Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom
Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies......., and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...
Full Text Available Background & aim: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a global public health issue leading to the death of many people every year. Experience of infertility profoundly affects the personal well-being of women. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and contributing factors of psychological IPV in infertile women referring to the infertility centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 410 infertile women selected via multistage sampling. Demographic data of infertile women (33 items and their spouses (16 items were collected. In addition, researcher-made IPV questionnaire (53 items and general health questionnaire (GHQ (28 items were used. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using descriptive statistics (Chi-square, independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation-coefficient, and linear regression. Results: In total, 410 infertile women were enrolled in this study, 74.3% of whom were victims of psychological IPV. Results of linear regression analysis indicated that psychological IPV and GHQ had significant associations with the ethnicity and physical diseases of the spouses of infertile women (P
Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina
The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition
Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina
The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition
Carlson, Eve B; Palmieri, Patrick A; Field, Nigel P; Dalenberg, Constance J; Macia, Kathryn S; Spain, David A
Traumatic experiences cause considerable suffering and place a burden on society due to lost productivity, increases in suicidality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychological disorder. The impact of traumatic experiences is complicated because many factors affect individuals' responses. By employing several methodological improvements, we sought to identify risk factors that would account for a greater proportion of variance in later disorder than prior studies. In a sample of 129 traumatically injured hospital patients and family members of injured patients, we studied pre-trauma, time of trauma, and post-trauma psychosocial risk and protective factors hypothesized to influence responses to traumatic experiences and posttraumatic (PT) symptoms (including symptoms of PTSD, depression, negative thinking, and dissociation) two months after trauma. The risk factors were all significantly correlated with later PT symptoms, with post-trauma life stress, post-trauma social support, and acute stress symptoms showing the strongest relationships. A hierarchical regression, in which the risk factors were entered in 6 steps based on their occurrence in time, showed the risks accounted for 72% of the variance in later symptoms. Most of the variance in PT symptoms was shared among many risk factors, and pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors accounted for the most variance. Collectively, the risk factors accounted for more variance in later PT symptoms than in previous studies. These risk factors may identify individuals at risk for PT psychological disorders and targets for treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tselebis, Athanasios; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Bratis, Dionisios; Pachi, Argiro; Ilias, Ioannis; Harikiopoulou, Maria; Theodorakopoulou, Elpida; Velentzas, Konstantinos; Dumitru, Silvia; Moussas, Georgios; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Tzanakis, Nikolaos
Significant positive effects, particularly on psychological state in patients who completed the follow-up pulmonary rehabilitation programs, are indicated by a large number of studies. Yet, a remarkable proportion of selected patients drop out from these programs. In this study, we investigated existing differences on psychological variables among COPD patients who complete and those who drop out from pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The study included 144 patients, 43 (29.9%) of whom did not complete the program. SCL-90 was used for the assessment of psychological symptoms. On the SCL-90-R scale 55.6% of patients had abnormal findings. Patients who discontinued the program had higher rates of depression and somatization compared to those who completed it. Regarding the psychopathology scales of SCL-90R, we found that patients who discontinued the program showed higher levels of psychopathology on the scales of somatization, depression, paranoid ideation, and psychotism compared to those who completed the program. The final regression model showed that patients with low educational status and psychotism were more likely to leave the program. In conclusion, psychopathology contributes to patients dropping out from a COPD rehabilitation program; thus, psychological assessment prior to inclusion in rehabilitation programs may reduce dropouts. PMID:24689040
Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro
This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rommel, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Tack, Jan; Pauwels, Ans
Altered upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body (EB) sensorimotor function and psychosocial factors may both be involved in symptom generation in globus, but their common impact is not yet assessed. The aim of the study is (1) to compare UES and EB sensitivity and compliance of globus patients with healthy controls (HC); (2) to study the association of globus symptom severity (GSS) with UES and EB sensitivity and compliance, UES motor function and psychosocial factors. In 58 globus patients, GSS, somatization, and anxiety disorders were determined using validated questionnaires. In 26 HC and 42/58 patients, UES and EB sensitivity and compliance were assessed twice using barostat measurements. UES function of 27 globus patients was evaluated using high-resolution manometry. Bivariate correlations and a general linear model tested the association of these factors with GSS. UES and EB compliance did not differ between globus patients and HC. Upon repeated distension, UES habituation was seen in both groups, whereas EB sensitization (23.3±1.3 vs. 19.5±1.5 mm Hg, P<0.0001) only occurred in globus patients, (P=0.038). UES compliance (ρ=0.37, P=0.04), change in EB compliance upon repeated distension (ρ=0.45, P=0.007), somatization (ρ=0.43, P=0.003), panic disorder (t=3.04, P=0.004), and post-traumatic stress severity (ρ=0.40, P=0.005) were associated with GSS. UES compliance and somatization were independently associated with GSS. A trend (P=0.061) was found for the association of GSS with change in EB compliance. UES compliance, change in EB compliance, and somatization explain 40% of the variance in GSS. This indicates that globus is a complex disorder of the brain-gut axis rather than a "psychosomatic" disorder or a peripheral esophageal disorder.
Snell, Deborah L; Surgenor, Lois J; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Williman, Jonathan; Siegert, Richard J
Outcomes after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) vary, with slow or incomplete recovery for a significant minority. This study examines whether groups of cases with shared psychological factors but with different injury outcomes could be identified using cluster analysis. This is a prospective observational study following 147 adults presenting to a hospital-based emergency department or concussion services in Christchurch, New Zealand. This study examined associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychological variables (distress, injury beliefs and symptom burden) and outcome 6 months later. A two-step approach to cluster analysis was applied (Ward's method to identify clusters, K-means to refine results). Three meaningful clusters emerged (high-adapters, medium-adapters, low-adapters). Baseline cluster-group membership was significantly associated with outcomes over time. High-adapters appeared recovered by 6-weeks and medium-adapters revealed improvements by 6-months. The low-adapters continued to endorse many symptoms, negative recovery expectations and distress, being significantly at risk for poor outcome more than 6-months after injury (OR (good outcome) = 0.12; CI = 0.03-0.53; p < 0.01). Cluster analysis supported the notion that groups could be identified early post-injury based on psychological factors, with group membership associated with differing outcomes over time. Implications for clinical care providers regarding therapy targets and cases that may benefit from different intensities of intervention are discussed.
Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur
Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and
Aim: It has been reported that various psychological factors, including stress, associate with the clinical features of fibromyalgia. This project proposed that a top down process, comprising of a number of contributing psychological factors, plays a pivotal role in the establishment of fibromyalgia. The project specifically examined whether a number of psychological factors would contribute significantly to the core clinical features of fibromyalgia, and if so whether these...
Cameron, R. J.
This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…
Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Data extraction: Internal validity was assessed independently by two referees with a detailed checklist for sources of bias. Conclusions were drawn based on studies with acceptable quality. Data synthesis: We calculated combined effect estimates by means of averaged associations (Risk ratios across samples, weighting observed associations by the study’s sample size. Thirty-nine studies of accepted quality were found, 37 of which from the Nordic countries. Results There was moderate evidence for the role of low control (supported by weighted average RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.21-1.61 and moderate evidence for the combination of high demands and low control (although weighted average was RR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96-2.19 as predictors of disability retirement. There were no major systematic differences in findings between the highest rated and the lowest rated studies that passed the criterion for adequate quality. There was limited evidence for downsizing, organizational change, lack of employee development and supplementary training, repetitive work tasks, effort-reward imbalance to increase risk of disability pension. Very limited evidence was found for job demands, evening or night work, and low social support from ones superior. Conclusions Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability
Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom; Härmä, Mikko; Rugulies, Reiner; Seitsamo, Jorma; Borg, Vilhelm
Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Internal validity was assessed independently by two referees with a detailed checklist for sources of bias. Conclusions were drawn based on studies with acceptable quality. We calculated combined effect estimates by means of averaged associations (Risk ratios) across samples, weighting observed associations by the study's sample size. Thirty-nine studies of accepted quality were found, 37 of which from the Nordic countries. There was moderate evidence for the role of low control (supported by weighted average RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.21-1.61) and moderate evidence for the combination of high demands and low control (although weighted average was RR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96-2.19) as predictors of disability retirement. There were no major systematic differences in findings between the highest rated and the lowest rated studies that passed the criterion for adequate quality. There was limited evidence for downsizing, organizational change, lack of employee development and supplementary training, repetitive work tasks, effort-reward imbalance to increase risk of disability pension. Very limited evidence was found for job demands, evening or night work, and low social support from ones superior. Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of
Fagan, Thomas K.
The contributions of psychologist and educator, Leta Hollingworth (1886-1939), to the development of school psychological services are identified. Considered are her organizational involvement, professional writing, and research in this area. (DB)
Full Text Available This paper presents a research current that has spread over Brazil: the Community Psychology that is now recognized as an autonomous subject and that is supported by Anglo-Saxon and European countries where national and international associations are being multiplied. The analysis of some aspects of this subject allows for outlining some relevant remarks to subsidize our discussion: values, principles and models of action that are common or specific in this discipline; aspects of social dimension to the approaches of Community Psychology and its places of observation and application.Este artigo apresenta uma tendência de pesquisa cuja radiação do Brasil é inegável: a Psicologia Comunitária, hoje reconhecida como uma disciplina autônoma e encontra eco nos países anglo-saxões e europeus, onde se multiplicam as associações nacionais e internacionais. O exame de alguns aspectos desta disciplina permite esboçar algumas observações relevantes para subsidiar nossa discussão: valores, princípios e modelos de ação que lhe são comuns ou específicos; aspectos relevantes para integrar a dimensão social nas abordagens de psicologia comunitária e seus lugares de observação e de aplicação.
Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei
Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children's psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A random sample of 42 children aged 10-13, with 25 from low- and 17 from high-income families were asked to voluntarily response to a demographic sheet and undergo individual semi-structured interviews which lasted about 25-30 min. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (reference UW 12-237). The findings of this study revealed that the living environment, physical health, social life and ability to function at school of children from low-income families are severely impaired. It fills a gap in the literature by showing how poverty and income disparity affect the daily lives of children from low-income families on different levels. Also, adopting a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are possible factors mediating the effects of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of children from low-income families. It is vital for healthcare professionals going beyond their normal roles to give advice on healthy lifestyles and behaviors by building multidisciplinary partnerships with schools and the community. Additionally, healthcare professionals should also target on these two possible factors to develop and implement appropriate interventions for promoting the psychological well-being among children living in poverty. Trial registration NCT02877719. 19 August 2016 retrospectively registered.
Book synopsis: \\ud \\ud What is language and how can we investigate its acquisition by children or adults? What perspectives exist from which to view acquisition? What internal constraints and external factors shape acquisition? What are the properties of interlanguage systems? This comprehensive 31-chapter handbook is an authoritative survey of second language acquisition (SLA). Its multi-perspective synopsis on recent developments in SLA research provides significant contributions by establi...
Nazemian, Sahar; Balash, Farhad; Balash, Reza
Thisstudy is to cast a light on psychological factors, which force faculty memberstoward conducting unethical research. Since psychological factors are the keyfactors to control human behavior, in this paper, they are highlighted as themain purpose of the study. Methodologically, a qualitative approach was appliedto reveal the factors. Thematic analysis assisted the researchers discoveringthe main factors. Ten faculty members were interviewed as to understand theways that factors could deploy...
Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…
Stern, Paul C.
Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…
Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F
This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the contributions of feminist debate about intersectionality of social categories for Community Social Psychology in Brazil. This was set up as dedicated to theoretical analyze the social inequalities that characterize contemporary societies and propose methodological processes of intervention for questioning and processing of these realities. We discuss how the emergence of new actors and demands on public space, as distinct from the 60/70, is required to understand the oppression from various power systems such as gender, race and sexuality. We conclude that intersectional analysis should consider different levels of relationships between categories, the history of the same differential and common aspects of different systems of power as naturalization of inequality, the relationship between public and private relationship between equality and difference. Analyses based on intersectionality can contribute to processes of social intervention that considers the complexity of contemporary societies.
Full Text Available Stefan Sütterlin,1,2 Lars E Egner,1 Ricardo G Lugo,1 Slawomir Wojniusz2,3 1Section of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 3Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient's positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient's emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients' expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. Keywords: placebo, expectation, conditioning, environmental psychology
Vali, Armita; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afghari, Parastoo; Javad Shirani, Mohamad; Afshar, Hamid; Savabi, Omid; Adibi, Peyman
Subjective halitosis is a growing concern in the fields of dentistry and psychology. This study was designed to determine the association between subjective halitosis and contributing psychological factors. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered from 4,763 participants who had answered questions on subjective halitosis and psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress and personality traits) in the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN). Binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The mean age of all subjects was 36.58 years; and the majority of subjects were female (55.8%), married (81.2%) and graduates (57.2%). The prevalence of subjective halitosis was 52.8%. The majority of subjects with the complaint of subjective halitosis were married (Phalitosis were significantly more anxious [odds ratio (OR)=1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.38-2.24], stressed (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.71) and depressed (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). Among personality traits, neuroticism was a risk factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.43-2.13) and conscientiousness was revealed to be a protective factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80). It seems that psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression and stress, as well as some personality traits, can be considered as risk factors for subjective halitosis. Multidisciplinary efforts by dental and psychological professionals must be considered to address this problem. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Khayyam-Nekouei, Zohreh; Neshatdoost, Hamidtaher; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Manshaee, Gholamreza
BACKGROUND Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD. METHODS This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012. RESULTS As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role i...
Full Text Available While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates for participants in the horse-racing industry, veterinary medicine and equestrian disciplines provide compelling evidence for improving risk mitigation models. There is a paucity of theoretical principles regarding the risk of injury and mortality associated with human–horse interactions. In this paper we introduce and apply the four psychological principles of context, loss of focus, global cognitive style and the application of self as the frame of reference as a potential approach for assessing and managing human–horse risks. When these principles produce errors that are combined with a rigid self-referenced point, it becomes clear how rapidly risk emerges and how other people and animals may repeatedly become at risk over time. Here, with a focus on the thoroughbred racing industry, veterinary practice and equestrian disciplines, we review the merits of contextually applied strategies, an evolving reappraisal of risk, flexibility, and focused specifics of situations that may serve to modify human behaviour and mitigate risk.
