai Chi has been reported to be potentially effective for health and well-being. It is of value to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi on psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors. We will include all relevant randomised controlled trials on Tai Chi for stress, anxiety, depression, psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors. Literature searching will be conducted until 31 December 2016 from major English and Chinese databases. Two authors will conduct data selection and extraction independently. Quality assessment will be conducted using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. We will conduct data analysis using Cochrane's RevMan software. Forest plots and summary of findings tables will illustrate the results from a meta-analysis if sufficient studies are identified. Ethics approval is not required as this study will not involve patients. The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication, to inform both clinical practice and further research on Tai Chi and CVDs. This review will summarise the evidence on Tai Chi for psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and their risk factors. We anticipate that the results of this review would be useful for healthcare professionals and researchers on Tai Chi and CVDs. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42016042905. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Human factors involved in perception and action in a natural stereoscopic world: an up-to-date review with guidelines for stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic virtual reality (VR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Bayas, Luis

    2001-06-01

    In stereoscopic perception of a three-dimensional world, binocular disparity might be thought of as the most important cue to 3D depth perception. Nevertheless, in reality there are many other factors involved before the 'final' conscious and subconscious stereoscopic perception, such as luminance, contrast, orientation, color, motion, and figure-ground extraction (pop-out phenomenon). In addition, more complex perceptual factors exist, such as attention and its duration (an equivalent of 'brain zooming') in relation to physiological central vision, In opposition to attention to peripheral vision and the brain 'top-down' information in relation to psychological factors like memory of previous experiences and present emotions. The brain's internal mapping of a pure perceptual world might be different from the internal mapping of a visual-motor space, which represents an 'action-directed perceptual world.' In addition, psychological factors (emotions and fine adjustments) are much more involved in a stereoscopic world than in a flat 2D-world, as well as in a world using peripheral vision (like VR, using a curved perspective representation, and displays, as natural vision does) as opposed to presenting only central vision (bi-macular stereoscopic vision) as in the majority of typical stereoscopic displays. Here is presented the most recent and precise information available about the psycho-neuro- physiological factors involved in the perception of stereoscopic three-dimensional world, with an attempt to give practical, functional, and pertinent guidelines for building more 'natural' stereoscopic displays.

  8. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  9. The influence of social and psychological factors in the management of contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, G.M.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.-M.; Alien, P.T.; Arkhangelskaya, H.V.; Nyagu, A.I.; Prilipko, V.; Ageeva, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    adaptive behaviors. Financial compensation based on the notion of victimization may have reinforced expressions of helplessness, vulnerability and self-reported low health status. The difficult issue of health consequences related to radiation in combination with extensive medical examinations and communication problems furthermore seem to have enhanced worries about current and long term health effects. The importance of decision makers taking account of social and psychological factors in the management of radiological accidents is emphasized and the central role of correct and continuous information is acknowledged and specified regarding type and focus in the medium and long term time perspectives. Information to populations in areas to which people may be relocated is discussed, as well as the social psychological influences of utilized countermeasures and their relationships to decision making and public reactions. It is suggested that less overall negative psychological impact could be achieved by regular monitoring of public opinions and sentiments, a general availability of information and medical care combined with selective medical examinations focused on vulnerable groups, selected on the basis of predictive studies of the health development, time limited financial compensation and the distribution of compensation or benefits in relation to adaptive protective behavior

  10. Teacher Involvement in Adult Marketing Education: Impeding Factors and Enhancing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Using the nominal group technique, 60 of the 323 high school marketing teachers in Virginia identified major factors impeding their involvement in adult marketing education as lack of time and demands of the job. Insufficient compensation for working with adults and lack of administrator support also inhibited teacher involvement in adult…

  11. Factors involved in the etiology of temporomandibular disorders - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnoiu, Andrea Maria; Picos, Alina Monica; Popa, Sever; Chisnoiu, Petre Daniel; Lascu, Liana; Picos, Andrei; Chisnoiu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    This review aims at presenting a current view on the most frequent factors involved in the mechanisms causing temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We conducted a critical review of the literature for the period January 2000 to December 2014 to identify factors related to TMD development and persistence. The etiology of TMD is multidimensional: biomechanical, neuromuscular, bio-psychosocial and biological factors may contribute to the disorder. Occlusal overloading and parafunctions (bruxism) are frequently involved as biomechanical factors; increased levels of estrogen hormones are considered biological factors affecting the temporo-mandibular-joint. Among bio-psychosocial factors, stress, anxiety or depression, were frequently encountered. The etiopathogenesis of this condition is poorly understood, therefore TMDs are difficult to diagnose and manage. Early and correct identification of the possible etiologic factors will enable the appropriate treatment scheme application in order to reduce or eliminate TMDs debilitating signs and symptoms.

  12. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  13. Family Involvement with African-American Youth during the Pre-College Years: From a "Psychology of Oppression" to a "Positive Black Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clara B.; Palmer, Julie K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses ways ways in which African-American families can influence their children's development, usually with guidance from school or other community agents. We discuss the importance of "discipline styles" for effective parenting and emphasize an approach to family involvement in child development utilizing a child's strengths. We…

  14. Exploring resilience and mindfulness as preventative factors for psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress among human service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven

    2016-06-08

    Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.

  15. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  16. Social and Psychological Factors Related to Risk of Eating Disorders Among High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfoukha, Marwa M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banihani, Manar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) has increased among adolescents in Arabic and Western countries. The purposes are to identify the risk of ED and psychosocial correlates of risk of ED among high school girls in Jordan. The researchers employed a cross-sectional, correlational design using 799 high school girls from governmental and private schools in the central region of Jordan. The results indicate that prevalence of the risk of ED was 12%. The risk of ED had significant and positive correlation with body shape dissatisfaction, self-esteem, psychological distress, and pressure from family, peers, and media ( p self-esteem, negative peer pressure, and being young were significant predictors of the risk of EDs. Risk of ED is highly prevalent among high school girls, and school nurses need to adopt a model of care addressing the risk factors while caring for high school girls.

  17. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  18. Fear of crime in Belgrade: Testing a socio-demographic and social-psychological factors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to

  19. Factors influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement in play therapy for sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the role of therapists in children's recovery from child sexual abuse, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nonoffending parents. This study investigated the work of a team of therapists who sometimes included such parents in therapy sessions with children. The study sought to understand what factors were influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement and to understand what effect these patterns of parental involvement were having on the process and outcomes of therapy. The study successfully identified a range of factors influencing the patterns of parental involvement, but more research will be needed to understand the effect on outcomes.

  20. Coping with medical error: a systematic review of papers to assess the effects of involvement in medical errors on healthcare professionals' psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirriyeh, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Armitage, Gerry

    2010-12-01

    Previous research has established health professionals as secondary victims of medical error, with the identification of a range of emotional and psychological repercussions that may occur as a result of involvement in error.2 3 Due to the vast range of emotional and psychological outcomes, research to date has been inconsistent in the variables measured and tools used. Therefore, differing conclusions have been drawn as to the nature of the impact of error on professionals and the subsequent repercussions for their team, patients and healthcare institution. A systematic review was conducted. Data sources were identified using database searches, with additional reference and hand searching. Eligibility criteria were applied to all studies identified, resulting in a total of 24 included studies. Quality assessment was conducted with the included studies using a tool that was developed as part of this research, but due to the limited number and diverse nature of studies, no exclusions were made on this basis. Review findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for the widespread impact of medical error on health professionals. Psychological repercussions may include negative states such as shame, self-doubt, anxiety and guilt. Despite much attention devoted to the assessment of negative outcomes, the potential for positive outcomes resulting from error also became apparent, with increased assertiveness, confidence and improved colleague relationships reported. It is evident that involvement in a medical error can elicit a significant psychological response from the health professional involved. However, a lack of literature around coping and support, coupled with inconsistencies and weaknesses in methodology, may need be addressed in future work.

  1. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of psychological factors on acute exacerbation of tension-type headache: Investigation by ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether psychological factors were associated with subsequent acute exacerbation of tension-type headache (TTH) in a prospective and ecologically valid manner with computerized ecological momentary assessment. Eighteen women and five men with TTH wore watch-type computers that acted as an electronic diary for 1week. The subjects recorded momentary headache intensity, psychological stress, anxiety, and depressive mood with a visual analog scale of 0-100 approximately every 6h as well as when waking up, when going to bed, and at acute headache exacerbations. Multilevel logistic regression analysis with acute headache exacerbation occurrence as the outcome was conducted. Person-mean centering was applied to psychological factors to disaggregate between- and within-individual association. Momentary psychological stress was associated with subsequent increase in headache exacerbation within 3h [Odds Ratio (95% CI)=1.32 (1.07, 1.64) for 10-point increments] while the individual mean of psychological stress was not. These results support the possibility that psychological stress could trigger acute exacerbations of TTH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationships Between Spiritual Well-Being, Quality of Life, and Psychological Factors Before Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sara J; Chen, Yiyi; Paik, Kyungjeen; Mirly, Brandy; Thomas, Charles R; Hung, Arthur Y

    2017-10-01

    Given shifting trends of religious identities in the USA, better understanding the impact of patients' religious identities on health-related quality of life (QOL) may help tailor the use of psychological interventions. Men with prostate cancer (N = 43) completed measures of quality of life (QOL), spiritual well-being in two domains (i.e., Faith and Meaning/Peace), psychological state, and psychological trait before undergoing radiotherapy. We hypothesized that (1) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with higher QOL and psychological trait protective factors (e.g., Agreeableness) and that (2) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with lower depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism (i.e., a psychological trait risk factor). We did not anticipate similar relationships between religious Faith and QOL, depression, anxiety, or psychological traits and consider related analyses to be exploratory in nature. Meaning/Peace was indeed negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism. Meaning/Peace was positively correlated with Physical, Social, Functional, and Emotional well-being, as well as Extraversion. Religious Faith was positively associated with Functional well-being, but not the other state, trait, or QOL domains. In sum, prostate cancer patients' sense of existential Meaning/Peace prior to radiotherapy was associated with well-being in many domains, whereas religious Faith appeared less so.

