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Sample records for psychological factors explained

  1. Psychological Factors Explaining the Referral Behavior of Iranian Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by

  2. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-07-01

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The Mediating Role of Autonomy, Psychological Empowerment, and Self-Realization in Explaining the Relationship between School-Based Factors and Postschool Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Garnier Villarreal, Mauricio; Lang, Kyle; Seo, Hyojeong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis using the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 dataset was conducted to examine the degree to which autonomy, psychological empowerment and self-realization (three of four essential characteristics of self-determination) play a mediating role in the relationship between school-based factors and postschool outcomes. The…

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS UNDERLYING UNETHICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Nazemian, Sahar; Balash, Farhad; Balash, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Thisstudy is to cast a light on psychological factors, which force faculty memberstoward conducting unethical research. Since psychological factors are the keyfactors to control human behavior, in this paper, they are highlighted as themain purpose of the study. Methodologically, a qualitative approach was appliedto reveal the factors. Thematic analysis assisted the researchers discoveringthe main factors. Ten faculty members were interviewed as to understand theways that factors could deploy...

  5. Learner internal psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Book synopsis: \\ud \\ud What is language and how can we investigate its acquisition by children or adults? What perspectives exist from which to view acquisition? What internal constraints and external factors shape acquisition? What are the properties of interlanguage systems? This comprehensive 31-chapter handbook is an authoritative survey of second language acquisition (SLA). Its multi-perspective synopsis on recent developments in SLA research provides significant contributions by establi...

  6. Explaining the Popularity of Psychology at A-Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The sustained rise in popularity of psychology both at degree and A-level in the UK over the last two decades is a remarkable event, not only because it is indicative of wider cultural changes but because it is understudied by psychologists themselves and not predicted by curriculum planners. The aim of this article is to offer a theoretical…

  7. Psychological factors and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyam-Nekouei, Zohreh; Neshatdoost, Hamidtaher; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Manshaee, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD. METHODS This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012. RESULTS As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role i...

  8. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  9. Factors That Explains Student Anxiety toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; Moreno-García, Elena; Santana-Villegas, Josefina del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to test whether anxiety toward mathematics is made up of a five-factor structure: anxiety toward evaluation, anxiety toward temporality, anxiety toward understanding of mathematical problems, anxiety toward numbers and operations, and anxiety toward mathematical situations in real life. Our study sample was formed of…

  10. Modeling factors explaining physicians’ satisfaction with competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepnurm, Rein; Dobson, Roy Thomas; Peña-Sánchez, Juan-Nicolás; Nesdole, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recognition explained 60.2% of the variation in Satisfaction with Competence, controlling for years in practice, self-reported health and duties of physicians. Conclusion: Satisfaction with Competence could be affected by excessive accumulation of duties, concerns about quality, efficiency, access, excessive distress, inadequate coping abilities, personal satisfaction with life as a physician, challenges in managing practices and persistent inequities among physicians. PMID:27092256

  11. Modeling factors explaining physicians' satisfaction with competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepnurm, Rein; Dobson, Roy Thomas; Peña-Sánchez, Juan-Nicolás; Nesdole, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Attention to physician wellness has increased as medical practice gains in complexity. Physician satisfaction with practice is critical for quality of care and practice growth. The purpose of this study was to model physicians' self-reported Satisfaction with Competence as a function of their perceptions of the Quality of Health Services, Distress, Coping, Practice Management, Personal Satisfaction and Professional Equity. Comprehensive questionnaires were sent to a stratified sample of 5300 physicians across Canada. This cross-sectional study focused on physicians who examined and treated individual patients for a final study population of 2639 physicians. Response bias was negligible. The questionnaires contained measures of Satisfaction with Competence, Quality of Health Services, Distress, Coping, Personal Satisfaction, Practice Management and Professional Equity. Exploring relationships was done using Pearson correlations and one-way analysis of variance. Modeling was by hierarchical regressions. The measures were reliable: Satisfaction with Competence (α = .86), Quality (α = .86), Access (α = .82), Distress (α = .82), Coping (α = .76), Personal Satisfaction (α = .78), Practice Management (α = .89) and the dimensions of Professional Equity (Fulfillment, α = .81; Financial, α = .93; and Recognition, α = .75) with comparative validity. Satisfaction with Competence was positively correlated with Quality (r = .32), Efficiency (r = .37) and Access (r = .32); negatively correlated with Distress (r = -.54); and positively correlated with Coping strategies (r = .43), Personal Satisfaction (r = .57), Practice Management (r = .17), Fulfillment (r = .53), Financial (r = .36) and Recognition (r = .54). Physicians' perceptions on Quality, Efficiency, Access, Distress, Coping, Personal Satisfaction, Practice Management, Fulfillment, Pay and Recognition explained 60.2% of the variation

  12. Psychological factors driving the symptoms of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It has been reported that various psychological factors, including stress, associate with the clinical features of fibromyalgia. This project proposed that a top down process, comprising of a number of contributing psychological factors, plays a pivotal role in the establishment of fibromyalgia. The project specifically examined whether a number of psychological factors would contribute significantly to the core clinical features of fibromyalgia, and if so whether these...

  13. Psychological Factors in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    systemic vessel resistance; and in turn increase in the secretion of vasoconstrictor compounds from endothelial cells of over-resistant vessels. Hypertension develops as a result of vasoconstriction. In the previous studies, emotional factors and particular personality traits are consistently confirmed for being predisposing factors in hypertensive individuals. In this article, we focused on the association between essential hypertension and psychological factors, and discussed the common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Psychological and psychopathological factors in alopecia areata

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kuty-Pachecka

    2015-01-01

    The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the path...

  15. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  16. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  17. Psychological aspects in asthma: do psychological factors affect asthma management?

    OpenAIRE

    Baiardini, Ilaria; Sicuro, Francesca; Balbi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonists, permits to control de majority of asthmatics, a significant proportion of patients does not respond to this treatment. This review was aimed to explore the role of psychological factors associated to the unsuccessful fulfilment of optimal levels of asthma control, especially in patients suffering from severe asthma. The results of a Medline search were 5510 articles addressed to different ...

  18. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  19. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  20. Relationship between subjective halitosis and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Armita; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afghari, Parastoo; Javad Shirani, Mohamad; Afshar, Hamid; Savabi, Omid; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-06-01

    Subjective halitosis is a growing concern in the fields of dentistry and psychology. This study was designed to determine the association between subjective halitosis and contributing psychological factors. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered from 4,763 participants who had answered questions on subjective halitosis and psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress and personality traits) in the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN). Binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The mean age of all subjects was 36.58 years; and the majority of subjects were female (55.8%), married (81.2%) and graduates (57.2%). The prevalence of subjective halitosis was 52.8%. The majority of subjects with the complaint of subjective halitosis were married (Phalitosis were significantly more anxious [odds ratio (OR)=1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.38-2.24], stressed (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.71) and depressed (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). Among personality traits, neuroticism was a risk factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.43-2.13) and conscientiousness was revealed to be a protective factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80). It seems that psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression and stress, as well as some personality traits, can be considered as risk factors for subjective halitosis. Multidisciplinary efforts by dental and psychological professionals must be considered to address this problem. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies? Returns?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies? market values. In the past, researchers argued that the ?buzz? surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a u...

  2. Psychological and psychopathological factors in alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuty-Pachecka, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the pathogenesis and the course of alopecia areata, it is indicated that stress, a traumatic situation, a high level of neuroticism and alexithymia, may influence the occurrence, duration and exacerbation of the condition in question. Mental disorders occurring most frequently amongst individuals suffering from alopecia areata are: depression, increased level of anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts.

  3. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions

  4. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  5. Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…

  6. Association of Selected Psychological Factors to Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored college students' smoking behaviour and identifies the effect of different psychological factors. Randomly selected students from two different universities completed the perceived stress scale, self esteem scale, anxiety scale and a smoking questionnaire. Non-parametric analyses suggested that higher ...

  7. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  8. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of six months duration since diagnosis. Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Exercise Self-efficacy Scale were used to assess psychological factors while the Stage of Change for Exercise Behaviour scale assessed physical exercise behaviour. Information including age, gender, ...

  9. Psychological Factors Determine Depressive Symptomatology After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, Maria L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; de Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M.

    Objective: To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting: Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants: Stroke patients (N=344; mean age +/- SD, 66.9 +/- 12.3y).

  10. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  11. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  12. The role of psychological variables in explaining depression in older people with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Almudena; Montorio, Ignacio; Izal, María; Velasco, Lilian

    2008-11-01

    Depression is commonly associated with chronic pain, and is also a common condition in the elderly. However research in the area of depression and pain is scarce. The aim of the present work was to analyse how cognitive-behavioural and perceptual variables help to explain the presence or absence of depression in older people with chronic pain caused by osteoarthritis. A total of 104 older adults were evaluated using a protocol that measured depression, perceptual characteristics of pain (intensity, frequency and duration), beliefs about pain, self-efficacy beliefs, coping style, coping strategies and pain behaviours. Using Student's t-tests and discriminant analysis, we found that psychological variables such as catastrophizing, passive coping, complaint behaviour, avoidance, coping self-statements, ignoring pain sensations and stability and mystery beliefs help to explain depressive symptomatology. The present study confirms the important role of cognitive-behavioural variables in the discrimination between older adults who suffer pain with and without symptoms of depression. Moreover, certain variables that in young adults had been seen to play a non-adaptive role, such as ignoring pain sensations, were seen to have an adaptive function in the elderly. Also, our results are in support of depression models - such as Abramson's Hopelessness Model - proposing that depression in chronic pain patients, unlike in other groups of depressed people, is characterized by absence of self-blame feelings.

  13. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  14. [Relationship between balance control and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grub, Elisabeth Johanna; Wydra, Georg; Köllner, Volker

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the study was to capture the relationship between motor balance and psychological factors, using sport-motoric tests as well as subjective self-evaluations. The balance control of 118 patients of a psychosomatic rehabilitation clinic was examined at the beginning and end of rehabilitation using various motor tests. Additionally, psychological variables including self-esteem (MSWS), degree of anxiety (BAI) and depressive symptoms (BDI) were assessed. To examine subjective self-evaluation a numerical analog scale and a questionnaire with open questions were used. Content analysis was performed on the questionnaire. In the area of physical self-esteem, especially sportiness, low to moderate correlations were found between self-esteem and balance. No significant relationship was found between anxiety or depressive symptoms and balance. In the open questions most patients described a distinct connection between emotional distress and balance. The participation in the tests was often a topic in their therapy. The expected relationship between psychological factors and motor balance could be only partially confirmed. A question is raised as to whether this relationship appears merely in situations of acute stress, as detected in the patients answers to the open questions. Addressing the study in psychotherapie an indication that balance tasks are well suited for the subjective experience and discussion of psychosomatic relationships. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  16. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies’ Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies’ market values. In the past, researchers argued that the “buzz” surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency’s association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns—a result that further qualifies the media’s influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities—unlike what most prior research has assumed—and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts. PMID:28085906

  17. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  18. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  19. Psychological factors and outcomes of coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokeria,Leo A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996. According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997. The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes. We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1 pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging, 2 indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything, 3 optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery, 4 optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement. The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.

  20. [Psychological factors for planning early retirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Over the recent years the proportion of retired persons in the over 54 years age group has systematically increased in the European Union (EU). In Poland, work force participation rate for people aged 54-65 years is particularly low compared to other countries. The aim of the presented study was to explore psychological and socio-demographic factors affecting the early retirement decision. The study was performed on 199 manual and skilled workers aged 50-64 years. The data were obtained by means of: Effort-Reward Imbalance questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Scale and adapted items from Work Description Inventory. To explore the risk factors for an early retirement, the logistic regression was used. The following risk factors of an early retirement were identified: low education (primary and vocational Exp(B) = 10.394, p = 0.001; secondary and Bachelor's degree Exp(B) = 3.462, p = 0.001), low health status (Exp(B) = 3.36, p = 0.006, Exp(B) = 7.73, p = 0.002) and lack of reward at work (ERI R) (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = 0.002). The results of the study suggest that psychological variables play a secondary role in the process of making early retirement decision, while they probably exert a stronger effect on the decision to continue occupational activities than to quit them. This problem should be explored more deeply in the future research.

  1. Editorial explaining the change in name of this journal to Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    This editorial explains the reasoning behind The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes name change. This Journal started publication in 1975 as a result of a major reorganization of the American Psychological Association's basic science journals. To signal that expansion of interest, the name of the journal has been changed to Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition. This change is not meant to discourage submission of the types of manuscripts that have most frequently appeared in the journal in recent years but to encourage submission of papers across a broader range of topics.

  2. A model of real estate and psychological factors in decision-making to buy real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.

  3. Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults' Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.

  4. Clinical and psychological factors for criminal aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates approach to the study of crime of aggression, taking into account the analysis of the behavior principles of interaction of personal and situational factors; interaction of aggressive and antiaggressive personal factors. Three-dimensional typology of crime of aggression formed three axles: high – low aggressiveness; formation – aborted personal aggression inhibitors; neutral – a legally significant traumatic situation. This typology has been verified on the basis of empirical material, including 329 people (257 males and 72 women aged 18 to 70 years charged with violent crimes. All of the defendants (33 % mental health 67 % – with a variety of mental disorders not excluding sanity were examined in the production of a comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination. A cluster analysis of the subjects (Ward's method showed the validity of the choice of three bases of a typology of criminal aggression. The most powerful discriminator of types of aggression were personal inhibitors of aggression, less severe factors of high aggressiveness and characteristics of the situation. Identified correlations between various mental disorders and types of aggression.

  5. What explains high life satisfaction in men living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy? A preliminary study to inform psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher D; Rose, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    There are increasing numbers of men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mDMD). For those who struggle to live with the condition, psychological interventions may be helpful. However, it is unclear how these should be tailored for mDMD. To inform intervention, this study assessed whether 2 well-validated psychological models (Leventhal's Self-Regulatory Model; Psychological Flexibility Model) could explain variation in life satisfaction (LS). Sixteen mDMD, aged 18-43 years, completed an online survey comprised of questionnaire measures of LS, mood, and both psychological models: Illness Perceptions (Leventhal's Self-Regulatory Model); engagement in meaningful activity, and acceptance/awareness of difficult thoughts and feelings (Psychological Flexibility Model). A median split enabled comparison of high and low LS groups. Those with higher LS were characterized by the ability to undertake personally meaningful activity in acceptance of difficult thoughts and feelings. Results supported the Psychological Flexibility Model. However, methodological limitations mean that these findings should be considered preliminary. Muscle Nerve 56: 163-166, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The role of social factors in explaining crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Zahara HAMZAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing Malaysia data from 1973 to 2008, the study reveals that crime can be influenced by population, fertility, unemployment, and GDP in either the long-run or short-run period. This study also further analysed beyond sample estimations of the variables involved and found that although violent crime can be explained in the short-run only from the VECM analysis, it is found to be explained by other explanatory variables in the long-run of beyond sample for at least 50 years ahead. It is important for policy makers to focus in both social structure and economic conditions to help prevent crime in the long-run.

  7. Factors explaining children's responses to intravenous needle insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Westhus, Nina; Allen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Previous research shows that numerous child, parent, and procedural variables affect children's distress responses to procedures. Cognitive-behavioral interventions such as distraction are effective in reducing pain and distress for many children undergoing these procedures. The purpose of this report was to examine child, parent, and procedural variables that explain child distress during a scheduled intravenous insertion when parents are distraction coaches for their children. A total of 542 children, between 4 and 10 years of age, and their parents participated. Child age, gender, diagnosis, and ethnicity were measured by questions developed for this study. Standardized instruments were used to measure child experience with procedures, temperament, ability to attend, anxiety, coping style, and pain sensitivity. Questions were developed to measure parent variables, including ethnicity, gender, previous experiences, and expectations, and procedural variables, including use of topical anesthetics and difficulty of procedure. Standardized instruments were used to measure parenting style and parent anxiety, whereas a new instrument was developed to measure parent performance of distraction. Children's distress responses were measured with the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised (behavioral), salivary cortisol (biological), Oucher Pain Scale (self-report), and parent report of child distress (parent report). Regression methods were used for data analyses. Variables explaining behavioral, child-report and parent-report measures include child age, typical coping response, and parent expectation of distress (p parents' distraction coaching explained a significant portion of behavioral, biological, and parent-report distress measures (p parent distraction coaching.

  8. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  9. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  10. [The adolescent and contraception: psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, M; Sperandeo, D; Duprez, D

    1986-05-01

    Psychological aspects of contraception in adolescence tend to be of interest primarily because of the belief that better understanding of psychological resistence to contraception would lead to more effective use and a lower rate of pregnancy. The failure of adolescents to use contraception appears to be due in part to irresponsibility but in part also to a variety of other factors. There is no ideal contraceptive for adolescents. The pill has potentially serious side effects whose significance may be exaggerated by adolescents, and the price of the contraceptive sponge may be prohibitive. Contraceptives themselves are perceived by adolescents as belonging more to parents, physicians, or the media than to themselves. Low-dose pills considered appropriate for adolescents are often abandoned because of their annoying minor side effects. Most adolescents do not seek contraception in an independent way, but out of fear that they are already pregnant or, if they have been sexually active for some time without using contraception, out of fear of infertility. Use of contraception may also be initiated by the partner, or the mother wishing to protect her daughter against pregnancy or to regularize the menstrual cycle. Contraceptive use by adolescents is complex because it signifies delaying rather than spacing or terminating pregnancy. The long duration of use that may be required until the time is right for pregnancy and the need to foresee future consequences are difficult given the cognitive level of adolescents. There are also difficult problems of access, prescription, and follow-up. Prescription of contraceptives for an adolescent is likely to invoke ambivalent feelings. Follow-up should be scheduled at fairly short intervals because of the fragility of motivation for contraceptive use at this age. The constraints of contraceptive use are not adapted to the sporadic and unplanned nature of much adolescent sexual activity. Society has an image of the adolescent as

  11. Contextual factors explain risk-seeking preferences in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHeilbronner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys’ risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1 very small stakes, (2 serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3 task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight the fundamental importance of understanding the psychological basis of economic decisions in interpreting preference data and corresponding neural measures.

  12. The use of the psychological contract to explain self-perceived employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychological contract and self-perceived employability (intra-organizational mobility intentions, employee development and perceived labor market opportunities). A survey was completed by 247 alumni of the Hotelschool The Hague, a hotel management

  13. Socio-Psychological Factors in Electronic Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes electronic mail and its role in adult education, identifies research on the educational implications of electronic mail, and discusses theoretical issues from an economic, psychological, and sociological perspective. (SK)

  14. Psychosocial factors associated with perceived psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...

  15. factors explaining rural youth's willingness to change risky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PERSONAL

    than young men. Some risk factors that con- tribute to the spread of HIV include prostitu- tion, high-risk practices among itinerant wor- kers, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, clandestine high-risk heterosexual and homosexual practices, international traf- ficking of women, and irregular blood screen- ing5.

  16. Explaining Factors of Job Pursuit Intention in Indonesian Military Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Syaebani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reformation brought many changes in public sectors in Indonesia, one of them is Military institution. Reformation required Military to become professional in every organizational aspects, including human resources as a part of resource that need to be manage strategically.  Proficient and competent human resource will help organization reach its vision, missons, and strategic goals. One of the strategy to attract competent human resource is to design the recruitment and selection process in talent management corridor, where organization must identify factors which attracting a candidate to join into organization or simply called job pursuit intention. To find out what factors lead to job pursuit intention into military institution in Indonesia, data was collected using qualitative approach from middle-rank military officer. Their past experiences concerning motives/factors which lead them joined into military were explored. From analysis, it reveals that there are 5 factors which make them joined military; employer familiarity, subjective fit, hiring expectation, economic motive, and nationalism/patriotism motive.

  17. Social and Psychological Factors Associated With Adolescent Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.

  18. Explaining Protectionism Support: The Role of Economic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Melgar, Natalia; Milgram-Baleix, Juliette; Rossi, Máximo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate some factors shaping individual support for protectionism that have not been studied previously. We examine a heterogeneous sample of thirty countries which includes both small and large and developed and developing countries using data from the 2003 International Social Survey Program (ISSP). We confirm the influence of social status, relative income, values and attachments on preferences for trade policies and the fact that skilled people are also more likely t...

  19. The neritic benthopelagic fauna: Which factors explain nocturnal distribution better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2017-08-01

    Nocturnal sampling of mesoplankton above different biotopes at depths of 10, 20, and 40 m, with a temporal resolution of 10 min (98 hauls) was made and 76 taxa were identified. Six environmental factors were tested as the proximate cues for the distribution of individual taxa and integral community parameters: type of sea-floor biotope/depth (SFB), temperature (T), time after sunset (TAS), residual solar illumination, (assessed as time to midnight, TTM), moon phase (MP), and moon altitude (MA). Canonical Correspondence Analyses (CCAs), Bray-Curtis analyses (BCAs), and one-way ANOSIM and SIMPER tests were used to assess the impact of the environmental factors on the distribution of individual taxa, integral community parameters, and community structure. Seventy six taxa were recorded, with 17 taxa, mostly decapod larvae, contributing >1% of the total amount of sampled individuals. Four decapod species comprised over 50% of the total benthopelagic abundance. Decapod larvae migrated as benthopelagic fauna and aggregated over sites where adults live; this behaviour was observed both in zoea and in megalopa stages (ANOVA and SIMPER tests). SFB, T, and TTM are the best proximate cues for the nocturnal distribution of the neritic benthopelagic fauna. Significance of environmental factors may change with depth and sea-floor biotope type: T and TTM are equally important above all explored depths; impact of TAS decreased and contribution of MP and MA increased above greater depths. Further studies of the mesoplanktonic samples, which yield greatly richer material than macroplanktonic samples, may favour this analysis.

  20. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  1. Work factors and psychological distress in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambs Kristian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses' aides (assistant nurses, the main providers of practical patient care in many countries, are doing both emotional and heavy physical work, and are exposed to frequent social encounters in their job. There is scarce knowledge, though, of how working conditions are related to psychological distress in this occupational group. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict the level of psychological distress in nurses' aides. Methods The sample of this prospective study comprised 5076 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4076 (80.3 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, and organisational work factors were measured at baseline. Psychological distress (anxiety and depression was assessed at baseline and follow-up by the SCL-5, a short version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results In a linear regression model of the level of psychological distress at follow-up, with baseline level of psychological distress, work factors, and background factors as independent variables, work factors explained 2 % and baseline psychological distress explained 34 % of the variance. Exposures to role conflicts, exposures to threats and violence, working in apartment units for the aged, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that were reported to result in less support and encouragement were positively associated with the level of psychological distress. Working in psychiatric departments, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that gave lower work pace were negatively associated with psychological distress. Conclusion The study suggests that work factors explain only a modest part of the psychological distress in nurses' aides. Exposures to role conflicts and threats and violence at work may contribute to psychological distress in nurses' aides

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF ATHLETES AS A HUMANIZING FACTOR OF SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Čokorilo; Zoran Milošević

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role and importance of modern psychological preparation to achieve the best possible athletic performance while maintaining mental health and well being of athletes. In this sense, psychological preparation is perceived as an equal factor with the physical and technical-tactical preparation at all levels of competition. The achievement of equality can be achieved only by specialized (licensed) psychologists for specific areas that must understand the psychology of sport...

  3. Racial factors cannot explain superior Japanese outcomes in stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundahl, S A; Stemmermann, G N; Oishi, A

    1996-02-01

    To compare the stage-stratified survival of Japanese patients treated in Honolulu according to Western techniques with that of Japanese patients treated in Tokyo according to Japanese techniques, thus eliminating race as a potentially confounding variable. Of 312 Honolulu Japanese patients surviving Western-type gastric resection for neoplasm between 1974 and 1985, 279 were identified with invasive gastric adenocarcinoma unassociated with any second malignancy. This Honolulu cohort, treated by Western methods, was retrospectively compared with a similar, previously described cohort of 3176 Tokyo Japanese patients treated according to Japanese methods. American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria for stage-stratified survival. Despite non-TNM prognostic factors favoring higher survival for the Honolulu Japanese patients, for every TNM stage, we observed higher survival for the Tokyo Japanese patients who were treated according to Japanese techniques. For stage I disease, the survival rates were 86% vs 96%, respectively (P migration and/or differing therapeutic efficacy seem more likely explanations.

  4. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  5. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  6. Assessing the impact of autonomous motivation and psychological need satisfaction in explaining adherence to an exercise referral scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Michael John; O'Donnell, Christopher; Williams, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    Given the mixed findings concerning self-determination theory in explaining adherence to exercise referral schemes (ERS), the present study attempted to examine whether autonomous motivation and psychological need satisfaction could predict ERS adherence. Participants referred to an 8-week ERS completed self-report measures grounded in self-determination theory and basic needs theory at baseline (N = 124), mid-scheme (N = 58), and at the end of the scheme (N = 40). Logistic regressions were used to analyse the data. Autonomous motivation measured at mid-scheme explained between 12 and 16% of the variance in ERS adherence. Autonomy, relatedness and competence measured at mid-scheme explained between 18 and 26% of the variance in ERS adherence. This model also explained between 18 and 25% when measured at the end of the scheme. The study found limited evidence for the role of autonomous motivation in explaining ERS adherence. Stronger support was found for the satisfaction of the three needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in predicting ERS adherence. Future research should tap into the satisfaction of all three needs collectively to help foster ERS adherence.

  7. Motivational factors and psychological processes in cosmetic breast augmentation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvi, Anette S; Foss, Kaja; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut C; Holte, Arne

    2010-04-01

    We investigated how and why prospective cosmetic breast augmentation patients decide to undergo such surgery. The results can offer important insights to plastic surgeons in addressing their patients' motives and expectations, and thereby avoiding potential patient dissatisfaction and disappointment. It is also a necessary first step to better understand the increasing tendency among women in the Western society to seek cosmetic breast augmentation. A qualitative, descriptive and phenomenological design was employed. Fourteen female prospective breast augmentation patients, aged 19-46 years, were recruited from a private plastic surgery clinic and interviewed in depth based on an informant-centred format. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded and analysed phenomenologically using a QSR-N*Vivo software program. We detected four psychological processes associated with cosmetic breast augmentation surgery (create, improve, repair and restore). The data could further be categorised into one basic drive (femininity), six generating factors (appearance dissatisfaction, ideal figure, self-esteem, comments, clothes and sexuality) and five eliciting factors motivating the decision (media, knowledge of former patients, physicians, finances and romantic partner). These new insights into how and why women seek cosmetic breast augmentation may aid plastic surgeons in enhancing their communication with patients. This can be achieved by addressing the patient's psychological process and motives, and thereby better assist them in making the best decision possible in their particular situation. It may also lay the groundwork for future quantitative studies on the prevalence of certain motives for undergoing such surgery and, as such, help explain the increasing popularity of cosmetic breast-augmentation surgery. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...

  9. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Process of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…

  11. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities’ influence on patients’ health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Steven J.; Tan,Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice’s validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people’s health-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic searche...

  12. The Longitudinal Association between Psychological Factors and Health Care Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-15

    Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Psychological factors and psychosocial interventions for cancer related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucă, Andrada; Băban, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    The present paper is aimed at briefly presenting psychological factors involved in cancer related pain and what psychosocial interventions are efficient in reducing it. Cancer related pain is a complex experience and the most integrative and recommended approach is the biopsychosocial model. It has been proved that chronic pain is more strongly related to psychological factors than to treatment or illness related factors. Psychological factors influencing pain experience can be intuitively grouped starting with awareness of pain (i.e., attentional factor), then with evaluation of pain (i.e., cognitive factors) which is leading to feelings (i.e., emotional factors), and behaviours (i.e., coping strategies) regarding pain. Psychosocial interventions (i.e., skill based and education based interventions) have strong evidence that is effective in reducing cancer related pain.

  14. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-06-16

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being.

  15. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-01-18

    Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  16. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  17. Demographic and psychological factors associated with lifetime cocaine use: An exploratory factor analysis of baseline questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Underlying heterogeneity among individuals with cocaine dependence is widely postulated in the literature, however, identification of a group of factors that explain risk of cocaine use severity has yet to be confirmed. Methods Latent mixture modeling evaluated 338 cocaine-dependent individuals recruited from the community to assess the evidence for the presence of distinct subgroups. Variables included 5 baseline questionnaires measuring cognitive function (Shipley), impulsivity (BIS), mood (BDI), affective lability (ALS), and addiction severity (ASI). Results failed to suggest multiple subgroups. Given a lack of evidence for discrete latent classes, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was implemented to identify functional dimensions to enhance interpretation of these variables. Results Findings from the EFA indicated a 3-factor model as the best fit, and the subsequent ESEM solution resulted in associations with lifetime cocaine use. Factor 1, best characterized by demographic factors (gender, age), is associated with less lifetime cocaine use. Psychological problems best characterize factor 2, which is associated with higher lifetime cocaine use. Finally, factor 3 is characterized by other substance use (alcohol and marijuana). Although this factor did not demonstrate a statistically reliable relation with self-reported, lifetime cocaine use, it did indicate a potentially meaningful positive association. Conclusions These 3 factors delineate dimensions of functioning that likewise help characterize the variability found in previously established associations with self-reported cocaine use. PMID:26170765

  18. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...