Min, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sujung; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Chul; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk
Although a considerable number of cancer patients suffer from emotional distress which may have an impact on their quality of life, it still remains poorly understood which psychosocial factors contribute to individual vulnerabilities to emotional distress of cancer patients. Recently, resilience has been suggested as the capacity to cope with adversities like cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between resilience and emotional distress in cancer patients. One hundred fifty-two cancer patients who were consecutively hospitalized for their scheduled treatments at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled and completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale to measure resilience and emotional distress. The relationships between the levels of psychological resilience and emotional distress were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Psychological resilience levels were negatively associated with emotional distress after controlling for relevant covariates. The highest quartile of resilience level was associated with a 90% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.34, P cancer patients, resilience was also found to be a significant protective factor for emotional distress (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.79, P = 0.02). The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress in cancer patients. The relationship between resilience and emotional distress was also significant in the subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. Psychosocial interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome cancer-related emotional distress.
McBride Sebastian D
Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.
Cassel, Russell N.
Humanistic psychologists now embrace many of the same principles which served as the basis for Piaget's theory. These same theories were described earlier by John Locke and Immanuel Kant, and were the basis of the new "Humanism" movement in Germany in the 18th century. If one considers humanistic psychology as a kind of culmination of…
Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.
The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…
Full Text Available Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996. According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997. The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes. We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1 pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging, 2 indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything, 3 optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery, 4 optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement. The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.
systemic vessel resistance; and in turn increase in the secretion of vasoconstrictor compounds from endothelial cells of over-resistant vessels. Hypertension develops as a result of vasoconstriction. In the previous studies, emotional factors and particular personality traits are consistently confirmed for being predisposing factors in hypertensive individuals. In this article, we focused on the association between essential hypertension and psychological factors, and discussed the common pathophysiological mechanisms.
The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the path...
Ridley, Charles R.; Mollen, Debra
This Major Contribution, consisting of four articles, critically evaluates the status of training in counseling psychology, especially at the entry level, and offers a model for moving the field forward. In this first article, we provide a rationale for the contribution, laying the foundation for the subsequent three articles. Specifically, we ask…
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2017 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.
The study examined the contributions of perceived prevalence of financial crime, socioeconomic status and gender on psychological well-being among unemployed. The cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Participants were 288 unemployed graduates sampled in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria.
Wall, W. D.
This paper is as much an attempt to catch some of the flavor of the man Peel as it is an exegesis of his work. It traces his special interests and contributions, especially his experimental extensions of Piaget in the realm of adolescent psychology. (Author/SJL)
This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2017 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee were Erica Wise, PhD (Chair); Ron Rozensky, PhD; Jane D. Halonen, PhD; Sharon Berry, PhD (Chair Elect); Emil Rodolfa, PhD; and Sylvia A. Rosenfield, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...
Baiardini, Ilaria; Sicuro, Francesca; Balbi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio
Despite the regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonists, permits to control de majority of asthmatics, a significant proportion of patients does not respond to this treatment. This review was aimed to explore the role of psychological factors associated to the unsuccessful fulfilment of optimal levels of asthma control, especially in patients suffering from severe asthma. The results of a Medline search were 5510 articles addressed to different ...
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was
Berrocal Montiel, Carmen; Rivas Moya, Teresa; Venditti, Francesca; Bernini, Olivia
This study explored the contribution of Psychological Flexibility (PF) to predict adjustment to breast cancer. Sixty-four females with breast cancer completed self-report measures of PF and adjustment (anxiety, depression, negative and positive affect) at baseline, and forty-two patients returned for assessment six months later. Higher flexibility at baseline significantly contributed to predict lower anxiety, depression and negative affect at follow-up. The effect sizes ranged from moderate to large. Results provide evidence for targeting PF to prevent enhanced psychological distress in patients with breast cancer, and add to a growing body of research supporting PF as a common protective factor across different contexts and populations.
The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the pathogenesis and the course of alopecia areata, it is indicated that stress, a traumatic situation, a high level of neuroticism and alexithymia, may influence the occurrence, duration and exacerbation of the condition in question. Mental disorders occurring most frequently amongst individuals suffering from alopecia areata are: depression, increased level of anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts.
Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne
Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions
Moseley, D. T.; And Others
Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)
Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris
This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…
This study explored college students' smoking behaviour and identifies the effect of different psychological factors. Randomly selected students from two different universities completed the perceived stress scale, self esteem scale, anxiety scale and a smoking questionnaire. Non-parametric analyses suggested that higher ...
Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine
The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…
Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of six months duration since diagnosis. Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Exercise Self-efficacy Scale were used to assess psychological factors while the Stage of Change for Exercise Behaviour scale assessed physical exercise behaviour. Information including age, gender, ...
van Mierlo, Maria L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; de Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M.
Objective: To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting: Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants: Stroke patients (N=344; mean age +/- SD, 66.9 +/- 12.3y).
For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...
Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.
Flanigan, David C; Everhart, Joshua S; Glassman, Andrew H
Orthopaedic surgery often requires many months of rehabilitation to achieve a successful outcome, regardless of subspecialty. Several important psychological factors strongly influence pain perceptions, rehabilitation compliance, and patient outcomes after common orthopaedic surgeries that require extensive rehabilitation, including total joint arthroplasty, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and spine surgery for degenerative disease. Early recognition of patients exhibiting psychological distress, fear-avoidance behavior, or poor perceived self-efficacy or pessimistic personality traits can be used to improve preoperative risk stratification for poor rehabilitation or surgical outcomes. Several intervention strategies exist to address these psychological factors when they appear to contribute suboptimal postoperative rehabilitation or recovery. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.
Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…
The efficacy of pain management is subordinated to the efficacy of pain assessment. Children are particularly difficult-to-assess patients. In this area, child psychology can contribute to the development of tools and to improving pain assessment. This paper highlights the relevance of studies on dialog in pain assessment situations and the importance of the specificity of both the patient and his pain. Assessing pain and listening to the patient's complaint means meeting the child in his own world. Nonetheless, it is necessary to use and develop assessment tools that are scientifically validated.
JUAN CARLOS ALONSO G
Full Text Available This article is an answer to the growing interest arisen byAnalytic Psychology, a school of thought that compilesthe work of the Swiss doctor Carl G. Jung (1875-1961. There exists a wide lack of information in our society onthe contents of this school and thus this article seeks to offer wide review of its foundations. Given the fact thatthe aforementioned lack of knowledge is even greater in relation to its contributions to clinical work this paperpresents the main contributions made by this approach to psychotherapy. Finally, a mention is made of thedevelopments, revisions and postjunguian schools that have evolved from the original ideas of Jung to our days, aswell as interesting encounter points with other psychoanalitical approaches.
Méndez-Ulrich, Jorge Luis; Sanz, Antoni
Asymptomatic in its early stages, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. While psychosocial factors are taken into consideration for a host of diseases such as cancer, heart disease and autoimmune conditions, to date, psychological issues have been ignored in the clinical management of glaucoma. This work reviews the most relevant contributions from a health psychology perspective for the assessment and treatment of glaucoma, which is emerging in the field of psycho-ophthalmology. To provide scientific evidence regarding contributions of psychology to the comprehension of glaucoma, a bibliographic review of three databases (Psicodoc, PsycInfo and Medline) was conducted, spanning the period between 1940 and 2016. This review yielded a total of 66 studies published in the period analysed and identified three areas where health psychology has made substantive contributions to glaucoma screening, monitoring and treatment: the emotional impact on patients suffering from glaucoma, the adherence to treatment and the effects of stress on intraocular pressure. A health psychology approach for research and therapy of glaucoma must focus on the management of the negative affect associated with the diagnosis, the optimisation of treatment adherence and the stress management of the intraocular pressure measurements.
Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri
The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...
Grub, Elisabeth Johanna; Wydra, Georg; Köllner, Volker
The goal of the study was to capture the relationship between motor balance and psychological factors, using sport-motoric tests as well as subjective self-evaluations. The balance control of 118 patients of a psychosomatic rehabilitation clinic was examined at the beginning and end of rehabilitation using various motor tests. Additionally, psychological variables including self-esteem (MSWS), degree of anxiety (BAI) and depressive symptoms (BDI) were assessed. To examine subjective self-evaluation a numerical analog scale and a questionnaire with open questions were used. Content analysis was performed on the questionnaire. In the area of physical self-esteem, especially sportiness, low to moderate correlations were found between self-esteem and balance. No significant relationship was found between anxiety or depressive symptoms and balance. In the open questions most patients described a distinct connection between emotional distress and balance. The participation in the tests was often a topic in their therapy. The expected relationship between psychological factors and motor balance could be only partially confirmed. A question is raised as to whether this relationship appears merely in situations of acute stress, as detected in the patients answers to the open questions. Addressing the study in psychotherapie an indication that balance tasks are well suited for the subjective experience and discussion of psychosomatic relationships. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Fanny M. Cheung for her outstanding contributions to the assessment of cross-cultural psychopathology, personality psychology, and gender…
Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Drabek, Marcin
Over the recent years the proportion of retired persons in the over 54 years age group has systematically increased in the European Union (EU). In Poland, work force participation rate for people aged 54-65 years is particularly low compared to other countries. The aim of the presented study was to explore psychological and socio-demographic factors affecting the early retirement decision. The study was performed on 199 manual and skilled workers aged 50-64 years. The data were obtained by means of: Effort-Reward Imbalance questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Scale and adapted items from Work Description Inventory. To explore the risk factors for an early retirement, the logistic regression was used. The following risk factors of an early retirement were identified: low education (primary and vocational Exp(B) = 10.394, p = 0.001; secondary and Bachelor's degree Exp(B) = 3.462, p = 0.001), low health status (Exp(B) = 3.36, p = 0.006, Exp(B) = 7.73, p = 0.002) and lack of reward at work (ERI R) (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = 0.002). The results of the study suggest that psychological variables play a secondary role in the process of making early retirement decision, while they probably exert a stronger effect on the decision to continue occupational activities than to quit them. This problem should be explored more deeply in the future research.
Maria A. Kozlova
Full Text Available The article examines the contribution of John Maynard Keynes to the study of the psychological motives of economic behavior. The origins of the analysis of the psychological motives in economics before Keynes are reviewed. The relative importance of rational and irrational motives of economic behavior in the Keynesian theory is analyzed. It is shown that Keynes's analysis of the behavior of the economic agents under uncertainty and the lack of information contributed to the elaboration of the bounded rationality theory by Simon. The article also describes the input of Keynes to the formation of a new «Keynesian» model of human behavior, which implies the importance of expectations, taking into account the psychological and social factors of economic behavior. The main psychological tendencies in the actions of the consumers and investors described by Keynes (the basic psychological law, liquidity preference, the influence of the «market psychology» on the investor's decisions and their relevance nowadays are examined. The article shows further development of the ideas of Keynes in the Akerlof and Shiller's theory of animal spirits and in the financial instability hypothesis of Minsky. It also gives a description of a confidence multiplier, introduced by Akerlof and Shiller, and shows how the cosumers' confidence can be measured nowadays. Besides, the article stresses that the study of the psychological motives of economic behavior, undertaken by Keynes, contributed to the development of such new disciplines at the interface between the economy and psychology as the economic psychology and behavioral economics.
This article reviews a number of psychologically informed studies of Jesus in view of the criteria pertaining to psychobiography. It argues that the studies have produced divergent interpretations of Jesus because of a lack of data and the nature of the sources. This is especially true of these studies as they used psychological ...
Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.
Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…
Christopher, John Chambers; Wendt, Dennis C; Marecek, Jeanne; Goodman, David M
The number of psychologists whose work crosses cultural boundaries is increasing. Without a critical awareness of their own cultural grounding, they risk imposing the assumptions, concepts, practices, and values of U.S.-centered psychology on societies where they do not fit, as a brief example from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami shows. Hermeneutic thinkers offer theoretical resources for gaining cultural awareness. Culture, in the hermeneutic view, is the constellation of meanings that constitutes a way of life. Such cultural meanings-especially in the form of folk psychologies and moral visions-inevitably shape every psychology, including U.S. psychology. The insights of hermeneutics, as well as its conceptual resources and research approaches, open the way for psychological knowledge and practice that are more culturally situated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The article substantiates approach to the study of crime of aggression, taking into account the analysis of the behavior principles of interaction of personal and situational factors; interaction of aggressive and antiaggressive personal factors. Three-dimensional typology of crime of aggression formed three axles: high – low aggressiveness; formation – aborted personal aggression inhibitors; neutral – a legally significant traumatic situation. This typology has been verified on the basis of empirical material, including 329 people (257 males and 72 women aged 18 to 70 years charged with violent crimes. All of the defendants (33 % mental health 67 % – with a variety of mental disorders not excluding sanity were examined in the production of a comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination. A cluster analysis of the subjects (Ward's method showed the validity of the choice of three bases of a typology of criminal aggression. The most powerful discriminator of types of aggression were personal inhibitors of aggression, less severe factors of high aggressiveness and characteristics of the situation. Identified correlations between various mental disorders and types of aggression.
The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The development of positive psychology, a new direction in psychology, marked the beginning of a positive movement in the social sciences, having an impact on the development of criminology and victimology thought. This article presents basic principles of positive psychology, the study of positive emotions, positive character and institutions that make this possible. Additionally, the aim is to analyse the contribution of positive psychology to positive vi...
The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well cited, and she has received support from numerous foundations and federal sources. One of the most highly respected scholars and investigators in developmental science, she studies the various factors that affect children's self-regulation and consequently their academic readiness. Her research has revealed effective new strategies for prevention and intervention at home and at school for the most educationally and economically challenged children. Raver's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Friederike Range for outstanding contributions to the understanding of the complex social minds of nonhuman animals. Through ingenious experimental approaches,…
Schindler, Holly S.
This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…
American Psychologist, 2009
Ahmad R. Hariri, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for pioneering contributions to understanding the neurobiological mechanisms driving individual differences in complex behavior traits. Hariri has integrated molecular genetics, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging, and psychology in…
This article explores the Central European philosophical roots of perceptual psychology from a historical perspective. It will be shown that Alexius Meinong's notion of a forum of perception is the point of departure for a beginning inclusion of external factors in explaining perception. This conclusion is mainly because of Fritz Heider's early contributions on perception and its influence on Egon Brunswik. In addition, the impact of Meinong and Edmund Husserl-both students of Franz Brentano-on Brunswik's teacher, Karl Bühler, is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal
Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Caroline S. Duchaine
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Serafín Aldea Muñoz
Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.