  4. Survey and analysis for impact factors of psychological distress in HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shouxue; Tan, Yanping; Lu, Bingyan; Cheng, Yuqing; Nong, Yanli

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study is to explore the psychological distress of HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy, and analyze the possible influencing factors. A total of 194 HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy were enrolled for this study by a convenient sampling method during June 2012-August 2016. Participants completed questionnaires including Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Berger HIV Stigma Scale (BHSS), Distress Thermometer (DT) and Problem List (PL), and to determine the cut-off value of DT in the group. The positive detection rate of psychological distress in the HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy was 69.1%, and the highest frequency of PL was the emotional problems. The positive detection rate of anxiety was 60.8%, the positive detection rate of depression was 54.1%, and the discrimination score was 113.16 ± 19.21. Spearman relevant analysis showed that psychological distress score was positively correlated with anxiety, depression and discrimination score (p HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy have higher incidence of psychological distress, and the psychological distress is not inferior to cancer patients. The influencing factors are mainly related to the infection and pregnancy characteristics, and have nothing to do with the general social demographic characteristics. The DT can be used as a screening tool to quickly identify psychological distress of the group.

  5. Does psychological strengths and subjective well-being predicting parental involvement and problem solving among Malaysian and Indian students?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Tahir, Lokman Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the predictors of psychological strengths and subjective well-being for dealing with academic stress perceived by university engineering students. Sample of 400 Malaysian (N?=?180 boys and N?=?220 girls) age varies 18 to 25?years and 400 Indian students (N?=?240 boys and N?=?160 girls) age varies 18 to 25?years from public universities were participated. Quantitative method was used for data analysis. Findings shows that gender, religiosity and socioeconomic status ...

  6. Assessing audiological, pathophysiological, and psychological variables in chronic tinnitus: a study of reliability and search for prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Goebel, G

    1999-01-01

    The development and course of chronic tinnitus are determined by both biological and psychological factors. To combine these different sources of data, we developed a standardized interview to assess tinnitus history, summarize audiological findings, screen for etiological conditions, and explore tinnitus-related psychological complaints (Structured Tinnitus Interview). The results of a test-retest study with 65 tinnitus inpatients show that most of these components can be assessed with acceptable or high reliability. Further data based on 166 patients demonstrate that tinnitus annoyance was to some extent different from patterns of general psychological complaints, although there were medium intercorrelations with depression. Significant predictors of tinnitus annoyance were (a) continuous tinnitus without intervals, (b) hearing loss, (c) increasing tinnitus loudness over time, (d) poor maskability, (e) history of sudden hearing loss, and (f) associated craniomandibular disorder. Psychological distress was not significantly increased in patients whose tinnitus was associated to vascular disorder, cervical spine dysfunction, acoustic trauma, Menihre's disease, or neurological disorder.

  7. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  8. 76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production: Labor; Correction to Request for Comment...-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production: Labor; Request for Comment, 76 FR 9544 (February 18...

  9. Parental psychological symptoms and familial risk factors of children and adolescents who exhibit school refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahali, K; Tahiroglu, A Y; Avci, A; Seydaoglu, G

    2011-12-01

    To assess the levels of psychological symptoms in the parents of children with school refusal and determine the familial risk factors in its development. This study was performed on 55 pairs of parents who had children exhibiting school refusal and were compared with a control group. A socio-demographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 revised were applied to these parents. Parents of the school refusal group had higher anxiety and depression scores than the controls. Among the risk factors for school refusal, physical punishment by the parents, a history of organic disease in the parents or children, and a history of psychiatric disorders in the parents or other relatives were found to be significant. Depending on genetic and environmental factors, parents with psychiatric disorders appeared to be associated with development of psychiatric disorders in their children. Moreover, psychiatric disorders in parents negatively affected the treatment of their children and adolescents who exhibited school refusal. It is therefore vital to treat psychiatric disorders of parents with the children having psychiatric disorders, and thus increase parent participation in their children's therapeutic process.

  10. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Frisman, Linda K; Lin, Hsiuju; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-07-01

    Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.

  12. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations: Proximity? Generativity? Minority stress? Social location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Hardesty, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about involvement in LGBTQ organizations. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations were examined using logistic regression and survey data from 426 LGBTQ individuals residing in a nonmetropolitan region. Involvement was examined in five types of organizations (professional, social/recreational, religious, political, and community center/charity). The same model testing proximity, generativity, minority stress, and social location hypotheses was repeated for each organization type. Results demonstrate that the generativity hypothesis is most strongly supported. Indeed, emotional attachment to the LGBTQ community significantly increased the odds of involvement in every type of organization. However, the factors associated with involvement otherwise differed by organization type. Implications for organizational leaders are discussed.

  13. Substance Use Behavior among Early-Adolescent Asian American Girls: The Impact of Psychological and Family Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs...

  14. Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

  15. The Impact of a Training Intervention Program on Fall-related Psychological Factors Among Male Older Adults in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Khajavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falls and fall-related physiological and psychological events are major problems for elderly people. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of an interventional training program on fall-related psychological factors among the elderly men in Arak. Methods & Materials: In this quasi experiment research on male older adults in Arak, 27 participants randomly assigned to Control group (mean age=70.21±6.65 and Experimental group (mean age=66.07±4.38. Experimental group members participated in a 12 week interventional training program. Results: The findings showed that training intervention program improved fall-related psychological factors (Fall Self-Efficacy/Fear of Fall and Activities-specific Balance Confidence/Balance Self-Efficacy in experimental group. No significant changes appeared in fall-related psychological factors in control group members who did not perform any regular training program. Conclusion: According to the findings, regular interventional training program can decrease fear of fall and increase balance confidence in performing the activities of everyday life by improving physical and motor fitness levels. These improvements can lead to physical and psychological health, increase in quality of life among older adults, and eventually successful aging.

  16. Factor XIII Val34Leu is a genetic factor involved in the etiology of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, R. F.; Reitsma, P. H.; Lourenço, D.; Maffei, F. H.; Morelli, V.; Tavella, M. H.; Araújo, A. G.; Piccinato, C. E.; Zago, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    A mutation in the factor XIII gene (FXIII Val34Leu) gene was recently reported to confer protection against myocardial infarction, but its relationship with venous thrombosis is unknown. In addition, a mutation in the 5'-untranslated region of the FXII gene (46 C->T) was identified which is

  17. Risk factors of circumferential resection margin involvement in the patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung Jin; Shin, Jin Yong

    2012-03-01

    Currently, circumferential resection margins (CRM) are used as a clinical endpoint in studies on the prognosis of rectal cancer. Although the concept of a circumferential resection margin in extraperitoneal rectal cancer differs from that in intraperitoneal rectal cancer due to differences in anatomical and biologic behaviors, previous reports have provided information on CRM involvement in all types of rectal cancer including intraperitoneal lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze risk factors of CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer. From January 2005 to December 2008, 306 patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer were enrolled in a prospectively collected database. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of CRM involvement. The overall rate of CRM involvement was found to be 16.0%. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex, larger tumor size (≥4 cm), stage higher than T3, nodal metastasis, tumor perforation and non-sphincter preserving proctectomy (NSPP) were risk factors for CRM involvement. Male sex, larger tumor size (≥4 cm), advanced T stage, nodal metastasis, tumor perforation, and NSPP are significant risk factors of CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Given that postoperative chemoradiotherapy is recommended for patients with a positive CRM, further oncologic studies are warranted to ascertain which patients with these risk factors would require adjuvant therapy.

  18. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  19. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  20. Stress and psychological factors before a migraine attack: A time-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Mariko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine the stress and mood changes of Japanese subjects over the 1–3 days before a migraine headache. Methods The study participants were 16 patients with migraines who consented to participate in this study. Each subject kept a headache diary four times a day for two weeks. They evaluated the number of stressful events, daily hassles, domestic and non-domestic stress, anxiety, depressive tendency and irritability by visual analog scales. The days were classified into migraine days, pre-migraine days, buffer days and control days based on the intensity of the headaches and accompanying symptoms, and a comparative study was conducted for each factor on the migraine days, pre-migraine days and control days. Results The stressful event value of pre-migraine days showed no significant difference compared to other days. The daily hassle value of pre-migraine days was the highest and was significantly higher than that of buffer days. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than on other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was no significant difference in the values of domestic stress between the categories. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was little difference in sleep quality on migraine and pre-migraine days, but other psychological factors were higher on migraine days than on pre-migraine days. Conclusion Psychosocial stress preceding the onset of migraines by several days was suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of migraines. However, stress 2–3 days before a migraine attack was not so high as it has been reported to be in the United States and

  1. Social and Psychological Factors in Second Language Acquisition: A Study of an Individual. Proceedings of the Los Angeles Second Language Research Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca A.