  19. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  20. [Management of psychologic factors in chronic urticaria. When and how?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, M

    2003-05-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria is a frequent disease witch treatment is often disappointing. Psychological factors seem to be frequently associated to it. In what cases consider psychological treatment? And according to what modalities? Review of the literature in search of articles in both French and English concerning psychological factors associated to chronic urticaria, either as responsible factors, or as aggravating factors, or as a consequence of the urticaria, with the study of the impact on the quality of life. We also studied articles analyzing various types of psychology-targeted treatments. We use a serie of keywords on following data banks: Medline (1970-2002), Embase, Pascal and Cochrane Library (period 1995-2002). Very few controlled studies were published.: Various studies are found reporting an association between stress, anxiety or depressive symptomatology and CIU, but none can assert a causality. Three controlled opened studies show significantly more anxiety and\\or depression in the chronic urticaria patients. Three studies analyze the psychopathological personalities of the patients with urticaria. Two studies focus specifically on the impact of the CIU on the quality of life. Various psychotropic drugs (mainly tricyclic antidepressants) have been tested, mostly because of their anti-H1 activity. There is no study on psychological support, psychotherapies, behavioral therapies, technique of biofeedback and group therapies. A particular attention is focused to hypnosis and relaxation techniques because of the improvement of the urticarial wheals reported in studies of cutaneous ability to react in subcutaneous injections of histamine. A complementary psychological treatment of patients suffering from CIU seems necessary, because of the high frequency of psychological symptoms. Published studies concern essentially the prescription of psychotropic drugs and the use of therapies with suggestion or relaxation under hypnosis. Prospective studies on

  1. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  2. The role of psychological factors in oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological factors in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and incidence of psychiatric disorders in IBS patients using a standardized psychiatric interview, and proposes a psychological model for investigating one aspect of IBS. Forty-four IBS patients and 28 nonclinical participants received a psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and completed the Lie Scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (L-EPI). Results indicated that a significant percentage (59%) of the IBS group met DSM-III criteria for a psychiatric disorder within the last year, far more than occurred in the matched nonclinical comparison group. Relative to the comparison group, the IBS group also had significantly higher lie scores on the EPI indicating a response style of social desirability. On the basis of these findings, together with earlier work by Latimer's group, a conceptual model was formulated on the notion that some IBS patients may have a self-schema (i.e. knowledge of self, stored in memory) characterized by social desirability. We suggest that the construct of self-schema may be helpful in differentiating IBS from psychiatric groups both conceptually and therapeutically.

  4. Psychological factors of social anxiety in Russian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Pavlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers, using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales and the Social

  5. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  6. The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orji, FT

    2014-01-01

    Many physicians have observed that psychological factors play a significant role in the course of Meniere's disease (MD), with Meniere's patients being subject to anxiety and tension states. A lot of research attentions from a psychological point of view have been directed at MD, with earlier researchers focusing on psychosomatic causes of the illness as well as its somatopsychic result. However, the question whether MD is caused by psychological factors or whether the psychological manifestation in MD is as a result of the illness is still unresolved. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of interaction that exists between physical and emotional factors in the development of MD and its impact on the quality of life of the sufferers. A structured literature search was carried out, with no restrictions to the dates searched. A vicious circle of interaction seems to exist between the somatic organic symptoms of MD and resultant psychological stress. The frightening attacks of vertigo seem likely to produce and increase the level of anxiety thereby worsening the emotional state and the resultant anxiety provokes various symptoms probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress-related hormones. PMID:24669323

  7. Emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, and shame as explanatory factors between neuroticism and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vanwoerden, Salome; Norton, Peter J; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-15

    The association between neuroticism and depression is well documented. However, neuroticism is a general risk factor associated with many forms of psychopathology, such as anxiety, eating, and personality disorders. Past research has suggested that other factors may mediate the relationship between neuroticism and symptoms of particular disorders. Self-report questionnaires measuring neuroticism, emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, shame, and symptoms of depression were administered to 105 inpatient adolescents (aged 12-17). The current study examined three factors (emotion dysregulation difficulties, psychological inflexibility, and shame) as concurrent mediators of the neuroticism/depression association. Neuroticism was significantly associated with depression, as expected. Neuroticism was also associated with emotion dysregulation and psychological inflexibility, which, in combination, fully mediated the association between neuroticism and depression. Shame was not significantly associated with neuroticism or depression, when controlling for anxiety, externalizing, sex, and age. Follow-up analyses examined six sub-factors of emotion dysregulation as multiple mediators of the neuroticism/depression association. Goal directed behavior, lack of emotion regulation strategies, and impulse control were significant mediators, controlling for the other three emotion dysregulation sub-factors. The study is limited by the cross sectional design, sample size, and self-report measurement. Despite limitations, this study demonstrated that the link between neuroticism and depression is explained by both emotion dysregulation and psychological inflexibility and that specific emotion dysregulation facets may be at play in adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Psychological Factors Affecting Rehabilitation and Outcomes Following Elective Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, David C; Everhart, Joshua S; Glassman, Andrew H

    2015-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery often requires many months of rehabilitation to achieve a successful outcome, regardless of subspecialty. Several important psychological factors strongly influence pain perceptions, rehabilitation compliance, and patient outcomes after common orthopaedic surgeries that require extensive rehabilitation, including total joint arthroplasty, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and spine surgery for degenerative disease. Early recognition of patients exhibiting psychological distress, fear-avoidance behavior, or poor perceived self-efficacy or pessimistic personality traits can be used to improve preoperative risk stratification for poor rehabilitation or surgical outcomes. Several intervention strategies exist to address these psychological factors when they appear to contribute suboptimal postoperative rehabilitation or recovery. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  10. Headache disorders in children and adolescents: their association with psychological, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  11. A multidimensional 'path analysis' model of factors explaining fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen-van Dartel, Sanne A. A.; Repping-Wuts, Han; Donders, Rogier; van Hoogmoed, Dewy; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Fransen, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Many factors may play a causal role on fatigue in RA patients, but their contribution and interplay is barely understood. The objective was to develop a multidimensional model of factors that explain fatigue severity

  12. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...

  13. Socio-Psychological Factors Influencing the Educational Aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigated the influence of socio-psychological factors on the educational aspiration of married women in Rivers State. A stratified random sample of 680 married women selected purposively from 8 out of 23 local government areas of Rivers State was used for the study. The sample covered both the ...

  14. The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated adolescent students' cigarette smoking behaviour as correlates of the challenges socio-psychological factors in Cross River State. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 200 participants across the state who were male and female. Their ages ranged between 14 and 19 years with a mean ...

  15. Psychological Factors Associated with Smartphone Addiction in South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeewon; Sung, Min-Je; Song, Sook-Hyung; Lee, Young-Moon; Lee, Je-Jung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2018-01-01

    The smartphone has many attractive attributes and characteristics that could make it highly addictive, particularly in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of young adolescents in risk of smartphone addiction and the psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction. Four hundred ninety middle school…

  16. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  17. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  18. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  19. [The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária

    2010-05-16

    The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports.

  20. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  1. Evaluation of some psychological factors in psoriatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Fakour, Yousef; Nazemei, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Amirhooshang; Gholamali, Fatemeh; Morteza, Afsaneh; Mokhtari, Leila; Khosrovanmehr, Najmeh

    2015-01-01

    vulnerability score. PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs).

  2. Evaluation of some psychological factors in psoriatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Noormohammadpour

    2015-03-01

    vulnerability score.PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs.

  3. On placebos, placebo responses and placebo responders- (A review of psychological, psychopharmacological and psychophysiological factors, I- psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Placebogenesis is an established phenomenon in the therapeutic management of virtually every known illness. This article reviews the various psychological factors which play an important role in the genesis of this important phenomenon. Classification of place-bos along with ethical issues involved in administration of placebos for therapeutic and research purposes are discussed in the article.

  4. Inflammatory genes and psychological factors predict induced shoulder pain phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z; Parr, Jeffrey J; Wallace, Margaret R; Wu, Samuel S; Borsa, Paul A; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    The pain experience has multiple influences, but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several preclinical shoulder pain phenotypes. An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, and IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)) and psychological (anxiety, depression symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-d average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper extremity disability (5-d average and peak reported on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (d). After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depression symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions.

  5. Inflammatory Genes and Psychological Factors Predict Induced Shoulder Pain Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z.; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Wu, Samuel S.; Borsa, Paul A.; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The pain experience has multiple influences but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several pre-clinical shoulder pain phenotypes. Methods An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and psychological (anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-day average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper-extremity disability (5-day average and peak reported on the QuickDASH instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (in days). Results After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depressive symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two-SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. Conclusion These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts, to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions. PMID:24598699

  6. Personality and psychological factors: Effects on dental beliefs

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    Siddhi Hathiwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment can be highly unpleasant for anxious patients. Despite all advancements, dental anxiety continues to upset the dentist-patient relationship. The psychological factors like individual personality and familial and peer influence may alter the dental beliefs of a patient. Aim: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among young adolescents to investigate the relationship among various psychological factors and the dental beliefs of an individual. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among higher secondary school children, aged 15−17 years in Udupi district. The dental anxiety of the participants was measured using Modified Dental Beliefs scale and the personality traits were assessed using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Pearson′s correlation and chi-square analysis were performed among these scales. Independent t-test was performed to compare dental anxiety scores with different socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Results: In all 198 students, with a mean age of 16.6 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority of the participants had lower MDBS scores. The personality traits like Emotional Stability and Openness to New Experiences showed a negative correlation with the Dental Belief scores. Apart from these, the experience at first dental visit and peer support also affected the dental beliefs of the adolescents. Conclusion: Various psychological traits of adolescents influence their dental anxiety.

  7. Establishing a Set of Macroeconomic Factors Explaining Variation Over Time of Performance in Business Sectors

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    Audrius Dzikevičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing competitiveness of companies and business sectors in the domestic markets of Lithuania, economic units are frequently confronted with the lack of methods for more detailed analysis of external factors explaining the variation over time of corporate financial indicators. The analysis or forecasting of financial indicators is usually linked with the development of a stock market or undertaken to estimate the probability of bankruptcy. However, there is a lack of studies aimed at identifying links between macroeconomic factors and financial performance indicators and explaining their variation over time. To serve that purpose, the factors of the macroeconomic environment that are most significant for certain economic activities have been identified and analysed to enable explaining the variation over time patterns of corporate financial indicators. The analysis covers economic performance, i.e. financial performance indicators and their links with macroeconomic factors, in 89 business sectors of Lithuania at a three-digit level of NACE 2 ed. The findings of the research indicate that the unemployment level in the country, the volume of export and import and the GDP are the most important macroeconomic factors that can be used to forecast different profitability, financial leverage, liquidity and other financial performance indicators of individual business sectors or companies. The research has not unfolded any significant differences between business sectors therefore the above factors are considered generic macroeconomic factors enabling to explain financial performance indicators of the 89 business sectors. Hence, special attention has to be paid to identifying and analysing specific factors and assessing the causal link. When established, the set of such factors provides a framework for building of a model to forecast business sector financial indicators.

  8. Explaining IT Professionals' Organizational Commitment Based on Age, Gender, and Personality Trait Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Javaid A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the Emotional Stability dimension of the Big Five factors of personality traits theory to predict or explain a relationship with Employee Organizational Commitment, when the relationship between Emotional Stability (ES) and Employee Organizational Commitment (EOC) was moderated by Gender and AgeGroup.…

  9. Social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption. A comparison of three models to explain and predict mobile communication technology behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, O.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the comparison of three media use models to explain and predict media technology behavior from different theoretical perspectives.

  10. Analysis of psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’ behaviour

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    Constanza Pujals

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’s behaviour, juvenile and infant categories. 40 athletes from a soccer school in Maringá – PR were studied and the instruments used were: inventories, interviews, questionnaires and research diary. Data were collected individually and in group. Intervention occurred for 12 months through observation, evaluation and showed the following factors: motivation, anxiety, aggression and self confidence. Results pointed out that the positive emotions expressed by the athletes were good mood, happiness, relaxation, interest in improving and hope while negative emotions were anxiety, rage, aggressiveness, low self-confidence, lack of motivation, insecurity, feeling of failure, pessimism and group instability. Relatives and coach were also generating factors of stress and anxiety. Thus, this sporting context shows that the sports psychology seems to be highly efficient to reduce anxiety and agression indexes as well as to increase motivation and self-confidence, demonstrating the importance of psychological preparation for sporting training.

  11. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    K. Kontoangelos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c < 7% from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≥ 7. Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R. Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P<0.013 was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P<0.030, as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P<0.047 in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM.

  12. Factors that Explain the Principal-Agent Relationship in Six Companies of the City of Manizales

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    Tania Mackenzie Torres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors that explain the relationship between principal and agent in six institutions from different economic sectors (education, services, metallurgy, solidarity and financial economy in the city of Manizales. The study is based on the conceptual foundations of the neo-institutional current, which are framed in neoliberal and microeconomic models interpreted in the light of agency theory. As research strategy, the methodology consists of a multiple case study, which focuses its interest on a number of cases where each case has its own identity. The factors that determine the principal-agent relationship in these six institutions are explained by contract, incentives and controls; motivational factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are also identified.

  13. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Inluencing Investment Decision Making

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    Hsin Hue Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  study  applies  a  second-order  conirmatory  factor  analysis  (CFA  approach  to investigate  psychological  factors  inluencing  individuals'  investment  decision-making.  A second-order  CFA  approach  consists  of  ive  irst-order  psychological  factors  in  terms  of mental  accounting,  regret  avoidance,  self-control,  heuristic  and  overconidence,  and  one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure.  The  results  reveal  that  there  exist  statistically  signiicant  relationships  between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions  are  advised  to  provide  their  potential  customers  with  multi-function  products. Since self-control is  a  signiicant self-imposed mechanism  for  investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. ";} // -->activate javascript

  14. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-09-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This study examined whether patients with TTC have higher levels of psychological distress (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, general anxiety), illness-related anxiety and distinct personality factors compared with healthy controls and patients with heart failure. Patients with TCC (N = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7 years, 77.8 % women) and two comparison groups (healthy controls: N = 19, age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68.4 % women and patients with chronic heart failure: N = 19, age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68.4 % women) completed standardised questionnaires to measure depression (PHQ‑9), perceived stress (PSS-10), general anxiety (GAD-7), illness-related anxiety (WI-7) and personality factors (NEO-FFI and DS-14). Psychological measures were obtained at 23 ± 18 months following the acute TTC event. Results showed that patients with TCC had higher levels of depressive symptoms (5.2 ± 5.2 vs. 2.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.039) and illness-related anxiety (2.1 ± 1.7 vs. 0.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. Patients with TCC did not display significantly elevated perceived stress (p = 0.072) or general anxiety (p = 0.170). Regarding personality factors, levels of openness were lower in TCC compared with healthy controls (34.2 ± 4.3 vs. 38.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.021). No differences between TCC and heart failure patients were found regarding the psychological measures. TCC is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, more illness-related anxiety and less openness compared with healthy controls. These data suggest that TCC is associated with adverse psychological factors that may persist well after the acute episode.

  15. Psychological Factors Involved in Sexual Desire, Sexual Activity, and Sexual Satisfaction: A Multi-factorial Perspective.

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    Dosch, Alessandra; Rochat, Lucien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the role of psychological trait factors in sexual desire and sexual activity. In particular, it investigated how these factors may contribute to maintaining a balance between motivational aspects and self-control abilities, as both have been considered important in relation to adaptive sexuality. Moreover, the study explored the relationship between sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction. Participants completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual activity (with a partner, alone), sexual satisfaction, approach and avoidance motivation, attachment, self-control, sensation seeking, and mindfulness. Cluster analyses, based on participants' level of sexual desire and sexual activity, highlighted three distinct profiles for each gender related to different types of psychological functioning: (a) participants with high dyadic sexual desire and activity were the most sexually satisfied, showed optimal psychological functioning, and were characterized by a balance between motivational tendencies to seek positive rewards and self-control abilities (high approach motivation, secure attachment, high self-control, high mindfulness); (b) participants with high dyadic and solitary sexual desire and activity were moderately satisfied and showed a type of psychological functioning predominantly characterized by impulsivity (an overly high motivation to obtain rewards in women, and low self-control in men); (c) participants with low dyadic sexual desire and activity were the least sexually satisfied and were characterized by high motivation to avoid negative consequences and low self-control (high avoidance motivation, insecure attachment, and poor mindfulness). These results shed further light on how fundamental psychological factors contribute to explain the individual variability in sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction.

  16. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

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    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  17. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: inflammation and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M

    2013-01-01

    A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.

  18. Supportive Group Factors, Course Pedagogy, and Multicultural Competency within Multicultural Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Michael Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…

  19. Psychological factors associated with acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousen, Theresa; Painold, Annamaria; Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Schienle, Anne; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut

    2016-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been associated with several psychological factors. But previous psychological data are limited and mainly restricted to male patients and small sample size. In this study we investigated psychosomatic complaints, personality factors, life events, and stress coping in acute and chronic recurrent CSC patients. Ninety-five patients (71 men, 24 women) with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated regarding critical life events before diagnosis, psychosomatic complaints, personality traits and coping style. The characteristics of CSC patients were compared with a control group comprising 75 patients (46 men, 29 women) suffering from acute or chronic ophthalmic disorders other than CSC. Compared with patients of the control group, CSC patients reported more psychosomatic problems, unfavourable stress coping strategies and critical life events as well as elevated tension, aggression, strain, emotional instability and achievement orientation. Except for aggression the observed characteristics were more pronounced in acute than in chronic CSC patients. The appearance of CSC may be associated with an accumulation of stressful life events with an unfavourable coping style and distinctive personality factors. Acute CSC is related to more unfavourable stress coping and more physical complaints compared to its chronic course. Elevated aggression may imply one potential risk factor for CSC manifestation and also may have an adverse effect with its chronification.

  20. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  1. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P physical functioning (r = 0.42, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant

  2. Risk, Information, and Trust in the Food Chain: Factors Explaining Consumer Willingness to Pay

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    Terhi Latvala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed factors contributing to consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for increased quality information. The empirical scope of the study was restricted to beef, because the beef labelling system enables reliable tracing of quality attributes. The results showed that consumer perceptions of specific risks in food partly explain their WTP. Also negative experiences heard from other people increased the probability of WTP. Trust seems to be extremely significant factor in WTP models. This study implies that the majority of the respondents trust the food safety authorities and the co-operation of all stakeholders in the food chain.

  3. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  4. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  5. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition,

  6. Psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavei, B; Baban, A; Dumitrascu, D L

    2016-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. So far, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its more severe variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is yet unclear, with many mechanisms being proposed as possible causes. This article aims to review the psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH. Three main categories of factors have been investigated: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. Five electronic databases were searched, limited to studies published in the English language, during the period 2005-2015: PubMed, Thomson ISI - Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect. Results indicated the most relevant emotional factors to be depression and anxiety. The areas of investigation for cognitive functioning concern those contents and processes related to the ability to initiate and maintain lifestyle changes. The most important behavioral factors identified are physical activity, nutrition/food intake and substance consumption: coffee, alcohol, cigarettes. Some of the factors identified act as protective factors, other as vulnerability factors. NAFLD/NASH may be considered a cognitive-behavioral disease, the most effective management being lifestyle changes, with emphasis on diet and exercise.

  7. Do the Psychological Constructs of Attitude, Perceived Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control Explain a Woman's Intention to Use Mobile Business Applications, across Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Deirdre Elyse

    2015-01-01

    A reasoned action approach (RAA) was used to assess the importance of psychological factors (attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control) in forming a woman's intention to use mobile technology, specifically mobile business applications. This study also examined whether the significance of these factors varied across cultures. An…

  8. Breast cancer survivors of different sexual orientations: which factors explain survivors' quality of life and adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, U; Glickman, M; Winter, M; Clark, M A

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about differences by sexual orientation in explanatory factors of breast cancer survivors' quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Survivors were recruited from a cancer registry and additional survivors recruited through convenience methods. Data were collected via telephone survey from all 438 survivors, who were disease free and diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer an average of 5 years earlier. To explain quality of life, anxiety, and depression, we focused on sexual orientation as the primary independent factors, in addition, considering demographic, psychosocial, clinical, and functional factors as correlates. Sexual orientation had indirect associations with each of the outcomes, through disease-related and demographic factors as well as psychosocial and coping resources. The various explanatory models explain between 36% and 50% of the variance in outcomes and identified areas of strengths and vulnerabilities in sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors. This study's findings of strengths among specific subgroups of sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors require further explorations to identify the reasons for this finding. Most of the identified vulnerabilities among sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors of breast cancer are amenable to change by interventions.

  9. Psychosocial factors and pre-abortion psychological health: The significance of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M; Furgerson, Dorothy; Harper, Cynthia C

    2016-02-01

    Most research in mental health and abortion has examined factors associated with post-abortion psychological health. However, research that follows women from before to after their abortion consistently finds that depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are highest just before an abortion compared to any time afterwards. This finding suggests that studies investigating psychosocial factors related to pre-abortion mental health are warranted. The current study uses data from 353 women seeking abortions at three community reproductive health clinics to examine predictors of pre-abortion psychological health. Drawing from three perspectives in the abortion and mental health literature, common risks, stress and coping, and sociocultural context, we conducted multivariable analyses to examine the contribution of important factors on depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms just before an abortion, including sociodemographics, abortion characteristics, childhood adversities, recent adversities with an intimate partner, relationship context, future pregnancy desires, and perceived abortion stigma. Childhood and partner adversities, including reproductive coercion, were associated with negative mental health symptoms, as was perceived abortion stigma. Before perceived abortion stigma was entered into the model, 18.6%, 20.7%, and 16.8% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms respectively, was explained. Perceived abortion stigma explained an additional 13.2%, 9.7%, and 10.7% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms pre-abortion. This study, one of the first to focus on pre-abortion mental health as an outcome, suggests that addressing stigma among women seeking abortions may significantly lower their psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fear of hypoglycemia: relationship to hypoglycemic risk and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderbro, Therese; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Bolinder, Jan; Lins, Per-Eric; Wredling, Regina; Moberg, Erik; Lisspers, Jan; Johansson, Unn-Britt

    2015-06-01

    The major aims of this study were to examine (1) the association between fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) in adults with type 1 diabetes with demographic, psychological (anxiety and depression), and disease-specific clinical factors (hypoglycemia history and unawareness, A1c), including severe hypoglycemia (SH), and (2) differences in patient subgroups categorized by level of FOH and risk of SH. Questionnaires were mailed to 764 patients with type 1 diabetes including the Swedish translation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) and other psychological measures including the Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Social Phobia Scale, and Fear of Complications Scale. A questionnaire to assess hypoglycemia history was also included and A1c measures were obtained from medical records. Statistical analyses included univariate approaches, multiple stepwise linear regressions, Chi-square t tests, and ANOVAs. Regressions showed that several clinical factors (SH history, frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia, self-monitoring) were significantly associated with FOH but R (2) increased from 16.25 to 39.2 % when anxiety measures were added to the model. When patients were categorized by level of FOH (low, high) and SH risk (low, high), subgroups showed significant differences in non-diabetes-related anxiety, hypoglycemia history, self-monitoring, and glycemic control. There is a strong link between FOH and non-diabetes-related anxiety, as well as hypoglycemia history. Comparison of patient subgroups categorized according to level of FOH and SH risk demonstrated the complexity of FOH and identified important differences in psychological and clinical variables, which have implications for clinical interventions.

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF INJURIES AMONG SENIOR SOCCER PLAYERS. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ivarsson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that between 65-91% of elite soccer players in Sweden have at least one injury per year. Several studies define different physiological and psychological factors affecting athletic injury-risk. A number of models contain proposals that specify relationships between psychological factors and an increased athletic injury-risk. Examples include Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model and Johnson and Ivarsson's empirical model of injury risk factors which proposes that factors such as trait anxiety and ineffective coping skills are influential. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between (a personality factors, b coping variables, and (c stress and injury risk. Participants were 48 male soccer players from 3 Swedish teams ranging in age from 16 to 36 years (M = 22 years. Participants completed 5 questionnaires: Football Worry Scale, Swedish universities Scales of Personality, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Daily Hassle Scale and Brief COPE. Information on injuries was collected by athletic trainers of the teams over 3-months. Results suggest injury was significantly predicted by 4 personality trait predictors: somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, and trait irritability. Collectively, the predictors self-blame and acceptance could explain 14.6% of injury occurrence. More injuries were reported among players who score high in daily hassles. These results support previous findings. Recommendations are given for both the athletes and the trainers on working to prevent sport injuries

  12. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Vivi I; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P W

    2013-09-01

    Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment.

  13. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Cheung, Vivi I.; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. PMID:25215198

  14. Factors explaining return to work for long-term sick workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstad, Bodil J; Wendelborg, Christian; Hedlund, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates factors that will affect the chances of long-term sick workers returning to work. The study is based on a representative sample of persons with mental illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders who received a rehabilitation allowance in Norway in 2002. Their occupational status in 2005 and experiences from the rehabilitation process were charted through their responses to a questionnaire in combination with national register data. Our analytical framework is based on three domains: the medical domain, the domain of authoritative bodies and the production domain (working life), as described by Lindqvist (Att sätta gränser: organisationer och reformer i arbetsrehabiliteringen. Umeå: Boréa; 2000). Our main findings are that earlier work experience, age and other members in household, in addition, to influence over one's own rehabilitation process explains whether workers on long-term sick leave return to work. Furthermore, individual factors such as gender and diagnosis (i.e. musculoskeletal disorder and mental illness) do not explain the probability to return to work. Experience and contact with representatives of the medical, the authoritative bodies and the production domain only explain to a small extent the probability to return to work. It is even interesting to note that regular contact with the social insurance office (SIO) has a negative effect on the probability to return to work. This may indicate that contact with the SIO subjects sick workers to a risk of developing a 'social insurance career' to secure their income. The findings show that the medical, the authoritative bodies and the production domain might represent different logics that can pull a sick worker in different directions during the rehabilitation process. However, these different logics do not fully explain, which outcome a rehabilitation process takes. It is important to extend the analysis to include how the individuals respond to these logics during the

  15. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778

  16. Mind over matter: psychological factors and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edozien, Leroy C

    2006-08-01

    Increasingly, gynaecologists are becoming aware of the impact of psychosocial factors on women's health generally, and on the menstrual cycle in particular. This review highlights developments in this field in the last triennium. Stress impairs the ovarian cycle through activation of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. The effect of psychological stress on the menstrual cycle is mediated by metabolic factors. Stress-induced impairment of ovarian function may not necessarily manifest as menstrual irregularity, and the effects of stress may persist beyond the cycle in which the stress episode occurred. Response to stress may be determined not so much by the nature of the stress as by the intrinsic neuronal attributes of the individual. Interventions to address underlying stress should be part of the management regime for women with menstrual cycle abnormalities.

  17. Host‐related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars O.; Nielsen, Charlotte S.; Stahl, Wilhelm; Rühl, Ralph; Keijer, Jaap; Borel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life‐style habits (e.g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also their association with disease risk. For instance, digestion enzymes fostering micellization (PNLIP, CES), expression of uptake/efflux transporters (SR‐BI, CD36, NPC1L1), cleavage enzymes (BCO1/2), intracellular transporters (FABP2), secretion into chylomicrons (APOB, MTTP), carotenoid metabolism in the blood and liver (LPL, APO C/E, LDLR), and distribution to target tissues such as adipose tissue or macula (GSTP1, StARD3) depend on the activity of these proteins. In addition, human microbiota, e.g. via altering bile‐acid concentrations, may play a role in carotenoid bioavailability. In order to comprehend individual, variable responses to these compounds, an improved knowledge on intra‐/interindividual factors determining carotenoid bioavailability, including tissue distribution, is required. Here, we highlight the current knowledge on factors that may explain such intra‐/interindividual differences. PMID:28101967

  18. Evaluation of factors affecting psychological morbidity in emergency medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).

  19. Using facial emotional stimuli in visual search experiments: the arousal factor explains contradictory results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Daniel; Juth, Pernilla; Öhman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, visual search experiments using pictures of emotional faces as stimuli have generated contradictory results. Evidence of a superior detection of angry faces compared to happy faces have been mixed with an equal amount of evidence in the opposite direction. In this article, we review this literature, and examine the hypothesis that the neglected stimulus factor of emotional arousal may explain these contradictory results. Through an extensive reanalysis of results from our own laboratory as well as from other researchers, we show that the arousal factor systematically influences the outcome of the reviewed visual search experiments, and may thus provide a key to the historical contradictions within this research field.

  20. Known risk factors do not explain disparities in gallstone prevalence between Denmark and northeast Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    .52-2.36)) had approximatively twice the odds of gallstones than Danes. Inclusion of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, coffee use) did not affect this result, whereas adjustment for body mass index (BMI), lipids, diabetes, and use of oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and parity......, unfavorable lipid levels, higher prevalence of diabetes, and a more frequent use of OR and MHT in German subjects. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of unmeasured predictors, including genetic components, on the population-related risk of gallstones.......OBJECTIVES: Gallstones are a common disease worldwide, with disparities in the prevalence of the disease in different settings. The aim of the present study was to assess if different distributions of risk factors could explain the disparities in the prevalence of gallstone disease between Denmark...

  1. Climate and terrain factors explaining streamflow response and recession in Australian catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily streamflow data were analysed to assess which climate and terrain factors best explain streamflow response in 183 Australian catchments. Assessed descriptors of catchment response included the parameters of fitted baseflow models, and baseflow index (BFI, average quick flow and average baseflow derived by baseflow separation. The variation in response between catchments was compared with indicators of catchment climate, morphology, geology, soils and land use. Spatial coherence in the residual unexplained variation was investigated using semi-variogram techniques. A linear reservoir model (one parameter; recession coefficient produced baseflow estimates as good as those obtained using a non-linear reservoir (two parameters and for practical purposes was therefore considered an appropriate balance between simplicity and explanatory performance. About a third (27–34% of the spatial variation in recession coefficients and BFI was explained by catchment climate indicators, with another 53% of variation being spatially correlated over distances of 100–150 km, probably indicative of substrate characteristics not captured by the available soil and geology data. The shortest recession half-times occurred in the driest catchments and were attributed to intermittent occurrence of fast-draining (possibly perched groundwater. Most (70–84% of the variation in average baseflow and quick flow was explained by rainfall and climate characteristics; another 20% of variation was spatially correlated over distances of 300–700 km, possibly reflecting a combination of terrain and climate factors. It is concluded that catchment streamflow response can be predicted quite well on the basis of catchment climate alone. The prediction of baseflow recession response should be improved further if relevant substrate properties were identified and measured.