Lyndel J. Bates
Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
Viala, M; Sperandeo, D; Duprez, D
Psychological aspects of contraception in adolescence tend to be of interest primarily because of the belief that better understanding of psychological resistence to contraception would lead to more effective use and a lower rate of pregnancy. The failure of adolescents to use contraception appears to be due in part to irresponsibility but in part also to a variety of other factors. There is no ideal contraceptive for adolescents. The pill has potentially serious side effects whose significance may be exaggerated by adolescents, and the price of the contraceptive sponge may be prohibitive. Contraceptives themselves are perceived by adolescents as belonging more to parents, physicians, or the media than to themselves. Low-dose pills considered appropriate for adolescents are often abandoned because of their annoying minor side effects. Most adolescents do not seek contraception in an independent way, but out of fear that they are already pregnant or, if they have been sexually active for some time without using contraception, out of fear of infertility. Use of contraception may also be initiated by the partner, or the mother wishing to protect her daughter against pregnancy or to regularize the menstrual cycle. Contraceptive use by adolescents is complex because it signifies delaying rather than spacing or terminating pregnancy. The long duration of use that may be required until the time is right for pregnancy and the need to foresee future consequences are difficult given the cognitive level of adolescents. There are also difficult problems of access, prescription, and follow-up. Prescription of contraceptives for an adolescent is likely to invoke ambivalent feelings. Follow-up should be scheduled at fairly short intervals because of the fragility of motivation for contraceptive use at this age. The constraints of contraceptive use are not adapted to the sporadic and unplanned nature of much adolescent sexual activity. Society has an image of the adolescent as
psychologist to develop more general psychological theories. According to. Runyan, more general methodological development can take place in two ways. First, the life course of the subject can be described as a series of interactions between the person, the situation and his or her behavior. (Runyan 1982:84-86, 97-99).
Duchaine, CS; Ndjaboué, R; Levesque, M; Vézina, M; Trudel, X; Gilbert-Ouimet, M; Dionne, CE; Mâsse, B; Pearce, N; Brisson, C
Background Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates ...
Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of the factors which contributed to accidental injuries sustained by those patients who fell in a White provincial hospital in die period 1 January to 30 June 1982. The research study was undertaken by Diploma in Nursing Administration students during their 3-week hospital practice at a White provincial hospital.
This paper analyzes electronic mail and its role in adult education, identifies research on the educational implications of electronic mail, and discusses theoretical issues from an economic, psychological, and sociological perspective. (SK)
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.
The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Anneliese A. Singh. Dr. Singh's scholarship "has promoted major advancements in LBGT studies and intersectionality of multiple identities." Singh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Radovan Čokorilo; Zoran Milošević
The paper analyzes the role and importance of modern psychological preparation to achieve the best possible athletic performance while maintaining mental health and well being of athletes. In this sense, psychological preparation is perceived as an equal factor with the physical and technical-tactical preparation at all levels of competition. The achievement of equality can be achieved only by specialized (licensed) psychologists for specific areas that must understand the psychology of sport...
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive development and cognitive evolution. Laurie R. Santos links many branches of psychological inquiry in her research, including animal behavior, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, judgment and decision making, and social psychology. In particular, her studies of biases, irrationalities, and errors- where rational decision making fails, rather than succeeds-are providing remarkable insights into how cognitive biases evolved and how decision making operates at a fundamental level. Her accomplishments beautifully illustrate the power of comparative studies of animal learning and behavior to help us understand the human mind. Santos' Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well…
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…
Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.
How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…
Devonport, Tracey J
The study used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of three high performance kickboxers regarding the contribution of psychology to the development and maintenance of expert performance within kickboxing...
The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2015 recipient of this award is Rodney K. Goodyear "for his substantive, sustained, and enduring contributions to research and practice in the training and supervision of students and educators in professional psychology, and for his leadership in helping to establish competency standards in the area of clinical supervision both in the United States and internationally. Goodyear's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael
Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...
Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok
Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Age (p=0.005), female gender (prisk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (pfactors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain.
Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah
In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the psychological factors of innovativeness that drives nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth in Malaysia. Nomadic micro entrepreneurs refer to those who regularly change the location of their business. To meet the research objective, the current study carried out in-depth interviews among the Nomadic MEs operating their business in Northern region, Malaysia. Twenty Nomadic MEs were interviewed on voluntary basis. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the recurring themes that delineate psychological factors that may influence innovativeness. Interestingly, the findings revealed that the innovativeness of Nomadic MEs is influenced by four psychological characteristics namely sense of curiosity, interest, risk taking, and risk avoidance. The contribution of this study lies in the identification of four substantial psychological factors that act as a foundation for innovativeness among nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth.
Ciucă, Andrada; Băban, Adriana
The present paper is aimed at briefly presenting psychological factors involved in cancer related pain and what psychosocial interventions are efficient in reducing it. Cancer related pain is a complex experience and the most integrative and recommended approach is the biopsychosocial model. It has been proved that chronic pain is more strongly related to psychological factors than to treatment or illness related factors. Psychological factors influencing pain experience can be intuitively grouped starting with awareness of pain (i.e., attentional factor), then with evaluation of pain (i.e., cognitive factors) which is leading to feelings (i.e., emotional factors), and behaviours (i.e., coping strategies) regarding pain. Psychosocial interventions (i.e., skill based and education based interventions) have strong evidence that is effective in reducing cancer related pain.
Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B
Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being.
Steve M Harakeh
Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.
Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I
Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.
The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2014 recipient of this award is Julio J. Ramirez, for "creating a national infrastructure to support education and training in behavioral neuroscience and biological psychology, for playing a seminal role in creating an undergraduate neuroscience education journal, and for creating a nationally recognized mentoring program for junior faculty in the neurosciences, particularly with underrepresented groups." Ramirez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Mark L. Hatzenbuehler. The Award recognizes Dr. Hatzenbuehler's advancements in understanding stigma, particularly "the stigma experience of being gay or bisexual at the psychological level in terms of rumination, secret keeping, and the like; at the social level in terms of stigma-imbued social interactions; and at the structural level in terms of policies such as the presence or absence of anti-bullying interventions in schools or gay marriage prohibitions at the level of states." Hatzenbuehler's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line
Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...
Social psychology has been defined as “a branch of psychology that is concerned with those aspects of mental life which relate to social interaction and social phenomena in general” 1. Hewstone defines it thus: “the scientific study of how personal, situational and societal factors influence the cognition, motivation and ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.
Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard
A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....
hosein Ebrahimi moghadam
Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.
Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok
Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (posteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (posteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755
Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.
We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…
Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity
Empirical investigations concerning the concept of lifelong learning are described and discussed. The following factors can be regarded as significantly influencing the faculty of learning in adults: (1) the existing level of personality formation, (2) the opportunities of education, training and qualification as provided by the society, (3) personality characteristics exerting an influence upon motivation and psychosomatic maximum stress, (4) maturation and involution processes related to age, (5) central nervous prerequisites for learning processes. Lifelong learning makes possible the application of knowledge and abilities to changing environmental conditions and maintenance of self-regulation during involution and disease processes.
Chronic idiopathic urticaria is a frequent disease witch treatment is often disappointing. Psychological factors seem to be frequently associated to it. In what cases consider psychological treatment? And according to what modalities? Review of the literature in search of articles in both French and English concerning psychological factors associated to chronic urticaria, either as responsible factors, or as aggravating factors, or as a consequence of the urticaria, with the study of the impact on the quality of life. We also studied articles analyzing various types of psychology-targeted treatments. We use a serie of keywords on following data banks: Medline (1970-2002), Embase, Pascal and Cochrane Library (period 1995-2002). Very few controlled studies were published.: Various studies are found reporting an association between stress, anxiety or depressive symptomatology and CIU, but none can assert a causality. Three controlled opened studies show significantly more anxiety and\\or depression in the chronic urticaria patients. Three studies analyze the psychopathological personalities of the patients with urticaria. Two studies focus specifically on the impact of the CIU on the quality of life. Various psychotropic drugs (mainly tricyclic antidepressants) have been tested, mostly because of their anti-H1 activity. There is no study on psychological support, psychotherapies, behavioral therapies, technique of biofeedback and group therapies. A particular attention is focused to hypnosis and relaxation techniques because of the improvement of the urticarial wheals reported in studies of cutaneous ability to react in subcutaneous injections of histamine. A complementary psychological treatment of patients suffering from CIU seems necessary, because of the high frequency of psychological symptoms. Published studies concern essentially the prescription of psychotropic drugs and the use of therapies with suggestion or relaxation under hypnosis. Prospective studies on
Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna
Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. A matched case-control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy.
Ferreri, Antonio M
This paper illustrates the specific nature of the contribution made by the psychology of William James to the construction of modern scientific psychology. Universally recognized as the father of American scientific psychology, William James still remains a much-debated scientist, mainly for two reasons. First, he was interested in subjects that were often very far from the narrow and traditional approaches taken by the greater part of his contemporary colleagues. Secondly, in order to enlighten psychological issues, he continued to adopt multidisciplinary contributions, rather than selecting only those that stemmed from experimental and specifically laboratory contexts. James has been recently inserted in the more complex international consortium of psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, psychotherapists, and philosophers that has been called "the French-Swiss-English-and-American psychotherapeutic alliance." This does in reality seem a more appropriate framework for understanding the specificity of James's psychology. In order to illustrate the peculiar Jamesian way of thinking about psychological issues, this paper undertakes an examination of his classical concept of the "stream of thought." Here, in fact, many different contributions converge in defining and outlining "the primary fact of consciousness"--personal, subjective, and introspective observation; philosophical arguments; "mental experiments," and psychopathological experiences; but, most of all, neurological data derived specifically from brain physiology. This last contribution has been too often underestimated, as has also the background of James's training in the development of experimental psychology, neurology, and physiology at Harvard before 1890. The paper concludes with the assertion that James represents the prototype of a new way of defining the scientific quality of modern psychology, far from the narrow definition given by the laboratory experimentalists fresh from the German
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Fabian A. Soto, whose work "has shed fresh light on a broad range of fundamental psychological issues, including basic associative conditioning, causal judgment, categorization, visual object recognition, and face processing." Soto's award citation, biography, and selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Seventy per cent of the world poor population lives in rural areas. Despite efforts to eradicate poverty, results are limited. Rural development is a process to transform production and change institutions; but psychosocial obstacles exist. Our aim was to explore and describe the synergy of rural development and Psychology as presented in 111 papers published between 1985 and 2012. Selected papers on rural issues used psychological concepts such as perception, beliefs, decision, attitudes, and empowerment. Psychology may make useful contributions to territorial rural development
The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…
Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N
This paper describes the prevalence and incidence of psychiatric disorders in IBS patients using a standardized psychiatric interview, and proposes a psychological model for investigating one aspect of IBS. Forty-four IBS patients and 28 nonclinical participants received a psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and completed the Lie Scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (L-EPI). Results indicated that a significant percentage (59%) of the IBS group met DSM-III criteria for a psychiatric disorder within the last year, far more than occurred in the matched nonclinical comparison group. Relative to the comparison group, the IBS group also had significantly higher lie scores on the EPI indicating a response style of social desirability. On the basis of these findings, together with earlier work by Latimer's group, a conceptual model was formulated on the notion that some IBS patients may have a self-schema (i.e. knowledge of self, stored in memory) characterized by social desirability. We suggest that the construct of self-schema may be helpful in differentiating IBS from psychiatric groups both conceptually and therapeutically.
Dr. L. Kannan
Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Many physicians have observed that psychological factors play a significant role in the course of Meniere's disease (MD), with Meniere's patients being subject to anxiety and tension states. A lot of research attentions from a psychological point of view have been directed at MD, with earlier researchers focusing on psychosomatic causes of the illness as well as its somatopsychic result. However, the question whether MD is caused by psychological factors or whether the psychological manifestation in MD is as a result of the illness is still unresolved. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of interaction that exists between physical and emotional factors in the development of MD and its impact on the quality of life of the sufferers. A structured literature search was carried out, with no restrictions to the dates searched. A vicious circle of interaction seems to exist between the somatic organic symptoms of MD and resultant psychological stress. The frightening attacks of vertigo seem likely to produce and increase the level of anxiety thereby worsening the emotional state and the resultant anxiety provokes various symptoms probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress-related hormones. PMID:24669323
Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser
The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.
Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost half a century. Landis has shaped the field of intercultural research through scholarship of the highest order, reflected in his publications on cross-cultural training and research, the measurement of equal opportunity climate, individual-differences research and methodology, evaluation of social programs, development of theory in social psychology, and cross-cultural aspects of human sexuality. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Intercultural Relations and has edited three editions of the Handbook of Intercultural Training (1983, 1996, 2004). Landis' Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses' aides (assistant nurses, the main providers of practical patient care in many countries, are doing both emotional and heavy physical work, and are exposed to frequent social encounters in their job. There is scarce knowledge, though, of how working conditions are related to psychological distress in this occupational group. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict the level of psychological distress in nurses' aides. Methods The sample of this prospective study comprised 5076 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4076 (80.3 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, and organisational work factors were measured at baseline. Psychological distress (anxiety and depression was assessed at baseline and follow-up by the SCL-5, a short version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results In a linear regression model of the level of psychological distress at follow-up, with baseline level of psychological distress, work factors, and background factors as independent variables, work factors explained 2 % and baseline psychological distress explained 34 % of the variance. Exposures to role conflicts, exposures to threats and violence, working in apartment units for the aged, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that were reported to result in less support and encouragement were positively associated with the level of psychological distress. Working in psychiatric departments, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that gave lower work pace were negatively associated with psychological distress. Conclusion The study suggests that work factors explain only a modest part of the psychological distress in nurses' aides. Exposures to role conflicts and threats and violence at work may contribute to psychological distress in nurses' aides
The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…
Aibert, Dietrich; Mori, Toshiaki
At the beginning of the 215t century strong efforts are made for facilitating e-learning (electronic-based learning and teaching). This development is driven mainly by economical and technological dynamics, however also the contributions of educational and learning sciences are requested by the decision maker. Beside methodological contributions, cognitive psychology is fundamental for individualising e-learning processes. Essential for individualisation is the adaptivity of the e-learning sy...