    The social and psychological factors which affect one person's acquisition of a second language are described in journal format. The psychological factors discussed are: (1) language shock, (2) culture shock, and (3) culture stress. The two social factors examined are both grouped under the term "social distance" but include (1) types of…

  2. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-12-01

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ 2 = 122.1, df = 6, p fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Psychological factors as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.

  4. Factors associated with long-term functional outcomes and psychological sequelae in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F; Pallant, J F; Ng, L; Bhasker, A

    2010-12-01

    To examine factors impacting long-term health-related outcomes in survivors of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Seventy-six consecutive patients with definite GBS admitted to the Royal Melbourne Hospital (1996-2009) were reviewed in the neurorehabilitation clinics. They underwent a structured interview designed to assess the impact of GBS on their current activity and restriction in participation using validated questionnaires: Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Their sociodemographic and disease severity data were obtained from the medical record. The 76 patients [60% male, mean age 56 years, median time since GBS 6 years (range 1-14 years)] showed good functional recovery (median motor FIM score 90). However, 16% reported moderate to extreme impact on their ability to participate in work, family, and social activities; and 22% substantial impact on mood, confidence and ability to live independently. More reported moderate to extreme depression (18%), anxiety (22%) and stress (17%) compared with the normative Australian population (13%). Factors associated with poorer current level of functioning and wellbeing included: females, older patients (57+ years), acute hospital stay (>11 days), those treated in intensive care and those discharged to rehabilitation. No associations were found between the Medical Research Council (MRC) Motor Scale Rating scores at admission, nor time since GBS diagnosis (≤6 vs. >6 years) on outcomes used. GBS is complex and requires long-term management of psychological sequelae impacting activity and participation.

  5. [Psychological factors associated to patient's treatment compliance in Chilean diabetic teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Manuel; Ortiz, Eugenia

    2005-03-01

    Treatment compliance among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, is low in 50% of diabetic teenagers, becoming a social and medical problem. To determine psycho-social factors associated to treatment compliance among Chilean diabetic type 1 teenagers. A non experimental study of 61 diabetic teenagers (age 14.9+/-1.9 years, 37 male). The number of blood glucose determinations, socioeconomic level and practice of sports was measured. Psychological tests were applied to analyze self-efficiency, motivation of achievement, self-esteem and knowledge of the illness and its treatment. As a measure of patient compliance, glycosilated hemoglobin (HB1Ac) was measured. Six patients had a good control of diabetes (HB1Ac <7%), 24 had HB1Ac values between 7 and 8.9, and 31 (51%) had values of 9% or more, considered as a poor diabetes control. The intensified insulin treatment scheme, the knowledge of the illness and its treatment and the sense of self-efficiency, were the factors associated with a better compliance with treatment. Teenagers of higher socio-economical levels had a better compliance with treatment. Fifty percent of Chilean diabetic teenagers in this sample had a poor control of the disease and the variable knowledge about the disease is the better predictor of patient compliance.

  6. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  7. Association of general psychological factors with frequent attendance in primary care: a population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-24

    Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.

  8. Effects of Psychological and Social Work Factors on Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance and Difficulties Initiating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Jolien; Knardahl, Stein; Christensen, Jan Olav

    2016-04-01

    This prospective cohort study examined previously underexplored relations between psychological/social work factors and troubled sleep in order to provide practical information about specific, modifiable factors at work. A comprehensive evaluation of a range of psychological/social work factors was obtained by several designs; i.e., cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, prospective analyses with baseline predictors (T1), prospective analyses with average exposure across waves as predictor ([T1 + T2] / 2), and prospective analyses with change in exposure from baseline to follow-up as predictor. Participants consisted of a sample of Norwegian employees from a broad spectrum of occupations, who completed a questionnaire at two points in time, approximately two years apart. Cross-sectional analyses at T1 comprised 7,459 participants, cross-sectional analyses at T2 included 6,688 participants. Prospective analyses comprised a sample 5,070 of participants who responded at both T1 and T2. Univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Thirteen psychological/social work factors and two aspects of troubled sleep, namely difficulties initiating sleep and disturbed sleep, were studied. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed statistically significant associations for all psychological and social work factors in at least one of the analyses. Psychological and social work factors predicted sleep problems in the short term as well as the long term. All work factors investigated showed statistically significant associations with both sleep items, however quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict, and support from superior were the most robust predictors and may therefore be suitable targets of interventions aimed at improving employee sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  10. Psychological Support as a Factor of the Training Process Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosendiak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Supportive activities may be one of the ways of the training process optimization. Support involves both components of the training process, i.e. training and rest. The training support is aimed at the training load increase or at such orientation of the adaptation processes to meet the training goals as closely as possible. The different aims lay behind the methods that support the rest mechanisms. It is about increasing the peace of the regeneration and recovery processes. This term describes all activities aimed at restoring the full exercise capacity of the athlete after work. The psychological support of the training process can be one of the ways to minimize training disturbances and it should therefore be an essential part of the training process management in case of the top ranked athletes. To improve the psychological support system of the training process and to improve the system quality, it is necessary to analyze the current situation. That’s why, authors of the paper decided to ask the members of the Polish Olympic team competed at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro on types of relaxation techniques they accepted and used before the competition. The relaxation techniques were deliberately limited to the pre-start relaxation techniques as the study was treated as a pilot study dedicated to the problem identification. Therefore, the authors of the paper formulated its aim, as the identification of the pre-start relaxation preferences of the Olympic team members. The following research questions were formulated to meet the aim of the study:  •     What types of the pre-start relaxation techniques are declared and accepted by the Olympians? •     Could the preferred pre-start relaxation techniques be considered rational, planned, and consciously implemented? A written interview with an online questionnaire was used as a research method. The study was conducted before the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de

  11. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  12. Factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth: A correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weilin Lynn; He, Hong-Gu; Chua, Ying Jie; Wang, Wenru; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-03-20

    To examine factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth in Singapore. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was conducted in a public tertiary hospital in Singapore. A total of 182 first-time fathers whose wives were hospitalized at four obstetric wards were recruited from November 2015 to January 2016. Data were collected by three newly developed and validated instruments, namely Father's Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, Father's Informational and Sources of Support, and Father's Attitude Towards Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, as well as the 16-item Couple Satisfaction Index and Family of Origin Questionnaire. The participants were generally involved in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth, with 35.2% being highly involved. There was no significant difference in fathers' levels of involvement between or among any sociodemographic subgroups. Significant Spearman's correlations were found between fathers' levels of involvement and levels of informational support as well as fathers' attitudes towards involvement. However, the logistic regression showed the level of informational support was the only significant factor that influenced first-time fathers' high levels of involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth. The study revealed the importance of providing sufficient informational support to first-time fathers so that they can be highly involved in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Future studies can develop technology-based intervention programmes to improve fathers' involvement in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Healthcare professionals should examine and improve the existing informational support for first-time fathers and ensure its relevance and convenient access. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological factors in the diffusion of sustainable technology: a study of Norwegian households' adoption of wood pellet heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper aims to understand the determinants of the adoption of wood pellet technology for home heating to identify possible strategies towards the slow diffusion of wood pellet in Norway. A mail survey of 737 Norwegian households was conducted in 2008, involving wood pellet adopters and non wood pellet adopters as respondents. An integrated model combining psychological factors (such as intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, habits and norms), perceived wood pellet heating characteristics, and ecological and basic values is applied to predict the installation of a wood pellet stove retrospectively. Results from a path analysis gain empirical support for the proposed integrated model. Wood pellet heating adoption is mainly predicted by a deliberate decision process starting with the evaluation of heating system characteristics, mediated by attitudes and intentions. Perceived behavioural control and habits pose relevant barriers to the adoption process. The influence of norms and values are indirect and only minor in the given market conditions. The most important heating system characteristics in the analysis were perceived functional reliability and perceived installation and maintenance costs. Possible intervention strategies to speed up wood pellet adoption in Norway are discussed in the last part of the paper. (Author)

  14. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Robert; Mezo, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N = 425…

  15. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  16. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  17. ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOLOGIC HEALTH STATE AND INFLUENCING FACTORS IN COLLEGE AND SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SHAANXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective The psychologic health level of college and secondaryschool students and the relevant fac- tors were investigated to scientific basis and guidance for school mental health work. Methods Standard 1251 cases were drawn from 1% of students in colleges and middle schools of Shaanxi province. Taking 14 psychic health level indexes in SCL-90 as dependent variable and 109 indexes of psychic health back ground as in-dependent variable, multi-factor analyses have been made. Results 22.6 % of students had relatively serious psychological problems. The score of SCL-90 in females was a little bit higher than that in males. The scores of students at both universities and se- nior middle schools were higher than that in junior middle schools students. The score of SCL-90 of students who came from the countryside was higher than that of city students. The score of the whole students was higher than that of the normal. The students with psychic problems showed obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia and hostility. Factor-analysis showed that influencing factors included history of positive individual risking behavior, physical conditions,grade,address, family influences, menses and sexual prombles, bad relation with others, poor self-assessment. Conclusion The psychologic health level of the students investigated is lower than that of the whole society. The factors, which hamper psychic health of students, are biological ,psychological and social in nature.