  2. [Study on environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen; Liu, Wei-na; Zhao, Qing-xia; Han, Miao-miao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of female infertility. In a hospital-based case-control study, a self-designed questionnaire was used to survey the cases and controls (1:1) with nation and age (± 2 years) as matching variables. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the datasets. The univariate analysis showed that female infertility was related to the following factors: eating fried foods, alcohol consumption, smoking, staying up late, perm, housing decoration, contact with heavy metals, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, working in hot environment, mental stress, uneasiness, helplessness, and despair. The multivariate analysis showed that staying up late (OR = 2.937), housing decoration (OR = 2.963), exposure to radiation (OR = 2.506), contact with pesticides (OR = 2.908), and mental stress (OR = 4.101) were the main risk factors for female infertility. Furthermore, there was an interaction between staying up late and mental stress. Female infertility is caused by multiple factors including staying up late, housing decoration, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, and mental stress, and there is an interaction between staying up late and mental stress.

  3. Psychological factors that promote behavior modification by obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Akinori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.

  4. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  5. Home on the Range: Factors Explaining Partial Migration of African Buffalo in a Tropical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call “expanders”. Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area. PMID:22570722

  6. Home on the range: factors explaining partial migration of African buffalo in a tropical environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Naidoo

    Full Text Available Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call "expanders". Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass, distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area and social factors (age, size of herd at capture were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area.

  7. Cognitive risk factors explain the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety for males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Uhl, Aubree; Schmidt, Norman B

    2017-04-01

    The hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress contextualizes the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety as occurring indirectly through cognitive risk factors. In particular, inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty (IU; difficulty in uncertain circumstances), fear of negative evaluation (FNE; fear of being judged negatively), and anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns (fear of outwardly observable anxiety) are related to social anxiety. It is unclear whether these risk factors uniquely relate to social anxiety, and whether they account for the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety. The indirect relations between neuroticism and social anxiety through these and other risk factors were examined using structural equation modeling in a sample of 462 individuals (M age = 36.56, SD = 12.93; 64.3% female). Results indicated that the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety could be explained through inhibitory IU, FNE, and AS social concerns. No gender differences were found. These findings provide support for the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress disorders, although the cognitive risk factors accounted for variance beyond their contribution to the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety, suggesting a more complex model than that expressed in the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities.

  8. Interactions among Ecological Factors That Explain the Psychosocial Quality of Life of Children with Complex Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Thurston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the associations and interactions among ecological factors and explain the psychosocial quality of life of children with complex needs. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey consenting parents were identified by the Children's Treatment Network. Families were eligible if the child from 0 to 19 years, resided in Simcoe/York, and there were multiple family needs. Regression analysis was used to explore associations and interactions. n=429. Results. Younger children, without conduct disorder, without hostile and punitive parenting and with low adverse family impact demonstrated the highest levels of psychosocial quality of life. Statistically significant interactions between processes of care and parent variables highlight the complexity of real life situations. Conclusions. It is not possible to fully understand the child's psychosocial quality of life in complex needs families by considering only simple associations between ecological factors. A multitude of factors and interactions between these factors are simultaneously present and the care of these families requires a holistic approach.

  9. Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery: Do Clinical and Behavioral Factors Explain Racial Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Christina C; Jones, Daniel B; Apovian, Caroline; Hess, Donald T; Chiodi, Sarah N; Bourland, Ashley C; Davis, Roger B; Schneider, Benjamin; Blackburn, George L; Marcantonio, Edward R; Hamel, Mary Beth

    2017-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested less weight loss among African American compared to Caucasian patients; however, few studies have been able to simultaneously account for baseline differences in other demographic, clinical, or behavioral factors. We interviewed patients at two weight loss surgery (WLS) centers and conducted chart reviews before and after WLS. We compared weight loss post-WLS by race/ethnicity and examined baseline demographic, clinical (BMI, comorbidities, quality of life), and behavioral (eating behavior, physical activity level, alcohol intake) factors that might explain observed racial differences in weight loss at 1 and 2 years after WLS. Of 537 participants who underwent either Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (54%) or gastric banding (46%), 85% completed 1-year follow-up and 73% completed 2-year follow-up. Patients lost a mean of 33.00% of initial weight at year 1 and 32.43% at year 2 after bypass and 16.07% and 17.56 % respectively after banding. After adjustment for other demographic characteristics and type of surgery, African Americans lost an absolute 5.93 ± 1.49% less weight than Caucasian patients after bypass (p loss among gastric bypass patients whereas having a diagnosis of anxiety disorder was associated with less weight loss among gastric banding patients. The association between race and weight loss did not substantially attenuate with additional adjustment for these clinical and behavioral factors, however. African American patients lost significantly less weight than Caucasian patients. Racial differences could not be explained by baseline demographic, clinical, or behavioral characteristics we examined.

  10. Patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy and its individual psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Trachuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the treatment of chronic, especially asymptomatic pathology one of the main problem is the adherence to therapy. Patients with arterial hypertension need long-term, often lifelong medication, and how strictly they adhere to prescriptions often determines the course of the disease and the medical measures effectiveness. According to statistics, more than half of patients with hypertension are characterized by low compliance, which leads to complications of this disease. The objective of the research is to identify and analize the individual psychological factors that determine patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Methods and materials. This study was conducted during 2011-2013 at the cardiology departments of the Kyiv Alexander Hospital, polyclinics number 2 Shevchenko district in Kyiv, Desnyanskiy clinic №3 district in Kyiv, medical center "Adonis plus". We examined 203 patients with arterial hypertension (average age 53,5 ± 4,5 years. Methods: socio-demographic, clinical, clinical and psychological, psychodiagnostical, mathematical and statistical methods. Psychodiagnostical method included: 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale (Morisky D. E., 2008; self-assessment anxiety scale Charles D. Spielberger – Y.L Hanin (A.V. Batarshev, 2005; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory questionnaire (MMRI (F.B. Berezin, 1994; "The level of subjective control" (A.A. Rean, 2001; "Index of attitudes to health" (S.D. Deryabo, VA Yasvin, 2000. Results. According to the results of 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale patients were divided into 3 groups according to the level of compliance - with high (26.11%, average (24.14% and low (49.75% levels of adherence to antihypertensive therapy. The individual-psychological predictors of poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy include the following personal characteristics of patients: a low level of intensity of attitude to health, internal type of subjective control, a

  11. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes of Helping Professional Candidates and Factors Influencing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…

  12. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  13. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  14. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  15. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological fa...

  16. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees; Maria Hafeez; Jung-Yong Kim

    2017-01-01

    .... Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety...

  17. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Heather J.; Camir?, Martin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000?2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that c...

  18. Factors explaining the North-South differentials in contraceptive use in Nigeria: A nonlinear decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Babalola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Northern Nigeria has some of the worst reproductive health indicators worldwide. Conspicuous North-South variations exist in contraceptive use; not much is known about the drivers of contraceptive use disparities in the North compared to the South. Objective: In this study, we examine the relative weights of the factors that contribute to this North-South gap in contraceptive prevalence. Methods: Using the women's 2013 Demographic Health Survey dataset, we applied a nonlinear decomposition technique to determine the contribution of sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, conjugal relationship dynamics, intimate partner violence, ideational variables, and Islamic culture to the North-South disparities in contraceptive use. Results: There was a gap of 12.4 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence between the north and south of Nigeria (5.2Š vs 17.6Š. The largest contributors to the gap were ideational characteristics (explaining 42.0Š of the gap and socio-economic profiles (explaining 42.6Š. Patterns of conjugal relationship dynamics (11.1Š, socio-demographic characteristics (‒11.0Š, Islamic religious culture (7.6Š, and exposure to family planning messaging (6.1Š were also significant contributors. Conclusions: Effective interventions to increase contraceptive use in northern Nigeria should aim at addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in the North, impacting ideational characteristics and specifically targeting poor women and those with low levels of education. Working with Islamic religious leaders is also critical to bridging the gap. Contribution: This paper broadens the knowledge on the determinants of contraceptive use in Nigeria by identifying contextual factors that operate differently in the North compared to the South.

  19. A framework for explaining reliance on decision aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a framework for understanding task and psychological factors affecting reliance on advice from decision aids. The framework describes how informational asymmetries in combination with rational, motivational and heuristic factors explain human reliance behavior. To test hypotheses

  20. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John

    2016-01-01

    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment.

  1. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  2. Positive Psychology Factors as Predictors of Latina/o College Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…

  3. An explanatory model of the organizational factors that explain the adoption of E-business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Moreno, M.B.; García-Moreno, S.; Nájera-Sánchez, J.J.; Pablos-Heredero, C. de

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: to describe the factors that facilitate the adoption of e-business in firms. To go in deep on the factors, resources and capabilities that need to be present in those firms seeking to improve their levels of e-business adoption. Analysis of the literature involving the main theories on business administration, and more specifically, on those related to technology innovation (TI) and information systems (IS), as applicable to the organizational factors that explain the adoption of e-business. Findings: it identifies three main sources of influence: a first group covers the characteristics of the actual firm, which refer to the organisation’s specific features: firm size, the backing of top management, expected benefit, age, the level of human capital, and international projection. A second group of factors includes technology-related characteristics. The third group contains all those aspects in the environment that may affect the firm’s attitude to e-business. Research limitations/implications: the chosen variables play significant role following a review of the studies on the subject, but not all potential ones have been included. The variables have been chosen in view of the large number of studies that have reported conclusive results. Practical implications: the model presented is designed to enable both scholars in this field and decision-makers in strategic matters to reflect upon those aspects that may drive the adoption of e-business, and thereby help them to make more informed decisions on the matter. Social implications: In highly competitive industries, firms need to keep themselves permanently up to speed with technological advances and strategic innovations Originality/value: it is the first study that considers three different perspectives: the organizational, the technological and the environmental one. (Author)

  4. An explanatory model of the organizational factors that explain the adoption of E-business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Beatriz García-Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe the factors that facilitate the adoption of e-business in firms. To go in deep on the factors, resources and capabilities that need to be present in those firms seeking to improve their levels of e-business adoption. Design/methodology/approach: analysis of the literature involving the main theories on business administration, and more specifically, on those related to technology innovation (TI and information systems (IS, as applicable to the organizational factors that explain the adoption of e-business. Findings: it identifies three main sources of influence: a first group covers the characteristics of the actual firm, which refer to the organisation’s specific features: firm size, the backing of top management, expected benefit, age, the level of human capital, and international projection. A second group of factors includes technology-related characteristics. The third group contains all those aspects in the environment that may affect the firm’s attitude to e-business. Research limitations/implications: the chosen variables play significant role following a review of the studies on the subject, but not all potential ones have been included. The variables have been chosen in view of the large number of studies that have reported conclusive results. Practical implications: the model presented is designed to enable both scholars in this field and decision-makers in strategic matters to reflect upon those aspects that may drive the adoption of e-business, and thereby help them to make more informed decisions on the matter. Social implications: In highly competitive industries, firms need to keep themselves permanently up to speed with technological advances and strategic innovations Originality/value: it is the first study that considers three different perspectives: the organizational, the technological and the environmental one.

  5. Review of yield gap explaining factors and opportunities for alternative data collection approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beza, E.A.; Vasco Silva, João; Kooistra, Lammert; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2017-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is gaining increased scientific attention, as estimating and explaining yield gaps shows the potential for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. Explaining yield gaps requires detailed information about the biophysical environment, crop management as well as

  6. Contextualising psychological distress among regular ecstasy users: the importance of sociodemographic factors and patterns of drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jessica; Kinner, Stuart A; Bruno, Raimondo; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dunn, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Considerable concern has been raised about associations between ecstasy use and mental health. Studies of ecstasy users typically investigate varying levels of lifetime use of ecstasy, and often fail to account for other drug use and sociodemographic characteristics of participants, which may explain mixed findings. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between patterns of recent (last six months) ecstasy use and psychological distress among current, regular ecstasy users, controlling for sociodemographic risk factors and patterns of other drug use. Data were collected from regular ecstasy users (n = 752) recruited from each capital city in Australia as part of the Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS). Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Seven per cent of the sample scored in the 'high' distress category and 55% in the 'medium' distress category. Patterns of ecstasy use were not independently associated with psychological distress. The strongest predictors of distress were female sex, lower education, unemployment, 'binge' drug use including ecstasy (use for >48 h without sleep), frequent cannabis use and daily tobacco use. Regular ecstasy users have elevated levels of psychological distress compared with the general population; however, ecstasy use per se was not independently related to such distress. Other factors, including sociodemographic characteristics and other drug use patterns, appear to be more important. These findings highlight the importance of targeting patterns of polydrug use in order to reduce drug-related harm among regular ecstasy users.

  7. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  8. Risk factors for longer term psychological distress in well-functioning fibromyalgia patients: a prospective study into prognostic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological distress is a key risk factor for long-term complaints in fibromyalgia (FM). Prognostic factors for psychological distress might facilitate an early identification of patients at risk to help prevent long-term dysfunction, especially for the relatively well-functioning

  9. Overlap and distinctiveness of psychological risk factors in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Denollet, Johan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the importance of psychological factors in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this research has been criticized due to overlap between psychological constructs. We examined whether psychological questionnaires frequently used...

  10. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  11. The Temporal Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Psychological Symptoms in Native American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, Georgia Lee

    2007-01-01

    Native American youth often experience high rates of environmental risk factors that may put them at increased risk for developing psychological problems, yet research within this high-risk population is severely limited. The present study was designed to provide information on the rate of psychological symptoms in a sample of Native American youth, and evaluate the impact of environmental factors (risk, protective, and cultural) on psychological disorder symptoms over time. Data were coll...

  12. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    players also showed significantly greater self-confidence (d ≥ 0.4), personal coping resources, coping with adversity, average psychological skills and activation control scores than their lower ranked counterparts, stressing the important role of sport psychological skills towards rugby performance. It can be concluded that ...

  13. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.

  14. Internet Gaming Disorder Explains Unique Variance in Psychological Distress and Disability After Controlling for Comorbid Depression, OCD, ADHD, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Benjamin T D; McEvoy, Peter M; Roberts, Lynne D

    2017-02-01

    This study extends knowledge about the relationship of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) to other established mental disorders by exploring comorbidities with anxiety, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and assessing whether IGD accounts for unique variance in distress and disability. An online survey was completed by a convenience sample that engages in Internet gaming (N = 404). Participants meeting criteria for IGD based on the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9 (PIE-9) reported higher comorbidity with depression, OCD, ADHD, and anxiety compared with those who did not meet the IGD criteria. IGD explained a small proportion of unique variance in distress (1%) and disability (3%). IGD accounted for a larger proportion of unique variance in disability than anxiety and ADHD, and a similar proportion to depression. Replications with clinical samples using longitudinal designs and structured diagnostic interviews are required.

  15. Psychological factors and mental health in persons with SCI: an exploration of change or stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3

  16. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  17. Which factors explain variation in intention to disclose a diagnosis of dementia? A theory-based survey of mental health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For people with dementia, patient-centred care should involve timely explanation of the diagnosis and its implications. However, this is not routine. Theoretical models of behaviour change offer a generalisable framework for understanding professional practice and identifying modifiable factors to target with an intervention. Theoretical models and empirical work indicate that behavioural intention represents a modifiable predictor of actual professional behaviour. We identified factors that predict the intentions of members of older people's mental health teams (MHTs to perform key behaviours involved in the disclosure of dementia. Design Postal questionnaire survey. Participants Professionals from MHTs in the English National Health Service. Methods We selected three behaviours: Determining what patients already know or suspect about their diagnosis; using explicit terminology when talking to patients; and exploring what the diagnosis means to patients. The questionnaire was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and exploratory team variables. Main outcomes Behavioural intentions. Results Out of 1,269 professionals working in 85 MHTs, 399 (31.4% returned completed questionnaires. Overall, the TPB best explained behavioural intention. For determining what patients already know, the TPB variables of subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude explained 29.4% of the variance in intention. For the use of explicit terminology, the same variables explained 53.7% of intention. For exploring what the diagnosis means to patients, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control explained 48.6% of intention. Conclusion These psychological models can explain up to half of the variation in intention to perform key disclosure behaviours. This provides an empirically-supported, theoretical basis for the design of interventions to improve disclosure practice by targeting relevant

  18. Factors explaining user loyalty in a social media-based brand community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis M. Potgieter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marketers are interested in taking advantage of the capabilities of social media-based brand communities to develop long-term relationships with their customers. This research investigated the usage of a South African Facebook page to understand user attitudes and attendant pressures on users related to social norms and user loyalty.Objectives: The research investigated the extent to which perceived value, service quality and social factors influenced the customer’s intention to continue using a global motor vehicle firm’s social media-based online brand community (OBC.Method: We used an online voluntary survey to collect data from social media-based brand community members. In total, 303 responses were collected over a period of 4 weeks from a population of 3100 members. We analysed the relationship between trust, perceived responsiveness, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social norms and the members’ intention to continue using the firm’s OBC. 293 usable observations were subjected to descriptive, correlation and regression analysis.Results: The age of the respondents varied from 18 to 58 years with a mean age of 32 years. Of these, 60% were men and 40% women. About 86.7% of the respondents reported having at least some form of tertiary education. The results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that service quality factors such as trust (25.5% and social influence factors such as social norms (12.5% explain a greater part of the variance in OBC continuance intention compared with utility factors such as perceived usefulness (18.2%. The effects for responsiveness and ease of use were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Social media-based brand communities are playing an important role in enhancing the overall trust relationship, value offering, sociality, knowledge and information sharing between customers and firms. Practitioners should note that the loyalty of customers using a firm’s social

  19. Mediating Role of Self-Determination Constructs in Explaining the Relationship between School Factors and Postschool Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Garnier Villarreal, Mauricio; Lang, Kyle; Seo, Hyojeong

    2017-01-01

    Secondary data analysis using the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 data set was conducted to examine the degree to which autonomy, psychological empowerment, and self-realization (3 of 4 essential characteristics of self-determination) play a mediating role in the relationship between school-based factors and postschool outcomes. The…

  20. Explaining interindividual differences in toddlers’ collaboration with unfamiliar peers: Individual, dyadic, and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils eSchuhmacher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During their third year of life, toddlers become increasingly skillful at coordinating their actions with peer partners and they form joint commitments in collaborative situations. However, little effort has been made to explain interindividual differences in collaboration among toddlers. Therefore, we examined the relative influence of distinct individual, dyadic, and social factors on toddlers’ collaborative activities (i.e., level of coordination and preference for joint activity in joint problem-solving situations with unfamiliar peer partners (n = 23 dyads aged M = 35.7 months. We analyzed the dyadic nonindependent data with mixed models. Results indicated that mothers’ expectations regarding their children’s social behaviors significantly predicted toddlers’ level of coordination. Furthermore, the models revealed that toddlers’ positive mutual experiences with the unfamiliar partner assessed during an initial free play period (Phase 1 and their level of coordination in an obligatory collaboration task (Phase 2 promoted toddlers’ preference for joint activity in a subsequent optional collaboration task (Phase 3. In contrast, children’s mastery motivation and shyness conflicted with their collaborative efforts. We discuss the role of parents’ socialization goals in toddlers’ development toward becoming active collaborators and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the differences in toddlers’ commitment to joint activities, namely social preferences and the trust in reliable cooperation partners.

  1. Multiple factors and thresholds explaining fish species distributions in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Trigal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate restoration and conservation measures require a good understanding of the factors limiting the distribution of species, the presence of steep changes in the distribution along environmental gradients and the effect of environmental interactions on species distribution. We used 12 environmental variables describing connectivity, hydrology, climate and stream morphology, to model the distributions of 17 fish species from 2005 Swedish stream sites that were sampled between 2000 and 2011. Modeling was performed using boosted regression trees and random forest, two machine learning techniques to assess the relationship between species distributions and their environment. Temperature, width and connectivity (minimum distance to lake or the sea and water discharge, were the most important variables explaining changes in species distribution at large spatial scales. Response curves of fitted occurrence probabilities along predictors often showed abrupt changes, however, clear threshold effects were difficult to detect. Our results show also differences across species and even in the outcomes of the two algorithms, implying that a simultaneous assessment of multiple species may provide a better signal of ecosystem change than the use of surrogate species.

  2. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  3. What Factors Explain Harmful Algal Blooms of Dinophysis Along the Texas Coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replogle, L.; Henrichs, D.; Campbell, L.

    2016-02-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis ovum is one of the harmful algal species that bloom along the Texas coast. Blooms of D. ovum can be explained by several factors that work together to cause bloom initiation. This work utilized image counts collected by the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) at Port Aransas, TX and modeled winds from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Based on a previous study of another dinoflagellate species, it was hypothesized that winds will be highly correlated with harmful algal bloom (HAB) years versus non-HAB years for D. ovum. Weak northerly winds and downwelling along the coast will be associated with HAB years, while strong northerly or southerly winds will be associated with non-HAB years. In non-HAB years, wind-driven currents caused by upcoast or strongly flowing downcoast winds will result in northward or southward movement of D. ovum cells. In HAB years, weaker downcoast winds will allow for accumulation of D. ovum at the coast. Results showed that weak downcoast, along-shore winds occurred in the weeks preceding HAB events in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2014, and likely contributed to the accumulation of Dinophysis cells along the Texas coast. When winds moved upcoast or strongly downcoast in the weeks preceding bloom months, Dinophysis blooms did not occur. Additional factors (e.g. sea surface temperature, surface-based runoff, El Niño Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation and salinity) were analyzed to better define a favorable environment for bloom formation. Sea surface temperature and surface based runoff were significantly correlated with bloom occurrence, whereas El Niño Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation were not.

  4. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...

  5. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design...

  6. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  7. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  8. Psychological Risk Factors and Outcomes of Dance Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Lynda M; Finney, Caitlin

    2017-09-15

    Historically, dance medicine and science has focused on the physical aspects rather than the psychological aspects of dance injury. Psychological variables, however, have been shown to influence the occurrence of injury and post-injury outcomes. The purpose of this review was to examine the dance psychology literature and determine the specific psychological factors reported to be associated with the incidence, frequency, and outcome of dance injuries. A systematic literature search was conducted using SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. All retrieved articles were screened based on criteria developed a priori, and selected articles were subsequently assessed for quality. Thirteen studies met the inclusion and quality assessment criteria. Psychological factors associated with both risk and outcome of dance injury included the following: stress, psychological distress, disordered eating, and coping. Factors associated only with risk of injury were sleep, personality, and social support. The results suggest that psychological variables can affect both the incidence and outcome of dance injury among dancers. Therefore, it is critical to gain a well-rounded, thorough understanding of all the factors, including psychological, that have a negative impact on dancers with respect to dance injury. The findings are discussed in terms of the utility of including psychological assessment and intervention, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, when implementing preventative and treatment measures in dance schools and companies.

  9. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  10. A comparison of the psychological refractory period and prioritized processing paradigms: Can the response-selection bottleneck model explain them both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2015-10-01

    Four experiments examined whether well-established phenomena from the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm are also observed in the prioritized processing paradigm, as would be expected from a common description of the 2 paradigms with the response selection bottleneck (RSB) model. Consistent with a generalization of the RSB model to the prioritized processing paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this paradigm yields effects of SOA and stimulus discriminability analogous to those observed in the PRP paradigm. In Experiments 3 and 4, however, overall RTs and effect sizes differed between the PRP and prioritized processing paradigms in ways that are difficult to explain within the RSB model. Understanding the differences between these 2 paradigms offers considerable promise as a way to extend the RSB model beyond the domain of the PRP paradigm and to generalize our understanding of multitasking interference. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Psychological Distress and Associated Factors Among Mexican American Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2016-12-01

    Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits

  13. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-12-27

    Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jung Rho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  15. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  16. Psychological factors in patients with peptic ulcerand functional dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Mosavi, Shokofeh; Zarini, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) has not been clearly determined. In this study the role of conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were assessed in patients with PUD and FD and in the healthy individuals. Methods: Ninety subjects [30 PUD (15 women, 15 men), 30 FD (15 women, 15 men), and 30 healthy individuals (15 women, 15 men)] in two endoscopy wards of Babol University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. Three groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were evaluated by appropriate questionnaires. Results: The patients with PUD reported less mean scores on psychiatric symptoms than the FD patients (depression 12.6±7.5 vs 28±9.5, anxiety 8.2±5.9 vs 18.7±6. obsessive-compulsive disorder 15.7±7.5 vs 21.8±8.4, interpersonal sensitivity 9.5±7.4 vs 16±7, psychoticism 8.03±4.5 vs 14.3±6.3, somatization 12.5±10.8 vs 20.7±8.1, and the total score of psychiatric symptoms 94.4±49.9 vs 160.1±46.6). The mean scores use of unconstructive conflict management styles in PUD patients were lower than FD (dominating 17.7±3.5 vs 20.2±2.7, avoiding 17.5±3 vs 23.8±4.4). Alexithymia symptoms were higher in FD patients than PUD individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 23.5±6.3 vs 27.8±3.9, difficulty in describing feeling 16.5±4.4 vs 17.3±3.6). The PUD and FD patients had higher scores regarding these variables than the healthy subjects. Conclusion: The results show that both PUD and FD patients experienced more psychiatric symptoms, unconstructive conflict management styles, and alexithymia than the healthy subjects. FD patients had worse psychiatric problems than PUD. PMID:24778780

  17. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C

    2015-04-01

    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the psychological and pedagogical factors of effective implementation and use of electronic educational tools in secondary schools. Determination of individual development by complex of psychological and pedagogical, ergonomic, aesthetic and hygienic factors of information technology use is grounded. The basic psychological and educational factors that influence child development are considered. Main groups of ergonomic requirements, which should emphasize the development and evaluation of electronic tools to maximize development and mental and physical health of the child, are described.

  19. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  20. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  1. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    category to compile the research groups. Background history and behaviour reports were gathered in order that proposed group members could first be discussed inter subjectively regarding their identified resilience/vulnerability. This was done in discussion with the school's psychology department and with an ...

  2. Psychological Factors of Familial Alcoholism in American Indians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Saumty, Deborah; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated within-group differences for Indians with (N=28) and without (N=32) familial history of alcoholism; and assessed cross-cultural differences for Indian (N=31) and Caucasian (N=39) social drinkers with a familial history of alcoholism. Results showed no psychological functioning differences between the Indian groups, but cross-cultural…

  3. Personal And Psychological Factors As Predictors Of Organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Police should be more professionalized, first by making its recruitment policies much more competitive, technical, scientific and psychological. Also screening in form of oral interview from a panel of credible and highly educated police and police psychologists should be put in place to screen recruits for emotional stability.

  4. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Psychological Wellbeing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Care-related Stress Scale (CSS) with reliability of .73 Cronbach's alpha and Ryff's Psychological Wellbeing Scale (RPBS) with reliability of .87 Cronbach's alpha were used for data collection. Statistical analysis involved the use of Pearson's Moment Correlation, Independent t- test and One-Way ANOVA. Findings from the ...

  5. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  6. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A; Marks, Nadine F

    2010-03-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996-97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported experiences of frequent psychological violence, regardless of the frequency of physical violence, is found to be positively associated with adult psychological distress. Adults' sense of community is found to moderate the association between reports of both frequent psychological and frequent physical violence in childhood from parents and adult psychological distress.

  7. The celestial factor and the formula to explain or predict all extinctions of the fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elewa, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    In reality there are various kinds of explanations for each type of extinction. This paper introduces a new theory to explain and to estimate the size and frequency of all extinctions over the entire period of 600 my of the fossil record. The central point was the search for a common pattern and

  8. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or

  9. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards – integrating psychological and governance factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Werg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  10. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  11. Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: associations with psychological factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.E.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Fleuren, J.F.; Hermens, H.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete

  12. Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: Associations with psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerlienke; Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; Fleuren, Judith F.M.; Fleuren, J.F.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.

    Purpose: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. - Methods: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete

  13. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  15. Psychological factors unrelated to activity level in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmus, M.; Preuper, H.R.S.; Hof, A.L.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Reneman, M.F.

    Background: Enhancement of physical activities is an important goal in rehabilitation programmes for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). A relationship between activity level and psychological factors is suggested but studied scarcely. Aim: To explore the relationship between the

  16. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Other Psychological Factors in Patients with “Chronic Lyme Disease”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Afton L.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Buyske, Steven; Savage, Shantal V.; Sigal, Leonard H.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is no evidence of current or previous B. burgdorferi infection in most patients evaluated at University-based Lyme disease referral centers. Instead, psychological factors likely exacerbate the persistent diffuse symptoms or “Chronic Multisymptom Illness” incorrectly ascribed to an ongoing chronic infection with B. burgdorferi. The objective of this study was to assess the medical and psychiatric status of such patients and compare these findings to those from patients without CMI. Methods 240 consecutive patients undergoing medical evaluation at an academic Lyme disease referral center in New Jersey were screened for clinical disorders (e.g. depression and anxiety) with diagnoses confirmed by structured clinical interviews. Personality disorders, catastrophizing, and negative and positive affect were also evaluated and all factors were compared between groups and to functional outcomes. Results 60.4% of our sample had symptoms that could not be explained by current Lyme disease or another medical condition other than CMI. After adjusting for age and gender, clinical disorders were more common in CMI than in the comparison group (paffect, lower positive affect and a greater tendency to catastrophize pain (pLyme disease.” PMID:19699380

  17. Psychological Factors Associated with Development of TMD: the OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies has explored whether pre-existing psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first-onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. PMID:24275225

  18. Fear of crime in Belgrade: Testing a socio-demographic and social-psychological factors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to

  19. Factors That May Explain Differences between Home and Clinic Meal Preparation Task Assessments in Frail Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Veronique; Demers, Louise; Gelinas, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Meal preparation assessments conducted in clinical environments (such as rehabilitation settings) might not reflect frail patients' performance at home. In addition, factors that may explain differences in performance between settings remain unknown. The aim of this study was to compare home and clinic performance on meal preparation tasks in…

  20. Explaining Gender Gaps in English Composition and College Algebra in College: The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndum, Edwin; Allen, Jeff; Way, Jason; Casillas, Alex

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of six psychosocial factors (PSFs) in explaining gender gaps in English Composition (n = 8,633) and College Algebra (n = 2,261) using data of first-year female (55%) and male students from 42 colleges. Using a multilevel model and controlling for prior achievement, we found that PSFs mediated between 3% and 41% of the gender…

  1. Can dietary factors explain differences in serum cholesterol profiles among different ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Li, T.; Tan, W.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Suok Chai Chew,; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Singapore. there exists differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease among the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This study aimed to investigate if differences in dietary intakes of fat, types of fat, cholesterol, fruits, vegetables and grain foods could explain the

  2. Explaining the adjustment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Role of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to explain adjustment (diabetes-related quality of life, general well-being, and psychopathology) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by testing the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors, using an adapted version

  3. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  4. [Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Ppsychological violence against children: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.