American Psychologist, 2009
Robert E. Ployhart, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for innovative work in examining reactions to staffing practices and efforts to enhance the acceptability of recruitment and staffing practices; for exemplary use of applied statistical models in examining multilevel effects…
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Tania Lombrozo, whose "groundbreaking studies have shown just how, and why, explanations are so important to people." Lombrozo's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…
Brodwin, Martin G.
Developments that laid the groundwork for the modern psychology of attitude began with early Greek philosophy. Conceptions of the cosmologists during the Golden Age of Greek Civilization and the Sophist movement served as a link between mythology and science. Contributions of British Empiricism and German Experimentalism were instrumental to the…
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.
This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…
Neville, Helen A.; Flores, Michelle P.; Dodson, Milo L.
We underscore the importance of this compilation in our response to the major contribution on the histories of the five major ethnic minority psychological associations (EMPAs). The description of the formation, mission, goals, and activities of the EMPAs will serve as a useful tool to educate counseling psychologists and other professionals about…
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...
This research work investigated the influence of socio-psychological factors on the educational aspiration of married women in Rivers State. A stratified random sample of 680 married women selected purposively from 8 out of 23 local government areas of Rivers State was used for the study. The sample covered both the ...
This study investigated adolescent students' cigarette smoking behaviour as correlates of the challenges socio-psychological factors in Cross River State. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 200 participants across the state who were male and female. Their ages ranged between 14 and 19 years with a mean ...
Lee, Jeewon; Sung, Min-Je; Song, Sook-Hyung; Lee, Young-Moon; Lee, Je-Jung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Yun-Mi
The smartphone has many attractive attributes and characteristics that could make it highly addictive, particularly in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of young adolescents in risk of smartphone addiction and the psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction. Four hundred ninety middle school…
The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…
Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson
Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…
The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...
The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports.
Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))
Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.
Carolina M. Henn
Full Text Available Orientation: South African studies investigating the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being (RPWB are needed to ensure that the instrument is valid and reliable within the South African context.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the RPWB within two South African samples. Motivation for the study: Although a substantial number of studies have been undertaken, results regarding the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being are inconclusive. There is a dearth of information in relation to South African studies examining the scales’ factor structure.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach using a crosssectional field survey design was utilised. An adult working group (n = 202 was selected using convenience sampling, and a student group (n = 226 was selected by means of purposive non-probability sampling. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted to examine the factor structure.Main findings: The preferred model was a two-factor model where all the positively worded items were grouped in the first factor and all the negatively worded items were grouped in the second factor.Practical/managerial implications: The factor structure of the original RPWB was not satisfactorily replicated and remains seemingly unsettled. The utility of negatively worded items should be considered carefully, and alternatives such as mixed response options and phrase completion should be explored. The scales should be used with caution.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature concerning the factor structure of the RPWB with an emphasis on the South African context. It contributes to ensuring that researchers and practitioners use a valid and reliable instrument when measuring psychological well-being.
Tracey J. Devonport
Full Text Available The study used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of three high performance kickboxers regarding the contribution of psychology to the development and maintenance of expert performance within kickboxing. The results provide a useful insight into the experiences of high performance kickboxers, identifying those mental skills and psychological attributes that are perceived to contribute to success. Participants identified seven mental skills that they believed to be linked to success in kickboxing; 1 effective use of self-talk, 2 relaxation, 3 heightened concentration, 4 self-regulation of arousal, 5 goal setting, 6 coping with being hit, and 7 imagery. Three psychological characteristics were identified by all participants as contributing to success, 1 high self-efficacy, 2 highly motivated and 3 mental toughness. Although not specifically identified by participants, it is suggested that a fourth psychological characteristic was also apparent. Participants demonstrated varying degrees of emotional intelligence thorough their ability to monitor and manipulate their emotional states prior to and during competition. Martial artists used a number of long and short-term psychological strategies in preparing for competition. Furthermore, whilst mental skills were not systematically practiced, all participants endeavored to integrate some form of mental training within physical training. It is recommended that sport psychologists help martial artists develop and refine individualized mental training routines, assisting with the formal integration of psychological training into physical training. Martial artists spend the majority of their time practicing as opposed to competing. As such, the integration of mental skills training within physical training may help ensure quality practice, and facilitate the effective transfer of mental skills into competition
Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Fakour, Yousef; Nazemei, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Amirhooshang; Gholamali, Fatemeh; Morteza, Afsaneh; Mokhtari, Leila; Khosrovanmehr, Najmeh
vulnerability score. PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs).
vulnerability score.PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs.
The American Psychological Association's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Nathan M. Holmes, whose work "has helped to elucidate the role of error-correction mechanisms in extinction, how extinguished and counter-conditioned fear responses are regulated by context and time, and how motivational states (such as fear) alter the content and neural substrates of associative formation." Holmes's award citation, biography, and selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Placebogenesis is an established phenomenon in the therapeutic management of virtually every known illness. This article reviews the various psychological factors which play an important role in the genesis of this important phenomenon. Classification of place-bos along with ethical issues involved in administration of placebos for therapeutic and research purposes are discussed in the article.
Dr. L. Kannan; Dr. P. V. Vijayaragavan; Dr. Pankaj. B. Shah; Dr. Suganathan. S; Dr. Praveena .P
... these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners...
George, Steven Z; Parr, Jeffrey J; Wallace, Margaret R; Wu, Samuel S; Borsa, Paul A; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B
The pain experience has multiple influences, but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several preclinical shoulder pain phenotypes. An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, and IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)) and psychological (anxiety, depression symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-d average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper extremity disability (5-d average and peak reported on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (d). After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depression symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions.
George, Steven Z.; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Wu, Samuel S.; Borsa, Paul A.; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B.
Purpose The pain experience has multiple influences but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several pre-clinical shoulder pain phenotypes. Methods An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and psychological (anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-day average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper-extremity disability (5-day average and peak reported on the QuickDASH instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (in days). Results After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depressive symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two-SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. Conclusion These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts, to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions. PMID:24598699
VanMaaren, Victoria G.; Jaquett, Caroline M.; Williams, Robert L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which students differentially rated ten factors likely to affect their ratings on overall course evaluations. Students (N = 148) in several sections of an undergraduate educational psychology course indicated their preferences among several designated factors. We found remarkable similarity…
van de Vijver, Fons J R
In this article I define and describe the current state of internationalization in psychology. Internationalization refers here to the approach in which existing or new psychological theories, methods, procedures, or data across cultures are synthesized so as to create a more culture-informed, inclusive, and globally applicable science and profession. This approach is essential to advance psychology beyond its Euro-American context of development and to achieve a more global applicability of its theories and professional procedures. Internationalization already has led to a better integration of cultural aspects in various psychological theories, to more insight into how to deal with methodological aspects of intact group comparisons (such as bias and equivalence), and to the development of guidelines in areas such as test development, test adaptations, ethics codes, and Internet testing. I review systemic and scientific climate factors in psychology that thwart the progress of internationalization, and conclude by suggesting methods of enhancing internationalization, which is essential for developing a truly universal psychology.
Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment can be highly unpleasant for anxious patients. Despite all advancements, dental anxiety continues to upset the dentist-patient relationship. The psychological factors like individual personality and familial and peer influence may alter the dental beliefs of a patient. Aim: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among young adolescents to investigate the relationship among various psychological factors and the dental beliefs of an individual. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among higher secondary school children, aged 15−17 years in Udupi district. The dental anxiety of the participants was measured using Modified Dental Beliefs scale and the personality traits were assessed using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Pearson′s correlation and chi-square analysis were performed among these scales. Independent t-test was performed to compare dental anxiety scores with different socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Results: In all 198 students, with a mean age of 16.6 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority of the participants had lower MDBS scores. The personality traits like Emotional Stability and Openness to New Experiences showed a negative correlation with the Dental Belief scores. Apart from these, the experience at first dental visit and peer support also affected the dental beliefs of the adolescents. Conclusion: Various psychological traits of adolescents influence their dental anxiety.
Studies of the history of Italian psychology have thoroughly and somewhat systematically analysed the particular characteristics and principal themes that distinguished this discipline in the period between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. With regard to the affirmation of a "scientific" psychology in Italy, these studies have emphasized the importance of the research conducted at the University of Florence in the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, founded in 1903 by Francesco De Sarlo. The results of the activity carried out in this laboratory are collected in the two volumes of Ricerche di Psicologia, published in 1905 and 1907. An analysis of these works clarifies the way in which De Sarlo and his collaborators intervened directly in the experimental activity. Various types of experimentation were conducted in the laboratory, such as those on the measurement of sensations and perceptions. The psychologists made use of adequate instruments, which they themselves often prepared or modified, without however neglecting an attentive survey of the states of consciousness. On the basis of a methodological approach that reconciles the accuracy of the measurements with the verification of the internal dimensions of the mental processes of the subjects undergoing the experimentation, the research carried out in the Florence Laboratory contributes to characterising, in an original way, the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy. In particular, by means of the publication of the results of this laboratory's research activity, Italian psychology acquired a new impulse to assert itself as an autonomous science and to promote its accreditation on an institutional level.
Maria Aparecida Lourenço Santana
Full Text Available Study the linking nature between psychology of thinking and cognition in context of Farradane relational indexing. Cognitive science as a new study area, originated at Century XX, has instigated the discovery over its link with the psychology of thinking. The term psychology was first time mentioned in the Modern Age, therefore, previous studies used terms as organization or methodical orientation of think. It were identified this mentions in Old Greece, when methodical orientation of think was a resource used for attainment more insurance results, as a form to reduce the search uncertainty. In the Modern Age, psychology was seen as a philosophy branch that had studied mind and behavior. In Century XIX, through persistent effort of some researchers, psychology came to consist as field deserving separate discipline. Through more than a hundred years of studies, the area has contributed very much for understanding structures, processes, functions, mental information processing and representations, amongst other topics. In Century XX, it had become the base for cognitive science foundation and posterior elaboration of Farradane universal relational indexing.
Factors leading to exceptionality in Navajo children are explored, reactions of Navajo families to exceptionality and mental retardation are considered, and problems in providing special education services to this population are pointed out. (SBH)
Butts, H F
Frantz Fanon was born in Martinique, educated in France, and, after psychiatric training, administered a psychiatric hospital in Algeria. He made numerous contributions to psychiatry which are described in this paper. He is best remembered, however, for his four books: Black Skin, White Masks; Toward the African Revolution; A Dying Colonialism; and The Wretched of the Earth. Fanon became a spokesman for third-world denizens of all nations by describing in sensitive, clinically astute terms the psychology of racism and its untoward effects upon oppressor and oppressed. He also described the dehumanization and psychological treatment inherent in colonialist exploitation. With Dr. Fanon's premature death at the age of 37 in 1961, the world was deprived of one of the most eloquent and skilled spokesmen for those who are oppressed by the pro-white, anti-black paranoia which is racism. This paper describes in detail the nature of his singular contributions.
Dr. L. Kannan; Dr. P. V. Vijayaragavan.; Dr. Pankaj. B. Shah; Dr. Suganathan. S; Dr. Praveena .P
Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all...
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2017 award winners is Kathryn Paige Harden, for demonstrating "how to integrate genetic knowledge with the classical clinical and developmental insights into human behavior." Harden's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Katie A. McLaughlin, who has "has articulated important distinctions among the effects of early neglect and abuse and has uncovered specific processes that are disrupted by early adverse environmental experiences." McLaughlin's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Kate Sweeny, whose formulation of "crisis decision theory, the bad news response model, the uncertainty navigation model," and other theories and models demonstrate her capacity to provide "order and sense to unfocused and confusing research domains." Sweeny's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’s behaviour, juvenile and infant categories. 40 athletes from a soccer school in Maringá – PR were studied and the instruments used were: inventories, interviews, questionnaires and research diary. Data were collected individually and in group. Intervention occurred for 12 months through observation, evaluation and showed the following factors: motivation, anxiety, aggression and self confidence. Results pointed out that the positive emotions expressed by the athletes were good mood, happiness, relaxation, interest in improving and hope while negative emotions were anxiety, rage, aggressiveness, low self-confidence, lack of motivation, insecurity, feeling of failure, pessimism and group instability. Relatives and coach were also generating factors of stress and anxiety. Thus, this sporting context shows that the sports psychology seems to be highly efficient to reduce anxiety and agression indexes as well as to increase motivation and self-confidence, demonstrating the importance of psychological preparation for sporting training.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c < 7% from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≥ 7. Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R. Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P<0.013 was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P<0.030, as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P<0.047 in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM.
Séjourné, N; Denis, A; Theux, G; Chabrol, H
Within days following birth, most women show signs of mood changes, commonly named baby blues. Baby blues can result in postpartum depression. Hence it appears important to explore in more details the clinical background related to the intensity of postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors to the intensity of postpartum blues. One hundred and forty-eight women participated in the study and completed questionnaires three days after delivery. A questionnaire was built to collect information on psychosocial and obstetrical factors. The Maternity Blues (Kennerley and Gath, 1989) was used to assess postpartum blues. Psychological factors were measured with the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (Shea et Tronick, 1988), the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarch et Mermelstein, 1983) and the Sarason's Social Support Questionnaire (1983). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict the intensity of postpartum blues by entering psychosocial factors, history of depression, obstetrical factors and psychological and relational factors. Significant predictors (maternal self-esteem, marital status, previous psychotherapeutic treatment, previous antidepressant treatment) were entered in a multiple regression analysis predicting the intensity of postpartum blues. This model accounted for 31% of the variance in the intensity of postpartum blues (F(4, 143)=17.9; Pblues and may be used in order to detect women who exhibit risk factors.
Interest in factors contributing to women's ability to progress to management and leadership positions is gaining impetus. This article expands the body of knowledge on the major contributing factors external to the work environment, as well as factors internal to the organisation that impact on women's achievement of ...
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Greg Hajcak, whose "groundbreaking contributions applying psychophysiological methods to the affective neuroscience of anxiety, depression, psychosis, and related traits" and whose work "has identified promising risk biomarkers and intervention targets and has illuminated the development of, and mechanisms associated with, these disorders." Hajcak's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Data collected during 1996 and 1997 rainy seasons at the meteorological station of Institute for Agricultural Research, at Samaru, Nigeria, were analysed to assess the effect of climatic factors, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, sunshine hours, air and solar temperatures on microlysimetric PET and pan ...