  18. Risk Factors, Resilience, and Psychological Distress among Holocaust and Nonholocaust Survivors in the Post-9/11 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamet, Ann; Szuchman, Lenore; Perkel, Linda; Walsh, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Many older adults have experienced or witnessed devastating life events including wars, hurricanes, and explosions. This study examined retraumatization and the relationship between certain risk factors, resilience, and psychological distress in the post-9/11 environment among 120 community-dwelling older adults. Results indicate that Holocaust…

  19. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly ( P concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly ( P antioxidant systems in rats fed with black garlic extract were related to mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 related genes.

  20. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  1. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.

  2. Journal Impact Factors and Self-Citations: Implications for Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseel, Frederik; Duyck, Wouter; De Baene, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Comments on the study by J. G. Adair and N. Vohra (see record 2003-02034-002) of changes in the number of references and citations in psychology journals as a consequence of the current knowledge explosion. They made a striking observation of the sometimes excessive number of self-citations in psychology journals. However, after this illustration,…

  3. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable ...

  4. Psychological Factors Associated with Chronic Migraine and Severe Migraine-Related Disability: an Observational Study in a Tertiary Headache Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K.; Buse, Dawn C.; Klepper, Jaclyn E.; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Grinberg, Amy S.; Grosberg, Brian M.; Pavlovic, Jelena M.; Robbins, Matthew S.; Vollbracht, Sarah E.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate relationships among modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine-related disability in a clinic-based sample of persons with migraine. Background Evidence evaluating relationships between modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine-related disability is lacking in people with migraine presenting for routine clinical care. Methods Adults with migraine completed surveys during routinely scheduled visits to a tertiary headache center. Participants completed surveys assessing chronic migraine (meeting criteria for migraine with ≥15 headache days in the past month), severe migraine disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Scale score ≥ 21), and modifiable psychological factors [depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxious symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Headache Specific Locus of Control]. Logistic regression evaluated relationships between modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine disability. Results Among 90 eligible participants the mean age was 45.0 (SD = 12.4); 84.8% were women. One-third (36.0%) met study criteria for chronic migraine; half of participants (51.5%) reported severe migraine-related disability. Higher depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1,11, 3.55) and chance HSLC (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.43) were associated with chronic migraine. Higher depressive symptoms (OR = 3.54, 95%CI = 1.49, 8.41), anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65, 8.06), and pain catastrophizing (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.14, 3.35), were associated with severe migraine-related disability. Conclusions Psychiatric symptoms and pain catastrophizing were strongly associated with severe migraine-related disability. Depression and chance locus of control were associated with chronic migraine. This study supports the need for longitudinal observational studies to evaluate relationships among naturalistic

  5. Research of the Occupational Psychological Impact Factors Based on the Frequent Item Mining of the Transactional Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the massive reading of data mining and association rules mining documents, this paper will start from compressing transactional database and propose the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. According to the previous analysis, this paper will also study the association rules mining algorithm based on the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. At last, this paper will apply this mining algorithm in the test results analysis module of team psychological health assessment system, and will extract the relationship between each psychological impact factor, so as to provide certain guidance for psychologists in their mental illness treatment.

  6. The Impact of a Training Intervention Program on Fall-related Psychological Factors Among Male Older Adults in Arak

    OpenAIRE

    Daryoush Khajavi; Ahmad Farokhi; Ali Akbar Jaberi Moghadam; Anooshirvan Kazemnejad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Falls and fall-related physiological and psychological events are major problems for elderly people. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of an interventional training program on fall-related psychological factors among the elderly men in Arak. Methods & Materials: In this quasi experiment research on male older adults in Arak, 27 participants randomly assigned to Control group (mean age=70.21±6.65) and Experimental group (mean age=66.07±4.38)...

  7. The Prevalence of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and Its Modulation by Lifestyle and Psychological Factors in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hapsari, Elsi Dwi; Mantani, Yuria; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of PMDD in Japanese adolescent girls and identify PMDD modulation by lifestyle and psychological factors and compared the result with those in PMS. Self-reported questionnaires were delivered to 675 high school students in Kobe City from June to July 2004. Items of questionnaires have included student's background, menstruation, lifestyle factors and health difficulties. Diagnosis criteria of PMS from Mortola et al. and diagnosis o...

  8. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  9. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  10. Fear of falling in patients with hip fractures: prevalence and related psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, Jan; van Balen, Romke; Hertogh, Cees; Achterberg, Wilco

    2013-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of fear of falling (FoF) in patients after a hip fracture, to investigate the relation with time after fracture, and to assess associations between FoF and other psychological factors. Cross-sectional study performed between September 2010 and March 2011 in elderly patients after a hip fracture. Ten postacute geriatric rehabilitation wards in Dutch nursing homes. A total of 100 patients aged ≥65 years with a hip fracture admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward. FoF and related concepts such as falls-related self-efficacy, depression, and anxiety were measured by means of self-assessment instruments. Of all patients, 36% had a little FoF and 27% had quite a bit or very much FoF. Scores on the Falls Efficacy Scale-International were 30.6 in the first 4 weeks after hip fracture, 35.6 in the second 4 weeks, and 29.4 in the period ≥8 weeks after fracture. In these 3 periods, the prevalence rates of FoF were 62%, 68%, and 59%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between FoF and anxiety (P falls-related self-efficacy. During rehabilitation, FoF is greatest in the second 4 weeks after hip fracture. More studies are needed to explore the determinants of FoF and develop interventions to reduce FoF and improve outcome after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-06-01

    Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling. Eleven studies were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria, comprising nine experimental and two qualitative studies (one self-report focus group study and one observational study). There was a consistent finding across studies that games with faster speeds of play were preferred and rated as more exciting for all gamblers, ranging from non-problem to problem gamblers. Of concern, was the repeated finding that fast games are particularly appealing to those suffering with a gambling problem. Behavioural results were more inconsistent across studies, though the general trend supports the notion that games with faster speeds of play encourage more wagers, longer game play, and caused players, particularly problem gamblers, to experience difficulty in ceasing gambling. The implications of these findings for gambling policy, harm minimisation approaches, and future research are discussed.

  12. Temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive clinical prognostic factor in necrotising external otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheskeli, E; Eta, R Abu; Gavriel, H; Kleid, S; Eviatar, E

    2016-05-01

    Necrotising otitis externa is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study investigated whether temporomandibular joint involvement had any prognostic effect on the course of necrotising otitis externa in patients who had undergone hyperbaric oxygen therapy after failed medical and sometimes surgical therapy. A retrospective case series was conducted of patients in whom antibiotic treatment and surgery had failed, who had been hospitalised for further treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Twenty-three patients with necrotising otitis externa were identified. The temporomandibular joint was involved in four patients (17 per cent); these patients showed a constant gradual improvement in C-reactive protein and were eventually discharged free of disease, except one patient who was lost to follow up. Four patients (16 per cent) without temporomandibular joint involvement died within 90 days of discharge, while all patients with temporomandibular joint involvement were alive. Three patients (13 per cent) without temporomandibular joint involvement needed recurrent hospitalisation including further hyperbaric oxygen therapy; no patients with temporomandibular joint involvement required such treatment. Patients with temporomandibular joint involvement had lower rates of recurrent disease and no mortality. Therefore, we suggest considering temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive prognostic factor in necrotising otitis externa management.

  13. Risk and Protective Factors at Age 16: Psychological Adjustment in Children With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-09-01

    Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.

  14. Model correction factor method for reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  15. Molecular characterization of Candida in the oral cavity and factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraneveld, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis addresses current issues related to oral Candida infections. Interactions of Candida with the oral microbiome were characterized and factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence were studied. All in all, the work described in this thesis contributes

  16. Determining success factors for effective strategic change: Role of middle managers' strategic involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhajul Islam Ukil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Middle managers are believed to play most crucial part in strategic change that in consequence leads to organizational success. The present study seeks to identify the underlying success factors for effective strategic change and, to investigate the relationship between middle management strategic involvement and effective strategic change. Data were collected following a survey administered among a group of mid-level managers (N=144 serving in twenty different private commercial banks in Bangladesh, and analyzed using various statistical tests including descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation, and simple and multiple regressions in STATA. Results uncovers that factors like relation with top management, strategy, role and skills are essential for effective strategic change. This study also reveals significant relationship between middle management strategic involvement and effective strategic change. Findings of this research suggest that organizations shall involve mid-level managers to formulate and implement strategy since middle mangers work as a bridge between top management and ground level workers.

  17. [Relations between self-discrimination of MSM and sexual behavior and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Guang-gui; Yang, Hong-wu; Fan, Jing

    2010-07-01

    To understand the self-discrimination experience of MSM and its relationship with sexual behavior and psychological factors. By respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, a call-for action and anonymous self-administration questionnaire investigation was carried out in Mianyang city on experience of self-discriminations, sexual partners and behaviors and depression symptom, etc. The first 12 qualified people were designated as the "root" in the whole investigation from different MSM subgroups. Every "root" would get 3 recruit cards after their own investigation, then cards could be promoted to another 3 qualified people who were willing to accept questionnaires. And this process would go on till the sample size was accomplished. χ(2) test, rank correlation and contingency coefficient would be applied for the statistical analysis. In total, 201 persons were investigated. Within the past 6 months, 59.2% (119/201) persons felt they did harm to their family or made the family down as gays, 79.6% (160/201) had to disguise their real sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated, 39.3% (79/201) were humiliated for having gay sex. It showed correlation between humiliation or harm to family and frequency to disco balls/night clubs (r = 0.196, χ(2) = 7.95, P sexual partners (r = 0.265, χ(2) = 11.422, P sexual behavior in the past 6 months (r = 0.513, χ(2) = 7.442, P sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated and the frequency of show up in the cybercafé (r = 0.272, χ(2) = 15.932, P discrimination was connected to entrance into gay-welcome places, acceptance of HIV consultancy and tests, posting gay information among MSM friends and hold of many sexual partners. Meanwhile, the pressure was rising when depression was checked out. Self-discrimination was prevalent among MSM, which had brought critical influence on the individual behavior, MSM psychological health and prevalence of AIDS.