  5. Exposure to Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors Partially Explains Mean Differences in Self-Regulation between Races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Barnes

    Full Text Available To examine whether differential exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors explained differences in levels of self-regulation between children of different races (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other.Multiple regression models based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n ≈ 9,850 were used to analyze the impact of pre- and perinatal risk factors on the development of self-regulation at age 2 years.Racial differences in levels of self-regulation were observed. Racial differences were also observed for 9 of the 12 pre-/perinatal risk factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a portion of the racial differences in self-regulation was explained by differential exposure to several of the pre-/perinatal risk factors. Specifically, maternal age at childbirth, gestational timing, and the family's socioeconomic status were significantly related to the child's level of self-regulation. These factors accounted for a statistically significant portion of the racial differences observed in self-regulation.The findings indicate racial differences in self-regulation may be, at least partially, explained by racial differences in exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors.

  6. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  7. Factor Structure of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaha, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the 6-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Methods: A subsample of emerging adults, aged 18-29 (n = 20,699), from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health were used in this study. Results: Each of the models (one-factor, two-factor…

  8. Psychological Factors of Innovativeness among Nomadic Micro-Entrepreneurs for Achieving Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the psychological factors of innovativeness that drives nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth in Malaysia. Nomadic micro entrepreneurs refer to those who regularly change the location of their business. To meet the research objective, the current study carried out in-depth interviews among the Nomadic MEs operating their business in Northern region, Malaysia. Twenty Nomadic MEs were interviewed on voluntary basis. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the recurring themes that delineate psychological factors that may influence innovativeness. Interestingly, the findings revealed that the innovativeness of Nomadic MEs is influenced by four psychological characteristics namely sense of curiosity, interest, risk taking, and risk avoidance. The contribution of this study lies in the identification of four substantial psychological factors that act as a foundation for innovativeness among nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth.

  9. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  10. Psychological Factors and Reference Potential of Market Mavens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofi Puspa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.

  11. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.

  12. Multiple sclerosis and employment: Associations of psychological factors and work instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charlotte Rose; Ward, Karl; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan; Ford, Helen L

    2016-10-12

    People with multiple sclerosis often stop working earlier than expected. Psychological factors may have an impact on job retention. Investigation may inform interventions to help people stay in work. To investigate the associations between psychological factors and work instability in people with multiple sclerosis. A multi-method, 2-phased study. Focus groups were held to identify key themes. Questionnaire packs using validated scales of the key themes were completed at baseline and at 8-month follow-up. Four key psychological themes emerged. Out of 208 study subjects 57.2% reported medium/high risk of job loss, with marginal changes at 8 months. Some psychological variables fluctuated significantly, e.g. depression fell from 24.6% to 14.5%. Work instability and anxiety and depression were strongly correlated (χ2 p < 0.001). Those with probable depression at baseline had 7.1 times increased odds of medium/high work instability, and baseline depression levels also predicted later work instability (Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.899; Nagelkerke R Square 0.579). Psychological factors fluctuated over the 8-month follow-up period. Some psychological variables, including anxiety and depression, were significantly associated with, and predictive of, work instability. Longitudinal analysis should further identify how these psychological attributes impact on work instability and potential job loss in the longer term.

  13. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  14. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year was similar to earlier studies in Slovenia, although the predominance of better-educated people might be associated with lower tolerance toward psychological abuse. GPs should pay special attention to unemployed patients and those complaining about family disputes, to increase early detection. PMID:24593032

  15. Using clinical and criminal involvement factors to explain homelessness among clients of a psychiatric probation and parole service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P; Draine, J

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to examine the rate of homelessness and the extent to which lifetime homelessness was associated with clinical factors, such as diagnosis and treatment history; or criminal factors, such as criminal behavior and arrest history, among psychiatric probationers and parolees. Nearly half of the clients screened had experienced homelessness in their lifetime. In a logistic regression model to explain lifetime homelessness, significant factors were younger age, less education, a greater number of lifetime arrests, a schizophrenia diagnosis, and reporting both an alcohol and drug problem. Implications for service delivery with this population are discussed.

  16. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather J.; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J.; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000–2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:26692895

  17. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather J; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000-2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use.

  18. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Haerens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  19. [Influential factors analysis of positive psychology in patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Wei-Jun; Chen, Qiao-Lu; Yao, Yao; Huang, Ying-Bi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the positive psychological reaction of patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma and related factors. One hundred and five hospitalized patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma were investigated by self-designed general data questionnaire, positive psychological scale posttraumatic growth evaluation of quantitative PTG, and self-image questionnaire. SPSS 18.0 software package was used to analyze the data. Positive psychological score of the patients was 56.01±17.322, and self-image average score was 51.33±7.306. There were significant differences between male and female patients after trauma in new possibilities, personal power, self transformation and personal feeling (Ppositive psychological reaction.With the improvement of educational level of patients, better personal power (P=0.031) and self transformation (P=0.01), and more positive psychological reaction were observed; Posttraumatic positive psychology of patients was negatively correlated with self-image score (r=-0.318, Ppositive attitude than female. With the improvement of educational level, more positive psychological reaction was documented in term of personal strength, self-transformation,but no obvious change in relationship with others, new possibilities and personal feeling. The better self image, the more positive psychological reaction was displayed.

  20. Stress-related psychological factors for back pain among athletes: Important topic with scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Jahan; Hasenbring, Monika; Kleinert, Jens; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Health issues represent a frequent problem for athletes, as this particular demographic is repeatedly confronted with physically and psychologically stressful situations. Back pain (BP) materialises as comparatively common health problem being regarded as functionally limiting and psychologically straining burden for athletes. According to research conducted on athletes with BP, biomechanical and physiological mechanisms emerge as influential, whereas stress-related psychological factors appear to be neglected. For athletic injuries, the essential impact of psychological processes on injury occurrence and return from injury has already been corroborated. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to: (1) introduce a conceptual differentiation between injuries and BP; (2) summarise the results obtained regarding stress-related psychological aspects for injuries; and (3) connect the injury research to the state-of-the-art evidence regarding stress-related factors for BP among athletes. A distinction between injuries and BP could be established based on previous definitions, despite the fact that a considerable overlap between both concepts prevails. Injuries can be attributed to a physical origin, whereas BP frequently lacks this physical criterion. For BP, our enquiry yielded four studies including psychological measures of stress - with two studies specifically examining the association between BP and psychological stress among athletes longitudinally. Abundant findings from the general population support the importance of considering psychological and specifically stress-related factors in BP prevention and rehabilitation, but evidence related to the athletic field remains elusive. Further scientific investigations with a wider methodological approach are needed to deepen the knowledge about the crucial relationship between psychological stress, BP, and athletes.

  1. Abilities and skills as factors explaining the differences in women entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Manzanera-Román

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study takes part of the project Women and entrepreneurship from a competence perspective and aims to investigate the role of skills and abilities in explaining the women entrepreneurship. In this sense, it works on the idea that women entrepreneurs have specific competences, understood as the sum of skills and abilities, that characterize and determine the type of female entrepreneurship (typology, sector, size, innovation, creativity. Methodologically, it worked from a qualitative approach, supported by conducting semi-structured interviews of men and women from different socio-economic and business profiles. From an inductive and interpretive discursive analysis, it can be concluded that businessmen and businesswomen agree to grant several skills and abilities to women entrepreneurs, although there are significant differences between the perceptions of women and men, subsisting some gender stereotypes in defining the profile of women entrepreneurs.

  2. A review of factors explaining variability in fentanyl pharmacokinetics; focus on implications for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuip, Evelien J M; Zandvliet, Maarten L; Koolen, Stijn L W; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van der Rijt, Carin C D

    2017-02-01

    Fentanyl is a strong opioid that is available for various administration routes, and which is widely used to treat cancer-related pain. Many factors influence the fentanyl pharmacokinetics leading to a wide inter- and intrapatient variability. This systematic review summarizes multiple studied factors that potentially influence fentanyl pharmacokinetics with a focus on implications for cancer patients. The use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers, impaired liver function, and heating of the patch potentially influence fentanyl pharmacokinetics in a clinically relevant way. In elderly patients, current data suggest that we should carefully dose fentanyl due to alterations in absorption and metabolism. The influence of BMI and gender on fentanyl pharmacokinetics is questionable, most probably due to a large heterogeneity in the published studies. Pharmacogenetics, e.g. the CYP3A5*3 gene polymorphism, may influence fentanyl pharmacokinetics as well, although further study is warranted. Several other factors have been studied but did not show significant and clinically relevant effects on fentanyl pharmacokinetics. Unfortunately, most of the published papers that studied factors influencing fentanyl pharmacokinetics describe healthy volunteers instead of cancer patients. Results from the studies in volunteers may not be simply extrapolated to cancer patients because of multiple confounding factors. To handle fentanyl treatment in a population of cancer patients, it is essential that physicians recognize factors that influence fentanyl pharmacokinetics, thereby preventing potential side-effects and increasing its efficacy. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Simulating environmental and psychological acoustic factors of the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman; Ayers, Andrew L; McNeer, Richard R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an operating room simulation environment was adapted to include quadraphonic speakers, which were used to recreate a composed clinical soundscape. To assess validity of the composed soundscape, several acoustic parameters of this simulated environment were acquired in the presence of alarms only, background noise only, or both. These parameters were also measured for comparison from size-matched operating rooms at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The parameters examined included sound level, reverberation time, and predictive metrics of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise. It was found that the sound levels and acoustic parameters were comparable between the simulated environment and the actual operating rooms. The impact of the background noise on the perception of medical alarms was then examined, and was found to have little impact on the audibility of the alarms. This study is a first in kind report of a comparison between the environmental and psychological acoustical parameters of a hospital simulation environment and actual operating rooms.

  4. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  5. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Nadine F. Marks

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported e...

  6. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  7. Psychological factors are closely associated with the Bell's palsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Xu, Shabei; Xiong, Jin; Huang, Guangying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    To observe the differences in psychological status between Bell's palsy (BP) patients and healthy subjects, and to examine the relationship between psychological factors and the severity of BP, we conducted a case-control, multi-center clinical investigation. A total of 695 subjects were assigned to the case group (n=355) and the control group (n=340). House-Brackmann grading system and Facial Disability Index (FDI) were adopted to assess the BP patients; Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and 16 Personality Factor (16PF) scale were employed to evaluate the psychological distress and personality profiles of all subjects. Two independent samples t test was used to compare the differences between cases and controls, and to compare the differences among different BP patients. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological factors and severity of facial paralysis. The results showed that psychological distress (K10) in case group (27.09±5.80) was significantly higher than that in control group (13.43±3.02) (t=-37.219, P=0.000). The scores of personality factor Warmth (A), Openness to Change (Q1), Self-Reliance (Q2) were lower in cases than in the controls (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively), whereas the scores of Sensitivity (I), Vigilance (L), Apprehension (O), and Tension (Q4) were significantly higher in cases than in the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). In addition, the psychological distress was significantly higher in female patients, severe (HB score IV-VI) patients, and subacute (onset time 72-168 h) patients compared with that in male patients, mild (HB score I-III)patients, and acute (onset time[Symbol: see text]72 h) patients (P<0.05). The scores of personality factor in female patients, severe patients, and subacute patients were also significantly different from male patients, mild patients, and acute patients (P<0.05). The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that

  8. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies......., and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...

  9. Risk Factors for Farmers' Suicides in Central Rural India: Matched Case-control Psychological Autopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. A matched case-control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy.

  10. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  11. Psychological, behavioral and familial factors in obese Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.

  12. Psychological resilience in sport performers: a review of stressors and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must utilise and optimise a range of mental qualities to withstand the pressures that they experience. In this article, we discuss psychological resilience in sport performers via a review of the stressors athletes encounter and the protective factors that help them withstand these demands. It is hoped that synthesising what is known in these areas will help researchers gain a deeper profundity of resilience in sport, and also provide a rigorous and robust foundation for the development of a sport-specific measure of resilience. With these points in mind, we divided the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we review the different types of stressors encountered by sport performers under three main categories: competitive, organisational and personal. Based on our recent research examining psychological resilience in Olympics champions, in the second section we discuss the five main families of psychological factors (viz. positive personality, motivation, confidence, focus, perceived social support) that protect the best athletes from the potential negative effect of stressors. It is anticipated that this review will help sport psychology researchers examine the interplay between stressors and protective factors, which will, in turn, focus the analytical lens on the processes underlying psychological resilience in athletes.

  13. The Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-12-22

    To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.

  14. A review of factors explaining variability in fentanyl pharmacokinetics; focus on implications for cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuip, E.J.M.; Zandvliet, M.L.; Koolen, S.L.; Mathijssen, R.H.; Rijt, C.C. van der

    2017-01-01

    Fentanyl is a strong opioid that is available for various administration routes, and which is widely used to treat cancer-related pain. Many factors influence the fentanyl pharmacokinetics leading to a wide inter- and intrapatient variability. This systematic review summarizes multiple studied

  15. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes : Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a)

  16. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  17. Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Chen, B.; Abades, S.; Reino, L.; Teng, S.; Ljungqvist, F.C.; Huang, Z.Y.X.; Liu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist

  18. Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohn, Torsten; Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars O.; Nielsen, Charlotte S.; Stahl, Wilhelm; Rühl, Ralph; Keijer, Jaap; Borel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e.g.

  19. Explaining the impact of blended learning on relevant factors in west Tehran Payame Noor University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By advances in information technology and considering the fast pace of innovation in targeted technologies, blended learning with the aim of satisfying the needs of blended learning is composed of online learning and face-to-face learning. The aim of the present paper is to study the impact of blended learning on the relevant factors through a mixed method. The study is considered fundamental in terms of research methodology. The present paper is carried out on students of West Tehran Payame Noor University, Iran through a questionnaire. According to the results, it is concluded from the perspective of students that although blended learning is formed of several factors such as face-to-face learning and virtual learning, this type of learning has significant impact on its constituent elements as well as on relevant factors related to this type of learning. Finally, the effectiveness of blended learning, virtual and face-to-face learning in accordance on their factors were determined and assessed which ultimately led to conclusions and recommendations to advance research objectives.

  20. Explaining Socioeconomic Inequalities In Student Achievement: The Role Of Home And School Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary; Cresswell, John; Ainley, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent that material, social, and cultural resources and schools account for the relationship between socioeconomic background and student achievement among 15-year-olds in 30 countries. Generally, cultural factors play a more important role in most countries although in a small minority of countries, material resources…

  1. Factors That Explain Placement Decisions for Students with Multiple Disabilities: Findings from National Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Sundeen, Todd; Hutchinson, Susan R.; Jackson, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    The Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study data set was utilised to examine the potential influences on placement decisions for students with multiple disabilities in the US. The sample consisted of 415 students. Specifically, the study investigated whether factors including students' prior special education experiences, parental…

  2. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  3. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Explain Racial Disparities in Invasive Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Isaac; Wesson, Paul; Gualandi, Nicole; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Harrison, Lee H; Lesher, Lindsey; Nadle, Joelle; Petit, Susan; Reisenauer, Claire; Schaffner, William; Tunali, Amy; Mu, Yi; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Invasive community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence in the United States is higher among black persons than white persons. We explored the extent to which socioeconomic factors might explain this racial disparity. A retrospective cohort was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program surveillance data for invasive community-associated MRSA cases (isolated from a normally sterile site of an outpatient or on hospital admission day ≤3 in a patient without specified major healthcare exposures) from 2009 to 2011 in 33 counties of 9 states. We used generalized estimating equations to determine census tract-level factors associated with differences in MRSA incidence and inverse odds ratio-weighted mediation analysis to determine the proportion of racial disparity mediated by socioeconomic factors. Annual invasive community-associated MRSA incidence was 4.59 per 100000 among whites and 7.60 per 100000 among blacks (rate ratio [RR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.80). In the mediation analysis, after accounting for census tract-level measures of federally designated medically underserved areas, education, income, housing value, and rural status, 91% of the original racial disparity was explained; no significant association of black race with community-associated MRSA remained (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, .92-1.20). The racial disparity in invasive community-associated MRSA rates was largely explained by socioeconomic factors. The specific factors that underlie the association between census tract-level socioeconomic measures and MRSA incidence, which may include modifiable social (eg, poverty, crowding) and biological factors (not explored in this analysis), should be elucidated to define strategies for reducing racial disparities in community-associated MRSA rates.

  5. Psychological factors that influence traumatic injury occurrence and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, R L; Banderet, L E; Reynolds, K L; Creedon, J F; Rice, V J

    2002-01-01

    This 9 month prospective study, conducted at the US Army Sergeants Major Academy (USASGMA), examined the association of selected psychological variables (e.g., measures of tension/anxiety, sleep disturbance, Type A behavior pattern) with injury occurrence and physical performance in 126 soldiers. ANOVA and logistic regression analyses revealed significant relationships between: 1) Traumatic injury occurrence and mean tension/anxiety scores, 2) Mean self-reported sleep disturbance scores and traumatic injury occurrence, 3) The Type A behavior pattern (abbreviated Jenkins Activity Survey) and number of sit-ups repetitions completed in 2 minutes, one component of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), 4) The Type A behavior pattern and total score APFT. No significant associations were found for mean tension/anxiety scores and overuse injuries, or Type A behavior pattern and two mile run time or number of push-up repetitions completed in 2 minutes. These data suggest traumatic injury occurrence is influenced by tension/anxiety and disturbances in sleep habits. Additionally, individuals with higher Jenkins Activity scores (characteristic of the Type A behavior pattern) perform better physically.

  6. Gingivitis, Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.

  7. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Garry J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.

  8. Cell phones and young drivers: a systematic review regarding the association between psychological factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulino, Francesca; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Arbogast, Helen; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Cell phone use among young drivers has become increasingly common in recent years. Young people are the most likely to accept the use of new technology and least likely to understand the risks associated with cell phone use while driving (CPWD; defined here as talking on the phone only) and texting while driving (TextWD). Due to inexperience, young drivers are the most at risk when using cell phones while driving and therefore should be the target of the majority of prevention strategies. The intent of this review is to determine factors that influence young drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD and suggest a basis for prevention campaigns and strategies that can effectively prevent current and future generations from using cell phones while driving. We conducted a search for original articles in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. All abstracts were reviewed and for those that met the inclusion criteria, full articles were obtained and assessed. Four hundred and twelve articles were identified in the search and, of those, 37 full-text articles were obtained. A total of 29 articles about the frequency of CPWD and the psychological effects influencing young driver's tendency to engage in CPWD were included. There was a high frequency of both CPWD and TextWD despite a high perceived risk of both behaviors. This discrepancy was explained by a high perceived controllability, the effect of social norms, call importance, and lack of effective law enforcement. The intervention strategies reviewed were also found to be ineffective over the long term. The systematic review reveals that young drivers are an at-risk group for distracted driving. We propose preventative strategies based on identifying factors that influence drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD as well as by reviewing strategies found in the reviewed articles. Further research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these proposed strategies.

  9. Are racial differences in patient-physician cancer communication and information explained by background, predisposing, and enabling factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Clara; Kaiser, Karen; Matthews, Alicia K; Johnson, Timothy P

    2010-04-01

    Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient-physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based on the Precede-Proceed Model. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether race differences in communication and information variables persisted after successively controlling for background, enabling, and predisposing factors. African American patients had higher interpersonal communication barriers than Whites, but this difference did not persist after controlling for background factors. African Americans also had higher unmet information needs and were less likely to receive the name of a cancer expert. These differences persisted after controlling for all other factors. Future research should focus on the informational disadvantages of African American patients and how such disadvantages may affect cancer treatment decisions.

  10. [Efficacy impacts of psychological factors on primary dysmenorrhea treated with acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guang-ying

    2011-06-01

    To explore the relationship between psychological factors and efficacy of acupuncture on primary dysmenorrhea. Sixty cases of primary dysmenorrhea were observed. Before acupuncture treatment, the self-designed confidence questionnaire was used to assess patients' confidence in acupuncture efficacy. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was adopted to assess patients' tension level during acupuncture. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were applied to assess the situations of patients' anxiety and depression. Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ) and Cattell sixteen personality factors questionnaire (16PF) were provided to assess the personal characters of patients. Pain intensity, pain duration and accompanied symptoms were recorded before and after acupuncture treatment so as to assess the efficacy. Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the psychological factors and acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea. There were significant differences in grading of dysmenorrhea, pain intensity score and pain duration after treatment as compared statistically with those before treatment (all Panxiety (r=-0.5906) in personality factors and the reduction of pain duration (r=0.9042) among efficacy indices were the highest. The overall correlation coefficients were all lower between the indices of psychological factors and canonical variables of dysmenorrhea efficacy. Acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea has a certain correlation with dominance and anxiety of patients' personality factors. But, the psychological factors do not play a leading role in acupuncture treatment.

  11. Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Torsten; Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    their association with disease risk. For instance, digestion enzymes fostering micellization (PNLIP, CES), expression of uptake/efflux transporters (SRARB1, CD36, NPC1L1), cleavage enzymes (BCO1/2), intracellular transporters (FABP2), secretion into chylomicrons (APOB, MTTP), carotenoid metabolism in the blood......Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e...

  12. Role of psychological factors in burning mouth syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Federica; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Vegni, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic medical condition characterised by hot, painful sensations in the lips, oral mucosa, and/or tongue mucosa. On examination, these appear healthy, and organic causes for the pain cannot be found. Several studies have yielded scant evidence of the involvement of psychological and/or psychopathological factors, and several have outlined a model for the classification of BMS. Aim This review aims to provide a systematic review of research examining the psychological, psychiatric, and/or personality factors linked to BMS. Findings Fourteen controlled studies conducted between 2000 and the present were selected based on stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. All studies but one reported at least some evidence for the involvement of psychological factors in BMS. Anxiety and depression were the most common and the most frequently studied psychopathological disorders among BMS patients. Discussion and conclusion Anxiety and depression play critical roles in this condition. Evidence on the role of personality characteristics of BMS patients has also been produced by a few studies. Further studies on the role of specific psychological factors in BMS are warranted, but the importance of a multidisciplinary approach (medical and psychological) to BMS is no matter of discussion.

  13. Inactive xylem can explain differences in calibration factors for thermal dissipation probe sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Indira; Kanety, Tal; Cohen, Shabtai

    2013-09-01

    Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) were calibrated in three diffuse porous fruit trees and one ornamental species in the field by comparison with heat pulse probes (nectarine and persimmon), in a greenhouse on lysimeters (apple and persimmon) and in the laboratory by pushing water through cut branches (apple, Peltophorum and nectarine). Two operational methods were used: continuous (constant thermal dissipation, CTD) and discontinuous, or transient, heating (transient thermal dissipation, TTD). Correction for the radial distribution of sap flux density was with an analytical function derived from a linear decrease in flux density with depth, as measured with a multi-depth 'Tmax' heat pulse system. When analyzed with previous calibration factors, the measured sap flow was sap flow using heat dissipation probes. Tree Physiol 1999;19:681-687) almost completely compensated for the underestimations. Calibrations are given for each species both before and after corrections of temperature differentials, along with a multispecies calibration. These results should be an important step in reconciling many reports of different calibration factors for TDP probes.

  14. Factors explaining desire for dental implant therapy: analysis of the results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narby, Birger; Bagewitz, Ingrid Collin; Soderfeldt, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible factors behind the desire for and changes in attitude toward implant treatment in a population of middle-aged and older individuals in Sweden. In 1989 and 1999, questionnaires were sent to 3,000 residents in Orebro County, Sweden. Response rates were 79% and 68%, respectively. Those responding to both questionnaires yielded a longitudinal study panel. Logistic regression models were done with "desire of implant treatment" and "changes in desire of implant treatment" as dependent variables. Older people, non-city residents, and those with one or several missing and unreplaced teeth changed their desire for implant treatment between study years. Effects of age, residence, and better dental status disappeared during the 10-year study period. Those who were edentulous and those with removable dentures (pseudo R2: 0.17) expressed lower desire for treatment than those with all teeth remaining or only one or a few teeth missing (pseudo R2: 0.24) in 1989. High income significantly increased the probability to desire implant treatment for the study panel at both study occasions (P = .016 and P = .034 for 1989 and 1999, respectively). Factors influencing desire for implant treatment were primarily income and dental status. The influence of young age, urban living, and dental status regarding the subgroup with one or several teeth missing in relation to those with all their teeth disappeared during the 10-year study period.

  15. [What factors help to explain satisfaction with Primary Health care in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola-Vacas, M; de Hevia-Payá, J; Rodríguez-Esteban, L

    2015-01-01

    To find out the factors that determine satisfaction with public primary health care in Spain. The work has considered a wide group of potential determining factors of that satisfaction, which are organised into 3 blocks of variables: Those related to the perceived quality in the care received, socioeconomic, and those relative to the state of health. The micro data of the Barómetro Sanitario (BS) of 2013, which are representative at a national level, were employed. After a prior first descriptive analysis, 2 multivariate models were estimated: One in which satisfaction is considered as being of a cardinal nature (regression model), and another in which it is contemplated as being of an ordinal nature (ordered probit model). There were practically no differences between the results obtained with one or other of the multivariate models. Not all the variables considered were statistically significant. Of the 3 blocks of variables studied, the one related to the perceived quality in the care received in the health centre exerts the greatest relevance in the explanation of satisfaction. The results obtained show that, by means of the management of the variables related to the perception of quality of care in health centres, public administrators and health professionals may have a highly favourable influence on the levels of satisfaction of primary health care patients. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial factors, quality of life, and psychological distress: ethnic differences in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Gibson, Douglas; Flattery, Maureen; Duncan, Angela; Hess, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Advances in treatment have prolonged life in heart failure (HF) patients, leading to increased attention to quality of life (QOL) and psychological functioning. It is not clear if ethnic differences exist in factors associated with psychological well-being. We examined psychosocial factors associated with depression and anxiety in 97 HF patients. Medical records were reviewed and patients (M age 53, 50% African American) completed surveys examining social support, coping, spirituality, and QOL for their association with depression and anxiety. Multiple regressions suggested that psychosocial factors were associated with psychological health. Patients with lower social support, lower meaning/peace and more negative coping reported greater depression; positive coping, and lower meaning/peace were associated with higher anxiety. Ethnicity stratified models suggested that spiritual well-being was associated with depression only among African Americans and QOL partially mediated this relationship. Findings suggest the importance of considering the unique psychosocial needs of diverse populations to appropriately target clinical interventions.

  17. Factors That Influence the Decision to Undergo Labiaplasty: Media, Relationships, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Does stage of cancer, comorbidity or lifestyle factors explain educational differences in survival after endometrial cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Ulla Holten; Ibfelt, Else; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    .11–1.67). Conclusion: Early detection in all educational groups might reduce social inequalities in survival, however, the unexplained increased risk for death after adjustment for prognostic factors, warrants increased attention to patients with short education in all age groups throughout treatment......Background: Several studies have documented an association between socioeconomic position and survival from gynaecological cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between level of education and survival after endometrial cancer among...... Danish women; and whether differences in stage at diagnosis and comorbidity contribute to the educational differences in survival. Methods: Women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database, with information on clinical...