Xiong, Jin; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Ming-Min; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guang-Ying
To study the impact of De-qi (, obtaining qi) and psychological factors on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea, with an attempt to explore the relationship among De-qi, psychological factors, and clinical efficacy. The patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly assigned to a group of acupuncture with manual manipulation (manipulation group, n=67) and an acupuncture group without manipulation (non-manipulation group, n=64). Pain intensity and pain duration were used as measures for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of the acupuncture treatment. De-qi, the sensations a patient experienced during the acupuncture treatment, was scored on a 4-point scale by the subjects. In addition, the psychological factors, including belief in acupuncture, the level of nervousness, anxiety, and depression, were quantitatively assessed. The personality of the subject was assessed using the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and 16 personality factor questionnaire (16PF). Complete data were obtained from 120 patients, 60 patients in each group. There were statistically significant differences in pain intensity (W=2410.0, P<0.01) and pain duration (W=3181.0, P<0.01) between the two groups. The number of De-qi acupoints (W=1150.5, P<0.01) and the average intensity of De-qi (W=1141.0, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the manipulation group as compared with their non-manipulation counterparts. The correlation coefficients between De-qi and therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture were greater than those between psychological factors and therapeutic efficacy. Compared with the psychological factors, De-qi contributed more to the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture in subjects with primary dysmenorrhea. Moreover, manual manipulation is a prerequisite for eliciting and enhancing the De-qi sensations, and De-qi is critical for achieving therapeutic effects.
The most significant factors influencing this are the grade of the surgeon and the size of the perforation. The average pre-operative air-bone gap was closed from. 23,7 dB to 13,9 dB with a 4,5% incidence of postoperative sensorineural hearing loss. Postoperatively 77,9% of patients had an air-bone gap of less than 20 dB.
Hsin Hue Chang
Full Text Available This paper presents some recent discussions raised by the feminist critical theory, which contribute to put in question the scientific objectivity of Psychology. It is alleged, first, a false neutrality of genre, built on the idea of a generic human being. This discussion leads to a necessary revision of supposedly universal concepts. One of these concepts is that of justice that pervades studies on moral in Psychology of Development. At the same time, it discusses the prevalence of a certain gender in universities, by establishing and legitimizing specific experiences in the construction of knowledge in the area. It explores works of feminist authors identified with the Critical Theory, focusing on the question of identity, as well as the political implications of language concepts involved in their positions. Finally, dialoguing with authors of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is proposed to consider the dialectic between concept and experience for building new knowledge and strategies for gender equality. It is expected to show that the feminist critique reached important pillars of psychology, which, like science, cannot remain inert in front of the new challenges. The various fields of psychology need to mobilize for construction of emancipatory strategies in order to ensure the very validity of the knowledge produced in the area.
Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This study examined whether patients with TTC have higher levels of psychological distress (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, general anxiety), illness-related anxiety and distinct personality factors compared with healthy controls and patients with heart failure. Patients with TCC (N = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7 years, 77.8 % women) and two comparison groups (healthy controls: N = 19, age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68.4 % women and patients with chronic heart failure: N = 19, age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68.4 % women) completed standardised questionnaires to measure depression (PHQ‑9), perceived stress (PSS-10), general anxiety (GAD-7), illness-related anxiety (WI-7) and personality factors (NEO-FFI and DS-14). Psychological measures were obtained at 23 ± 18 months following the acute TTC event. Results showed that patients with TCC had higher levels of depressive symptoms (5.2 ± 5.2 vs. 2.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.039) and illness-related anxiety (2.1 ± 1.7 vs. 0.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. Patients with TCC did not display significantly elevated perceived stress (p = 0.072) or general anxiety (p = 0.170). Regarding personality factors, levels of openness were lower in TCC compared with healthy controls (34.2 ± 4.3 vs. 38.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.021). No differences between TCC and heart failure patients were found regarding the psychological measures. TCC is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, more illness-related anxiety and less openness compared with healthy controls. These data suggest that TCC is associated with adverse psychological factors that may persist well after the acute episode.
Norman, Kent L
In this study, I seek to emphasize the contributions of cognitive psychology and human factors research in the design of menu selection systems. Menu selection systems are used in computer interfaces to allow users to enter choices, set parameters, and navigate to items, functions, and locations. Designers of these systems have many choices concerning the organizational structure and layout of the menu interface. I review several of these concerning hierarchies of menus, organization and clustering of items, and item distinctiveness. Special attention is given to cases in which designer's intuition differed from theory and experimental results. Cognitive psychology and human factors have contributed both theory and empirical research that have helped to resolve differences of opinion and establish general principles for design. It is argued that cognitive psychology has contributed substantially to the design of better menu selection systems. It is imperative that designers continue to apply these findings to interfaces that they develop and that researchers continue to study the characteristics and efficacy of innovative menu designs as they appear.
Dosch, Alessandra; Rochat, Lucien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial
This study explored the role of psychological trait factors in sexual desire and sexual activity. In particular, it investigated how these factors may contribute to maintaining a balance between motivational aspects and self-control abilities, as both have been considered important in relation to adaptive sexuality. Moreover, the study explored the relationship between sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction. Participants completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual activity (with a partner, alone), sexual satisfaction, approach and avoidance motivation, attachment, self-control, sensation seeking, and mindfulness. Cluster analyses, based on participants' level of sexual desire and sexual activity, highlighted three distinct profiles for each gender related to different types of psychological functioning: (a) participants with high dyadic sexual desire and activity were the most sexually satisfied, showed optimal psychological functioning, and were characterized by a balance between motivational tendencies to seek positive rewards and self-control abilities (high approach motivation, secure attachment, high self-control, high mindfulness); (b) participants with high dyadic and solitary sexual desire and activity were moderately satisfied and showed a type of psychological functioning predominantly characterized by impulsivity (an overly high motivation to obtain rewards in women, and low self-control in men); (c) participants with low dyadic sexual desire and activity were the least sexually satisfied and were characterized by high motivation to avoid negative consequences and low self-control (high avoidance motivation, insecure attachment, and poor mindfulness). These results shed further light on how fundamental psychological factors contribute to explain the individual variability in sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction.
Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen
The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.
Borrie, M J; Davidson, H A
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative independent contributions of mobility and mental function to the prevalence rate of incontinence in a long-term care hospital and to establish the baseline prevalence rate and cost of incontinence before implementation of a continence program. DESIGN: Prevalence survey. SETTING: Long-term care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All 457 inpatients (mean age of men 73.6 years, of women 73.8 years) who met the defined criteria for degree of urinary and fecal incontinence, mobility and mental function. Of the 447 questionnaires that were returned 12 were incomplete. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Degree of urinary and fecal incontinence and costs of incontinence as measured by nursing time spent dealing with incontinent patients, laundry and incontinence supplies. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of urinary incontinence was 62%, fecal incontinence 46% and combined incontinence 44%. The mean time spent each day dealing with incontinence was 52.5 minutes per patient. The total annual cost of incontinence per patient was $9771. Mobility and mental function were independent predictors of frequency of urinary and fecal incontinence. Frequency of incontinent events was the strongest predictor of quantity of linen soiled, but immobility was the strongest predictor of nursing time spent dealing with incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of urinary incontinence depends on patient characteristics and the definition of incontinence. A management approach to incontinence could lower laundry and supply costs, and improvements in mobility could reduce nursing time spent dealing with incontinence. PMID:1643598
Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene
Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature.
Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M
A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.
Marmot, Michael G.; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Ettner, Susan L.; Marks, Nadine F.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Ryff, Carol D.
The National Survey of Mid-life Developments in the United States (MIDUS) is one of several studies that demonstrate socioeconomic gradients in mortality during midlife. When MIDUS findings on self-reported health, waist to hip ratio, and psychological well-being were analyzed for their possible roles in generating socioeconomic differences in health, they revealed clear educational gradients for women and men (i.e., higher education predicted better health). Certain potential mediating variables, like household income, parents’ education, smoking behavior, and social relations, contributed to an explanation of the socioeconomic gradient. In addition, two census-based measures, combined into an area poverty index, independently predicted ill health. The results suggest that a set of both early and current life circumstances cumulatively contribute toward explaining why people of lower soeioeconomic status have worse health and lower psychological well-being. PMID:9738169
Stoyer, Michael Ryan
This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…
Lahousen, Theresa; Painold, Annamaria; Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Schienle, Anne; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been associated with several psychological factors. But previous psychological data are limited and mainly restricted to male patients and small sample size. In this study we investigated psychosomatic complaints, personality factors, life events, and stress coping in acute and chronic recurrent CSC patients. Ninety-five patients (71 men, 24 women) with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated regarding critical life events before diagnosis, psychosomatic complaints, personality traits and coping style. The characteristics of CSC patients were compared with a control group comprising 75 patients (46 men, 29 women) suffering from acute or chronic ophthalmic disorders other than CSC. Compared with patients of the control group, CSC patients reported more psychosomatic problems, unfavourable stress coping strategies and critical life events as well as elevated tension, aggression, strain, emotional instability and achievement orientation. Except for aggression the observed characteristics were more pronounced in acute than in chronic CSC patients. The appearance of CSC may be associated with an accumulation of stressful life events with an unfavourable coping style and distinctive personality factors. Acute CSC is related to more unfavourable stress coping and more physical complaints compared to its chronic course. Elevated aggression may imply one potential risk factor for CSC manifestation and also may have an adverse effect with its chronification.
Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M
Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P physical functioning (r = 0.42, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant
Presents Adam M. Grant, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For extensive, elegant, and programmatic research on the power of relational job design in enhancing employee motivation, productivity, and satisfaction; for creative and rigorous studies documenting the profound and surprising effects of connecting employees to their impact on others; for highlighting prosocial motivation, not only extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as a key force behind employee behavior; and for demonstrating by example the feasibility and benefits of conducting field experiments, yielding studies rich in internal validity, external validity, and practical impact. In addition to his accomplishments, Adam M. Grant is known for his generosity as a scholar, teacher, and colleague." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Mundia, Lawrence; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Hamid, Malai Hayati; Osman, Ratna Suriani
We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not) influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years), employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy) in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. PMID:27382342
Wade, Dorothy M; Howell, David C; Weinman, John A; Hardy, Rebecca J; Mythen, Michael G; Brewin, Chris R; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Matejowsky, Claire F; Raine, Rosalind A
There is growing evidence of poor mental health and quality of life among survivors of intensive care. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the trauma of life-threatening illness, associated drugs and treatments, or patients' psychological reactions during intensive care contribute to poor psychosocial outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the relative contributions of a broader set of risk factors and outcomes than had previously been considered in a single study. A prospective cohort study of 157 mixed-diagnosis highest acuity patients was conducted in a large general intensive care unit (ICU). Data on four groups of risk factors (clinical, acute psychological, socio-demographic and chronic health) were collected during ICU admissions. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and quality of life were assessed using validated questionnaires at three months (n = 100). Multivariable analysis was used. At follow-up, 55% of patients had psychological morbidity: 27.1% (95% CI: 18.3%, 35.9%) had probable PTSD; 46.3% (95% CI: 36.5%, 56.1%) probable depression, and 44.4% (95% CI: 34.6%, 54.2%) anxiety. The strongest clinical risk factor for PTSD was longer duration of sedation (regression coefficient = 0.69 points (95% CI: 0.12, 1.27) per day, scale = 0 to 51). There was a strong association between depression at three months and receiving benzodiazepines in the ICU (mean difference between groups = 6.73 points (95% CI: 1.42, 12.06), scale = 0 to 60). Use of inotropes or vasopressors was correlated with anxiety, and corticosteroids with better physical quality of life. Strikingly high rates of psychological morbidity were found in this cohort of intensive care survivors. The study's key finding was that acute psychological reactions in the ICU were the strongest modifiable risk factors for developing mental illness in the future. The observation that use of different ICU drugs correlated with different psychological outcomes merits further
Delay in receipt of immunization may result in a child being susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases for prolonged periods. Identification of factors which contribute to delay in receipt of immunization will help in developing targeted interventions. This study examined prospectively factors contributing to delay in the ...
Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A
The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.
Hilton Michael F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition,
Gurpreet Singh Chhabra; Manmeet Kaur Sodhi
Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one ...
Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P
While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people
Timmerman, Lotte; Timman, Reinier; Laging, Mirjam; Zuidema, Willij C; Beck, Denise K; IJzermans, Jan N M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K
Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus () and Ursin and Eriksen () that describe predictors of mental health mediated by stress. Prospective design. Living kidney donors (n = 151) were interviewed before donation and completed questionnaires 2.5 months before and 3 and 12 months post-donation. Using multilevel regression models, we examined whether appraisals, expectations, knowledge, social support, coping, life events, and sociodemographic characteristics predicted psychological symptoms and well-being and whether these relationships were mediated by stress. A greater increase in psychological symptoms over time was found among donors without a partner. Younger age, lack of social support, expectations of interpersonal benefit, lower appraisals of manageability, and an avoidant coping style were related to more psychological symptoms at all time points. The latter three were mediated by stress. No religious affiliation, unemployment, history of psychological problems, less social support, expectations of negative health consequences, and less positive appraisals were related to lower well-being at all time points. This study identified indicators of a lower mental health status among living kidney donors. Professionals should examine this profile before donation and the need for extra psychological support in relation to the number and magnitude of the identified indicators. Interventions should be focused on the changeable factors (e.g., expectations), decreasing stress/psychological symptoms, and/or increasing well-being. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Until now, research on psychological outcomes after living kidney donation revealed that mental health remained the same for the majority of
APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2016 award winners is Adriana Galván, whose "scientific discoveries have delineated neurobiological determinants of adolescent behavior that promote the transition from dependence on caregivers to autonomy." Galván's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Macavei, B; Baban, A; Dumitrascu, D L
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. So far, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its more severe variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is yet unclear, with many mechanisms being proposed as possible causes. This article aims to review the psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH. Three main categories of factors have been investigated: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. Five electronic databases were searched, limited to studies published in the English language, during the period 2005-2015: PubMed, Thomson ISI - Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect. Results indicated the most relevant emotional factors to be depression and anxiety. The areas of investigation for cognitive functioning concern those contents and processes related to the ability to initiate and maintain lifestyle changes. The most important behavioral factors identified are physical activity, nutrition/food intake and substance consumption: coffee, alcohol, cigarettes. Some of the factors identified act as protective factors, other as vulnerability factors. NAFLD/NASH may be considered a cognitive-behavioral disease, the most effective management being lifestyle changes, with emphasis on diet and exercise.