  18. Psychological factors as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Ibrahim

    Full Text Available There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide.The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females, aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21 was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis.The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation.Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Psychological, Hormonal, and Genetic Factors Between Burning Mouth Syndrome and Secondary Oral Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves de Araújo Lima, Emeline; Barbosa, Natália Guimarães; Dos Santos, Ana Celly Souza; AraújoMouraLemos, Telma Maria; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between psychological, hormonal, and genetic factors with the development of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and secondary oral burning (SOB) in order to provide a better characterization and classification of these conditions. Cross sectional study. Patients with complaints of mouth burning registered at the Oral Diagnostic Service of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte between 2000 and 2013. The sample consisted of 163 subjects divided into a group of patients with BMS (n = 64) and a group of subjects with SOB (n = 99). The following variables were analyzed: passive and stimulated saliva flow, stress levels and phase, depression, anxiety, serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, and the presence of polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene. The results showed significant differences in the presence of xerostomia (p = 0.01), hyposalivation at rest (p < 0.001) and symptoms of depression (p = 0.033) between the two groups, which were more prevalent in the BMS group. DHEA levels were lower in the BMS group (p = 0.003) and were sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this condition. Genetic analysis revealed no significant association between the polymorphisms analyzed and the development of BMS. These results suggest a possible role of depression, as well as of reduced DHEA levels, as associated factors for development of BMS. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The role of psychological and physiological factors in decision making under risk and in a dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eFooken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV, which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context.

  1. Associations Between Bullying Involvement, Protective Factors, and Mental Health Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla

    2017-08-17

    Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  3. Telomerase activity and its association with psychological stress, mental disorders, lifestyle factors and interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W; Cheung, S T; Tsao, S W; Wang, X M; Tiwari, A F Y

    2016-02-01

    To summarise and discuss the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. A systematic review was carried out to identify prospective or retrospective studies and interventions published up to June 2015 that reported associations between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Electronic data bases of PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched. Twenty six studies on humans measured telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or leukocytes and examined its association with psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Of those studies, three reported significantly decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic psychological stress. Interestingly, one of the three studies found that acute laboratory psychological stress significantly increased telomerase activity. Nine studies reported mixed results on association between mental disorders and telomerase activity. Of the nine studies, five reported that major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with significantly increased telomerase activity. In thirteen out of fourteen studies on lifestyle factors, it was reported that physical exercise, diet micronutrient supplementation, mindfulness meditation, Qigong practice or yoga mediation resulted in increase in telomerase activity. In addition, two studies on animal models showed that depression-like behaviour was associated with decreased hippocampus telomerase activity. Five animal studies showed that physical exercise increased telomerase activity by cell-type-specific and genotype-specific manners. Although multi-facet results were reported on the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors, there were some consistent findings in humans such as (1) decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic stress, (2) increased

  4. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These

  6. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  7. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  8. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  9. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  10. Prevalence and related factors of psychological distress among cancer inpatients using routine Distress Thermometer and Chinese Health Questionnaire screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou YJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jie Chiou,1 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Liang-Jen Wang,2 Shau-Hsuan Li,3 Chun-Yi Lee,1 Ming-Kung Wu,1 Chien-Chih Chen,1 Yi-Shan Wu,1 Yu Lee1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3Department of Hematology-Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. Patients and methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Results: Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1% were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43, and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58 were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3% with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%, followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%, depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%. Conclusion: Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not

  11. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  12. Psychological distress in torture survivors: pre- and post-migration risk factors in a US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suzan J; Kaplan, Charles; Tol, Wietse A; Subica, Andrew; de Jong, Joop

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between sociodemographic, pre- and post-migration variables with prevalence of psychological distress and global functioning in a heterogeneous sample of torture survivors. Clients referred from resettlement agencies via the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) to a community clinic in the United States (N = 278) were interviewed with structured, translated questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses determined the associations of sociodemographic, pre-, and post-migration risk factors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and global functioning. Regression data indicate that length of time between arrival in US and clinical services was significantly associated with PTSD and depression; participants receiving services after 1 year of resettlement were more likely to experience PTSD (adjusted OR = 3.29) and depression (adjusted OR = 4.50) than participants receiving services within 1 year. Anxiety was predicted by female gender (adjusted OR = 3.43), age over 40 years (adjusted OR = 3.12), Muslim religion (adjusted OR = 2.64), and receiving medical services (AOR 3.1). Severely impaired global functioning was associated with female gender (adjusted OR = 2.75) and unstable housing status (adjusted OR = 2.21). Findings highlight the importance of examining post-migration variables such as length of time in country prior to receiving services in addition to pre-migration torture history upon relocated torture survivors. Clinicians and policy-makers should be aware of the importance of early mental health screening and intervention on reducing the psychiatric burden associated with torture and forced relocation.

  13. The Evaluation of Psychological Factor and Salivary Cortisol and IgA Levels in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to determine psychological factors and salivary cortisol, IgA level in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 patients with OLP and healthy person were admitted to this study. Saliva samples were collected between - Am. saliva cortisol, IgA level was detected by ELIZA method. In this study, patients with anxiety and depression were measured using the SCL-90 questionnaire. Data analyzed by t-test. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 3.2±1.9 ng/mL and the mean saliva cortisol level in healthy person was 3.5±1.9 ng/mL. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups (p=0.04. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 0.69±0.29 ng/mL and the mean saliva IgA level in healthy person was 0.9±0.43 ng/mL but no significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Results showed that anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls but there was no significant difference between healthy subjects. Conclusion: Finding revealed the mean salivary cortisol level in patient with OLP less than healthy persons. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Based on the t-student test, no significant difference was observed in the salivary IgA levels in the 2 study groups. Anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls.

  14. The major factors of influence on the socio-psychological climate in the team of health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezhnovets T.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to identify the major factors that can positively or negatively effect the state of the socio-psychological climate in the medical team of healthcare institutions. The psychological study of the social-psychologic climate of 152 health care workers of two hospitals of Kherson region (N 1, n=80; N 2, n=72 was conducted. It is established that the level of self-esteem of climate in the institution №1 was significantly lower than in institution N 2 (р<0,007. Moreover, these two institutions differed significantly by experience of joint work of health workers (р<0.05 and length of service of the head physicians. Health care workers with less joint work experience have been working in the institution N 1, and it was headed by the head physician with less leading experience. By the opinion of health workers of both institutions, such factors as "interesting and meaningful work", "attentive head", "relations with colleagues", have the most positive impact on the state of climate the most negative influence — "unsatisfactory management style", "tensions in the team", "lack of financial motivation", "poor working conditions". Each team has its own combination of factors that positively or negatively affect the state of the climate. It is established, that depending on the work experience of the head physician and the work experience of joint work of employees, the main factors that affect the climate in the team are "attentive manager" and "relationships with colleagues". The more work experience of the leader, the more it will affect the state of the climate in the team. The less experience of joint work of employees, the more "relationship with colleagues" will affect its condition. Evaluation of the state of socio-psychological climate and its factors by the personnel may be the indicator of efficiency of personnel management in the health care institution.

  15. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  16. Preferences for learning different types of genome sequencing results among young breast cancer patients: Role of psychological and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara; Dresser, Rebecca; Elrick, Ashley; Matsen, Cindy; Goodman, Melody

    2018-01-29

    The growing importance of genome sequencing means that patients will increasingly face decisions regarding what results they would like to learn. The present study examined psychological and clinical factors that might affect these preferences. 1,080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey. We assessed their interest in learning various types of genome sequencing results: risk of preventable disease or unpreventable disease, cancer treatment response, uncertain meaning, risk to relatives' health, and ancestry/physical traits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether being "very" interested in each result type was associated with clinical factors: BRCA1/2 mutation status, prior genetic testing, family history of breast cancer, and psychological factors: cancer recurrence worry, genetic risk worry, future orientation, health information orientation, and genome sequencing knowledge. The proportion of respondents who were very interested in learning each type of result ranged from 16% to 77%. In all multivariable models, those who were very interested in learning a result type had significantly higher knowledge about sequencing benefits, greater genetic risks worry, and stronger health information orientation compared to those with less interest (p-values psychological factors. Shared decision-making approaches that increase knowledge about genome sequencing and incorporate patient preferences for health information and learning about genetic risks may help support patients' informed choices about learning different types of sequencing results. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  17. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  18. Narrative transportation and product involvement : how narrativity factors are used to enchance transportive experience in advertising for high vs. low involvement products

    OpenAIRE

    Phusapan, Panida

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and presents how narrativity factors are used to enhance consumers‟ transportive experience when advertising for high and low involvement products. It specifically looks at processing experiences among Thai online consumers when viewing TV commercials available on a YouTube channel. The paper brings the theory of product involvement into a field of narrative transportation. Results show that narrativity factors should be used with the right balance across all narrativity l...