  19. Thioflavin T fluorescence to analyse amyloid formation kinetics: Measurement frequency as a factor explaining irreproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiao, Mathew; Quittot, Noe; Bourgault, Steve

    2017-09-01

    The most frequent method to monitor amyloid formation relies on the fluorescence of thioflavin T (ThT). The present study reports a novel factor of irreproducibility in ThT kinetic assays performed in microplate. Discrepancies among kinetics of amyloid assembly, performed under quiescent conditions, were associated with the frequency of fluorescence measurement. Evaluating self-assembly of the islet amyloid polypeptide at short intervals hastened its fibrillization. This observation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence. This effect, attributed to agitation during microplate displacements between fluorescence measurements, reinforces the importance of a better standardization in amyloid formation assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological Factors Influencing the Decision of Urban Adolescents With Undiagnosed Asthma to Obtain Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Kingston, Sharon; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John S; Céspedes, Amarilis; George, Maureen

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are low users of medical care. Psychological factors and perceived reasons to not seek routine medical care may increase risk of nonuse by adolescents with undiagnosed asthma. This study tests if psychological factors were associated with seeing a medical provider for asthma-like symptoms; identifies adolescents' perceived reasons for not obtaining care; explores if psychological factors are associated with these perceptions; and explores if asthma severity moderates the relationships with psychological factors. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a baseline assessment of 349 urban, primarily ethnic minority adolescents with moderate to severe asthma-like symptoms but no asthma diagnosis who were enrolled in a controlled trial. The odds of seeing a provider for their asthma-like symptoms were significantly higher for those with asthma-related anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.644; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.242-2.176) and depressive symptoms (OR: 1.031; 95% CI: 1.004-1.059). The most commonly endorsed reason for noncare included a characterization of symptoms as not serious, past medical visits not diagnosed as asthma, fear of diagnosis, busy lifestyles, and not wanting medication. Psychological factors were not related to the number of reasons or to most of the commonly endorsed reasons. Adolescents with more asthma-related anxiety were less likely to characterize their breathing problems as serious (OR = .0583; 95% CI: .424-.802) and were more likely to report busy lifestyles (OR = 1.593; 95% CI: 1.122-2.261). Adolescent-perceived reasons for noncare were not pragmatic, but instead highlighted denial. Asthma-related anxiety was the most robust psychological factor associated with the decision to seek medical care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Explaining diet as a risk factor for periodontal disease in primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raindi, D; Thornley, A; Thornley, P

    2015-11-27

    An audit was carried out to assess the delivery of dietary advice in general dental practice for patients diagnosed with chronic/aggressive periodontitis, with the objective of finding ways to deliver dietary advice and improve patient education on a potentially important modifiable risk factor. Following a retrospective pilot sample, an initial sample of 50 patients (of dentists, a dental therapist and dental hygienist) was selected. The delivery of dietary advice and the method by which it was given was recorded as part of the data set. A semi-structured interview was also completed to discuss various aspects of delivering dietary advice. A staff meeting was carried out following the first cycle to raise awareness and inform on the link between diet and periodontal disease. Following this a second cycle was carried out to complete the audit cycle and the results were analysed. It was evident that following the first cycle dietary advice was not being given with respect to periodontal prevention. While the standard set was not met following re-audit there was significant improvement in the delivery of dietary advice as well as different ways to deliver the information. The feedback from the semi-structured interview suggested various obstacles in delivering dietary advice including lack of knowledge at first and also overloading patients with too much information initially. Using the entire dental team can be an effective way of educating our patients on risk factors for periodontal disease. It is important to note that this audit focused on clinicians delivering the advice and future direction should consider patient compliance and uptake of information.

  2. Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Managing wildland fire incidents can be fraught with complexity and uncertainty. Myriad human factors can exert significant influence on incident decision making, and can contribute additional uncertainty regarding programmatic evaluations of wildfire management and attainment of policy goals. This article develops a framework within which human sources of uncertainty...

  3. Student Success Factors in Graduate Psychology Professional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Noelle K.; Cerniak, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Research examining factors contributing to online students' success typically focuses on a single point in time or completion of a single course, as well as individual difference variables, such as learning style or motivation, that may predispose a student to succeed. However, research concerning longer term online student outcomes, such as…

  4. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  5. Psychological factors influencing self-disclosure in marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esteem, self-monitoring and social–demographic factors of gender, age, education qualification and duration of marriage. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study while a sample of 204 married people completed measures of ...

  6. Factors of collective psychological empowerment of active users in the online health community med.over.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovčič Andraž

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.

  7. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  8. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological factor is a factor that is mentally or spiritually concerned with the aspects in students’ acquisition. At least, four of many factors, such as anxiety, attitude, aptitude, and motivation influence the students’ process of language acquisition. However, to cope the psychological problems of learning second language, Kando, D. suggests the five strategies for coping with language anxiety, among of them are preparation strategy, relaxation, positive thinking, peer, and labeled resignation. Therefore, in maximizing the result of second language acquisition, the five strategies illustrated by Kando are important as an alternative solution.

  9. The Role of Academic and Social Factors in Explaining School Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Bubic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the focus within educational research is often placed on cognitive factors and academic achievements, children's social and emotional experiences are also very relevant for their overall school commitment. Consequently, the goal of the present study was to investigate the relevance of students' social self-efficacy and perceived academic control, as well as social integration and the perception of teacher support for their general school satisfaction. The study was conducted in elementary schools where a total of 302 students enrolled into seventh and eighth grade completed the prepared questionnaires. The obtained results indicated social integration, teacher support, perceived academic control and school achievement as statistically significant predictors of school satisfaction. Furthermore, perceived academic control was revealed as a mediator with regard to the relationship between other predictors with school satisfaction. These findings indicate the relevance of different types of students' beliefs regarding their own characteristics for their school satisfaction. They also suggest that in addition to their academic experience, children's social experiences also influence their school satisfaction and should be considered with more care when planning and organizing school activities.

  10. Factors Explaining Households’ Cash Payment for Solid Waste Disposal and Recycling Behaviors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety is one of the top policy priorities in some developing countries. This study analyzed the factors influencing waste disposal and recycling by households in South Africa. The data were collected by Statistics South Africa in 2012 during the General Household Survey (GHS. Analysis of the data was carried out with the Bivariate Probit model. The results showed that 56.03% and 31.98% of all the households disposed waste through local authority/private companies and own refuse dump sites, respectively. Limpopo and Mpumalanga had the highest usage of own refuse dump sites and dumping of waste anywhere. Littering (34.03% and land degradation (31.53% were mostly perceived by the households, while 38.42% were paying for waste disposal and 8.16% would be willing to pay. Only 6.54% and 1.70% of all the households were recycling and selling waste respectively with glass (4.10% and papers (4.02% being most recycled. The results of the Bivariate Probit model identified income, access to social grants, Indian origin, and attainment of formal education as significant variables influencing payment for waste disposal and recycling. It was inter alia recommended that revision of environmental law, alleviating poverty, and gender sensitive environmental education and awareness creation would enhance environmental conservation behaviors in South Africa.

  11. Success at the Summer Olympics: How Much Do Economic Factors Explain?

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    Pravin K. Trivedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many econometric analyses have attempted to model medal winnings as dependent on per capita GDP and population size. This approach ignores the size and composition of the team of athletes, especially the role of female participation and the role of sports culture, and also provides an inadequate explanation of the variability between the outcomes of countries with similar features. This paper proposes a model that offers two substantive advancements, both of which shed light on previously hidden aspects of Olympic success. First, we propose a selection model that treats the process of fielding any winner and the subsequent level of total winnings as two separate, but related, processes. Second, our model takes a more structural angle, in that we view GDP and population size as inputs into the “production” of athletes. After that production process, those athletes then compete to win medals. We use country-level panel data for the seven Summer Olympiads from 1988 to 2012. The size and composition of the country’s Olympic team are shown to be highly significant factors, as is also the past performance, which generates a persistence effect.

  12. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Duchaine, CS; Ndjaboué, R; Levesque, M; Vézina, M; Trudel, X; Gilbert-Ouimet, M; Dionne, CE; Mâsse, B; Pearce, N; Brisson, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates ...

  13. Psychological Factors in Experience of Pain During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrović, Ana Havelka; Bilić, Morana; Loncar, Larisa Buhin; Micković, Vlatko; Loncar, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Pain during delivery is unique because it is accompanied by powerful emotions. Emotions that occur in women during labor and delivery are closely tied to upbringing and culture in which they were raised and consequently with the sensation of experienced pain. According to the Melzack-Wall Theory of Pain, general mood is directly related to the intensity and quality of pain and it is therefore justifiable to presuppose that certain psychosocial factors will be linked with the intensity and quality of pain experienced during childbirth. (Melzack et al., 1981). We endeavored to show the effect of psychosocial factors that influence the intensity and quality of labor pain. Data was collected in a sample of 176 parturient women who delivered without Cesarean sections or epidural anesthesia. The intensity and quality of pain were obtained through the administration of the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form. Psychosocial factors included: number of births, presence of partner, self-evaluation of knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of birth and the completion of a pregnancy course. Labor and delivery pain is of high intensity anl the quality of pain is most frequently characterized as smarting, cramping, exhausting, and sharp. The presence of a partner and the completion of a pregnancy course is exercised by a small number of parturients. Self-evaluation of preexisting knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of delivery is predictive of the affective component of intensity of childbirth pain. Psychosocial factors have been shown as significant for the intensity and quality of experienced childbirth pain.

  14. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  15. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  16. The role of psychological factors in inflammatory rheumatic diseases: From burden to tailored treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, Henriët; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases have a long-lasting effect on patients' physical and psychological functioning, for instance, due to disabling symptoms and unpredictable disease course. Consequently, many patients show adjustment problems such as depressed mood, which in turn can negatively influence their disease outcome. Specific biopsychosocial factors have shown to affect this outcome. For example, daily stress, cognitive-behavioral risk factors such as pain catastrophizing and avoidance, and resilience factors such as optimism and social support influence the quality of life, physical symptoms of pain and fatigue, and inflammatory markers. Psychological interventions tackling these factors can have beneficial effects on physical and psychological functioning. Recent advances in screening for patients at risk, tailored treatment, and eHealth further broaden the efficiency and scope of these interventions while simultaneously optimizing patient empowerment. This chapter describes the biopsychosocial risk and resilience factors related to disease outcome and the possible benefits of psychological treatment strategies in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The role of psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in skin diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.

  18. What factors explain the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients referred with low back pain; a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Joost

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that the number of physical therapy treatment sessions varies over treatment episodes. Information is lacking, however, on the source and explanation of the variation. The purposes of the current study are: 1 to determine how the variance in the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP in the Netherlands is distributed over patient level, therapist level and practice level; and 2 to determine the factors that explain the variance. Methods Data were used from a national registration network on physical therapy. Our database contained information on 1,733 patients referred with LBP, treated by 97 therapists working in 41 practices. The variation in the number of treatment sessions was investigated by means of multilevel regression analyses. Results Eighty-eight per cent of the variation in the number of treatment sessions for patients with LBP is located at patient level and seven per cent is located at practice level. It was possible to explain thirteen per cent of all variance. The duration of the complaint, prior therapy, and the patients' age and gender in particular are related to the number of physical therapy treatment sessions. Conclusion Our results suggest that the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients with LBP mainly depends on patient characteristics. More variation needs to be explained, however, to improve the transparency of care. Future research should examine the contribution of psychosocial factors, baseline disability, and the ability to learn motor behavior as possible factors in the variation in treatment sessions.

  19. Differences in caregivers' psychological distress and associated factors by care recipients' gender and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.

  20. Challenging factors for enuresis treatment: Psychological problems and non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A prospective study of the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Ying Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional prospective study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer incidence. Methods: The subjects who scheduled to receive mammography screening were recruited from a medical center′s outpatient department in Taiwan. Psychological factors used for measurement were stress, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 1160 questionnaires were completed, which underwent statistical analysis using independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation, and multiple logistic regression. There were statistically significant differences in the average scores of the two groups with and without breast cancer for psychological factors of anxiety (t = −2.071; P = 0.039, depression (t = −3.035; P = 0.002, and stress (t = −4.087; P < 0.001. The crude odds ratio of the two groups showed that subjects with borderline anxiety were 2.576 times ( P = 0.001 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no anxiety. Subjects with depression were 4.078 times (P = 0.03 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no depression. Every point added to the average total stress score increased the additional risk of breast cancer by 1.124 times (P < 0.001. Conclusions: After making adjustments on educational factors, the results conclude that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can be considered predictors of breast cancer risk. To prevent and control breast cancer in women, the findings suggest that nurses should consider adding emphasis on psychological factors in women′s health education.

  2. De-qi, not psychological factors, determines the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Ming-Min; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of De-qi (, obtaining qi) and psychological factors on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea, with an attempt to explore the relationship among De-qi, psychological factors, and clinical efficacy. The patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly assigned to a group of acupuncture with manual manipulation (manipulation group, n=67) and an acupuncture group without manipulation (non-manipulation group, n=64). Pain intensity and pain duration were used as measures for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of the acupuncture treatment. De-qi, the sensations a patient experienced during the acupuncture treatment, was scored on a 4-point scale by the subjects. In addition, the psychological factors, including belief in acupuncture, the level of nervousness, anxiety, and depression, were quantitatively assessed. The personality of the subject was assessed using the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and 16 personality factor questionnaire (16PF). Complete data were obtained from 120 patients, 60 patients in each group. There were statistically significant differences in pain intensity (W=2410.0, P<0.01) and pain duration (W=3181.0, P<0.01) between the two groups. The number of De-qi acupoints (W=1150.5, P<0.01) and the average intensity of De-qi (W=1141.0, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the manipulation group as compared with their non-manipulation counterparts. The correlation coefficients between De-qi and therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture were greater than those between psychological factors and therapeutic efficacy. Compared with the psychological factors, De-qi contributed more to the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture in subjects with primary dysmenorrhea. Moreover, manual manipulation is a prerequisite for eliciting and enhancing the De-qi sensations, and De-qi is critical for achieving therapeutic effects.

  3. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  4. Quality of life after young ischemic stroke of mild severity is mainly influenced by psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, M.; Synhaeve, N.A.; van Rijsbergen, Marielle; de Leeuw, F.-E.; Mark, Ruth; Jansen, B.; de Kort, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term prognosis in terms of quality of life (QoL) in young stroke patients is of importance because they usually have a long life expectancy and extensive daily life demands. We aimed at determining which medical and psychological factors influence the QoL in young stroke patients

  5. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  6. 393 The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... The first hypothesis stated that there will be no significant relationship between peer influence and adolescent students' smoking behaviour. The findings this study indicate a significant relationship. It agrees with the. The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of Adolescent Students' ...

  7. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  8. Psychological factors are associated with subjective cognitive complaints 2 months post-stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M.; van Mierlo, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480856; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients

  9. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  10. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  11. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris

    2006-01-01

    Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  12. Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being, a Spanish exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); D. Díaz (Dario); R. Rodríguez-Carvajal (Raquel); A. Blanco (Amalio); B. Moreno-Jiménez (Bernardo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An

  13. Ryff's Six-Factor Model of Psychological Well-Being, a Spanish Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…

  14. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  15. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  16. [The role of some psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors in the intensity of postpartum blues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Denis, A; Theux, G; Chabrol, H

    2008-04-01

    Within days following birth, most women show signs of mood changes, commonly named baby blues. Baby blues can result in postpartum depression. Hence it appears important to explore in more details the clinical background related to the intensity of postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors to the intensity of postpartum blues. One hundred and forty-eight women participated in the study and completed questionnaires three days after delivery. A questionnaire was built to collect information on psychosocial and obstetrical factors. The Maternity Blues (Kennerley and Gath, 1989) was used to assess postpartum blues. Psychological factors were measured with the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (Shea et Tronick, 1988), the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarch et Mermelstein, 1983) and the Sarason's Social Support Questionnaire (1983). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict the intensity of postpartum blues by entering psychosocial factors, history of depression, obstetrical factors and psychological and relational factors. Significant predictors (maternal self-esteem, marital status, previous psychotherapeutic treatment, previous antidepressant treatment) were entered in a multiple regression analysis predicting the intensity of postpartum blues. This model accounted for 31% of the variance in the intensity of postpartum blues (F(4, 143)=17.9; Pblues and may be used in order to detect women who exhibit risk factors.

  17. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  18. Social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption. A comparison of three models to explain and predict mobile communication technology behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the

  19. Predicting mental health after living kidney donation: The importance of psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Lotte; Timman, Reinier; Laging, Mirjam; Zuidema, Willij C; Beck, Denise K; IJzermans, Jan N M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K

    2016-09-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus () and Ursin and Eriksen () that describe predictors of mental health mediated by stress. Prospective design. Living kidney donors (n = 151) were interviewed before donation and completed questionnaires 2.5 months before and 3 and 12 months post-donation. Using multilevel regression models, we examined whether appraisals, expectations, knowledge, social support, coping, life events, and sociodemographic characteristics predicted psychological symptoms and well-being and whether these relationships were mediated by stress. A greater increase in psychological symptoms over time was found among donors without a partner. Younger age, lack of social support, expectations of interpersonal benefit, lower appraisals of manageability, and an avoidant coping style were related to more psychological symptoms at all time points. The latter three were mediated by stress. No religious affiliation, unemployment, history of psychological problems, less social support, expectations of negative health consequences, and less positive appraisals were related to lower well-being at all time points. This study identified indicators of a lower mental health status among living kidney donors. Professionals should examine this profile before donation and the need for extra psychological support in relation to the number and magnitude of the identified indicators. Interventions should be focused on the changeable factors (e.g., expectations), decreasing stress/psychological symptoms, and/or increasing well-being. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Until now, research on psychological outcomes after living kidney donation revealed that mental health remained the same for the majority of

  20. CONTEXTUAL FACTORS AND MORAL EMOTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSMENT IN THE

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    IVÓN PAOLA GUEVARA MARÍN

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at testing a proposal relating contextual and emotional factors to prosocial and problematicbehaviors in adolescence. This proposal is based on ecological contextual models dealing with the influence ofmultiple factors on the explanation of psychological phenomena. The study was done on a sample of 239 nuclearfamilies with at least one son aged between 12 and 18 years old. The results showed that the main predictor ofprosocial behavior is the emotional factor, whereas for the psychological disadjustment behavior it is a proximal factor.It was also found that sympathy mediates both the relation between inductive discipline and the prosocial behavior,and the relation between acceptance and this adjustment behavior in adolescence.

  1. Factors explaining entrepreneurial skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Saravia Vergara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio presenta un análisis a nivel exploratorio de la evaluación de 74 Planes deNegocio, en el marco del curso Proyecto Empresarial en la Universidad del Pacífico, conel fin de identificar las competencias de emprendimiento de los estudiantes másrelevantes según la opinión de los jurados especialistas, y su incidencia en la evaluacióndel Proyecto. El análisis factorial del estudio, a nivel exploratorio y confirmatorio conaltos índices de confiabilidad y validez, identifica 4 conceptos vinculados a la evaluaciónde competencias: “aplicación de conocimientos”, “comunicación”, “manejo deinformación” y “visión empresarial, en lugar de las 7 dimensiones contenidas en elsistema de evaluación original: “Expresión Escrita”, “Expresión Oral”, “Creatividad”,“Información”, “Conceptos”, “Razonamiento” y “Decisiones”. Un segundo hallazgo delestudio es que los alumnos emprendedores fueron mejor evaluados en lascompetencias de “comunicación” y “manejo de información”, y peor evaluados en la“visión de negocios” y la “aplicación de conocimientos”. Como tercer hallazgo, el análisisestructural demostró que las dimensiones “visión de negocios”, “información” y“conocimiento” logran explicar la nota o evaluación final de los Planes de Negocio,mientras que las competencias de “comunicación” no influyen en la calificación de losjurados especialistas.

  2. Evaluating the importance of policy amenable factors in explaining influenza vaccination: a cross-sectional multinational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Thomson, Angus; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2017-07-12

    Despite continuous efforts to improve influenza vaccination coverage, uptake among high-risk groups remains suboptimal. We aimed to identify policy amenable factors associated with vaccination and to measure their importance in order to assist in the monitoring of vaccination sentiment and the design of communication strategies and interventions to improve vaccination rates. The USA, the UK and France. A total of 2412 participants were surveyed across the three countries. Self-reported influenza vaccination. Between March and April 2014, a stratified random sampling strategy was employed with the aim of obtaining nationally representative samples in the USA, the UK and France through online databases and random-digit dialling. Participants were asked about vaccination practices, perceptions and feelings. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with past influenza vaccination. The models were able to explain 64%-80% of the variance in vaccination behaviour. Overall, sociopsychological variables, which are inherently amenable to policy, were better at explaining past vaccination behaviour than demographic, socioeconomic and health variables. Explanatory variables included social influence (physician), influenza and vaccine risk perceptions and traumatic childhood experiences. Our results indicate that evidence-based sociopsychological items should be considered for inclusion into national immunisation surveys to gauge the public's views, identify emerging concerns and thus proactively and opportunely address potential barriers and harness vaccination drivers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

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    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  4. Reasons for living, meaning in life, and suicide ideation: investigating the roles of key positive psychological factors in reducing suicide risk in community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Neufeld, Eva; Flett, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles of reasons for living (RFL) and meaning in life (MIL) in potentially promoting mental health and well-being and protecting against suicide ideation among community-residing older adults and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA). Of 173 older adults initially recruited into a longitudinal study on late-life suicide ideation, 109 completed the RFL-OA and measures of cognitive and physical functioning and positive and negative psychological factors at a two-year follow-up assessment. We tested a model in which RFL and MIL protect against suicide ideation, controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also assessed the psychometric properties of the RFL-OA in community-residing older adults, investigating its internal consistency and its convergent (MIL, perceived social support, and life satisfaction), divergent (loneliness, depressive symptom severity, and suicide ideation), and discriminant validity (cognitive and physical functioning). RFL-OA scores explained significant variance in suicide ideation, controlling for age, sex, depressive symptom severity, and loneliness. MIL explained significant unique variance in suicide ideation, controlling for these factors and RFL, and MIL significantly mediated the association between RFL and suicide ideation. Psychometric analyses indicated strong internal consistency (α = .94), convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity for the RFL-OA relative to positive and negative psychological factors and cognitive and physical functioning. These findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting merit in investigating positive psychological factors together with negative factors when assessing suicide risk and planning psychological services for older adults.

  5. Peran Psychological Factors terhadap Pengambilan Keputusan Finansial (Studi Kasus pada Perusahaan Kalrez Petroleum (Seram) Ltd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarimatua, Yohannes Ronald; HUSAINI, ACHMAD

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know what psychological factors play a role in financial decision making on Kalrez Petroleum (Seram) Ltd. company. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research uses data collection method interviews and review of documentation. Data analysis using qualitative data analysis techniques to Miles and Hubberman. Based on the data analysis performed shows that there are thirteen factors that play a role in financial decision-makin...

  6. Body Esteem Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis and its Relationship with Demographic, Clinical and Socio-Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, M; Tasiemski, T; Dąbrowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The principal aim of this study was to verify if specific socio-demographic, clinical, and socio-psychological factors are correlates of body esteem in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study included 185 women with MS who completed the Body Esteem Scale (BES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Actually Received Support Scale (a part of the Berlin Social Support Scale), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patients were recruited as a result of cooperation with the Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Centre in Borne Sulinowo and Polish Society of Multiple Sclerosis. The demographic characteristics of the participants and their illness-related problems were determined with a self-report survey. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that four factors, psychological condition (R (2) = 0.23, p ≤ 0.001), received support (R (2) = 0.28, p ≤ 0.001), personal control (R (2) = 0.30, p ≤ 0.001), and physical condition (R (2) = 0.31, p ≤ 0.001), were significant correlates of the general body esteem in our study group of women with MS. The model explained 31 % of variance in body esteem. Positive body esteem, an important component of self-esteem in women with MS, is associated with better social support, overcoming negative illness-related appraisals and improvement of psychological well-being. Subjective perception of a negative impact of MS on one's physical condition may be helpful in the identification of women with MS being at increased risk of decreased body esteem.

  7. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    try to avoid the use of antibiotics made significantly fewer scenario-based decisions to prescribe. In the cross theory analysis, perceived behavioural control (TPB, evidence of habitual behaviour (OLT, CS-SRM cause (chance/bad luck, and intention entered the equation, together explaining 36% of the variance. When predicting intention, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 30%; SCT, 29%; CS-SRM 27%; OLT, 43%. GPs who reported that they had already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics had a significantly higher intention to manage URTIs without prescribing antibiotics. In the cross theory analysis, OLT evidence of habitual behaviour, TPB attitudes, risk perception, CS-SRM control by doctor, TPB perceived behavioural control and CS-SRM control by treatment entered the equation, together explaining 49% of the variance in intention. Conclusion The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.

  8. The experience of pain severity and pain interference in vulvodynia patients: The role of cognitive-behavioural factors, psychological distress and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Claudia; Chilcot, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic pain condition characterised by severe pain affecting the vulva. Biopsychosocial models have revealed the importance of illness perceptions, cognitive-behavioural variables and psychological distress in explaining the experience of pain and disability across several conditions. These factors have never been collectively examined in vulvodynia. We predicted that distress, fatigue, illness perceptions, and cognitive-behavioural factors would be associated with pain severity and interference among women with vulvodynia. This online cross-sectional study recruited 335 vulvodynia patients from an Italian charity association (Vulvodiniapuntoinfo.com), who completed pain severity and interference measures in addition to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Cognitive-Behavioural Symptom Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models controlling for demographic and illness characteristics, revealed that lower treatment control beliefs, greater illness identity, catastrophizing and psychological distress, were significant predictors of pain severity, explaining 35% of the variance. A second adjusted hierarchical regression model revealed that low treatment-control, higher fatigue, distress, and avoidance/resting behaviours were significant predictors of pain interference, explaining 48% of the variance. Distress, illness perceptions, fatigue, and cognitive-behavioural factors are associated with pain severity and interference in patients with vulvodynia, highlighting the importance of adopting a biopsychosocial approach in this setting. Future research should examine these factors over time to inform the development of future tailored interventions to help support women better manage vulvodynia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation into the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being

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    Carolina M. Henn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African studies investigating the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being (RPWB are needed to ensure that the instrument is valid and reliable within the South African context.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the RPWB within two South African samples. Motivation for the study: Although a substantial number of studies have been undertaken, results regarding the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being are inconclusive. There is a dearth of information in relation to South African studies examining the scales’ factor structure.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach using a crosssectional field survey design was utilised. An adult working group (n = 202 was selected using convenience sampling, and a student group (n = 226 was selected by means of purposive non-probability sampling. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted to examine the factor structure.Main findings: The preferred model was a two-factor model where all the positively worded items were grouped in the first factor and all the negatively worded items were grouped in the second factor.Practical/managerial implications: The factor structure of the original RPWB was not satisfactorily replicated and remains seemingly unsettled. The utility of negatively worded items should be considered carefully, and alternatives such as mixed response options and phrase completion should be explored. The scales should be used with caution.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature concerning the factor structure of the RPWB with an emphasis on the South African context. It contributes to ensuring that researchers and practitioners use a valid and reliable instrument when measuring psychological well-being.

  10. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  11. Correlations between postural control and psychological factors in vestibular schwannoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeyre, Laurence; Spitz, Elisabeth; Frère, Julien; Gauchard, Gerome; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2016-11-03

    Various individual factors have been described to influence postural performances related to vestibular schwannoma. However, psychological factors may also be involved in postural variations. To identify relationships between postural performances, illness perceptions, coping, anxiety-depression and quality of life of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Twenty-six patients who were scheduled for a surgical removal of a vestibular schwannoma underwent posturography tests and were asked to complete psychological questionnaires three days prior to surgery.The Sensory Organization Test, the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised, the Brief-COPE, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument were used for assessments. Correlations between posturography and psychological questionnaires were calculated. Balance disorders were associated with (i) impaired quality of life of patients, (ii) anxiety and depression affects, (iii) greater daily consequences, and with (iv) denial coping response. Given the association between balance disorders and psychological factors, health practitioners should be attentive to the deterioration of both aforementioned issues.

  12. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  13. Meaning in life: is it a protective factor for adolescents' psychological health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F

    2011-03-01

    Searching for a coherent meaning in life has long been proposed to be a protective factor in adolescent development. The present study aimed to examine meaning in life as a protective factor in a largely unstudied population: Romanian adolescents. Additionally, we sought to provide a novel, multidimensional assessment of several health-related variables (substance abuse, health risk behaviors, psychological health). Potential gender differences were explored regarding the role of life meaning in adolescent health. Data were collected in 2006 from students enrolled in the secondary schools of the Middle Transylvanian Region, Romania (n = 1,977). Self-administered questionnaires were used as a method of data collection including items of life meaning and psychological health. Meaning in life played a protective role with regard to health risk behaviors except smoking and binge drinking. Among males, meaning in life was found to be correlated only to illicit drug and sedative use, whereas among females, meaning in life was associated with binge drinking, unsafe sex, and lack of exercise and diet control. Psychological health was strongly related to meaning in life. In Romanian adolescents, meaning in life is a protective factor against health risk behaviors and poor psychological health.

  14. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  15. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-07-25

    The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  16. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  17. What factors explain pregnant women's feeding intentions in Bradford, England: a multi-methods, multi-ethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Waiblinger, Dagmar; Santorelli, Gillian; McEachan, Rosemary R C

    2014-01-28

    Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N = 258), mixed-feeding (N = 50), bottle-feeding (N = 88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N = 88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR = 0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR = 1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR = 13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR = 10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding.

  18. Psychological Factors and Their Association with Ideal Cardiovascular Health Among Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Lena; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Utuama, Ovie A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Veledar, Emir; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur; Zhao, Di; Michos, Erin D

    2018-01-29

    The cardiovascular effects of stress and other psychological factors may be different between women and men. We assessed whether self-perceived adverse psychological factors were associated with achievement of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as measured by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven (LS7) and whether this differed by sex. This was a cross-sectional study of employees from a large healthcare organization. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), intermediate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were categorized as optimal (11-14), average (9-10), and inadequate (0-8). Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychological factors obtained by questionnaire (self-perceived stress, low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, depression, and anxiety) were associated with CVH, after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and education. Among 9,056 participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (12) years, 74% were women, 57% Hispanic/Latino, 17% white, and 16% black. Stress was associated with reduced odds of having optimal/average CVH [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50-0.66) and 0.63 (0.50-0.81), for women and men, respectively]. Similarly, depression was associated with reduced odds of optimal/average CVH [0.58 (0.43-0.78) and 0.44 (0.26-0.76), for women and men, respectively]. Low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, and anxiety were also associated with statistically significantly lower odds of optimal/average CVH in women, but not in men; however, there were no interactions by sex. In an ethnically diverse population, both women and men with several adverse self-perceived psychological factors were less likely to have optimal or adequate CVH. Future studies are needed to determine whether addressing psychological stressors can improve CVH.

  19. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  20. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-03-01

    Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents' homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden's yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007-2011 and child supplements with children 10-18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K; Pensgaard, A M; Bahr, R

    2009-06-01

    Identifying and understanding injury risk factors are necessary to target the injury-prone athlete and develop injury prevention measurements. The influence of psychological factors on injuries in football is poorly documented. The purpose of this 8-month prospective cohort study therefore was to examine whether psychological player characteristics assessed by a self-administered questionnaire represent risk factors for injury. At baseline, female football players (14-16 years) were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire covering player history, previous injuries, perception of success and motivational climate, life stress, anxiety and coping strategies. During the 2005 season, a total of 1430 players were followed up to record injuries. A history of a previous injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.9 (1.4; 2.5), Pfootball players.