Tseng, P H; Shih, F Jong; Yang, F C; Shih, F Jin; Wang, S S
The aims of this project were to explore the factors contributing to poor sleep quality at 1 to 3 years after heart transplantation (post-HT), and to explore economic problems and social support for HT recipients (HTRs). This study used a cross-sectional retrospective triangulation approach combining qualitative and quantitative research method designs. Quantitative data included data from the visual analog scale and the Taiwanese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Qualitative data were derived from questions that explored physiological, psychological, and economic factors contributing to poor sleep quality postprocedure for HTRs. Sixty-four subjects (81% male, 19% female) participated in this research. Their ages ranged from 20 to 70 (M = 46.88 ± 12.12) years old. Their post-HT timeframe ranged from 1 to 4.10 years; 33% received preoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Sleeping disturbances were reported by 72.7% of subjects after HT. Poor sleeping quality at 2 to 3 years post-HT (P = .028) was a complaint, and was worse than at 1 to 2 years post-HT (P = .008). Six physiological (62.5%) and 3 psychological (37.5%) contributing factors were further identified in qualitative interviews. Physiological factors were the major causes affecting their sleep quality 2 to 3 years after HT, whereas psychological factors arose from various family roles, responsibilities, and economic-related pressures. Medical teams should find the causes that lead to sleep disturbances and use the findings to improve HTR sleep quality. When the family financial status is affected, these teams should offer assistance and suggestions for patients who are unable to work due to post-HT physical decline. Establishing and providing good family support systems or patient support groups may allow patients to obtain physical, psychological, and spiritual comfort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Broshek, Donna K; De Marco, Anthony P; Freeman, Jason R
This study reviewed several topics related to post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion. Topics include neurobiological perspectives, psychological predictors of post-concussion syndrome including pre-morbid anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and cognitive biases and misattribution. In addition, the iatrogenic effects of excessive rest are reviewed and treatment options are discussed briefly. Animal models of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury suggest that a concussion can result in anxiety and fear reactions. The pathophysiology of depression following a concussion appears to be consistent with the cortico-limbic model of depression. Additionally, some individuals may be at risk for neurobiological depression and/or anxiety following a concussion. The literature also demonstrates that pre-morbid and concurrent anxiety increases the risk for prolonged concussion recovery. Cognitive biases and misattribution of symptoms contribute to lengthy recovery from concussion. In addition, medically prescribed excessive cognitive and physical rest may contribute to a protracted concussion recovery. Supervised and graduated physical activity, the introduction of anxiety reduction techniques and cognitive-behavioural therapy of cognitive biases and misattribution are effective means of shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome. Understanding, assessing and treating the psychological factors associated with concussion are effective means of preventing or shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome.
Anderbro, Therese; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Bolinder, Jan; Lins, Per-Eric; Wredling, Regina; Moberg, Erik; Lisspers, Jan; Johansson, Unn-Britt
The major aims of this study were to examine (1) the association between fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) in adults with type 1 diabetes with demographic, psychological (anxiety and depression), and disease-specific clinical factors (hypoglycemia history and unawareness, A1c), including severe hypoglycemia (SH), and (2) differences in patient subgroups categorized by level of FOH and risk of SH. Questionnaires were mailed to 764 patients with type 1 diabetes including the Swedish translation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) and other psychological measures including the Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Social Phobia Scale, and Fear of Complications Scale. A questionnaire to assess hypoglycemia history was also included and A1c measures were obtained from medical records. Statistical analyses included univariate approaches, multiple stepwise linear regressions, Chi-square t tests, and ANOVAs. Regressions showed that several clinical factors (SH history, frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia, self-monitoring) were significantly associated with FOH but R (2) increased from 16.25 to 39.2 % when anxiety measures were added to the model. When patients were categorized by level of FOH (low, high) and SH risk (low, high), subgroups showed significant differences in non-diabetes-related anxiety, hypoglycemia history, self-monitoring, and glycemic control. There is a strong link between FOH and non-diabetes-related anxiety, as well as hypoglycemia history. Comparison of patient subgroups categorized according to level of FOH and SH risk demonstrated the complexity of FOH and identified important differences in psychological and clinical variables, which have implications for clinical interventions.
Babaeva, Yuliya D.
Full Text Available The contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov (1933-2001, his disciples and representatives of Tikhomirov’s school in psychology of thinking is analyzed. Tikhomirov was the initiator of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking, one of the leading schools of cognitive studies in Russia. Tikhomirov is known outside Russia as well: more than once, he presented his work at international congresses and conferences; his writings have been translated into several European languages. The paper includes brief biographical information about Tikhomirov. The main components of the Personal Meanings Theory are presented, such as the regulative function of (intellectual emotions during problem solving, the actual genesis of goal-setting, the formation of personal meanings during the processes involved in thinking, and the personality-related determinants of decision making. Tikhomirov’s pioneering ideas in the studies of creativity, including jointparticipation in creative activities, are discussed in the paper. In the last section of the paper, Tikhomirov’s studies of the impact of information and communication technology on the psychological transformations undergone by adepts of high technologies and technology’s effect on their intellectual and communicative activities are discussed; these studies accelerated a new field of research in Russia, namely cyberpsychology or Internet psychology.
Yuri P. Zinchenko
Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.
Edozien, Leroy C
Increasingly, gynaecologists are becoming aware of the impact of psychosocial factors on women's health generally, and on the menstrual cycle in particular. This review highlights developments in this field in the last triennium. Stress impairs the ovarian cycle through activation of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. The effect of psychological stress on the menstrual cycle is mediated by metabolic factors. Stress-induced impairment of ovarian function may not necessarily manifest as menstrual irregularity, and the effects of stress may persist beyond the cycle in which the stress episode occurred. Response to stress may be determined not so much by the nature of the stress as by the intrinsic neuronal attributes of the individual. Interventions to address underlying stress should be part of the management regime for women with menstrual cycle abnormalities.
Robbins, R A
This paper is an account of studies of the linguistic transformation that took place in ancient Greece between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C., searching for factors which contribute to the shift in how humans perceived themselves. The group or force-field consciousness of the men of the Iliad and the linguistic factors which allowed "individuality" to emerge by the time of Plato is explored. The account relates the emergence of the notion of "madness" to the development of the individual and asks whether madness is an artifact of individuality and explores the relationship of these developments to our present underlying assumption of a duality in human nature composed of the rational and the irrational.
Matthew P. Thompson
Managing wildland fire incidents can be fraught with complexity and uncertainty. Myriad human factors can exert significant influence on incident decision making, and can contribute additional uncertainty regarding programmatic evaluations of wildfire management and attainment of policy goals. This article develops a framework within which human sources of uncertainty...
Newhouse, Noelle K.; Cerniak, Jessica
Research examining factors contributing to online students' success typically focuses on a single point in time or completion of a single course, as well as individual difference variables, such as learning style or motivation, that may predispose a student to succeed. However, research concerning longer term online student outcomes, such as…
Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy and childbirth produce a variety of physiological, psychological and social consequences. Attitudes toward pregnancy and childbirth vary from culture to culture. There is evidence to suggest mothers with young infants experience depressive symptoms and 10-15% major depression. Aim: To study the incidence and factors contributing toward postpartum depression Materials and Methods: Married women 18-35 years of age attending the antenatal and postnatal out-patient clinic were studied during 2007 and January 2008. 200 women who had delivered between 1 June 2007 and 1 January 2008 were included in the postpartum phase to calculate the incidence of postpartum depression. The prospective mothers were approached in their 3 rd trimester of pregnancy. Critically ill, past history of depression, co morbid medical or psychiatric illnesses were excluded. The diagnosis of postpartum depression (PPD was made as per international classification of diseases (ICD 10. They were administered the beck depression inventory (BDI, Presumptive stressful life event scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 scale. The women were subsequently reviewed in their postpartum phase in the postnatal out-patient/child immunization clinic at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. The non-depressed mothers acted as the controls. Results: A Total of 186 women out of 200 registered for the study 40 had scores above 13 on EPDS and grouped as depressive met ICD 10 diagnostic criteria. The remaining 146 were non depressive. 14 women dropped out of the study. Incidence of PPD was 21.51%. The study found 14/27 (51.8% of the risk factors associated with PPDs were statistically significant. Significant number of mothers had high antenatal GHQ and both antenatal and postnatal BDI scores. BDI and EPDS scores remained high during the postnatal follow-up in the depressed group, which showed the presence of PPD in mothers with
During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.
AJRH Managing Editor
REVIEW ARTICLE. Engendering the Attainment of the SDG-3 in Africa: Overcoming the Socio Cultural Factors Contributing to Maternal Mortality. Rosemary N. Ogu. 1,4 ... This review discusses sociocultural influences that contribute to the high rate of maternal mortality in ..... as sex trafficking, forced labour or compromised.
Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza
Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).
Liu, Fen; Liu, Wei-na; Zhao, Qing-xia; Han, Miao-miao
To investigate the environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of female infertility. In a hospital-based case-control study, a self-designed questionnaire was used to survey the cases and controls (1:1) with nation and age (± 2 years) as matching variables. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the datasets. The univariate analysis showed that female infertility was related to the following factors: eating fried foods, alcohol consumption, smoking, staying up late, perm, housing decoration, contact with heavy metals, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, working in hot environment, mental stress, uneasiness, helplessness, and despair. The multivariate analysis showed that staying up late (OR = 2.937), housing decoration (OR = 2.963), exposure to radiation (OR = 2.506), contact with pesticides (OR = 2.908), and mental stress (OR = 4.101) were the main risk factors for female infertility. Furthermore, there was an interaction between staying up late and mental stress. Female infertility is caused by multiple factors including staying up late, housing decoration, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, and mental stress, and there is an interaction between staying up late and mental stress.
Ostamo Aini I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors associated with low social status have been proposed as one possible explanation for the socio-economic gradient in health. The aim of this study is to explore whether different indicators of psychological distress contribute to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality. Methods The data source is a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional survey, "Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population" (AVTK. The survey results were linked with socio-economic register data from Statistics Finland (from the years 1979-2002 and mortality follow-up data up to 2006 from the Finnish National Cause of Death Register. The data included 32451 men and 35420 women (response rate 73.5%. Self-reported measures of depression, insomnia and stress were used as indicators of psychological distress. Socio-economic factors included education, employment status and household income. Mortality data consisted of unnatural causes of death (suicide, accidents and violence, and alcohol-related mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model. Results In unnatural mortality, psychological distress accounted for some of the employment status (11-31% and income level (4-16% differences among both men and women, and for the differences related to the educational level (5-12% among men; the educational level was associated statistically significantly with unnatural mortality only among men. Psychological distress had minor or no contribution to socio-economic differences in CHD mortality. Conclusions Psychological distress partly accounted for socio-economic disparities in unnatural mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the role and mechanisms of psychological distress associated with socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.
Solvi, Anette S; Foss, Kaja; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut C; Holte, Arne
We investigated how and why prospective cosmetic breast augmentation patients decide to undergo such surgery. The results can offer important insights to plastic surgeons in addressing their patients' motives and expectations, and thereby avoiding potential patient dissatisfaction and disappointment. It is also a necessary first step to better understand the increasing tendency among women in the Western society to seek cosmetic breast augmentation. A qualitative, descriptive and phenomenological design was employed. Fourteen female prospective breast augmentation patients, aged 19-46 years, were recruited from a private plastic surgery clinic and interviewed in depth based on an informant-centred format. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded and analysed phenomenologically using a QSR-N*Vivo software program. We detected four psychological processes associated with cosmetic breast augmentation surgery (create, improve, repair and restore). The data could further be categorised into one basic drive (femininity), six generating factors (appearance dissatisfaction, ideal figure, self-esteem, comments, clothes and sexuality) and five eliciting factors motivating the decision (media, knowledge of former patients, physicians, finances and romantic partner). These new insights into how and why women seek cosmetic breast augmentation may aid plastic surgeons in enhancing their communication with patients. This can be achieved by addressing the patient's psychological process and motives, and thereby better assist them in making the best decision possible in their particular situation. It may also lay the groundwork for future quantitative studies on the prevalence of certain motives for undergoing such surgery and, as such, help explain the increasing popularity of cosmetic breast-augmentation surgery. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pragmatic failure is the inability to understand what is meant by what is said, which can often lead to misunderstanding or confusion in cross-cultural communication. For this reason, the present article explores the contributing factors of pragmatic failure in China's ELT Classrooms. According to the exploration, the following factors are found…
Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.
Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672
Full Text Available Background. In the treatment of chronic, especially asymptomatic pathology one of the main problem is the adherence to therapy. Patients with arterial hypertension need long-term, often lifelong medication, and how strictly they adhere to prescriptions often determines the course of the disease and the medical measures effectiveness. According to statistics, more than half of patients with hypertension are characterized by low compliance, which leads to complications of this disease. The objective of the research is to identify and analize the individual psychological factors that determine patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Methods and materials. This study was conducted during 2011-2013 at the cardiology departments of the Kyiv Alexander Hospital, polyclinics number 2 Shevchenko district in Kyiv, Desnyanskiy clinic №3 district in Kyiv, medical center "Adonis plus". We examined 203 patients with arterial hypertension (average age 53,5 ± 4,5 years. Methods: socio-demographic, clinical, clinical and psychological, psychodiagnostical, mathematical and statistical methods. Psychodiagnostical method included: 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale (Morisky D. E., 2008; self-assessment anxiety scale Charles D. Spielberger – Y.L Hanin (A.V. Batarshev, 2005; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory questionnaire (MMRI (F.B. Berezin, 1994; "The level of subjective control" (A.A. Rean, 2001; "Index of attitudes to health" (S.D. Deryabo, VA Yasvin, 2000. Results. According to the results of 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale patients were divided into 3 groups according to the level of compliance - with high (26.11%, average (24.14% and low (49.75% levels of adherence to antihypertensive therapy. The individual-psychological predictors of poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy include the following personal characteristics of patients: a low level of intensity of attitude to health, internal type of subjective control, a
This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…
In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…
Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ﬁnd the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress
Phillips, Joanne; King, Ross; Skouteris, Helen
Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Croyle, Robert T
This special issue of American Psychologist reviews a broad, diverse, and growing research literature that has established the discipline as an essential source of evidence concerning cancer prevention and control. Nevertheless, the history of psychological science that is intended to inform cancer control suggests a number of risks going forward that could attenuate the impact of this work. Fortunately, the field also faces new opportunities to contribute more substantially, especially if psychologists engage the broader biomedical and public health communities through rigorous, relevant, multilevel research that is informed by current knowledge of the disease and its treatment, the skills required to participate in large-scale trans-disciplinary team science, and an appreciation of the economic, organizational, and policy context of cancer control at the local and national levels. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological fa...