  19. Social and occupational factors associated with psychological wellbeing among occupational groups affected by disaster: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Greenberg, Neil

    2017-08-01

    The psychological impact of disasters has been well-documented; less attention has been paid to factors affecting the wellbeing of those exposed to disasters as occupational groups. To conduct a systematic literature review identifying social and occupational factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster-exposed employees; to use these factors to identify recommendations for potential interventions. Four electronic literature databases were searched; reference lists of relevant papers were hand-searched. A total of 18 005 papers were found, 571 full texts were read and 36 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on employees was associated with pre-disaster factors (experience/training; income; life events/health; job satisfaction), peri-disaster factors (exposure; peri-traumatic experiences; perceptions of safety; injury), social factors (organisational support; social support generally) and post-disaster factors (impact on life). It is important to build a resilient workforce outside of a crisis. Pre-disaster training in recognising signs of distress, understanding vulnerability factors such as those described above, which may put certain employees at greater risk of distress and how to support colleagues may be useful. Further research into the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions is needed.

  20. Risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents: a family study in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklestad, Ingri; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate potential adolescent and parental psychosocial risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents and, in addition, to examine potential gender and age differences in the effects of risk factors on adolescent psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). The outcome measure was psychological distress (SCL-5). Bivariate regression analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) model showed that all parental self-reported variables (mental distress, substance use, social network, economic problems, unemployment and family structure) and adolescents' self-reported variables (leisure activities, social support from friends, school-related problems and substance use) were significantly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Results revealed that in a multiple regression analysis with a GEE model, adolescent psychosocial variables, specifically academic-related problems and being bullied at school, emerged as the strongest predictors of psychological distress among adolescents after controlling for age, gender, and all parental and adolescent variables. The following psychosocial risk factors were significantly more important for girl's psychological distress compared to boys: problems with academic achievement, conduct problems in school, frequency of being drunk, smoking, dissatisfaction in school, living alone and seen parents being drunk. Academic achievement and being bullied at school were the psychosocial factors most strongly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Parental factors had an indirect effect on adolescent psychological distress, through adolescents' psychosocial factors.

  1. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (pworking hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  2. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  3. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. The outcome studied was involvement in fights with firearms and/or cold weapons in the 30 days prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results Fifty seven thousand and eighty nine female students and 52,015 male students were included; the prevalence of their involvement in fights with weapons was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.9–7.5 and 13.8 (95 % CI 13.4–14.3, respectively. In the adjusted analysis the factors associated with male student involvement in fights with weapons were: being older, working, having smoked a cigarette, consumed alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs recently, insomnia, not having any close friends, skipping classes without parental supervision, having suffered aggression from a family member, reporting feeling unsafe on the way to or from school and/or at school. The same associated factors were found among female students in addition to not living with their father and/or mother and having suffered bullying. There was no association with type of school in either sex. Conclusion Involvement in fights with weapons was greater among older male students. Health-risk behaviors, mental health characteristics, parental supervision and context of violence also showed association with the outcomes.

  4. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...

  5. Time Course of Leptin in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa during Inpatient Treatment: Longitudinal Relationships to BMI and Psychological Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Stroe-Kunold

    Full Text Available Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN. However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time.The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients.In order to understand whether leptin's role differs in relation to AN severity, data were assessed from 11 patients with a very low BMI and a higher chronicity (high severity group; HSS; mean BMI at the beginning of the study = 13.6; mean duration of illness = 5.1 years vs. nine with less severe symptoms (LSS; mean BMI = 16.2; mean duration of illness = 3.7 years. During the course of treatment, serum leptin concentrations were assessed weekly while weight (BMI was assessed twice per week. Concomitantly, psychological variables were obtained by means of electronic diaries. Unconditional linear growth models were calculated to evaluate the temporal course of leptin in relation to BMI. For HSS patients, two phases of treatment (BMI < 16 and BMI ≥ 16 kg/m2 were investigated.Leptin increased significantly with BMI in both groups of patients. For HSS patients, the increase of leptin in the first treatment phase did not predict later increases in BMI. Furthermore, the relationship of leptin and psychological factors was modulated by symptom severity. In HSS patients, higher leptin levels were associated with greater feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress whereas in LSS patients a higher leptin level showed the trend to be associated with lower psychological symptom burden.Our results suggest that leptin changes are differently associated with weight gain and psychological symptoms depending on the severity of starvation.

  6. Factors associated with psychological distress amongst outpatient chemotherapy patients: An analysis of depression, anxiety and stress using the DASS-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michelle; Lau, Peter K H; Taylor, Scott; McTigue, Joseph; Cook, Angus; Bamblett, Marion; Hasani, Arman; Johnson, Claire E

    2018-04-01

    This study sought to identify clinical, demographic and service-related factors associated with psychological distress amongst outpatient chemotherapy patients. Distress in cancer patients leads to increased risk of psychological comorbidity, contributing to sub-optimal treatment adherence and potentially leading to poorer health outcomes. Screening and recognition of distress and risk factors is an important aspect of holistic care within a multidisciplinary team environment. Data were obtained via survey and chart review of ambulatory chemotherapy patients at three public tertiary referral hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. The DASS-21 was used to screen for psychological distress. Regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between distress and a range of cancer, socioeconomic and treatment factors. Patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score≤80 (OR 3.8, 95% CI [1.7, 78.7]) and average waiting time (between oncology outpatient appointment and commencement of chemotherapy infusion) >60min (OR 2.4, 95% CI [1.04, 5.5]) were at increased risk of moderate-severe distress. Patients with a household income between $AU 50-75,000 p.a. had a lower risk of distress compared to 25,000 p.a. (OR 0.05, 95% CI [0.01, 0.52]). On sub-scale analysis, depression and anxiety contributed more to overall distress than the stress subscales. Performance status, waiting times and household income were key predictors of distress. Findings could assist clinicians to identify higher-risk population subsets that could benefit from targeted screening and additional psychological and social work support. Findings could also assist administrators to consider the contribution of modifiable factors such as waiting times to patient distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationships between measures of stature recovery, muscle activity and psychological factors in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with low back pain (LBP) often exhibit elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls during static postures such as standing. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery in individuals with mild LBP. This study aimed to explore this association further in a more clinically relevant population of NHS patients with LBP and to investigate if relationships exist with a number of psychological factors. Forty seven patients were recruited from waiting lists for physiotherapist-led rehabilitation programmes. Paraspinal muscle activity while standing was assessed via surface electromyogram (EMG) and stature recovery over a 40-min unloading period was measured on a precision stadiometer. Self-report of pain, disability, anxiety, depression, pain-related anxiety, fear of movement, self-efficacy and catastrophising were recorded. Correlations were found between muscle activity and both pain (r=0.48) and disability (r=0.43). Muscle activity was also correlated with self-efficacy (r=-0.45), depression (r=0.33), anxiety (r=0.31), pain-related anxiety (r=0.29) and catastrophising (r=0.29) and was a mediator between self-efficacy and pain. Pain was a mediator in the relationship between muscle activity and disability. Stature recovery was not found to be related to pain, disability, muscle activity or any of the psychological factors. The findings confirm the importance of muscle activity within LBP, in particular as a pathway by which psychological factors may impact on clinical outcome. The mediating role of muscle activity between psychological factors and pain suggests that interventions that are able to reduce muscle tension may be of particular benefit to patients demonstrating such characteristics, which may help in the targeting of treatment for LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robert OROSZ; Ferenc MEZO

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21). The app...

  9. Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Dubai, Sami AR; Qureshi, Ahmad M; Al-abed, Al-abed AA; AM, Rizal; Aljunid, Syed M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating ha...

  10. Temporal perspective and other psychological factors making it difficult to adapt to requirements of treatment in chronic dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzka, Barbara; Byrczek, Magdalena; Zawadzka, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The study analyzed the relationship between temporal perspective, selected personal resources, and unhealthy behavior, manifesting in problems with adherence to fluid intake restrictions, in chronic hemodialyzis patients. The authors tried to answer the question whether there is temporal perspective and other psychological factors increasing the risk of non-adaptive behaviors. Methods. Sixty-one patients, aged 23–81 years (M = 59; SD = 13,9) on chronic hemodialysis at the Departmen...

  11. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  12. Psychological factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy. Comparative analysis focusing on regional characteristics and degree of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify how psychological factors' impact on public acceptance of nuclear energy varies with where they live and their degree of knowledge. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey about nuclear energy at three urban areas and two nuclear power plant siting areas. After collecting data, we applied factor analysis to the data, and found four factors which construct cognitive structure of nuclear energy. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of the four factors on two issues: the decision for or against nuclear policy and the reaction to nuclear power plant siting, and compared changes of the impact by where respondents live and their degree of knowledge. Consequently, we found that the impact of all four factors on the two issues varies with where respondents live. We also found that the impact of respondents' degree of knowledge to four factors varies with where they live. (author)

  13. Association of psychological distress and work psychosocial factors with self-reported musculoskeletal pain among secondary school teachers in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Zamri

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role.To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP, and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 45.2%, 50.9% and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9% respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75, high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57, low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99. Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43, low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99.Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce

  14. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  15. Psychological assessment tool for patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility and planning to undergo uterine transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saso, S; Bracewell-Milnes, T; Ismail, L; Hamed, A H; Thum, M-Y; Ghaem-Maghami, S; Del Priore, G; Smith, J R

    2014-08-01

    Uterine transplantation (UTn) has been proposed as a treatment option for women diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) and who are willing to bear their own child. AUFI renders a woman 'unconditionally infertile'. For AUFI women in general, UTn may offer a way to re-discover their own femininity through the restoration of fertility. Thus, when faced with a patient who may undergo UTn, the 'holistic approach' takes on an extra meaning. This is because the psychological element is two-sided for these patients. On one side lies the psychology of infertility, and on the other and equally important, is the substantially higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in transplant candidates and recipients than in the general population. However, the psychology of a potential recipient of a uterine graft in order to bring about fertility has not been adequately explored or reviewed scientifically. We have presented here an outline of the areas which should be included in a psychological assessment for patients wishing to undergo UTn.