  2. Do Differences in Risk Factors Explain the Lower Rates of Coronary Heart Disease in Japanese Versus U.S. Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J.; Usui, Takeshi; Carr, John Jeffrey; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J.M.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Watanabe, Makoto; Tracy, Russell P.; Bertolet, Marianne H.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Nishimura, Kunihiko; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H.; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in women in Japan is one of the lowest in developed countries. In an attempt to shed some light on possible reasons of lower CHD in women in Japan compared with the United States, we extensively reviewed and analyzed existing national data and recent literature. Methods We searched recent epidemiological studies that reported incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and examined risk factors for CHD in women in Japan. Then, we compared trends in risk factors between women currently aged 50–69 years in Japan and the United States, using national statistics and other available resources. Results Recent epidemiological studies have clearly shown that AMI incidence in women in Japan is lower than that reported from other countries, and that lipids, blood pressure (BP), diabetes, smoking, and early menopause are independent risk factors. Comparing trends in risk factors between women in Japan and the United States, current levels of serum total cholesterol are higher in women in Japan and levels have been similar at least since 1990. Levels of BP have been higher in in Japan for the past 3 decades. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been similar in Japanese and white women currently aged 60–69 for the past 2 decades. In contrast, rates of cigarette smoking, although low in women in both countries, have been lower in women in Japan. Conclusions Differences in risk factors and their trends are unlikely to explain the difference in CHD rates in women in Japan and the United States. Determining the currently unknown factors responsible for low CHD mortality in women in Japan may lead to new strategy for CHD prevention. PMID:24073782

  3. Appropriateness and limitations of factor analysis methods utilized in psychology and kinesiology: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modelling techniques and application of models that extract latent variables are recent predominant techniques in the applied multivariate statistical procedures in social sciences. We believe that correlation studies can provide adequate findings if they are supported by logical analysis or causal modelling procedures. It is important to emphasize that factor analysis methods alone do not reveal the cause of covariability and that the final result of factor analytical investigation depends, in part, on the decisions and interpretations of the researcher. The question of the minimum sample size in factor analysis, ambiguousness of results obtained by FA and mathematical problems in the use of FA is particularly scrupulously discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the factor analysis of data obtained from experiments on the scientific paradigm was analyzed, with emphasis on the current problems with its application in social sciences research. Neither method, including factor analysis, is sufficient to answer all problem issues in the field of psychology and kinesiology. Therefore, it is necessary to combine complementary methods within the research which will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the researched phenomena and a greater validity of empirical results. Finally, reducing theories in psychology to a psychometric method and theories in kinesiology to a kinesiometric method is an anomaly of numerous quantitative studies within these scientific disciplines, making identification, instead of explanation of multi-causal nature of psychological and kinesiological phenomena, a primary focus of the research.

  4. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  5. Contributions of risk and protective factors to prediction of psychological symptoms after traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eve B; Palmieri, Patrick A; Field, Nigel P; Dalenberg, Constance J; Macia, Kathryn S; Spain, David A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic experiences cause considerable suffering and place a burden on society due to lost productivity, increases in suicidality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychological disorder. The impact of traumatic experiences is complicated because many factors affect individuals' responses. By employing several methodological improvements, we sought to identify risk factors that would account for a greater proportion of variance in later disorder than prior studies. In a sample of 129 traumatically injured hospital patients and family members of injured patients, we studied pre-trauma, time of trauma, and post-trauma psychosocial risk and protective factors hypothesized to influence responses to traumatic experiences and posttraumatic (PT) symptoms (including symptoms of PTSD, depression, negative thinking, and dissociation) two months after trauma. The risk factors were all significantly correlated with later PT symptoms, with post-trauma life stress, post-trauma social support, and acute stress symptoms showing the strongest relationships. A hierarchical regression, in which the risk factors were entered in 6 steps based on their occurrence in time, showed the risks accounted for 72% of the variance in later symptoms. Most of the variance in PT symptoms was shared among many risk factors, and pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors accounted for the most variance. Collectively, the risk factors accounted for more variance in later PT symptoms than in previous studies. These risk factors may identify individuals at risk for PT psychological disorders and targets for treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Investigating risk factors for psychological morbidity three months after intensive care: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Howell, David C; Weinman, John A; Hardy, Rebecca J; Mythen, Michael G; Brewin, Chris R; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Matejowsky, Claire F; Raine, Rosalind A

    2012-10-15

    There is growing evidence of poor mental health and quality of life among survivors of intensive care. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the trauma of life-threatening illness, associated drugs and treatments, or patients' psychological reactions during intensive care contribute to poor psychosocial outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the relative contributions of a broader set of risk factors and outcomes than had previously been considered in a single study. A prospective cohort study of 157 mixed-diagnosis highest acuity patients was conducted in a large general intensive care unit (ICU). Data on four groups of risk factors (clinical, acute psychological, socio-demographic and chronic health) were collected during ICU admissions. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and quality of life were assessed using validated questionnaires at three months (n = 100). Multivariable analysis was used. At follow-up, 55% of patients had psychological morbidity: 27.1% (95% CI: 18.3%, 35.9%) had probable PTSD; 46.3% (95% CI: 36.5%, 56.1%) probable depression, and 44.4% (95% CI: 34.6%, 54.2%) anxiety. The strongest clinical risk factor for PTSD was longer duration of sedation (regression coefficient = 0.69 points (95% CI: 0.12, 1.27) per day, scale = 0 to 51). There was a strong association between depression at three months and receiving benzodiazepines in the ICU (mean difference between groups = 6.73 points (95% CI: 1.42, 12.06), scale = 0 to 60). Use of inotropes or vasopressors was correlated with anxiety, and corticosteroids with better physical quality of life. Strikingly high rates of psychological morbidity were found in this cohort of intensive care survivors. The study's key finding was that acute psychological reactions in the ICU were the strongest modifiable risk factors for developing mental illness in the future. The observation that use of different ICU drugs correlated with different psychological outcomes merits further

  7. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter's education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed.

  8. Psychological factors related to temporomandibular disorders: an evaluation of students preparing for college entrance examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Maisa Reis; Sabadin, Patricia A; Leite, Fabiola P P; Kamizaki, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to research how stress and anxiety affected the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in 55 high school graduates at two different times: six months before and one the week before their college entrance examinations. The American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) Questionnaire, Lipp's Stress for Adults Inventory (ISSL) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate TMD, stress and anxiety, respectively. The data were submitted to Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests. At first the results showed higher positive correlation between anxiety and TMD than between stress and TMD. Out of the total participants, 36% had TMD, and of these, only 12.7% had no psychological disorder. One week before the tests there were high positive correlations between TMD and the psychological factors studied, and 50.9% of the students had TMD, of which only 9% had no psychological disorder The most prevalent signs of TMD symptomatology were joint sounds and headache, followed by neck pain. It was concluded that students preparing to take college entrance examinations are a potential risk group for developing TMD due to psychological factors generating anxiety and stress. Anxiety becomes more significant as the semester progresses, and both anxiety and stress increase as the examination dates approach.

  9. Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Simon M; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Hughes, Rachael A; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Crawley, Esther

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed up to eight times between pregnancy and age 6 years. We investigated critical periods for maternal effects and effects of paternal depression at three time points. Child psychological factors included internalizing and externalizing problems and upsetting life events occurring at age 7-8 years. Of 5,657 children, 110 (1.9%) had chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years. Maternal anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.31 per episode), maternal depression (AOR, 1.24; CI, 1.11-1.39 per episode), child psychological problems (AOR, 1.19; CI, 1.00-1.41 per problem), and upsetting events (AOR, 1.22; CI, .99-1.58 per event) were associated with chronic disabling fatigue. Associations of child psychological problems and upsetting events were attenuated (AOR, 1.12; CI, .93-1.33 per problem; AOR, 1.19; CI, .94-1.52 per event) after further adjusting for maternal anxiety and depression. Pediatricians need to be aware that children whose mothers experience anxiety and/or depression between pregnancy and child's age 6 years have an increased risk of developing chronic disabling fatigue in early adolescence. Conversely, clinicians need to be alert to fatigue in children whose mothers have longstanding anxiety and depression. These findings suggest the importance of family-based approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Why factors rooted in the family may solely explain the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    explain the urban-rural differences. Although other potential explanations for these differences exist, we focus on this hypothesis as it has not previously been discussed in detail. To determine the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences, we need direct measurements of genetic and......Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. The underlying cause(s) may hypothetically include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. In a recent study, we concluded that some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences...... in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals. First, we describe temporality as a potential methodological pitfall within this line of research, then we review studies not subject to this pitfall, and finally, we describe why factors rooted in the family may solely...

  11. Social disorganization and the profile of child welfare: Explaining child welfare activity by the community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrikari, Timo

    2014-10-01

    This article addresses the question of the structure of local child welfare activities in light of community-level factors. It poses the following research questions: how are different community-level factors related to child welfare client structures in communities and what is the extent to which these factors explain structural differences? The applied theoretical framework is based on social disorganization and strain theories as well as human developmental approach. The data has been collected from two Finnish national databases and it consists of variables containing 257 Finnish municipalities. The method of analysis is multinomial logistic regression. The results suggest that the local child welfare structures are tied to social disorganization, policing and culture as well as to the intensity of control in the communities. In general, the more fragile the communal structures, the more last-resort child welfare there is in the community. Combining fragile communal structures with weak dependency ratio and high proportion of social workers, the more intense the level of child welfare statistics indicated. The results indicate that the theoretical framework for the application of child welfare activity analysis is justified, but they also suggest that it requires further development through both context-bound reflection and application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa ePicco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  14. Psychological Factors and Mortality Risk in a Rural Area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Yasuko; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to assess the association between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Methods We used follow-up data for 4,181 persons from 40 to 79 years over a period of 17.6 years from one part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The status of the individuals comprising the data of the study as of the end of December 2006 was determined from their registration cards and death records. We calculated the proportions of selected variables among 5 psychological factors by sex. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Data were adjusted for age, medical history, education, job status, marital status, drinking, smoking, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index and breakfast. Results During the follow-up period, a total of 791 deaths were recorded. Men who reported feelings of being trusted had a decreased risk for mortality risk from all causes compared with the risk of those who reported “maybe”, whereas those without feelings of being trusted had increased risk for mortality risk from all causes. Conclusion This study suggests that the absence of feelings of being trusted increases the risk of all causes of mortality among middle-aged and elderly men in a rural area. Our findings suggest that interpersonal relationships comprise an important factor in longevity. PMID:25324588

  15. [Relationship between neuro-psychological factors and effect of acupuncture in treating Bell's palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun-Hua; Gao, Shan; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of neuro-psychological factors on the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of Bell's palsy and the overall prognosis in patients. Fifty patients with Bell's palsy were randomized into the treatment group and the control group, and they were treated with manipulated and non-manipulated acupuncture, respectively. Scorings by subjective perceptive scale of acupuncture, Cartel personality test, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were performed and the curative effect was assessed according House-Brackmann grading standards. The total effective rate of acupuncture was 78.0% (39/50), and that of manipulated acupuncture was better than that of non-manipulated acupuncture [89.2% (25/28) vs. 63.6% (14/22), P 16PF) found that patients with personality factors of sociability, intellectuality, excitability, braveness, and independence were capable of getting "Deqi" more easily, there existed a significant correlation between personality factors and curative effect. By Hamilton Anxiety Scale scoring, 92.0% (46/50) of the patients were found being in an anxiety state, and the efficacy of treatment was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety (r = -0.9491, P < 0.05). Neuro-psychological factors put great influence on the efficacy of treatment for Bell's palsy, multiple measures, such as drug-therapy, acupuncture, psychological intervention, rehabilitation therapy, etc., should be taken in combination for improving patients' prognosis.

  16. FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF TEENAGERS TO EDUCATION IN SUVOROV MILITARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the content of the concept ofsocio-psychological adaptation.Methods. In the course of work theoretical methods of research are used: an overview and synthesis of approaches to the study of such a theoretical construct as adaptation and disadaptation; practical methods: methods of diagnostics of socio-psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and P. Diamond (SPA and multi-factor personality questionnaire by R. Cattell (CPQ. The research is summative. Statistical processing is carried out using the computer programs STATISTICA 6.0 and MS Excel; the method of multiple regression analysis is used to highlight the personal factors influencing the level of adaptation of pupils of the Suvorov military school. Results. According to the empirical study, the authors describe the obtained factors of socio-psychological adaptation and disadaptation of adolescents enrolled in the course at Suvorov military school of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The results of empirical research of features of adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of a military educational institution are presented. Special attention is paid to the selection of personality traits characterizing the failure probability of disadaptation. The authors justified the need and described the possibility of organizing a psychological-pedagogical support of adolescents at the initial stage of studying in military educational institution of the closed type.Scientific novelty. The article proposes the authors’ approach to the concept of socio-psychological adaptation; the main indicators of successful socio-psychological adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of Suvorov military school are identified; the indicators that predict the risk of the failure probability of disadaptation are given. It is concluded that the development of adaptive capacity should be achieved through personal components.Practical significance. The

  17. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  18. Aging and low back pain among exercise participants: a follow-up study with psychological adaptation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.

  19. Some individual psychological characteristics as protective or risk factors for occurrence of conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 30 pairs of siblings aged 12-18 years; one sibling with and one without conduct disorder in each pair. The aim of the study was to assess individual characteristics of those siblings, i.e. to determine differences in psychological characteristics of the siblings with regard to locus of control, stress coping strategies and frequency and structure of behavioral problems and emotions. The results suggested significant differences in individual characteristics of children with conduct disorder and their healthy siblings. These results mainly confirm previous results of foreign research on a sample of our population. Exception of findings was related to strategies for coping with stress: religious behavior that didn’t turn out as a protective factor and avoiding confrontation and withdrawal which are shown as a protective factor. These results suggest the importance of individual psychological characteristics for the occurrence of conduct disorders and have implications in therapy and in preventive work with adolescents.

  20. What factors explain pregnant women’s feeding intentions in Bradford, England: A multi-methods, multi-ethnic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. Methods 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N = 258), mixed-feeding (N = 50), bottle-feeding (N = 88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N = 88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. Results TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR = 0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR = 1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR = 13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR = 10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Conclusions Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding. PMID:24472414

  1. Psychological risk factors of social maladjustment and protective factors in alcohol-dependent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshakova E.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychological characteristics of alcohol-dependent women, including the particularities of subjective psychological symptomatic status, psychological well-being, motivation, social desirability and self-esteem. We tested the hypothesis that: 1 alcohol-dependent women expressed less motivation of social desirability and expressed more subjectively perceived symptoms in comparison with normal; 2 alcohol-dependent women have lower levels of well-being, self-esteem and level of aspiration in comparison with the conventional norm. The experimental group consisted of 46 women (mean age 45 years who are dependent on alcohol. The comparison group included 33 women with normal behavior who are not dependent on alcohol (the average age 33 years. We have found that a statistically significant contribution to the classification of women in a group of alcohol-dependent is made by low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, low real self-evaluation of their success in business, willpower and mental health, low ideal self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and mind, achievable self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and visual attractiveness, the average level of the personal growth as basic component of well-being.

  2. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questio...

  3. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  4. Relevant risk factors, current eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero García, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study is to assess retrospectively the relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs). The second aim is the assessment of eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evaluation prior to intervention of 73 patients with bulimia nervosa of the purging type (BN-P; n=29), binge eating disorder (BED; n=6), eating disorder not otherwise specified purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17...

  5. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunni Oluwoye; Salam Khan; Jacob Oluwoye; Russell J. Fricano; Earl M. Gooding; Joan Fobbs-Wilson; Jitendra Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consi...

  6. Subjective Factors of the Hospital Environment and Their Influence on Psychological Well-being of Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Agalarova K.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between man and the space around him, namely between the patient and hospital environment. The article gives a little insight into the history of the issue. The study held in a number of hospitals explored the influence of hospital environment on the psychological state of patients and their recovery, as well as the searching of behavior patterns of patients staying in the hospital. There are several main factors in the right treatment: ...

  7. Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Mocci, F; Serra, A.; Corrias, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine the part played by psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs).
METHODS—Out of a population of 385 bank workers, a group of 212 subjects without organic visual disturbances (as determined by opthalmological examination) who share a work environment and job duties was selected. Three questionnaires were administered to these subjects: (a) the NIOSH job stress questionnaire; (b) a questionn...

  8. Functional discrepancies between tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin alpha explained by trimer stability and distinct receptor interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuchmann, M; Hess, S; Bufler, P

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) are closely related cytokines which bind with nearly identical affinities to the same pair of cell surface receptors, p55 and p75TNFR. Therefore it is assumed that TNF and LT alpha are redundant cytokines. This study, however, demonstra......Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) are closely related cytokines which bind with nearly identical affinities to the same pair of cell surface receptors, p55 and p75TNFR. Therefore it is assumed that TNF and LT alpha are redundant cytokines. This study, however......, demonstrates that TNF and LT alpha differ significantly with regard to their mitogenic and cytotoxic potentials. LT alpha's superior mitogenic effect could be explained by its formation of a more stable trimer. In contrast to the TNF trimer, which disintegrated under physiological conditions into biologically...... inactive monomers, the LT alpha trimer remained stable for several days. Accordingly, LT alpha more effectively induced fibroblast growth which demands long-term presence of the cytokine. TNF's superior cytotoxicity, which requires only short-term impact of the cytokine, could be attributed to a distinct...

  9. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in elderly Japanese-Brazilian immigrants does not explain the reduced cardiovascular risk factor incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, N; Moriguchi, Y; Bittencourt, L; Trois, R S; Piccoli, J E C; Cruz, I B M

    2011-09-09

    Study of immigrant populations may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of diseases associated with the aging process. We examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism, in elderly subjects who were born in Japan, migrated to South Brazil and have lived in that region for over 40 years, versus a group of elderly, locally born Brazilians living in the same region. These Japanese subjects came to Brazil after World War II (1950-1960) from several Japanese cities, mainly Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Hokkaido. Among 1007 subjects genotyped for ApoE polymorphism, we selected 540 elderly subjects (>60 years old), consisting of 270 Japanese-Brazilians and 270 Brazilians of European ancestry from Rio Grande do Sul State (Gaucha population). The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly lower prevalences of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome than did the Gaucho population group. ApoE polymorphism frequencies were similar in the two groups. The differences in cardiovascular risk factors observed in the two populations cannot be explained by ApoE polymorphism; they could be related to conservation of Japanese lifestyle habits, such as diet.

  10. [Longitudinal study on adolescents' psychological resilience and its impact factors in 5.12 earthquake-hit areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolan; He, Furong; Jiang, Min; Zhou, Yanyang

    2013-11-01

    To explore the trajectory of psychological resilience and its impact factors of adolescents in earthquake-hit areas by latent variable growth curve model (LGM) and to find out protective factors for psychological resilience. Longitudinal design was administrated. All grade one students in two junior high schools in the heavily and slightly earthquake-hit areas respectively were investigated by follow-up study in one year. Repeated measures analysis of variance and latent variable growth curve model were used for statistical analysis. The three-time measurements of psychological resilience of adolescents in the heavily earthquake-hit areas were significantly lower than corresponding measurements of the slightly earthquake-hit areas all along. There was an ascending trend of adolescent's psychological resilience and objective support over one year (P protective factors of resilience were self-esteem and subjective support and indirectly protective factors were objective support and utilization of social support. The psychological resilience of boys was higher than that of girl, but the change trend of psychological resilience was no difference between boys and girls. Psychological resilience of adolescents had dynamic characteristics. Psychological resilience of adolescents would be damaged in disasters but it could be recovered through enhance internal and external protective factors.

  11. Research on psychological and social factors in palliative care: an invited commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Psychosocial factors are a major determinant of well-being in patients with advanced disease. However, the development of valid and reliable measures of meaningful and relevant outcomes and randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of novel interventions are relatively recent accomplishments. To discuss significant developments in psychosocial research, including work of the author, in palliative populations and to identify areas where uncertainty and controversy persist. The impact of systematic research on psychosocial factors in palliative care over the past four decades is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the development of relevant measures of psychological outcomes and to the results of pilot studies and randomized controlled trials of psychosocial interventions. A variety of factors, including methodological limitations, protective attitudes of health-care providers, and the progressive deterioration of patients with terminal disease, have presented obstacles to psychosocial research in palliative care. The more recent development of valid and reliable measures of psychological distress and psychological well-being has significantly advanced research in the field. Pilot studies and randomized controlled trials of psychosocial interventions have yielded promising results, although the demonstrated impact on primary outcomes in these studies has typically been modest. Psychosocial research in palliative care has grown in rigor and volume over the past several decades, and a variety of novel interventions have been developed and evaluated. However, the findings from this research have only begun to have an impact on clinical practice in palliative care.

  12. Subjective Factors of the Hospital Environment and Their Influence on Psychological Well-being of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalarova K.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between man and the space around him, namely between the patient and hospital environment. The article gives a little insight into the history of the issue. The study held in a number of hospitals explored the influence of hospital environment on the psychological state of patients and their recovery, as well as the searching of behavior patterns of patients staying in the hospital. There are several main factors in the right treatment: the doctor’s qualification, quality of medical equipment, novelty of medical technology and medicines prescribed to patients but also the conditions of the hospital environment and trusting relationship between patient and doctor as well. This theme is insufficiently explored especially in Russian medicine. Its studying will serve as a referral base for a more effective treatment of patients, and also for a creating a conducive hospital environment. This theme is interdisciplinary in nature. Mainly it refers to the subject of environmental psychology, also located at the junction of personality, health psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

  13. The factors that explain the major agglomeration of the industry of high technology in the north border of Mexico: the case of Matamoros and Reynosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Cruz; Guadalupe Isabel Ceballos Álvarez; Adolfo Rogelio Cogco Calderón

    2014-01-01

    .... In this sense, the aim of this study is to know and analyze from the perspective of pecuniary and technological externalities factors that explain the change in the agglomeration of high-tech manufacturing...

  14. [The relationship between fat intake behavior and psychological impact factor in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xian; Huang, Xianhong; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Liangwen

    2015-02-01

    To learn the dietary fat intake behavior status and influencing psychological factors in teenagers. According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, students were recruited from middle and high schools in Hangzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an from March to May, 2012. Chinese version of adolescent dietary fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales was utilized in field investigations with 3 448 effective questionnaires. Under the transtheoretical model, the status quo of teenagers fat intake behavior was analyzed and it shows the relationship between stages and psychological variables, including strategy of change, decision balance and self-efficacy. In the 3 448 participants, the proportion of girls were 52.4% (1 806/3 448) and boys were 47.6% (1 642/3 448), while the mean age was (14.85 ± 1.46). There are significant differences among distributed stages of behavior change, grouped by gender, grade and region (χ(2) values were 33.59, 20.53, 27.92, P behavior change, which showed a significant difference (F values were 155.12, 19.86, 44.59, 94.27, P behavioral stage (from 14.7 ± 4.4 to 12.2 ± 3.9). Post hoc comparison also found that the score of process of change, decision balance (pros) and self-efficacy after action stages were higher than those before action, while the score of decisional balance (cons) in the precontemplation stage was higher than that in the other 4 stages. Fat intake behavior in teenagers showed different stages, whose psychological factors had significant influences, with decision balance (pros) hindered the progress of stages of behavior change, while other three factors played a positive role.

  15. The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joanne; King, Ross; Skouteris, Helen

    2014-11-01

    Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  17. The Provision of Psychological Therapy to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Investigation into Some of the Relevant Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…

  18. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  19. Better design of menu selection systems through cognitive psychology and human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kent L

    2008-06-01

    In this study, I seek to emphasize the contributions of cognitive psychology and human factors research in the design of menu selection systems. Menu selection systems are used in computer interfaces to allow users to enter choices, set parameters, and navigate to items, functions, and locations. Designers of these systems have many choices concerning the organizational structure and layout of the menu interface. I review several of these concerning hierarchies of menus, organization and clustering of items, and item distinctiveness. Special attention is given to cases in which designer's intuition differed from theory and experimental results. Cognitive psychology and human factors have contributed both theory and empirical research that have helped to resolve differences of opinion and establish general principles for design. It is argued that cognitive psychology has contributed substantially to the design of better menu selection systems. It is imperative that designers continue to apply these findings to interfaces that they develop and that researchers continue to study the characteristics and efficacy of innovative menu designs as they appear.

  20. A review of post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshek, Donna K; De Marco, Anthony P; Freeman, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study reviewed several topics related to post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion. Topics include neurobiological perspectives, psychological predictors of post-concussion syndrome including pre-morbid anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and cognitive biases and misattribution. In addition, the iatrogenic effects of excessive rest are reviewed and treatment options are discussed briefly. Animal models of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury suggest that a concussion can result in anxiety and fear reactions. The pathophysiology of depression following a concussion appears to be consistent with the cortico-limbic model of depression. Additionally, some individuals may be at risk for neurobiological depression and/or anxiety following a concussion. The literature also demonstrates that pre-morbid and concurrent anxiety increases the risk for prolonged concussion recovery. Cognitive biases and misattribution of symptoms contribute to lengthy recovery from concussion. In addition, medically prescribed excessive cognitive and physical rest may contribute to a protracted concussion recovery. Supervised and graduated physical activity, the introduction of anxiety reduction techniques and cognitive-behavioural therapy of cognitive biases and misattribution are effective means of shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome. Understanding, assessing and treating the psychological factors associated with concussion are effective means of preventing or shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome.

  1. Adjustment to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the importance of psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCathie, H C F; Spence, S H; Tate, R L

    2002-01-01

    Research has indicated a weak relationship between the degree of physical problems and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The importance of adaptive psychological functioning to maintain optimum quality of life has long been recognized, but there is a lack of empirical evidence concerning the nature of psychological factors involved in adjustment to COPD. Ninety-two males completed questionnaires to determine their coping strategies, levels of self-efficacy of symptom management and social support. Adjustment was measured in terms of depression, anxiety and quality of life. Symptom severity, socioeconomic status, duration of disease and age, which have been demonstrated to be of consequence in COPD, were used as control variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Higher levels of catastrophic withdrawal coping strategies and lower levels of self-efficacy of symptom management were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety and a reduced quality of life. Higher levels of positive social support were linked to lower levels of depression and anxiety, while higher levels of negative social support were linked to higher levels of depression and anxiety. To maximize quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychological factors need to be carefully assessed and addressed.

  2. Evidence that obesity risk factor potencies are weight dependent, a phenomenon that may explain accelerated weight gain in western societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available We have shown that individuals at the highest percentiles of the body mass index (BMI distribution (i.e., most overweight experience greater increases in body weight from sedentary lifestyle than those from the lowest percentiles. The purpose of the current analyses was to assess whether recent, accelerated increases in obesity could potentially be due to increased vulnerability to obesity risk factors as the population has become more overweight.Quantile regression was used to compare BMI population percentiles to obesity risk factors (lower education, diets characterized by high-meat/low-fruit content, parental adiposity in two independent samples of men (N(1 = 3,513, N(2 = 11,365 and women (N(1 = 15,809, N(2 = 10,159. The samples were subsets of the National Walkers' (Study 1 and Runners' (Study 2 Health Studies whose physical activities fell short of nationally recommended activity levels. The data were adjusted for age, race, and any residual effects of physical activity. The regression slopes for BMI vs. education, diet, and family history became progressively stronger from the lowest (e.g., 5(th, 6(th… to the highest (e.g., …, 94(th, 95(th BMI percentiles. Compared to the 10(th BMI percentile, their effects on the 90(th BMI percentile were: 1 2.7- to 8.6-fold greater in women and 2.0- to 2.4-fold greater in men for education; 2 3.6- to 4.8-fold greater in women and 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in men for diet; and 3 2.0- to 2.6-fold greater in women and 1.7-fold greater in men for family history.Thus we propose risk factors that produce little weight gain in lean individuals may become more potent with increasing adiposity. This leads us to hypothesize that an individual's obesity is itself a major component of their obesogenic environment, and that, the cycle of weight gain and increased sensitivity to obesity risk factors may partly explain recent increases in obesity in western societies.

  3. Evidence that obesity risk factor potencies are weight dependent, a phenomenon that may explain accelerated weight gain in western societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that individuals at the highest percentiles of the body mass index (BMI) distribution (i.e., most overweight) experience greater increases in body weight from sedentary lifestyle than those from the lowest percentiles. The purpose of the current analyses was to assess whether recent, accelerated increases in obesity could potentially be due to increased vulnerability to obesity risk factors as the population has become more overweight. Quantile regression was used to compare BMI population percentiles to obesity risk factors (lower education, diets characterized by high-meat/low-fruit content, parental adiposity) in two independent samples of men (N(1) = 3,513, N(2) = 11,365) and women (N(1) = 15,809, N(2) = 10,159). The samples were subsets of the National Walkers' (Study 1) and Runners' (Study 2) Health Studies whose physical activities fell short of nationally recommended activity levels. The data were adjusted for age, race, and any residual effects of physical activity. The regression slopes for BMI vs. education, diet, and family history became progressively stronger from the lowest (e.g., 5(th), 6(th)…) to the highest (e.g., …, 94(th), 95(th)) BMI percentiles. Compared to the 10(th) BMI percentile, their effects on the 90(th) BMI percentile were: 1) 2.7- to 8.6-fold greater in women and 2.0- to 2.4-fold greater in men for education; 2) 3.6- to 4.8-fold greater in women and 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in men for diet; and 3) 2.0- to 2.6-fold greater in women and 1.7-fold greater in men for family history. Thus we propose risk factors that produce little weight gain in lean individuals may become more potent with increasing adiposity. This leads us to hypothesize that an individual's obesity is itself a major component of their obesogenic environment, and that, the cycle of weight gain and increased sensitivity to obesity risk factors may partly explain recent increases in obesity in western societies.