Muhammad Dawood Idrees; Maria Hafeez; Jung-Yong Kim
.... Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety...
de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona
Psychology is a required element in nursing education in many countries. It is particularly aimed at teaching nursing students to get a better understanding of patients, colleagues, health care organizations and themselves, and moreover to apply what they learn about psychology to optimise their care. A meaningful integration of psychology within nursing education requires an emphasis on its application in understanding aspects of care and skills development. However, its ultimate value is demonstrated when addressing problem areas in nursing and health care. In this paper the authors outline an approach to psychology education in nursing which emphasises its development as a problem solving support. An example is presented which focuses on the application of psychology to the challenge of care erosion and deficient critical nursing reflection. The discussion includes the organisational context, social pressure, social cognition, reflection and the role of inner conflict (cognitive dissonance). Nursing educators can contribute to the prevention of care erosion by a combined effort to teach awareness of psychological mechanisms, 'critical' reflection, mastery in practice, strong values and standards, and 'inoculation' against justifications of substandard care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersson, Åsa; Frank, Catharina; Willman, Ania Ml; Sandman, Per-Olof; Hansebo, Görel
To identify the most common serious adverse events that occurred in nursing homes and their most frequent contributing factors to the improvement of safe nursing care. There is a need to improve safe nursing care in nursing homes. Residents are often frail and vulnerable with extensive needs for nursing care. A relatively minor adverse event in nursing care can cause serious injury that could have been preventable. This was a retrospective study, with a total sample of data regarding adverse events (n = 173) in nursing homes, concerning nursing care reported by healthcare providers in Sweden to the Health and Social Care Inspectorate. The reports were analysed with content analysis, and the frequencies of the adverse events, and their contributing factors, were described with descriptive statistics. Medication errors, falls, delayed or inappropriate intervention and missed nursing care contributed to the vast majority (89%) of the serious adverse events. A total of 693 possible contributing factors were identified. The most common contributing factors were (i) lack of competence, (ii) incomplete or lack of documentation, (iii) teamwork failure and (iv) inadequate communication. The contributing factors frequently interacted yet they varied between different groups of serious adverse events. The resident's safety depends on the availability of staff's competence as well as adequate documentation about the resident's condition. Lack of competence was underestimated by healthcare providers. Registered nurses and assistant nurses need to have awareness of contributing factors to adverse events in nursing care. A holistic approach to improve patient safety in nursing homes requires competence of the staff, safe environments as well as resident's and relative's participation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment.
Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…
Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda
Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…
The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tatiana S. Pavlova
Full Text Available Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers, using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales and the Social
Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines
Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.
OBJECTIVE: Psychological distress is a key risk factor for long-term complaints in fibromyalgia (FM). Prognostic factors for psychological distress might facilitate an early identification of patients at risk to help prevent long-term dysfunction, especially for the relatively well-functioning
Pelle, Aline J; Denollet, Johan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe
Growing evidence supports the importance of psychological factors in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this research has been criticized due to overlap between psychological constructs. We examined whether psychological questionnaires frequently used...
Harman-Smith, Yasmin; Bowden, Stephen C.; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Bigler, Erin D.
Abstract Clinical research into outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently combines injuries that have been sustained through different causes (e.g., car accidents, assaults, and falls), the effect of which is not well understood. This study examined the contribution of injury-related psychological trauma—which is more commonly associated with specific types of injuries—to outcomes after nonpenetrating TBI in order to determine whether it may be having a differential effect in samples containing mixed injuries. Data from three groups that were prospectively recruited for two larger studies were compared: one that sustained a TBI as a result of physical assaults (i.e., psychologically traumatizing) and another as a result of sporting injuries (i.e., nonpsychologically traumatizing), as well as an orthopedic control group (OC). Psychosocial and emotional (postconcussion symptoms, injury-related stress, and depression), cognitive (memory, abstract reasoning, problem solving, and verbal fluency), and functional (general outcome; resumption of home, social, and work roles) outcomes were all assessed. The TBIassault group reported significantly poorer psychosocial and emotional outcomes and higher rates of litigation (criminal rather than civil) than both the TBIsport and OC groups approximately 6 months postinjury, but there were no differences in the cognitive or functional outcomes of the three groups. The findings suggest that the cause of a TBI may assist in explaining some of the differences in outcomes of people who have seemingly comparable injuries. Involvement in litigation and the cause of an injury may also be confounded, which may lead to the erroneous conclusion that litigants have poorer outcomes. PMID:24228916
Wang, Yong T; Chen, Shihui; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat; Change, Li-Shan
The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of selected fundamental factors, such as arm length, sitting height, simple vision reaction time (SVRT), choice vision reaction time (CVRT), muscle strength, and range of motion (ROM) at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints to wheelchair basketball (WCB) performance as measured by season statistics and coaches' evaluation. Thirty-seven Paralympic WCB players from seven countries participated in this study. A computerized reaction time system was used to test the SVRT and CVRT. The ROM and muscle strengths of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were measured using a goniometer and MP DA100B BioPac force measurement system, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis was used to identify the contributions of these fundamental factors and "dimensional variables" (DV) derived from the selected factors fundamental to WCB performance. A DV represented a dimension or category of the factor, for example, the wrist flexion/extension DV represented the ROM of the wrist in flexion and extension, and the WCB performance DV represented average points, rebounds, assists, blocks, and steals per game. The results of this study demonstrated that elbow extension and wrist extension had significant contributions to average points. Sitting height, shoulder internal rotation, and elbow flexion had significant contributions to the average rebounds. Arm length had a significant contribution to average assists, and SVRT had a significant contribution to the average blocks. Wrist flexion/extension ROM DV and wrist flexion/extension strength DV had significant contributions to the WCB performance DV. Shoulder internal rotation, elbow extension, and wrist flexion/extension ROM, CVRT, and wrist flexion/extension muscle strength are important to WCB performance and should be addressed in WCB training.
Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A
The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.
Matt, Georgia Lee
Native American youth often experience high rates of environmental risk factors that may put them at increased risk for developing psychological problems, yet research within this high-risk population is severely limited. The present study was designed to provide information on the rate of psychological symptoms in a sample of Native American youth, and evaluate the impact of environmental factors (risk, protective, and cultural) on psychological disorder symptoms over time. Data were coll...
Gurpreet Singh Chhabra
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.
players also showed significantly greater self-confidence (d ≥ 0.4), personal coping resources, coping with adversity, average psychological skills and activation control scores than their lower ranked counterparts, stressing the important role of sport psychological skills towards rugby performance. It can be concluded that ...
Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.
van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3
Introduction: Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and S.mansoni infections are common in Uganda and can cause liver disease. No study has determined co-infection significance in Uganda. We carried out a study on the burden, pattern and factors that contribute to peri-portal fibrosis (PPF) in HIV infected patients ...
DeCoster, Vaughn; Ehlman, Katie; Conners, Carolyn
Medicare spending is expected to increase by 79% between the years 2010 and 2020, caused, in-part, by hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge. This study identified factors contributing to hospital readmissions in a midwest heath service area (HSA), using Coleman's Transition Care Model as the theoretical framework. The researchers…
The contributions of environmental and haematological factors to the distributions of Eustrongylides africanus larvae in Clarias gariepinus and C. anguillaris from Bida floodplain of Nigeria were investigated. Five environmental (rainfall, soil pH, water conductivity, sunshine and silt-clay) and four haematological (mean ...
This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...
Purpose and objectives. The aim of the study was to explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used by nurses in the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (UTHB), Rwanda. The objectives were to: Explore the stressors faced by nurses at UTHB; identify the coping strategies of nurses for ...
Objectives: To determine factors contributing to home delivery in Kongwa District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2009 in which women of child-bearing age were interviewed. The variables mainly included: accessibility of maternal health care, practicing TBA's, existence of ...
Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...
Thibodeaux, Tilisa; Cummings, Cynthia; Harapnuik, Dwayne
This study examined factors that contributed to persistent use, or discontinued use, of ePortfolios beyond the program of study, as perceived by former educational technology students in a graduate program. The related literature points to contemporary research that choice, ownership, voice, and authentic learning are growing trends emerging as…
Abstract: Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at University Teaching Hospital of Butare in Rwanda. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can ...
Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: ...
Factors contributing to the accessibility of opinion leaders in Lesotho. RF Williams, GH Düvel. Abstract. Against the background of the importance of fellow farmers as the most frequent source of information, opinion leaders deserve special attention. This study is focused on accessibility, which, together with competence, ...
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions account for the highest proportion among the causes of morbidity and mortality in clinical wards and are posing a considerable challenge. Hence, the objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and the factors which contribute to their prevalence.
Objective: Prematurity is one of the highest global health challenges of the 21st century and has been named the first killer of young children. In Rwanda, it is the leading cause of death in neonates. It is expedient to explore the factors contributing to the observed high morbidity and mortality to plan appropriate interventions.
Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of
Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein
Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by
Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.
Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke
Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.
Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M; Furgerson, Dorothy; Harper, Cynthia C
Most research in mental health and abortion has examined factors associated with post-abortion psychological health. However, research that follows women from before to after their abortion consistently finds that depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are highest just before an abortion compared to any time afterwards. This finding suggests that studies investigating psychosocial factors related to pre-abortion mental health are warranted. The current study uses data from 353 women seeking abortions at three community reproductive health clinics to examine predictors of pre-abortion psychological health. Drawing from three perspectives in the abortion and mental health literature, common risks, stress and coping, and sociocultural context, we conducted multivariable analyses to examine the contribution of important factors on depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms just before an abortion, including sociodemographics, abortion characteristics, childhood adversities, recent adversities with an intimate partner, relationship context, future pregnancy desires, and perceived abortion stigma. Childhood and partner adversities, including reproductive coercion, were associated with negative mental health symptoms, as was perceived abortion stigma. Before perceived abortion stigma was entered into the model, 18.6%, 20.7%, and 16.8% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms respectively, was explained. Perceived abortion stigma explained an additional 13.2%, 9.7%, and 10.7% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms pre-abortion. This study, one of the first to focus on pre-abortion mental health as an outcome, suggests that addressing stigma among women seeking abortions may significantly lower their psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We analyze the low-energy behavior of scattering amplitudes involving gravitons at loop level in four dimensions. The single-graviton soft limit is controlled by soft operators which have been argued to separate into a factorized piece and a non-factorizing infrared divergent contribution. In this note we show that the soft operators responsible for the factorized contributions are strongly constrained by gauge and Poincaré invariance under the assumption of a local structure. We show that the leading and subleading orders in the soft-momentum expansion cannot receive radiative corrections. The first radiative correction occurs for the sub-subleading soft graviton operator and is one-loop exact. It depends on only two undetermined coefficients which should reflect the field content of the theory under consideration.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: school drop-out, health risk during and after childbirth, divorce, rejection by parents, stigmatism, and, sometimes if the baby is unwanted, abortion. Conclusions and recommendations: The factors driving teenage pregnancy are complex and varied and therefore require multifaceted interventions. We recommend improvements related to education, family planning, school-based health centres, youth-friendly clinics and youth development programmes.
Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian
NARRATIVE REVIEW: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected. In the past, focal dystonia (FD) was classified as a psychological disorder. Over time, the problem was classified as a neurological problem. Although the specific pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear, it appears the etiology is multifactorial. While there may be a family history, neurophysiological, physical, and environmental factors, trauma and stress contribute to the phenotypic development of FD. This manuscript analyzes the evidence supporting the potential contribution of the emotional brain systems in the etiology of focal hand dystonia in musicians. In addition, the psychological findings from a large descriptive study comparing healthy musicians, musicians with dystonia, and musicians with chronic pain. Information about psychogenic characteristics might be used to modify intervention strategies and music instruction to reduce the incidence of musician's dystonia.
Williams, Amy M; May, Pamela E; Mason, Shawn T; Wang, Chun; Pomana, Lidia
To identify the contributions of medical conditions and psychological distress to well-being within a non-clinical sample, stratified by age. It was predicted that medical conditions and psychological distress would be negatively associated with well-being. It was also predicted that psychological distress and medical conditions would account for significant variance in well-being. It was further predicted that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between medical conditions and well-being across the life span. 1,424,307 employees/health plan members that completed an HRA. SEM was used to characterize relationships among medical conditions and psychological distress in predicting well-being (QoL, HRQoL, and impairments in ADLs) in five adult age groups. Medical conditions and psychological distress were negatively associated with well-being. As age increased, psychological distress was less associated with well-being. However, in those >75 years old, psychological distress had the largest association with well-being. All medical conditions, except cancer, were negatively associated with well-being. There were decreasing effects of medical conditions across the life span, with the exception of pulmonary disease which increased. Psychological distress mediated the relationship between medical conditions and well-being, with chronic pain having the greatest mediation across the life span. The analysis revealed differences in the contribution of psychological distress and medical conditions to well-being by age group. Additionally, the contribution of psychological distress was equitable to that of medical conditions, thus highlighting the importance of addressing psychological distress in medical populations for well-being. Findings suggest the relevance of age in well-being and the need for further longitudinal investigation.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychological characteristics of alcohol-dependent women, including the particularities of subjective psychological symptomatic status, psychological well-being, motivation, social desirability and self-esteem. We tested the hypothesis that: 1 alcohol-dependent women expressed less motivation of social desirability and expressed more subjectively perceived symptoms in comparison with normal; 2 alcohol-dependent women have lower levels of well-being, self-esteem and level of aspiration in comparison with the conventional norm. The experimental group consisted of 46 women (mean age 45 years who are dependent on alcohol. The comparison group included 33 women with normal behavior who are not dependent on alcohol (the average age 33 years. We have found that a statistically significant contribution to the classification of women in a group of alcohol-dependent is made by low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, low real self-evaluation of their success in business, willpower and mental health, low ideal self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and mind, achievable self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and visual attractiveness, the average level of the personal growth as basic component of well-being.