  16. Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Randi; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. Forty women (mean age +/- s.d.: 38.6 +/- 10.8 years) suffering from TMD (mean duration 11.9 +/- 9.9 years) were randomized to four individual 1......, psychological symptoms (Symptom Check List 60), pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), sleep difficulties (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and use of analgesics. Data were analyzed with between-groups within-subjects anovas. The hypnosis group significantly reduced the daily NRS pain scores...... and anxiety (P effectively reduce some aspects of complex TMD pain....

  17. Mycobacterium biofilms: factors involved in development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies against biofilm-relevant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaohong; Deng, Wanyan; Liu, Minqiang; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics.

  18. Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1996-01-01

    Two residues of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA were identified and subjected to mutational analysis. Lys-89 and Asn-90 were each replaced by either Ala or Glu. The four single mutants were denoted K89A, K89E, N90A, and N90E, respectively. The mutants...... were characterized with respect to thermal and chemical stability, GTPase activity, tRNA affinity, and activity in an in vitro translation assay. Most conspicuously tRNA affinities were reduced for all mutants. The results verify our structural analysis of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl....... Their functional roles are discussed in relation to the structure of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl-tRNA. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug-23...

  19. Implications for the offspring of circulating factors involved in beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Ringholm, Lene; Søstrup, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    is able to stimulate proliferation of rat beta cells. We have identified several circulating factors that may contribute to beta cell adaptation to pregnancy. Further studies are needed to elucidate their possible role in glucose homeostasis in the mother and her offspring.......OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown an increase in beta cell mass during pregnancy. Somatolactogenic hormones are known to stimulate the proliferation of existing beta cells in rodents whereas the mechanism in humans is still unclear. We hypothesize that in addition to somatolactogenic hormones...... there are other circulating factors involved in beta cell adaptation to pregnancy. This study aimed at screening for potential pregnancy-associated circulating beta cell growth factors. SAMPLES: Serum samples from nonpregnant and pregnant women. METHODS: The effect of serum from pregnant women...

  20. The moderating role of psychological capital in the relationship between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement amongst call centre employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B. Setar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African call centres were found to rank amongst those with the highest degree of performance monitoring and feedback. This revelation comes at a time when many scholars concur that research has not entirely succeeded in helping organisations overcome the negative aspects of work and enhance the positive aspects of work, such as job involvement. Research purpose: This study sought to examine the relationship between job stress, job involvement and the display of uncivil behaviour amongst call centre employees, whilst also studying the role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. Motivation for the study: The study was prompted by the scarcity of research in the area of PsyCap and job involvement, none of which has examined relationships between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement and the moderating role of PsyCap in this relationship, focusing on call centre employees. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative design employed a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 104 South African call centre employees using a biographical data sheet, the PsyCap Questionnaire, Job Stress Scale, Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Scale and the Job Involvement Scale. Main findings: PsyCap and uncivil workplace behaviour were negatively related, whilst PsyCap and job involvement were positively related. Job stress held predictive value for incivility and the hostility subscale. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that PsyCap did not moderate the relationship between job stress and incivility and neither did it moderate the relationship between job stress and job involvement. Practical implications: Organisations should work on minimising stressors within the workplace in order to enhance the PsyCap of employees, which not only lowers the risk of incivility displayed by employees but also ensures greater employee involvement. Contribution/value-add: Although previous studies have examined

  1. Bullying involvement and adolescent substance use: A multilevel investigation of individual and neighbourhood risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Laura J; Craig, Wendy M

    2017-09-01

    Youth involved with school bullying are vulnerable to many negative outcomes, including substance use. Research has yet to examine how this vulnerability operates in the context of other individual and neighbourhood differences. The current study aimed to fill this gap by using multilevel modeling to investigate both the individual and neighbourhood risk factors associated with frequent drunkenness and frequent cannabis use among adolescents. Data from the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviours in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey were analyzed. Participants consisted of 8971 students from 173 neighbourhoods across Canada. Multilevel modeling was used to examine both individual (age, gender, bullying, victimization, peer deviancy, negative affect) and neighbourhood (socioeconomic status, crime, physical neighbourhood disorder, residential instability) risk factors. We tested whether the links between bullying involvement and frequent substance use were mediated by other risk factors. Both individual and neighbourhood risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of frequent substance use. Specifically, bullying served as a unique risk factor for frequent substance use over and above more traditional risk factors. A cross-level interaction was observed between residential instability and peer deviancy, such that the link between peer deviancy and frequent drunkenness was stronger in more residentially-unstable neighbourhoods. Peer deviancy partially mediated the link between bullying and both types of frequent substance use, whereas both peer deviancy and negative affect mediated the link between victimization and both types of frequent substance use. Youth who bully others are vulnerable to frequent substance use across peer and neighbourhood contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linguistic positivity in historical texts reflects dynamic environmental and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Rumen; Hoover, Joe; Dehghani, Morteza; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-12-06

    People use more positive words than negative words. Referred to as "linguistic positivity bias" (LPB), this effect has been found across cultures and languages, prompting the conclusion that it is a panhuman tendency. However, although multiple competing explanations of LPB have been proposed, there is still no consensus on what mechanism(s) generate LPB or even on whether it is driven primarily by universal cognitive features or by environmental factors. In this work we propose that LPB has remained unresolved because previous research has neglected an essential dimension of language: time. In four studies conducted with two independent, time-stamped text corpora (Google books Ngrams and the New York Times), we found that LPB in American English has decreased during the last two centuries. We also observed dynamic fluctuations in LPB that were predicted by changes in objective environment, i.e., war and economic hardships, and by changes in national subjective happiness. In addition to providing evidence that LPB is a dynamic phenomenon, these results suggest that cognitive mechanisms alone cannot account for the observed dynamic fluctuations in LPB. At the least, LPB likely arises from multiple interacting mechanisms involving subjective, objective, and societal factors. In addition to having theoretical significance, our results demonstrate the value of newly available data sources in addressing long-standing scientific questions.

  3. Involvement of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Receptors in Immune Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanand Chatoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, a major mediator in the stress response, is involved in altered function in GI, including inflammatory processes, colonic transit time, contractile activity, defecation pattern, pain threshold, mucosal secretory function, and barrier functions. This mini review focuses on the recently establish local GI-CRF system, its involvement in modulating the immune response in IBS, and summarizes current IBS animal models and mapping of CRF, CRFR1, and CRFR2 expression in colon tissues. CRF and receptors might be a key molecule involving the immune and movement function via brain–gut axis in IBS.

  4. Factors Influencing the Private Involvement in Urban Rail Public-Private Partnership Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Ke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Private investors have been encouraged to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects in China through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, given the fact that subnational governments are suffering from urgent development demands and severe fiscal pressure. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the private involvement in a PPP project. This problem is particularly critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to uncover and identify the influencing factors. Multiple research methods, including content analysis, case study and focus group discussion were adopted to achieve the research purpose. Seven types of influencing factors were identified, including project financial model, government fiscal commitment, risk allocation, public accountability, efficiency considerations, policy and regulations, and organisational marketing strategies. The findings add to the current knowledge base by uncovering the drivers behind private involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for industry practitioners as a basis/checklist to determine the private involvement.

  5. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS DURING THE “EFFECTIVE CONTRACT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan A. Baryshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, problems of “effective contract” transition are considered in LPC SFU. The analysis of social and psychological staff climate is provided which defines ability of a staff to work in new conditions. Assessment criteria of experts work are offered in LPC.

  6. Quality of Life and Psychological Factors in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Suyama-Chishaki, MD PhD

    2007-01-01

    CONCLUSION: To support ICD recipients both physically and mentally, not only the cardiologists but also specialists from other fields such as psychologists and nurse specialists are needed. Ancillary care must be provided through the support team. Cardiologists who determine whether ICD implantation is required must keep in mind potential psychological sequelae.

  7. Family Stability as a Protective Factor against Psychopathology for Urban Children Receiving Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Israel, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines, was examined in a sample of urban families (n = 70) with children (ages 7 to 16) receiving psychological services. Parent-reported family stability was associated with lower parent-reported children's internalizing behavior problems. Child-reported family stability…

  8. Infant Malnutrition in High Density Urban Areas: Some Social and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. M.; Griesel, R. D.