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients With Moderate to Severe Psoriasis and Healthy Population: A Comparative Study Considering Physical and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Molina-Leyva, Ignacio; Almodovar-Real, Ana; Ruiz-Carrascosa, Jose Carlos; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramon; Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that psoriasis is associated with an increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction. To our knowledge, no comparative study has considered simultaneously the role of organic factors and psychological factors in this process. We performed a prospective case series study matched by age to explore the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in psoriasis patients compared to a healthy population and to investigate the role of anxiety, depression, and cardiovascular risk factors in the relationship between psoriasis and erectile dysfunction. The healthy group was matched by frequency to cases by age. Seventy-nine patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and 79 healthy controls participated in the study. Participants completed the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psoriasis patients had an increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction in comparison to controls, 34.2 vs. 17.7 % (p < .05). Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between erectile dysfunction and age, smoking and anxiety/depression, but not with psoriasis per se. In conclusion, the higher prevalence of smoking and anxiety/depression among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis probably explains the higher prevalence of erectile dysfunction in this population.

  5. The influence of preoperative psychological factors on weight loss after bariatric surgery: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Carlo; Aceto, Paola; Petrucci, Ilaria; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Callari, Cosimo; Giustacchini, Piero; Sollazzi, Liliana; Mingrone, Geltrude; Bellantone, Rocco; Raffaelli, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate relationship between preoperative psychological factors and % total weight loss after gastric bypass. 76 adult patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were preoperatively asked to complete anxiety and depression Hamilton scales and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, body weight was assessed. At 6-month follow-up, alexithymic patients showed a poorer % total weight loss compared with non-alexithymic patients ( p = .017), and moderately depressed patients showed a lower % total weight loss compared with non-depressed patients ( p = .011). Focused pre- and postoperative psychological support could be useful in bariatric patients in order to improve surgical outcome.

  6. Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebdi, Rafika; Goyet, Louise; Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Guellaï, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders. We suggest to focus on the following two axes in future research: (i) relations between EF and anxiety traits through development and (ii) the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  7. Psychological factors of propensity for alcoholism (social anxiety, hostility, Machiavellianism in depressive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popinako A.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of psychosocial models of alcoholism and depression the general and specific factors of occurrence and course of illness are identified in the present study. The authors put forward hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of activation of psychological addiction to alcohol as an ineffective coping strategy. The necessity of empirical research needed to refine the techniques and targets of patient care within the psychiatric and psychological care is justified. The results of the pilot study show that depressed patients who are subject to alcohol dependence feature marked distress in interpersonal relations, coupled with hostility and aim at gaining profit and pleasure by manipulating other people. These patients are hostile to others, while in interpersonal relationships personal safety is important to them, so they may be more likely to resort to manipulation. In their attitudes with respect to health the communication of these patients is characterized by hedonistic tendencies and histrionic traits in interpersonal contacts.

  8. [Psychological conditions and the influence factors of the Sichuan Three Gorges immigrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jianni; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yang; Li, Ge

    2009-01-01

    To learn and analyze the psychological conditions and the influence factors of Sichuan immigrations so as to provide the science basis for the government. Take residents generally questionnaire, symptom checklist (SCL90), psychosocial stress survey for groups(PSSG) and social support rating scale (SSRS) four questionnaires to collect and analyze the mental conditions and influences of Sichuan immigrations and local residents by cluster stratified random sampling. There is no difference in the sex, age, marriage, culture, occupation, economy and character between immigrations and local residents. Immigrations owned medical safeguard are less than local residents (P psychological stress and social support of migrants relate to the mental health of migrants. The mental health of Sichuan immigrations is bad, so the government should strengthen their financial support and pay attention to their humanist concern.

  9. A systematic review of factors affecting migrant attitudes towards seeking psychological help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Mhairi; Quayle, Ethel; Rothwell, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Research indicates that service utilization rates in migrant groups are low, although levels of distress appear high when compared with host populations. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative literature on factors associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help among working age migrants. Data were extracted from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science Direct and SAGE databases. Eight quantitative studies and 16 qualitative studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (67%). Although results of quantitative studies were heterogeneous, stronger identification with host than heritage culture, fluency in host country language, psychological attributions of distress, higher educational levels, higher socioeconomic status, female gender, and older age were associated with more favourable attitudes toward help-seeking in some migrant groups. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative literature: logistical barriers, cultural mismatch between service providers and participants, and preferences for other sources of assistance.

  10. The Effect of Teacher Psychological and School Organizational and Leadership Factors on Teachers' Professional Learning in Dutch Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsel, Femke P.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Kruger, Meta L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the relative importance of teachers' psychological states, school organizational conditions (teacher collaboration and participative decision making), and the leadership practices (vision, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation) of principals at their schools in explaining variation in teachers'…

  11. Pilot study of the psychological factors in the professional health of managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingaev S.M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic

  12. [Analysis on the incidence and influencing factors of psychological violence among college students in Guangzhou in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Chi, Guibo; Mo, Sufang; Wang, Shengyong; Zhang, Jingbo; Dong, Xiaomei; Li, Wenhao

    2014-10-01

    To study the incidence and influencing factors of psychological violence among college students in Guangzhou in 2010. Convenience sampling method was used and 2 200 college students from 61 classes of three universities in Guangzhou were interviewed with self-designed questionnaire about the incidence and influencing factors of the psychological violence in 2010. The valid sample was 2 060. Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the incidence and influencing factors of the psychological violence between different genders. A total of 66.3% (1 365/2 060) college students reported having experienced at least one kind of psychological violence during the past 12 months, either as a perpetrator or as a victim. The proportion of psychological violence among males (72.3%, 775/1 072) was significantly higher than that in females (59.7%, 590/988)(χ(2) = 36.39, P psychological violence were 16.1% (331/2 060), 8.9% (184/2 060) and 41.3% (850/2 060), respectively. The incidence of victimization only in females was 10.4% (103/988), which was significantly higher than that in males (7.6%, 81/1 072) (χ(2) = 5.20, P psychological violence among college students is very serious in Guangzhou in 2010. And the influencing factors of it between different genders are different. Females are affected by a wider ranges of factors than males, and are more influenced by family and parents.

  13. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature.

  14. Turning men into machines? Scientific management, industrial psychology, and the "human factor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox? Quais fatores podem explicar o paradoxo do baixo peso ao nascer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.OBJETIVO: O baixo peso ao nascer é incomum em recém-nascidos de maior nível socioeconômico. Contudo, no Brasil, a taxa de baixo peso ao nascer foi maior em cidade mais desenvolvida do que em município menos desenvolvido. O objetivo do estudo foi buscar razões para explicar este paradoxo. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em Ribeir

  16. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  18. Impact of Psychological Factors on Subjective Disease Activity Assessments in Patients With Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Lis; Prajapati, Rita; Plant, Darren; Maskell, Deborah; Morgan, Catharine; Ali, Faisal R; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Isaacs, John D; Barton, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), used to assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is a composite score comprising clinical, biochemical, and patient self-report measures. We hypothesized that psychological factors (cognitions and mood) would be more strongly associated with patient-reported components of the DAS28 than clinical or biochemical components. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study of 322 RA patients with active disease (mean DAS28 6.0) awaiting therapy with a biologic agent was undertaken. Patients' illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, and mood were measured using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. Relationships between psychological factors and 1) total DAS28 and 2) individual components of the DAS28 were analyzed using linear regression. Results Total DAS28 produced significant but weak associations with 2 of the Brief IPQ items, but no associations with BMQ or HADS scores. There were larger significant associations between the patient-reported visual analog scale (VAS) with 5 items of the Brief IPQ and with HADS depression. Low illness coherence was associated with higher tender joint count. Three Brief IPQ items and HADS anxiety scores were significantly associated with C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No psychological factors were associated with the swollen joint count. Conclusion One of the subjective components of the DAS28, patient VAS, was highly correlated with cognitive factors and depression in those with severe RA. By reporting individual DAS28 components, clinicians may be better able to assess the impact of therapies on each component, adjusting approaches according to patients' needs. PMID:24339425

  19. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-09-01

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  20. Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aiming; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students. Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, third-year, and second-year students. Female students and students not satisfied with their major had a higher rate of suicidal tendency. However, mature coping strategies had a protective effect on suicide. The stepwise regression analysis shows that academic burden, grade, and introversion/extraversion are the most significant risk factors for the suicidal tendency of Chinese medical students. Suicide is affected by demographic risk factors as well as psychological factors. Our results lend support to a multi-factorial approach to the understanding and prevention of suicide by college students.

  1. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain.

  2. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335

  3. Psychological factors and trimester-specific gestational weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Early pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for counseling pregnant women since many women are motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, i.e. GWG measured at the end of each trimester. Eight databases were searched for affect, cognition and personality factors. The guidelines on meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology were followed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 3620 non-duplicate titles and abstracts, 74 articles underwent full-text review. Two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Distress was negatively associated with first trimester GWG among both adolescents and non-adolescents. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with second trimester GWG only among non-adolescents. No association emerged between perceived stress, state and trait anxiety and body image dissatisfaction among adolescents and trimester-specific GWG. The relation between trimester-specific GWG and a number of weight-related and dietary-related cognitions, affective states and personality traits remain unexplored. Given the limited number of studies, further high-quality evidence is required to examine the association between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, especially for cognitive and personality factors.

  4. Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students. Findings Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, third-year, and second-year students. Female students and students not satisfied with their major had a higher rate of suicidal tendency. However, mature coping strategies had a protective effect on suicide. The stepwise regression analysis shows that academic burden, grade, and introversion/extraversion are the most significant risk factors for the suicidal tendency of Chinese medical students. Conclusion Suicide is affected by demographic risk factors as well as psychological factors. Our results lend support to a multi-factorial approach to the understanding and prevention of suicide by college students. PMID:26019719

  5. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Levenstein

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millenium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  6. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children's development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobkin, Vladimir S; Veraksa, Aleksandr N; Yakupova, Vera A; Bukhalenkova, Darya A; Fedotova, Aleksandra V; Khalutina, Ulia A

    2016-01-01

    ...). The common assumption is that to determine a parent's position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship...

  7. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Biological and psychological factors associated with learning performance in adult distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these

  8. Psychological factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain: Which are most important to target?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; de Haan, Else; Derkx, H. H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain leaves room for improvement. We studied which factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy relate most strongly to the physical and psychological functioning of children with functional abdominal pain and

  9. The effect of psychological factors and parental education on adolescents' academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions, parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys, who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic achievement was assessed by the results of national examinations in Slovene and mathematics, teachers' marks in Slovene and mathematics, and adolescent's general school success. The results of structural equation modelling showed a good fit of the assumed path model if it included the direct effect of adolescent's psychological characteristics and parental education on adolescent's academic achievement and also the indirect effect of parental education and three personality dimensions (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect through the adolescent's language competence and general intelligence. The fit of the adopted path model was acceptable regardless of the way in which academic achievement was assessed and regardless of the sex of the participants. The most important predictors of the academic achievement were language competence, general intelligence, and personality dimensions Conscientiousness and Openness/Intellect. With the assumed path model of casual relationships we could explain between 53% and 63% of differences in adolescents' academic achievement.

  10. Understanding Associations among Family Support, Friend Support, and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...

  11. Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: Antecedents, Mediating Factors, and Longitudinal Dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Soenens, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Introduction 5 Literature Overview and Research Aims 6 A Brief History of Research on Psychological Control 6 Research Aims of this Dissertation 12 Part 1: Psychological Control: An Exploration in Depth 15 Mediators of the Link between Psychological Control and Internalizing Problems 15 Antecedents or Predictors of Psychological Control 28 Direction of Effects 37 Part 2: Psychological Control: An Exploration in Breadth 45 Psychological Con...

  12. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Contributing Factors of Psychological Intimate Partner Violence in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Ozgoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a global public health issue leading to the death of many people every year. Experience of infertility profoundly affects the personal well-being of women. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and contributing factors of psychological IPV in infertile women referring to the infertility centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 410 infertile women selected via multistage sampling. Demographic data of infertile women (33 items and their spouses (16 items were collected. In addition, researcher-made IPV questionnaire (53 items and general health questionnaire (GHQ (28 items were used. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using descriptive statistics (Chi-square, independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation-coefficient, and linear regression. Results: In total, 410 infertile women were enrolled in this study, 74.3% of whom were victims of psychological IPV. Results of linear regression analysis indicated that psychological IPV and GHQ had significant associations with the ethnicity and physical diseases of the spouses of infertile women (P

  13. The Consequences of Predicting Scientific Impact in Psychology Using Journal Impact Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter; Walton, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    An academic journal's impact factor (hereafter JIF) is an average measure of the citation count of individual articles published in that journal. JIF is used to assess merit, predict impact, and allocate resources, but the actual number of citations to individual articles is only modestly correlated with the JIFs of the journals in which they are published. We counted PsycInfo citations to 1,133 articles published in nine leading psychology journals (1996-2005). Both article length (r =.31) and reference list length (r = .41) predicted log-transformed citation counts better than JIF (r = .27). Articles with fewer graphs and more structural equation models were more frequently cited. Citation count was better predicted by a model based on article length and citation count rather than JIF. When JIF was used to predict citation count, the impact of women authors and social science research was underestimated. These findings distinguish impact in science, as measured by JIF, from actual impact in psychology, and they show the unintended consequences of using a measure of the former to predict the latter. © Association for Psychological Science 2012.

  14. [Nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of pica in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeta, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ana Cristina Barros da; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of the practice of pica in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was based on a descriptive design with exploratory features, and conducted on 13 adult and adolescent pregnant women aged 16 to 40 years with a diagnosis of pica in the current pregnancy. Pica was diagnosed by a nutritionist in a standardized interview situation, when questions about the occurrence and frequency of pica, and types of substance ingestion were investigated. After signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF), all participants were evaluated by a nutritionist and seven of them were submitted to psychological assessment with standardized instruments to evaluate stress and anxiety, and to assess coping strategies. The type of pica most frequently reported was pagophagia (30.8%) and the consumption of fruit with salt (30.8%). The most prevalent coping strategies were "religious practice-focused" and "seeking social support", both presented by 42% of the pregnant women. We observed the occurrence of some degree of stress and anxiety in all pregnant women, as well as comorbidities (69.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (84.6%). Considering that pica may be associated with increased perinatal risk, it is very important to investigate this disorder during prenatal care, and to dopt obstetric, psychological and nutritional preventive practices to reduce the complications for mother and fetus.

  15. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  16. Psychological factors determining success in a medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Malgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Systemic review of predictors of success in medical career is an important tool to recognize the indicators of proper training. To determine psychological factors that predict success in a medical career. The success is defined as professional competence, satisfaction with medicine as a career, occupational stress and burnout and quality of life (QOF). Part I (1999-2005), medical students were examined each subsequent year, beginning with admission. Assessment included academic achievement (high school final examination results, entrance exam results, academic results during medical school) and psychological characteristics (sense of coherence (SOC), depression, anxiety, coping styles, value system and need for social approval). Part II (2008-2009), the same participants completed an Internet survey 4 years after graduation. Results of the postgraduate medical exam were taken under consideration. Academic achievement predicts only professional competence. Coping styles are significant indicators of satisfaction with medicine as a career. SOC, while assessed with anxiety and depression during studies, enabled us to recognize future QOF of medical graduates. Professional stress is not predictable to such an extent as other success indicators. There are significant psychological qualities useful to draw the outline of the future job and life performance of medical graduates.

  17. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label.

  18. Do changes in coping style explain the effectiveness of interventions for psychological morbidity in family carers of people with dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Austin, Allana; Livingston, Gill

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies find that family carers of people with dementia who use more emotional support and acceptance-based coping, and less dysfunctional coping, are less depressed and anxious. We hypothesized that interventions effective in reducing psychological symptoms would increase emotional support and acceptance-based coping, or decrease dysfunctional coping. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials published up to July 2011, of interventions for carers of people with dementia measuring coping and psychological morbidity. We rated study validity and reported findings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for interventions where possible. Eight of 433 papers identified by the search met inclusion criteria. All measured coping immediately after intervention. Two interventions significantly decreased depressive or anxiety symptoms: the smaller study found no change in dysfunctional coping. Neither measured emotional support and acceptance-based coping. Meta-analysis found that both group coping skills interventions alone (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.75 to -0.03, p = 0.04) and with behavioral activation (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.04, p = 0.02) significantly increased dysfunctional coping, while significantly reducing depressive symptoms. Positive coping (a mix of emotional and solution-focused strategies) increased (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.05-0.51, p = 0.02) with group coping skills interventions and behavioral activation. Contrary to our hypothesis, dysfunctional coping increased when carer depressive symptoms improved. There was preliminary evidence that emotional support and acceptance-based coping increased, as positive coping increased although solution-focused coping alone did not. More research is needed to elucidate whether successful interventions work through changing coping strategies immediately and in the longer term.

  19. [Sociodemographic and health factors explaining emotional wellbeing as a quality of life domain of older people in Madrid, Spain. 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Flores, María Eugenia; Fernández-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Pérez, Fermina; Lardiés-Bosque, Raúl; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Vicente; Ahmed-Mohamed, Karim; Rojo-Abuín, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The study of the emotional state and personal coping resources has drawn an increasing interest in the Quality of Life (QoL) field. Diverse researches have demonstrated its contribution to satisfaction with life, and the interconnection with other life domains of great importance in ageing, as health is. The aim of this work is to analyze the relationships of emotional wellbeing (in terms of affects and coping resources) with sociodemographic and health factors. A survey on QoL among older people living in family housing of Madrid province (CadeViMa-2005) was used. Multivariate analyses were applied for generating an indicator of emotional wellbeing which integrated positive and negative affects, as well as personal coping resources. A logistic regression model was created to explain a positive emotional wellbeing, according to sociodemographic and health characteristics. People without anxiety or depression problems were around three times more likely to evaluate their emotional wellbeing positively than those who had problems. Older adults whose health was better than in the previous 12 months, seemed to be five times more likely to report a high emotional wellbeing, compared to those who experienced a health decline. Individuals with a very good perceived health status were 26 times more likely of having a high emotional wellbeing than people with a negative health perception. Those with middle and upper social class were three times more likely to experience a positive emotional wellbeing than those belonging to a low social class. Health greatly influences emotional wellbeing with a relevant role of the subjective experience of health, together with social class as an indicator of educational level and socioeconomic status.

  20. Methodological and biological factors explaining the reduction in dental caries in Jamaican school children between 1984 and 1995

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    Warpeha Rosalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the methods used and results found in two surveys, one conducted in 1984 and the other in 1995, that indicated a large reduction in the prevalence and severity of dental caries among children in Jamaica, with special attention focused on methodological differences between the two surveys and the biological factors that may explain the large reduction in caries. Methods. In 1984 a modified "pathfinder" methodology was used to measure the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 6-, 12-, and 15-year-old children in Jamaica. A similar survey was conducted in 1995. A comparison of the two surveys showed an 84% reduction in the severity of dental caries at age 12. Both surveys used the same diagnostic criteria and clinical procedures, but the 1984 survey included a higher proportion of rural residents than did the 1995 one. Results. The data show an epidemiological transition between 1984, when dental caries was highly prevalent and severe, and 1995, when the disease was less prevalent and was concentrated in a smaller proportion of the population. Conclusions. Most of the reduction in dental caries between 1984 and 1995 is attributable to the introduction, in 1987, of salt fluoridation. While the 1995 survey included fewer rural areas than the 1984 survey did, that does not invalidate the observed reduction in dental caries. The use of fluoride toothpaste and dietary fluoride supplements as well as access to dental health promotion and preventive and curative services do not seem to be major contributors to the reductions observed.

  1. Mediating role of self-determination constructs in explaining the relationship between school factors and postschool outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Villarreal, Mauricio Garnier; Lang, K.M.; Seo, Hyojeong

    2017-01-01

    Secondary data analysis using the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 data set was conducted to examine the degree to which autonomy, psychological empowerment, and self-realization (3 of 4 essential characteristics of self-determination) play a mediating role in the relationship between

  2. Early childhood psychological factors and risk for bedwetting at school age in a UK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joinson, Carol; Sullivan, Sarah; von Gontard, Alexander; Heron, Jon

    2016-05-01

    There is evidence for a link between psychological factors and bedwetting, but the direction of this association is unclear. Using data on 8769 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined whether difficult temperament (Toddler Temperament Scale at 24 months; Emotionality Activity Sociability Questionnaire at 38 months) and psychological problems (Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children at 42 months) are linked to bedwetting at school age. We examined the association between these risk factors and different patterns of bedwetting from 4 to 9 years using multinomial regression. Difficult temperament and psychological problems in early childhood were associated with increased odds of bedwetting at 4-9 years. The strongest associations were most often found for the pattern of bedwetting that was both frequent (at least twice a week) and persistent (up to age 9) e.g. the temperament traits of 'adaptability' and 'mood' were associated with a 33 % increase (95 % confidence interval = 1.14-1.55) and a 27 % increase (1.10-1.47) respectively in the odds of persistent and frequent bedwetting per one standard deviation increase in risk score. Early behaviour problems (e.g. conduct problems [1.43 (1.25, 1.63)] and hyperactivity [1.29 (1.11, 1.50), p early emotional difficulties were risk factors for bedwetting. Adjustment for confounders did not alter these conclusions. The presence of difficult temperament and behaviour problems in early childhood might help to identify children who will continue to experience bedwetting at school age.

  3. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

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    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  4. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  5. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed.

  6. Factors associated with psychological distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  7. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  8. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.

  9. Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ≥8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347

  10. Regional differences of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and prediabetes prevalence are not explained by known risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tamayo

    Full Text Available We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG, isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT, combined IFG and IGT and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions.Prevalence (95%CI of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, ≥ 8 h overnight fasting and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35-79 years: SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast, 2008-2012 and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south, 2006-2008. Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included.Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9-45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9-8.2% than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4-31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2-4.6%, respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5-28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7-18.6% and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8-12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7-7.5% were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84-3.65 or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70-2.31 was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle.The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors.

  11. [Impact of psychological factors on marital satisfaction and divorce proneness in clinical couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological factors that affect marital satisfaction or divorce likelihood in clinical couples. Clinical couples (n=57) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data was collected from September 2005 to June 2006 using a Marital Satisfaction Scale, a Marital Status Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The couples showed high scores on depression, obsessive-compulsion, personality factors and divorce probability and a low score on marital satisfaction. The wife's obsessive-compulsion was a predictor of her marital satisfaction, and the wife's social introversion and depression, and husband's obsessive-compulsion were predictors of the wife's prospect of divorce. The husband's hypomania and depression were predictors of his marital satisfaction, and there were no predictors of the husband's prospect of divorce. Obsessive-compulsion is a significant factor in a couple's relationship, although previous studies have not been interested in obsessive-compulsion. Divorce likelihood should be evaluated for clinical couples as well as marital satisfaction, because it is more important for divorce prevention. Each spouse who has a psychological problem such as depression, obsessive-compulsion, and deviated personality needs individual therapy as well as couple therapy.

  12. Factors associated with trajectories of psychological distress for Australian fathers across the early parenting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.

  13. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders: a one year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Gasik, Robert; Hildt-Ciupińska, Katarzyna; Malińska, Marzena; Bedyńska, Sylwia

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of musculoskeletal disorders is complex, with physical and psychosocial working conditions playing an important role. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychosocial work conditions, such as psychological job demands, decision latitude, social support and job insecurity and musculoskeletal complains (MSCs) and (repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in a 1-year prospective study. The job content questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and provocation tests were used to study 725 employees aged 20-70 years. Pain in the lower back (58 % of subjects), neck (57 %), wrists/hands (47 %) and upper back (44 %) was most frequent. The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (33.6 %), rotator cuff tendinitis (15.4 %), Guyon's canal syndrome (13.4 %), lateral epicondylitis (7.6 %), medial epicondylitis (5.3 %), tendinitis of forearm-wrist extensors (7.8 %) and tendinitis of forearm-wrist flexors (7.3 %) were the most frequent RSIs. Logistic analysis showed that increased psychological job demands statistically significantly increased the probability of lateral and medial epicondylitis, and increased control (decision latitude) statistically significantly decreased the risk of CTS. There was no relationship between job insecurity, social support and the studied RSIs. Psychosocial factors at work predict prevalence of MSCs and RSIs, irrespectively of demographic factors, e.g., age or gender, and organizational and physical factors.

  14. Psychological factors associated with failure of detoxification treatment in chronic headache associated with medication overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, S; Viana, M; Sances, G; Ghiotto, N; Guaschino, E; Galli, F; Vegni, E; Pazzi, S; Nappi, G; Tassorelli, C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological factors associated with a negative outcome following detoxification in a 2-month follow-up in medication-overuse headache. All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective, non-randomised fashion. Psychiatric conditions and personality characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2. χ2 tests, one-way analyses of variance, and odds ratios (ORs) were used. A total of 248 patients completed the follow-up: 156 stopped overuse and their headaches reverted to an episodic pattern (Group A); 23 kept overusing without any benefit on headache frequency (Group B); and 51 stopped overuse without any benefit on headache frequency (Group C). The prognostic factors for the outcome of Group B were higher scores on the correction (OR 1.128; p = 0.036), depression (OR 1.071; p = 0.05), hysteria (OR 1.106; p = 0.023), and overcontrolled hostility (OR 1.182; p = 0.04) MMPI-2 scales, whereas those for Group C were psychiatric comorbidities (OR 1.502; p = 0.021) and higher scores on the hysteria scale (OR 1.125; p = 0.004). The outcome of detoxification is influenced by psychological factors that should be considered when considering treatment strategies. © International Headache Society 2016.

  15. Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocci, F; Serra, A; Corrias, G A

    2001-04-01

    To examine the part played by psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs). Out of a population of 385 bank workers, a group of 212 subjects without organic visual disturbances (as determined by ophthalmological examination) who share a work environment and job duties was selected. Three questionnaires were administered to these subjects: (a) the NIOSH job stress questionnaire; (b) a questionnaire investigating subjective discomfort related to environmental and lighting conditions of the workplace; (c) a questionnaire on the existence of oculovisual disturbances. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to examine for the presence of predictors of asthenopia. Social support, group conflict, self esteem, work satisfaction, and underuse of skills were found to be predictors of visual complaints; social support played a part also as a moderating factor in the stress and strain model; this model accounted for 30% of the variance. Subjective environmental factors, although in some cases significantly correlated with asthenopia, were not found to be strong predictors of the symptoms. Some part of the complaints about visual health reported by VDT workers are likely indirect expressions of psychological discomfort related to working conditions.

  16. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  17. Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Aiming; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students. Findings Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, thi...

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMER’S INTENTION TO USE E- COMMERCE: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Al-dalahmeh; Ali Salman Saleh

    2007-01-01

    There is a need in the literature for an application of the well known social cognitive theory in the area of e-commerce. Hence, this paper develops and models a theoretical framework to study the impact of psychological factors based on the social cognitive theory on the intention to use e-commerce. More specifically, the paper examines the role of individuals’ beliefs about their abilities towards the intention to use e-commerce technology (e-commerce self-efficacy). A conceptual model, bas...

  19. Risk factors for major depressive disorder and the psychological impact of hysterectomy: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Yung-Hung; Long, Cheng-Yu; Chang, Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated the risk of major depressive disorder and the psychological impact of recent hysterectomy in 68 women who underwent hysterectomy for non-malignant conditions. Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, family support, life stress, and subjective gynecological symptoms were assessed 2 weeks before surgery and at 1 month and 4 months after surgery. Depression, anxiety, body image, and subjective gynecological symptoms improved after surgery; however, sexual functioning worsened after surgery. Previous emotional problems and poorer body image, sexual functioning, and higher stress 1 month after surgery are risk factors for post-hysterectomy major depressive disorder.

  20. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  1. [INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON PERSONAL SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE CNS IN NORTHERN CHILDREN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovleva, N N; Soroko, S I

    2015-06-01

    The results of the socio-psychological and psycho-physiological study of children and adolescents rural secondary school in a remote area of the Arkhangelsk region were studied. It was found that the poor situation of children in families at social risk leads to a decrease in their school performance, motivation to succeed and, in some cases, to reduce their personal social and psychological adaptation. However, in general, the level of personal social and psychological adaptation in the majority of surveyed students is high enough. As complementary social institutions, the family and the school, in some cases, can compensate for a number of adverse social and psychological factors. Pupils from social risk groups functional state of the central nervous system has been significantly reduced compared with children who are brought up in affluent families. In the North adverse social factors may increase the effects of the harsh climatic conditions and are an important risk factor for children's health.

  2. Rinitis y factores psicológicos: estado de su relación (The association between rhinitis and psychological factors: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández Rodríguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the concept of rhinitis, its classification and the reasons for classifying the different typesof rhinitis as psychophysiological diseases. We review the few studies that have investigated the association betweenrhinitis and psychological factors. Most of these studies have focussed on allergies, among which is rhinitis. We alsoassess current knowledge on the association between rhinitis and psychological factors, mainly addressing anxiety,depression and personality characteristics. Further lines of research are suggested regarding this association.

  3. A cross-sectional study of irritable bowel syndrome in nurses in China: prevalence and associated psychological and lifestyle factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Xiao, Qi-fan; Zhang, Yan-li; Yao, Shu-kun

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and associated factors, especially psychological and lifestyle factors, in nurses in China have not been investigated previously. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of IBS in nurses, to evaluate whether factors, such as psychological disorders, are associated with IBS, and to determine whether psychological disorders can influence the severity of symptoms of IBS and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional study was conducted for Chinese nurses from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires. The prevalence of IBS was 17.4%. The revised symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90-R) scores were significantly higher for nurses with IBS than for those without IBS (P<0.001), and no difference in scores between IBS subtypes was found (F=1.893, P=0.142). The scores of QOL for nurses with and without IBS were 77.18±21.93 and 88.44±11.89 (P<0.001), respectively. Psychological disorders did not show statistically significant correlations with severity of symptoms of IBS or QOL. Alcohol consumption, low level of exercise, and psychological disorders were risk factors for IBS. In summary, nurses in China show a high prevalence of IBS. Psychological disorders and some related lifestyle factors are probably responsible for the development of IBS in nurses. PMID:24903997

  4. Ethnic differences in the association between cardiovascular risk factors and psychological distress in a population study in the Netherlands

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    Schrier Agnes C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing body of evidence of an association between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these associations are similar in ethnic minority groups. Methods A random urban population sample, aged 18+, stratified by ethnicity (484 native Dutch subjects, 383 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 316 Moroccan-Dutch subjects, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was interviewed with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10 in combination with measurements of several cardiovascular risk factors. The association of psychological distress (defined as a K10 score above cut-off of 20 with cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL cholesterol levels or diabetes, ethnicity and their interaction was analyzed using logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and adjusted for age. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with psychological distress in any of the gender/ethnic groups, with the exception of a positive association of obesity and hypertension with psychological distress in native Dutch women and a negative association of hypertension and psychological distress in Turkish men. Interaction terms of cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity were approaching significance only in the association of obesity with the K10 in women. Conclusion In this cross-sectional multi-ethnic adult population sample the majority of the investigated cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with psychological distress. The association of obesity with psychological distress varies by gender and ethnicity. Our findings indicate that the prevention of obesity and psychological distress calls for an integrated approach in native Dutch women, but not necessarily in Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch women, in whom these problems may be targeted separately.

  5. The influence of psychological factors on pre-operative levels of pain intensity, disability and health-related quality of life in lumbar spinal fusion surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Allan D; Tyni-Lenné, Raija; Hedlund, Rune

    2010-09-01

    To assess the extent to which perceived pain and psychological factors explain levels of disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery, and to test the hypothesis that relationships between pain intensity, mental health, fear of movement/(re)injury, disability and HRQOL are mediated by cognitive beliefs and appraisals. Cross-sectional, correlation study. Orthopaedic outpatient setting in a tertiary hospital. One hundred and seven chronic back pain patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Visual analogue scale for pain intensity, Short Form 36 mental health subscale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Back Beliefs Questionnaire, Self-efficacy Scale, Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index and European Quality of Life Questionnaire. The group effect of multiple mediators significantly influenced the relationships between pain intensity and mental health, fear of movement/(re)injury, functional disability and HRQOL. Pain catastrophising significantly mediated the relationship between pain intensity and mental health, control over pain significantly mediated the relationship between mental health and functional disability, self-efficacy and pain outcome expectancy significantly mediated the relationship between mental health and HRQOL, and self-efficacy also significantly mediated the relationship between pain intensity, fear of movement/(re)jury and functional disability. The model explained 28, 30, 52 and 42% of the variation in mental health, fear of movement/(re)injury, functional disability and HRQOL, respectively. This study highlights the strong influence and mediation roles of psychological factors on pain, mental health, fear of movement/(re)injury, disability and HRQOL in patients scheduled for lumber fusion. Future research should focus on screening as well as pre- and post-operative interventions based on these psychological factors for the potential improvement of lumber fusion

  6. Prospective Associations Between Binge Eating and Psychological Risk Factors in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-11

    There is evidence that intrapersonal psychological factors might contribute to the development of binge eating. However, studies considering reciprocal effects between risk factors and disordered eating are rare. The present article investigates the nature of the temporal relationships between binge eating and low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and the internalization of the societal body ideal in adolescence while taking into account the moderating effects of age and gender. A German population-based sample of 1039 boys and girls from 12 to 19 years of age answered self-report questionnaires on risk factors and eating pathology on 2 measurement points separated by 20 months. Data were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. Low self-esteem, interoceptive deficits, weight/shape concerns, and the internalization of the societal body ideal predicted binge eating longitudinally in bivariate analyses. Binge eating predicted later depressive symptoms, whereas perfectionism and dietary restraint were not longitudinally linked to binge eating in either direction. Low self-esteem and weight/shape concerns emerged as multivariate predictors of binge eating in girls and boys, respectively. No moderating effects of age were observed. The results suggest that depressive symptoms might rather be a consequence of binge eating than a risk factor, and this underscores that even subclinical eating pathology might be associated with negative psychological outcomes. Central risk factors that should be targeted in prevention programs might be low self-esteem for girls and weight/shape concerns for boys.

  7. Describing functioning and health after spinal cord injury in the light of psychological-personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Kunz, Simon; Müller, Rachel; Peter, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    To describe and explore functioning and health of persons with spinal cord injury from the perspective of psychological-personal factors in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Data from 511 participants regarding feelings, thoughts and beliefs, motives, and patterns of experience and behaviour were analysed. Measurement instruments included the Mental Health Index-5, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Appraisal of Life Events Scale, 5 items from the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, Purpose in Life Test-Short Form, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Big Five Inventory-21, Social Skills Inventory-SF, Brief COPE. The distribution of the selected psychological-personal factors-indicators was examined using descriptive statistics. Differences between SCI subgroups by sex, age, age at injury, time since injury, aetiology and severity of injury were explored using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-tests. Participants who were older and sustained their spinal cord injury more recently experienced more depressed mood, less positive affect, less challenge appraisal, lower life satisfaction, lower purpose in life, and lower self-efficacy. They reported lower social skills, less usage of the coping strategies humour, positive reframing, and acceptance, and more usage of the coping strategies denial and self-distraction. Overall, effect sizes were small. Although study participants appeared to be well adjusted to spinal cord injury, those who sustained their injury at an older age and more recently reported more negative experiences. Quantitative description and exploration of the psychological-personal aspects of health will enable hypotheses to be formulated for further research, and suggest a need for tailored interventions for those at risk of less favourable outcomes.

  8. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imogen eAujla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  9. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen; Farrer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns, and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers' motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers' psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support, and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  10. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  11. Assessment of significant psychological distress at the end of pregnancy and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2017-10-25

    The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p socio-demographic data, being an immigrant is the only protective factor reducing the social dysfunction in the last weeks of pregnancy (p stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.

  12. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

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    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  13. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  14. The role of psychological factors in the development of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H S; Jin, S H; Lee, Y J; Song, C M; Ji, Y B; Tae, K

    2018-03-01

    The psychiatric profiles of 50 patients diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) were compared to those of 50 age- and sex-matched individuals as the control group. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire was used to evaluate the role of psychological factors in the development of BMS. Somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, global severity index (GSI), positive symptom total (PST), and positive symptom distress index (PSDI) scores were significantly higher in the patients with BMS than in the control group. In a subgroup analysis according to sex, women with BMS had higher T-scores for somatization, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid ideation, GSI, PST, and PSDI than women in the control group. In contrast, only the PSDI score was significantly higher in men with BMS compared to men in the control group. There was a significant difference in the T-scores for somatization, psychoticism, and GSI between the three age subgroups (≤50, 51-65, and ≥66 years). The obsessive-compulsive and PSDI scores were significantly higher in patients with BMS who also had at least one chronic disease than in patients with BMS who had no chronic disease. In conclusion, psychological factors are correlated with BMS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Dementia worry and its relationship to dementia exposure, psychological factors, and subjective memory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Adrianna; Suhr, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    With increased societal awareness of dementia, older adults show increased concern about developing dementia, leading to misidentification of aging-related cognitive glitches as signs of dementia. While some researchers have suggested self-reported cognitive concerns accurately identify older adults with early signs of dementia, there is evidence that subjective cognitive decline is not associated with objective cognitive performance and instead reflects psychological factors consistent with models of health anxiety, including dementia worry. We examined the construct of dementia worry and its relationship to subjective memory concerns in 100 older adults (Mage = 69 years) without signs of dementia, using a recently developed measure of dementia worry. Consistent with hypotheses, dementia worry was related to exposure to dementia, having a high number of depressive or general worry symptoms, and having more memory concerns. Exposure to dementia moderated the relationship of dementia worry to depression and general worry. Furthermore, dementia worry moderated the relationship of objective memory impairment to subjective memory ratings. The results provide further evidence of the role of psychological factors such as dementia worry in subjective memory report and emphasize the need for objective cognitive testing before making determinations about dementia in older adults expressing memory concerns.

  16. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation. PMID:24633083

  17. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sociodemographic, Educational, Behavioral, and Psychologic Factors Underlying Orofacial Esthetics and Self-Reported Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Montero, Javier

    The aim of the present study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral, and educational characteristics, together with personality traits, on perceptions of individuals' own oral health and orofacial esthetics. The participants had different educational backgrounds: dentistry students and students not following health care-related courses (university groups), and volunteers with no university studies (nonstudent group). The age range was 18 to 30 years. Sociodemographic and behavioral data and data on facial and dental attractiveness were gathered via personalized interviews. Personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory (BFI) (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three educational groups regarding the mean scores on the five personality variables. The nonstudent group accorded significantly greater importance to tooth color, whereas the university groups considered tooth alignment more important (P = .016). The logistic regression model used to predict perceptions about orofacial health and esthetics revealed that underlying behavioral (pattern of visits to dentist and brushing habits), psychologic (pessimism and agreeableness), and educational (training in dentistry) factors affected the participants' perceptions of orofacial attractiveness, oral satisfaction, and self-rated oral health. The results of this study show that there are behavioral, psychologic, and educational factors that significantly modulate people's perceptions of orofacial esthetics, oral satisfaction, and self-rated oral health.

  20. Interaction of Psychological Factors in Shaping Entrepreneurial Intention among Computer and Electrical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous technopreneurs start their ventures at college age, but the entrepreneurship of computer and electrical engineering (CEE students remains under-studied. This study analysed both the combined and interactive effects of psychological factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of CEE students. In this study, entrepreneurial intention comprised two dimensions, conviction and preparation. Regarding the direct effects, the results indicated that self-efficacy affected entrepreneurial conviction the most, followed by negative emotion, intrinsic motivation, and metacognition. Negative emotion affected entrepreneurial preparation the most, followed by self-efficacy and positive emotion. The results also revealed several crucial interactive effects resulting from psychological factors. An increase in cognitive load increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high intrinsic motivation and reduced the intention of students exhibiting low intrinsic motivation. An increase in metacognition increased the entrepreneurial conviction of students exhibiting either high or low intrinsic motivation. An increase in positive emotion reduced the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high negative emotion and increased the intention of students exhibiting low negative emotion. An increase in self-efficacy increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting either high or low negative emotion.

  1. Psychological risk factors of micro- and macrovascular outcomes in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, François; Denollet, Johan

    2010-01-01

    for macrovascular disease, its association with microvascular complications remains understudied. The predictive role of other psychological risk factors such as Type D (distressed) personality and the mechanisms that possibly link depression and Type D personality with poor vascular outcomes are also still unclear...... of all-cause or vascular mortality; and (3) the behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may mediate these associations. The DiaDDZoB Study is embedded within the larger DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study, which covers a comprehensive cohort of type 2 diabetes patients treated by over 200 primary...... care physicians in South-East Brabant, The Netherlands. These patients will be followed during their lifetime and are assessed annually for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Measurements include an interviewer-administered and self-report questionnaire, regular care laboratory...

  2. Factors that mediate between child sexual abuse and adult psychological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, S E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; O'Shea, M L; Mullen, P E

    1995-01-01

    The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE 'case' or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes. In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother-father and parent-child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome. Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure. A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.

  3. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  4. What Matters: Quantity or Quality of Pornography Use? Psychological and Behavioral Factors of Seeking Treatment for Problematic Pornography Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Lewczuk, Karol; Skorko, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Pornography has become popular with Internet technology. For most people, pornography use (PU) is entertainment; for some, it can result in seeking treatment for out-of-control behavior. Previous studies have suggested that PU can influence sexual behaviors, but the direct relation between frequency of PU and treatment-seeking behaviors has not been examined. To investigate whether individuals seeking treatment as a consequence of their problematic PU do so because of their quantity of pornography consumption or because of more complex psychological and behavioral factors related to PU, such as the severity of negative symptoms associated with PU and/or subjective feeling of loss of control over one's behavior. A survey study was conducted of 569 heterosexual Caucasian men 18 to 68 years old, including 132 seeking treatment for problematic PU (referred by psychotherapists after their initial visit). The main outcome measures were self-reported PU, its negative symptoms, and actual treatment-seeking behavior. We tested models explaining sources of seeking treatment for problematic PU with negative symptoms associated with PU and additional factors (eg, onset and number of years of PU, religiosity, age, dyadic sexual activity, and relationship status). Seeking treatment was significantly, yet weakly, correlated solely with the frequency of PU (r = 0.21, P pornography consumption. Thus, treatment of problematic PU should address qualitative factors, rather than merely mitigating the frequency of the behavior, because frequency of PU might not be a core issue for all patients. Future diagnostic criteria for problematic PU should consider the complexity of this issue. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

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    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  6. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Psychological Factors and Cardiac Risk And Impact of Exercise Training Programs—A Review of Ochsner Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; Artham, Surya M.; Gilliland, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Although under-emphasized, substantial evidence indicates that psychological distress, especially depression, hostility, and anxiety, are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and affect recovery following major coronary heart disease events. We review several major studies from Ochsner Medical Center demonstrating the high prevalence of psychological distress in CHD patients and the marked benefits that occur following formal cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs. The...

  8. Explaining the changing institutional organisation of Dutch farms: the role of farmer's attitudes, advisory network and structural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the family farm remains the dominant organisational form for farms there are changes in the legal mode of organisation. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights.

  9. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nationwide firefighter survey: the prevalence of lower back pain and its related psychological factors among Korean firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gi; Seo, Ju-Il; Kim, KyooSang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of lower back pain (LBP) and clarify the effect of work-related psychological factors on LBP. Nationwide survey data collected from male Korean firefighters (FIFS) were used. To identify the risk factors (work-related psychological factors such as job stress and depression) affecting LBP, the χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The prevalence of LBP was 19.3% and was highest in the emergency medical service (31.8%) part of FF job types. Within job stress, an uncomfortable physical environment, high mental job demand and organizational injustice were associated with LBP. However, inadequate social support inversely associated with LBP. Depression and high-risk alcohol drinking were related to LBP. LBP was closely related to job stress, depression and alcohol intake. Proper interventions of psychological factors should therefore be addressed to control LBP in FIFS.

  11. Study of the influence of psychological factors in the etiology of vocal nodules in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Uali Abeida, M; Fernández Liesa, R; Vallés Varela, H; García Campayo, J; Rueda Gormedino, P; Ortiz García, A

    2013-01-01

    The role placed by certain psychological factors such as stress and personality on the development of vocal nodules has not yet been established. The aim of this case-control type study is to analyze the relationship between these psychological factors and the presence of vocal nodules while also considering the professional and social aspects of the subjects suffering from this pathology. The case group is made up of 50 patients diagnosed with vocal nodules and with at least 6 months of evolution. The control group is made up of 50 patients diagnosed with nasal respiratory insufficiency. All the patients were examined by laryngeal stroboscopy. For the personality study, the perceived stress, and the voice use, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Levenstein Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Goldman Voice Use Survey were used, respectively. The subjects with vocal nodules presented a mean perceived stress score of 0.41±0.09, which was higher than that of the control group (0.35±0.06), the differences observed being statistically significant (Pvocal nodules was that of psychomotor acceleration. The mean score obtained for the scale was 51.64±8.25 in the vocal nodule group and 45.02±0.06 in the control group (Pvocal nodules scored 9.31±1.36, which was significantly higher than the score of the control group (8.07±1.24; Pvocal nodules, such as being young and working in professions considered to be of vocal risk. Perceived stress and personality features of hyperactivity and impulsivity are independent factors related to vocal nodules. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914

  13. Correlations Between Quality of Life and Psychological Factors in Patients With Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Fong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL and associated factors in patients with chronic neck pain (CNP. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was assessed by the Short Form-36 questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. To evaluate the psychological factors related to HRQOL, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. The scores for the eight subscales of Short Form-36 were all lower than the Taiwanese age-matched normative values (p < 0.001. The two most strongly affected subscales were the role–physical subscale and the bodily pain sub-scale; both scores were below half the score of the age-/sex-matched normative values. The physical components summary score, a summary measure, was moderately correlated with age (ρ = −0.43, education level (ρ = 0.37 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.36. The mental components summary score was moderately to highly correlated with the Chinese Health Questionnaire score (ρ = −0.72, the neuroticism domain of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (ρ = −0.52 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.41. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was worse than that of normal subjects across all domains. Furthermore, patients with a neurotic personality, minor psychiatric morbidity and higher anxiety status showed poor mental health, as measured by the Short Form-36. We found that patients with CNP had multiple physical and mental health problems in terms of. The mental health of patients with CNP was strongly associated with various psychological factors. Comprehensive assessment of the physical and mental functioning of patients with CNP can improve the management and care of these patients.

  14. The psychological problems and related influential factors of left-behind adolescents (LBA) in Hunan, China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ye; Mengmeng, Lv; Lezhi, Li; Ting, Mao; Jingping, Zhang

    2017-09-02

    Due to lack of companionship of parents, compared with non left behind children, left behind children (LBC) suffer from more psychological problems compared with children live with their parents. The aim of this study was to explore the mental health status and the relationship among psychological problems and the related factors of LBC. Adopting delaminating-random-group sampling and using region, county, village (town) as sampling framework, we utilized Demographic Data Recording Form, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Scale of APGAR, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Scale and Scale of Mental Health for Chinese Middle-school Student to assess 1309 left behind child in junior middle school students' mental health in Hunan. Statistic description, Structural equation model was adopted to analyze the data. There was a significant difference in score of psychological problems between LBC and non-LBC(F = 18.224, Pself-esteem (PC = 0.10); social support (PC = -0.02), passive coping (PC =0.07) and active coping PC = -0.04) affected psychological problems directly. Psychoticism (P) (PC = 0.11), Neuroticism (N) influenced psychological problems of LBC both directly (PC = 0.04) and indirectly through affecting self-esteem (PC: P:-1.87; N: -0.83), while Extraversion/Introversion (E) (PC = 0.21) only impact psychological problems indirectly through self-esteem. Altogether, these variables accounted for 50.2% of total variance of psychological problems (F = 130.470, P = 0.000) for LBC. In this research we proved that LBC have more sever psychological problems than non-LBC. We also identified the direct and indirect influential factors of psychological problems of LBC. The findings had important implications for prevention policies and interventions to promote mental health of LBC.

  15. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  16. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  17. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  18. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  19. Focal hand dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, etiology, and psychological trigger factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE REVIEW: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected. In the past, focal dystonia (FD) was classified as a psychological disorder. Over time, the problem was classified as a neurological problem. Although the specific pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear, it appears the etiology is multifactorial. While there may be a family history, neurophysiological, physical, and environmental factors, trauma and stress contribute to the phenotypic development of FD. This manuscript analyzes the evidence supporting the potential contribution of the emotional brain systems in the etiology of focal hand dystonia in musicians. In addition, the psychological findings from a large descriptive study comparing healthy musicians, musicians with dystonia, and musicians with chronic pain. Information about psychogenic characteristics might be used to modify intervention strategies and music instruction to reduce the incidence of musician's dystonia.

  20. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  1. Influence of psychological factors on pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín Morales

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze different psychological factors (personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, beliefs about delivery, locus of control, coping styles and its relation to clinical symptomatology and the presence of complications during pregnancy, quality of life indicators, perception and coping with labour pain, type of delivery, neonatal well-being indicators, delivery satisfaction, maternal bond development and care of the baby and presence of post-partum depression.To achieve this we will develop a prospective correlational longitudinal study. The sample will be composed by pregnant women from the area 9 from the Madrid Community that voluntarily accept the inclusion in this research.Structured questionnaires will be used to evaluate all the psychological variables in the following moments in time:- during the first and third trimester the following variables will be assessed: personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, delivery beliefs, locus of control, coping styles, first trimester physical sintomatology, quality of life indicators,- during the inmediate post-partum: pain during labour and after delivery, childbirth satisfaction,- during the puerperium: post-partum depression and anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, child bond, neonatal care, personality, psychiatric symptomatology.From the clinical record the following data will be obtained: sociodemographic variables, and parameters related to pregnancy evolution, delivery and puerperium that are relevant to the research.

  2. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

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    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  3. Attachment styles and demographic factors as predictors of sociocultural and psychological adjustment of Eastern European immigrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Elżbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ten Berge, Jos M F

    2008-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N = 631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the predictive value of attachment styles and demographic factors for immigrants' adjustment. The Attachment Style Questionnaire was used to assess respondents' attachment. Psychological adjustment was measured with the Psychological Health Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Sociocultural adjustment was measured with the Social Support List - Interactions scale. Two scales for measuring identification and contact with the native and with the Dutch culture were developed and used as indicators of cultural adjustment. We found relations between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Secure attachment was positively related (ppsychological and sociocultural adjustment, fearful attachment was negatively (ppsychological adjustment, and more negatively with identification with the Dutch culture than with identification with the native culture. Preoccupied attachment was negatively related (ppsychological adjustment and to identification with the Dutch culture. Dismissing attachment was weakly negatively related (padjustment. Correlation patterns across the three immigrants' samples indicate that dismissing individuals remain relatively indifferent towards their native and the Dutch culture. Regarding demographic factors we found that education and age at immigration were positively associated with psychological and sociocultural adjustment, and length of residence appeared to be positively related to sociocultural adjustment. In general, demographic factors showed a stronger association with sociocultural than with psychological adjustment. Regression analysis revealed that attachment styles were better predictors of immigrants' psychological

  4. Do Individual and Situational Factors Explain the Link Between Predrinking and Heavier Alcohol Consumption? An Event-Level Study of Types of Beverage Consumed and Social Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhart, F.; Wells, S.; Graham, K.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Predrinking (drinking in private settings before going to licensed premises) has been shown to be positively associated with amount of alcohol consumed. The present study assesses whether this association is explained by general drinking patterns or situational factors, including drinking

  5. Psychological factors related to physical, social, and mental dimensions of the SF-36: a population-based study of middle-aged women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalill Nilsson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evalill Nilsson1, Margareta Kristenson21Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine and Health, Division of Community Medicine/Social Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenBackground: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL are increasingly used as patient-reported outcome measures in routine health care. Research on determinants and correlates of HRQoL has, therefore, grown in importance. Earlier studies have generally been patient-based and few of them have examined differences between women and men. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological factors and physical, social, and mental dimensions of HRQoL, as measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, in a normal population and to see if observed relations were the same for women and men.Methods: Relations between scale scores for the eight scales of SF-36 and scale scores for Self-esteem, Sense of Coherence, Perceived Control, Depressed Mood (CES-D, and Cynicism were assessed through partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses on a sample of 505 women and 502 men (aged 45–69 years, stratified for sex and adjusted for effects of age, presence of disease, back pain, lifestyle, and social support.Results: All psychological factors tested, except Cynicism, were significantly correlated to all scales of the SF-36 for women and men (Pearson product-moment partial correlation coefficient, |r| = 0.11–0.63 and |r| = 0.11–0.60, respectively. The addition of psychological factors into regression models resulted in significant total explained variance (R2 changes in all scales of the SF-36 for both sexes. Any discrepancies between women and men pertained more to the strength of relationships rather than the significance of different psychological factors.Conclusion: In this population-based study

  6. Age Differences in the Association of Severe Psychological Distress and Behavioral Factors with Heart Disease

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    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.

  7. Review article: the influence of psychology and human factors on education in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Ronnie; Flin, Rhona

    2012-02-01

    We look at the changing nature of medical education in the developed world with particular reference to those areas of the new curriculum frameworks which have introduced topics from the psychosocial realm. Research in the branch of psychology dealing with human factors has developed a useful body of working knowledge which applies to other industries where humans interact with the complex systems in which they function. Some findings are already being applied to facets of anesthesia performance, including situation awareness, effective teamwork, countermeasures against active errors and latent pathogens, and limitations of human performance. However, existing lessons and practices from industrial or military research may not translate directly into effective strategies for anesthesiologists. Collaborative studies between psychologists and clinicians should continue in order to provide the anesthetic curriculum with an effective body of knowledge for each role of the anesthesiologist. Although individual anesthesiologists have made important contributions in this field, such material has not been formally incorporated into the curricula serving anesthesiologists in the developed world. There is a gap between the human factors psychologists now know and the human factors anesthesiologists need to know. As that gap closes, anesthesiologists may come to think more like human factor psychologists as well as biomedical scientists.

  8. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

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    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  9. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as...

  10. Current Data on Risk Factor Estimates Does Not Explain the Difference in Rates of Melanoma between Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites

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    Sonia Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available United States Hispanics have seven times lower melanoma incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (NHW. It is unclear whether this difference can be explained solely by phenotypic risk factors, like darker skin, or whether modifiable risk factors, like sun exposure, also play a role. The purpose of this paper is to summarize what is currently known about melanoma risk factors among Hispanics and NHWs, and whether or not those differences could explain the difference in melanoma incidence. Through literature review, relative risks and prevalence of melanoma risk factors in Hispanics and NHWs were identified and used to calculate the expected rate in Hispanics and rate ratio compared to NHWs. We found that melanoma risk factors either have similar frequency in Hispanics and NHWs (e.g., many large nevi or are less frequent in Hispanics but do not explain a high proportion of disease variation (e.g., red hair. Considering current knowledge of risk factor prevalence, we found that melanoma incidence rates in the two groups should actually be similar. Sun exposure behavior among Hispanics may contribute to the explanation for the 7-fold difference in melanoma rates. Currently, limited data exist on sun exposure behavior among Hispanics, but possibilities for improving primary prevention by further studying these practices are substantial.

  11. Exploring resilience and mindfulness as preventative factors for psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress among human service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven

    2016-06-08

    Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.

  12. Social and Psychological Factors Related to Risk of Eating Disorders Among High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfoukha, Marwa M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banihani, Manar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) has increased among adolescents in Arabic and Western countries. The purposes are to identify the risk of ED and psychosocial correlates of risk of ED among high school girls in Jordan. The researchers employed a cross-sectional, correlational design using 799 high school girls from governmental and private schools in the central region of Jordan. The results indicate that prevalence of the risk of ED was 12%. The risk of ED had significant and positive correlation with body shape dissatisfaction, self-esteem, psychological distress, and pressure from family, peers, and media ( p self-esteem, negative peer pressure, and being young were significant predictors of the risk of EDs. Risk of ED is highly prevalent among high school girls, and school nurses need to adopt a model of care addressing the risk factors while caring for high school girls.

  13. Generating pedestrian trajectories consistent with the fundamental diagram based on physiological and psychological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Narang

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories.

  14. Some further studies on the prediction of experimental colds in volunteers by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Phillpotts, R J; Wallace, J

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the incidence of colds in volunteers, exposed experimentally to various rhinovirus and influenza virus challenges, confirmed an earlier report that assessments of virus shedding show a higher degree of infection by rhinovirus in Introverts than they do in Extroverts. The influenza trials however did not show such an effect. In addition, people with higher scores on a widely used self-report inventory of mild psychoneurotic symptoms tended to show more evidence of increased nasal secretion after infection by either type of virus. The specific scale showing the latter effect most clearly was that of Obsessional Symptoms. Taking account of these psychological factors greatly increased the sensitivity of a study of the beneficial effects of interferon.

  15. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included.

  16. [Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranoff, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Using data from Argentina's National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women's vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less "formal" long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  17. Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Safranoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  18. Which is the dominant factor for perception of rheumatic pain: meteorology or psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Hasan Fatih; Sezer, Ilhan; Firat, Mehmet Z; Kaçar, Cahit

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that there is an association between the weather and rheumatic symptoms. We aimed to investigate what kind of association is present and what are the factors which determine the nature of this association. Fifty-six subjects with rheumatic disease (31 RA, 15 SpA, 10 OA) who live in Antalya were followed between December 2005 and July 2006. Patients were asked to fill diaries which contain questions regarding the symptoms of their rheumatic diseases everyday. In every monthly visit, disease activity measurement, laboratory assessment and Beck depression inventory assessment were recorded. The symptomatic and psychological measurements were matched with the meteorological data of Antalya Regional Directorate of Meteorological Service of Turkish State. Correlation of symptoms with weather variables was investigated. Contributory effect of weather and of psychologic factors on symptom scores were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty-four percent of subjects belive in an association between weather and rheumatism, while 57% claimed to have ability to forecast weather. The maximum correlation coefficient between weather and arthritis symptoms was -0.451 and the maximum contribution of weather on symptoms was 17.1%. Arthritis symptoms were significantly contributed by Beck depression score. The belief about presence of weather-arthritis association was found to be stronger than its statistical power. Our results did not prove or rule out the presence of weather-rheumatism association. As long as the scientific attempts result in failure, the intuitive support in favour of the presence of weather-arthritis association will go on forever.

  19. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationships Between Spiritual Well-Being, Quality of Life, and Psychological Factors Before Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sara J; Chen, Yiyi; Paik, Kyungjeen; Mirly, Brandy; Thomas, Charles R; Hung, Arthur Y

    2016-12-30

    Given shifting trends of religious identities in the USA, better understanding the impact of patients' religious identities on health-related quality of life (QOL) may help tailor the use of psychological interventions. Men with prostate cancer (N = 43) completed measures of quality of life (QOL), spiritual well-being in two domains (i.e., Faith and Meaning/Peace), psychological state, and psychological trait before undergoing radiotherapy. We hypothesized that (1) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with higher QOL and psychological trait protective factors (e.g., Agreeableness) and that (2) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with lower depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism (i.e., a psychological trait risk factor). We did not anticipate similar relationships between religious Faith and QOL, depression, anxiety, or psychological traits and consider related analyses to be exploratory in nature. Meaning/Peace was indeed negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism. Meaning/Peace was positively correlated with Physical, Social, Functional, and Emotional well-being, as well as Extraversion. Religious Faith was positively associated with Functional well-being, but not the other state, trait, or QOL domains. In sum, prostate cancer patients' sense of existential Meaning/Peace prior to radiotherapy was associated with well-being in many domains, whereas religious Faith appeared less so.