    The mothers of 135 hospitalized infants were interviewed regarding several social, familial, personal, and psychological conditions considered to be pertinent to the etiology of protein energy malnutrition in impoverished African urban areas. The information gathered was contrasted with similar data collected from the mothers of 296 adequately…

  9. Factors Influencing College Student Health: Development of the Psychological Distress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustman, Patrick J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the three-phase development of the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), an instrument designed primarily to measure life stress in college students. Standard psychometric information is presented, including reliability, validity, and some effects of response set. The PDI allows users to separately assess degree of depression, anxiety,…

  10. Toward Understanding School Psychology around the Globe: Economical, Educational, and Professional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of school psychology continues to develop rapidly, few recent studies have examined how it is directly affected by a country's economy and education. This study examined the effect of gross domestic product, public spending on education, and public support for education on the ratio of school psychologists to students, level of…

  11. 393 The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... This study investigated adolescent students' cigarette smoking ... suggest remedies to reduce the incidence for a better academic environment ... effects on the brain and psychological functioning resulting in such effect as ... smokers and that nearly 30% of middle school children and over 63% of high.

  12. Esophageal Sensorimotor Function and Psychological Factors Each Contribute to Symptom Severity in Globus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Tack, Jan; Pauwels, Ans

    2016-10-01

    Altered upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body (EB) sensorimotor function and psychosocial factors may both be involved in symptom generation in globus, but their common impact is not yet assessed. The aim of the study is (1) to compare UES and EB sensitivity and compliance of globus patients with healthy controls (HC); (2) to study the association of globus symptom severity (GSS) with UES and EB sensitivity and compliance, UES motor function and psychosocial factors. In 58 globus patients, GSS, somatization, and anxiety disorders were determined using validated questionnaires. In 26 HC and 42/58 patients, UES and EB sensitivity and compliance were assessed twice using barostat measurements. UES function of 27 globus patients was evaluated using high-resolution manometry. Bivariate correlations and a general linear model tested the association of these factors with GSS. UES and EB compliance did not differ between globus patients and HC. Upon repeated distension, UES habituation was seen in both groups, whereas EB sensitization (23.3±1.3 vs. 19.5±1.5 mm Hg, Pdisorder (t=3.04, P=0.004), and post-traumatic stress severity (ρ=0.40, P=0.005) were associated with GSS. UES compliance and somatization were independently associated with GSS. A trend (P=0.061) was found for the association of GSS with change in EB compliance. UES compliance, change in EB compliance, and somatization explain 40% of the variance in GSS. This indicates that globus is a complex disorder of the brain-gut axis rather than a "psychosomatic" disorder or a peripheral esophageal disorder.

  13. Protective factors for mental disorders and psychological distress in female, compared with male, service members in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Natalie P; Medved, Maria; Whitney, Debbie; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Although military interest in promoting psychological resilience is growing, resources protective against psychopathology have been understudied in female service members. Using a representative sample of Canadian Forces personnel, we investigated whether religious attendance, spirituality, coping, and social support were related to mental disorders and psychological distress in female service members, and whether sex differences occurred in these associations. Religious attendance and spirituality were self-reported. Coping items were taken from 3 scales and produced 3 factors (active, avoidance, and self-medication). Social support was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Past-year mental disorders were diagnosed with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale assessed distress. Multivariate regression models investigated links between correlates and psychological outcomes within each sex. For associations that were statistically significant in only one sex, sex by correlate interactions were computed. In female service members, inverse relations were found between social support and MDD, any MDD or anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, and distress. No associations were found between religious attendance and outcomes, and spirituality was associated with an increased likelihood of some outcomes. Active coping was related to less psychological distress, while avoidance coping and self-medication were linked to a higher likelihood of most outcomes. Although several statistically significant associations were found in only one sex, only one sex by correlate interaction was statistically significant. Social support was found to be inversely related to several negative mental health outcomes in female service members. Few differences between men and women reached statistical significance. Future research should identify additional helpful resources for female service members.

  14. The Effect of Organizational Support, Transformational Leadership, Personnel Empowerment, Work Engagement, Performance and Demographical Variables on the Factors of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Rodoplu Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.

  15. Psychological factors influence the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and their effect on quality of life among firefighters in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Ho; Ryu, Han-Seung; Choi, Suck-Chei; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial factors related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and their effects on quality of life (QOL) in firefighters. Data were collected from 1217 firefighters in a Korean province. We measured psychological symptoms using the scale. In order to observe the influence of the high-risk group on occupational stress, we conduct logistic multiple linear regression. The correlation between psychological factors and QOL was also analyzed and performed a hierarchical regression analysis. GERD was observed in 32.2% of subjects. Subjects with GERD showed higher depressive symptom, anxiety and occupational stress scores, and lower self-esteem and QOL scores relative to those observed in GERD - negative subject. GERD risk was higher for the following occupational stress subcategories: job demand, lack of reward, interpersonal conflict, and occupational climate. The stepwise regression analysis showed that depressive symptoms, occupational stress, self-esteem, and anxiety were the best predictors of QOL. The results suggest that psychological and medical approaches should be combined in GERD assessment.

  16. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert OROSZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21. The applied instruments were: Sporting Background Questionnaire, The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS – Hungarian version, Psychological Immune Competence Inventory (PICI, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, Co-Player Questionnaire, and Coach Questionnaire. As a result, significant differences were found between talented and control groups in the case of 27 variables out of 48 (6 scales of the SBQ, 5 scales of the ACSI-28, 9 scales of the PISI, 5 subscales and the Total self-concept scale of the TSCS, and in APM. More talented players showed more favourable values in each of the 27 intra-, and interpersonal dimensions. According to our results, the development of psychological factors (e.g. concentration, lack of anxiety, self-confidence, coping skills, and social skills within an integrative approach can enhance personal efficiency in developing football giftedness.

  17. The nature and structure of psychological distress in people at high risk for melanoma: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Nadine A; Sansom-Daly, Ursula; McDonald, Roderick P; Meiser, Bettina; Butow, Phyllis N; Mann, Graham J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of psychological distress, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) in a sample of individuals at high risk of developing melanoma due to strong family history. One hundred thirty-two individuals with a known family-specific CDKN2A mutation (74% response rate) completed a mailed, self-administered questionnaire including the HADS and the IES. Initial correlational analyses were followed by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, according to a predetermined procedure for order of analyses. Exploratory factor analyses found that neither a two-, three- or four-factor solution satisfactorily accounted for all IES items in the present sample. By contrast, a unidimensional account of the data emerged to best account for all IES items, leaving no items unaccounted for. In contrast, the traditional two-factor (anxiety and depression) structure of the HADS appeared to fit the data well. The traditional, two-factor (intrusion and avoidance) structure of the IES was not borne out within this familial melanoma cohort. Assessment of a single dimension of emotional distress in response to melanoma risk may facilitate more meaningful explorations of psychological adjustment in this context. These findings also raise questions about whether a post-traumatic stress framework is indeed the most appropriate framework to capture the unique nature of melanoma- or cancer-related distress. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Arthritis patients' motives for (not) wanting to be involved in medical decision-making and the factors that hinder or promote patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into arthritis patients' motives for (not) wanting to be involved in medical decision-making (MDM) and the factors that hinder or promote patient involvement. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 patients suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Many patients perceived the questions about involvement in MDM as difficult, mostly because they were unaware of having a choice. Shared decision-making (SDM) was generally preferred, but the preferred level of involvement varied between and within individuals. Preference regarding involvement may vary according to the type of treatment and the severity of the complaints. A considerable group of respondents would have liked more participation than they had experienced in the past. Perceived barriers could be divided into doctor-related (e.g. a paternalistic attitude), patient-related (e.g. lack of knowledge) and context-related (e.g. too little time to decide) factors. This study demonstrates the complexity of predicting patients' preferences regarding involvement in MDM: most RA patients prefer SDM, but their preference may vary according to the situation they are in and the extent to which they experience barriers in getting more involved. Unawareness of having a choice is still a major barrier for patient participation. The attending physician seems to have an important role as facilitator in enhancing patient participation by raising awareness and offering options, but implementing SDM is a shared responsibility; all parties need to be involved and educated.

  19. Sex and age differences in risk factors of marijuana involvement during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Martins, Silvia S; Strain, Eric C; Mojtabai, Ramin; Storr, Carla L

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to examine whether there are sex and age differences in psychosocial risk factors of marijuana use during adolescence. Data were drawn from 57,767 adolescents (8 th and 10 th graders) from the 2012-2013 Monitoring the Future study. We examined the association between socio-demographic and behavioral correlates with different frequencies of past-year marijuana use (non-use, occasional use: low self-esteem, low perceived harm, peer influence and perceived easy access. Besides, younger boys were more likely than younger girls to report an association between regular marijuana use with low self-esteem, peer influence, and perceived easy access but not with perceived low harm. Findings suggest the relationship between these psychosocial correlates and frequency of marijuana involvement varies across sex and age groups. These variations ask for a nuanced approach to prevention of marijuana involvement in different groups of youth.

  20. Class I ADP-ribosylation factors are involved in enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in infants and children. Replication of enterovirus 71 depends on host cellular factors. The viral replication complex is formed in novel, cytoplasmic, vesicular compartments. It has not been elucidated which cellular pathways are hijacked by the virus to create these vesicles. Here, we investigated whether proteins associated with the cellular secretory pathway were involved in enterovirus 71 replication. We used a loss-of-function assay, based on small interfering RNA. We showed that enterovirus 71 RNA replication was dependent on the activity of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. Simultaneous depletion of ADP-ribosylation factors 1 and 3, but not three others, inhibited viral replication in cells. We also demonstrated with various techniques that the brefeldin-A-sensitive guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1, was critically important for enterovirus 71 replication. Our results suggested that enterovirus 71 replication depended on GBF1-mediated activation of Class I ADP-ribosylation factors. These results revealed a connection between enterovirus 71 replication and the cellular secretory pathway; this pathway may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.