Hunter, Samuel T; Shortland, Neil D; Crayne, Matthew P; Ligon, Gina S
For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically. In light of these difficulties, we propose that considering literature bases outside of terrorism may be useful in extending lines of inquiry and offering alternative ways of thinking about how terrorist organizations operate. Specifically, we draw on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Behavior literature bases to offer alternative and extended modes of thought on terrorist recruitment and selection. In doing so, we believe both terrorism and more traditional organizational scholars can make substantive and novel contributions to future investigations of increasingly pressing issues surrounding violent extremism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Desley G Hegney
Full Text Available Research Topic: The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of trait negative affect and individual psychological resilience in explaining the professional quality of life of nurses. In particular, we sought to test whether resilience would mediate the relationship between trait negative affect and compassion satisfaction.Methods: One thousand, seven hundred and forty-three Australian nurses from the public, private and aged care sectors completed an online Qaltrics survey. The survey collected demographic data as well as measures of depression, anxiety and stress, trait negative affect, resilience and professional quality of life. Results: Significant positive relationships were observed between anxiety, depression and stress, trait negative affectivity, burnout and secondary traumatic stress (compassion fatigue. Significant negative relationships were observed between each of the aforementioned variables and resilience and compassion satisfaction. Results of mediated regression analysis indicated that resilience partially mediates the relationship between trait negative affect and compassion satisfaction. Conclusions: Results confirm the importance of both trait negative affect and resilience in explaining positive aspects of professional quality of life. Importantly, resilience was confirmed as a key variable impacting levels of compassion satisfaction and thus a potentially important variable to target in interventions aimed at improving nurse’s professional quality of life.
Hegney, Desley G; Rees, Clare S; Eley, Robert; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Francis, Karen
Research Topic: The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of trait negative affect and individual psychological resilience in explaining the professional quality of life of nurses. One thousand, seven hundred and forty-three Australian nurses from the public, private, and aged care sectors completed an online Qualtrics survey. The survey collected demographic data as well as measures of depression, anxiety and stress, trait negative affect, resilience, and professional quality of life. Significant positive relationships were observed between anxiety, depression and stress, trait negative affectivity, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress (compassion fatigue). Significant negative relationships were observed between each of the aforementioned variables and resilience and compassion satisfaction (CS). RESULTS of mediated regression analysis indicated that resilience partially mediates the relationship between trait negative affect and CS. RESULTS confirm the importance of both trait negative affect and resilience in explaining positive aspects of professional quality of life. Importantly, resilience was confirmed as a key variable impacting levels of CS and thus a potentially important variable to target in interventions aimed at improving nurse's professional quality of life.
Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.
Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M
.... The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design...
Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J
Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This
Wachs, Theodore D; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce S
...(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting effects (sensitive periods). In this paper, we review nutritional, neuroscientific, and psychological evidence on this issue...
Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit
Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying preval...
Mainwaring, Lynda M; Finney, Caitlin
Historically, dance medicine and science has focused on the physical aspects rather than the psychological aspects of dance injury. Psychological variables, however, have been shown to influence the occurrence of injury and post-injury outcomes. The purpose of this review was to examine the dance psychology literature and determine the specific psychological factors reported to be associated with the incidence, frequency, and outcome of dance injuries. A systematic literature search was conducted using SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. All retrieved articles were screened based on criteria developed a priori, and selected articles were subsequently assessed for quality. Thirteen studies met the inclusion and quality assessment criteria. Psychological factors associated with both risk and outcome of dance injury included the following: stress, psychological distress, disordered eating, and coping. Factors associated only with risk of injury were sleep, personality, and social support. The results suggest that psychological variables can affect both the incidence and outcome of dance injury among dancers. Therefore, it is critical to gain a well-rounded, thorough understanding of all the factors, including psychological, that have a negative impact on dancers with respect to dance injury. The findings are discussed in terms of the utility of including psychological assessment and intervention, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, when implementing preventative and treatment measures in dance schools and companies.
Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.
Dowling, N A; Brown, M
The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.
Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.
Schuller, Hildegard M.
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation. PMID:24633083
Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel
This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.
Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E
Objectives Underlying heterogeneity among individuals with cocaine dependence is widely postulated in the literature, however, identification of a group of factors that explain risk of cocaine use severity has yet to be confirmed. Methods Latent mixture modeling evaluated 338 cocaine-dependent individuals recruited from the community to assess the evidence for the presence of distinct subgroups. Variables included 5 baseline questionnaires measuring cognitive function (Shipley), impulsivity (BIS), mood (BDI), affective lability (ALS), and addiction severity (ASI). Results failed to suggest multiple subgroups. Given a lack of evidence for discrete latent classes, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was implemented to identify functional dimensions to enhance interpretation of these variables. Results Findings from the EFA indicated a 3-factor model as the best fit, and the subsequent ESEM solution resulted in associations with lifetime cocaine use. Factor 1, best characterized by demographic factors (gender, age), is associated with less lifetime cocaine use. Psychological problems best characterize factor 2, which is associated with higher lifetime cocaine use. Finally, factor 3 is characterized by other substance use (alcohol and marijuana). Although this factor did not demonstrate a statistically reliable relation with self-reported, lifetime cocaine use, it did indicate a potentially meaningful positive association. Conclusions These 3 factors delineate dimensions of functioning that likewise help characterize the variability found in previously established associations with self-reported cocaine use. PMID:26170765
The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.
Singh, P; Aulak, D S; Mangat, S S; Aulak, M S
Dentists and dental students have been reported to be at high risk of burnout and risk factors have been identified. Despite research into burnout in dentists, only a few papers have identified significantly associated factors. To identify the most significant factors associated with burnout in dentists and dental students in published literature. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and HMIC electronic databases to source literature on the factors associated with burnout in dentists. We critically appraised and themed papers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme to find the most significant factors. From 115 studies identified by the search string, we deemed 33 papers to be relevant for review. The most prevalent and significant factors associated with burnout were: younger age, male gender, student status, high job-strain/working hours, those enrolled in clinical degree programmes and certain personality types. However, only a limited amount of literature explored the directional relationship between these factors and burnout. This review identified several significant factors contributing to burnout in dentists and dental students. Further longitudinal and prospective studies are required to assess causation. Burnout should be considered a multifactorial phenomenon that can develop early in a dental career. Screening programmes and coping strategies might help to identify and prevent it. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
There is evidence that intrapersonal psychological factors might contribute to the development of binge eating. However, studies considering reciprocal effects between risk factors and disordered eating are rare. The present article investigates the nature of the temporal relationships between binge eating and low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and the internalization of the societal body ideal in adolescence while taking into account the moderating effects of age and gender. A German population-based sample of 1039 boys and girls from 12 to 19 years of age answered self-report questionnaires on risk factors and eating pathology on 2 measurement points separated by 20 months. Data were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. Low self-esteem, interoceptive deficits, weight/shape concerns, and the internalization of the societal body ideal predicted binge eating longitudinally in bivariate analyses. Binge eating predicted later depressive symptoms, whereas perfectionism and dietary restraint were not longitudinally linked to binge eating in either direction. Low self-esteem and weight/shape concerns emerged as multivariate predictors of binge eating in girls and boys, respectively. No moderating effects of age were observed. The results suggest that depressive symptoms might rather be a consequence of binge eating than a risk factor, and this underscores that even subclinical eating pathology might be associated with negative psychological outcomes. Central risk factors that should be targeted in prevention programs might be low self-esteem for girls and weight/shape concerns for boys.
The history of social psychology has been dogged by crises based on different approaches to understanding ... Akin-Ogundeji argued that the history of psychology in. Africa is synonymous with the history of colonialism. .... equity principles, with the result that the sustainability of the development project is compromised.
van de Vijver, F.J.R.
In this article I define and describe the current state of internationalization in psychology. Internationalization refers here to the approach in which existing or new psychological theories, methods, procedures, or data across cultures are synthesized so as to create a more culture-informed,
Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali
In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…
Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni
Full Text Available Residential construction is one of the most important pillars of Iran’s economy. Although this sector had an increasing trend over the past two decades, however, the growth rate of residential construction was very volatile. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate those factors contributing to this fluctuation over the 1991:Q2-2008:Q4. By applying cointegration approach, the empirical results show that housing prices, construction costs, GDP and gold prices are important factors to explain swings in residential construction in Iran.
Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Moran, Galia S; Nemec, Patricia B
This article suggests a positive psychology framework to strengthen and broaden psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery thought and practice. We inform about positive psychology concepts and measures that can be used to further knowledge, enhance practice, and guide research. Foundational concepts are drawn from the published literature. Specific positive psychology concepts and measures are highlighted: complete mental health, well being, flourishing, positive emotions, flow, self-determination, posttraumatic growth, and resilience. Employing a positive psychology framework can advance research on recovery phenomena and be used to assess rehabilitation outcomes. In addition we advocate positive psychology interventions in education and training of service providers that will enhance a positive focus and the culture of recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits
Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young
Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.
Mi Jung Rho
Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.
The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2016 award winner is Héctor Fernández-Álvarez, who "has woven a sophisticated network of international cooperation in psychotherapy research, training, and service provision throughout Latin America, Europe, and the United States." He was selected for his outstanding, innovative contributions to psychotherapy integration, clinical supervision, and the personal style of the therapist. Dr. Fernández-Álvarez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.
Palmer, David H.
Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).
Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Mosavi, Shokofeh; Zarini, Soroush
Background: The role of psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) has not been clearly determined. In this study the role of conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were assessed in patients with PUD and FD and in the healthy individuals. Methods: Ninety subjects [30 PUD (15 women, 15 men), 30 FD (15 women, 15 men), and 30 healthy individuals (15 women, 15 men)] in two endoscopy wards of Babol University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. Three groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were evaluated by appropriate questionnaires. Results: The patients with PUD reported less mean scores on psychiatric symptoms than the FD patients (depression 12.6±7.5 vs 28±9.5, anxiety 8.2±5.9 vs 18.7±6. obsessive-compulsive disorder 15.7±7.5 vs 21.8±8.4, interpersonal sensitivity 9.5±7.4 vs 16±7, psychoticism 8.03±4.5 vs 14.3±6.3, somatization 12.5±10.8 vs 20.7±8.1, and the total score of psychiatric symptoms 94.4±49.9 vs 160.1±46.6). The mean scores use of unconstructive conflict management styles in PUD patients were lower than FD (dominating 17.7±3.5 vs 20.2±2.7, avoiding 17.5±3 vs 23.8±4.4). Alexithymia symptoms were higher in FD patients than PUD individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 23.5±6.3 vs 27.8±3.9, difficulty in describing feeling 16.5±4.4 vs 17.3±3.6). The PUD and FD patients had higher scores regarding these variables than the healthy subjects. Conclusion: The results show that both PUD and FD patients experienced more psychiatric symptoms, unconstructive conflict management styles, and alexithymia than the healthy subjects. FD patients had worse psychiatric problems than PUD. PMID:24778780
Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.
Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C
The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.
Galina P. Lavrentieva
Full Text Available The article characterizes the psychological and pedagogical factors of effective implementation and use of electronic educational tools in secondary schools. Determination of individual development by complex of psychological and pedagogical, ergonomic, aesthetic and hygienic factors of information technology use is grounded. The basic psychological and educational factors that influence child development are considered. Main groups of ergonomic requirements, which should emphasize the development and evaluation of electronic tools to maximize development and mental and physical health of the child, are described.
Greene, Roger L
The field of psychological assessment appears to be bogged down in recent decades on refining existing measures and techniques to the detriment of real change. This article attempts to highlight some of the changes that need to take place in psychological assessment in the next few decades if real progress is to be achieved: (a) developing guidelines for psychological tests and measures; (b) establishing explicit criteria for training; (c) establishing guidelines for competencies; (d) recognizing the impact of marketing; (e) embracing electronic technology; and (f) implementing computer adaptive testing.
Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie
To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
Cay, Hasan Fatih; Sezer, Ilhan; Firat, Mehmet Z; Kaçar, Cahit
It is believed that there is an association between the weather and rheumatic symptoms. We aimed to investigate what kind of association is present and what are the factors which determine the nature of this association. Fifty-six subjects with rheumatic disease (31 RA, 15 SpA, 10 OA) who live in Antalya were followed between December 2005 and July 2006. Patients were asked to fill diaries which contain questions regarding the symptoms of their rheumatic diseases everyday. In every monthly visit, disease activity measurement, laboratory assessment and Beck depression inventory assessment were recorded. The symptomatic and psychological measurements were matched with the meteorological data of Antalya Regional Directorate of Meteorological Service of Turkish State. Correlation of symptoms with weather variables was investigated. Contributory effect of weather and of psychologic factors on symptom scores were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty-four percent of subjects belive in an association between weather and rheumatism, while 57% claimed to have ability to forecast weather. The maximum correlation coefficient between weather and arthritis symptoms was -0.451 and the maximum contribution of weather on symptoms was 17.1%. Arthritis symptoms were significantly contributed by Beck depression score. The belief about presence of weather-arthritis association was found to be stronger than its statistical power. Our results did not prove or rule out the presence of weather-rheumatism association. As long as the scientific attempts result in failure, the intuitive support in favour of the presence of weather-arthritis association will go on forever.
category to compile the research groups. Background history and behaviour reports were gathered in order that proposed group members could first be discussed inter subjectively regarding their identified resilience/vulnerability. This was done in discussion with the school's psychology department and with an ...
Jones-Saumty, Deborah; And Others
Investigated within-group differences for Indians with (N=28) and without (N=32) familial history of alcoholism; and assessed cross-cultural differences for Indian (N=31) and Caucasian (N=39) social drinkers with a familial history of alcoholism. Results showed no psychological functioning differences between the Indian groups, but cross-cultural…
... Police should be more professionalized, first by making its recruitment policies much more competitive, technical, scientific and psychological. Also screening in form of oral interview from a panel of credible and highly educated police and police psychologists should be put in place to screen recruits for emotional stability.
Care-related Stress Scale (CSS) with reliability of .73 Cronbach's alpha and Ryff's Psychological Wellbeing Scale (RPBS) with reliability of .87 Cronbach's alpha were used for data collection. Statistical analysis involved the use of Pearson's Moment Correlation, Independent t- test and One-Way ANOVA. Findings from the ...
Haasz, Christine A.
This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…
Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).
Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)
Greenfield, Emily A; Marks, Nadine F
This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996-97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported experiences of frequent psychological violence, regardless of the frequency of physical violence, is found to be positively associated with adult psychological distress. Adults' sense of community is found to moderate the association between reports of both frequent psychological and frequent physical violence in childhood from parents and adult psychological distress.
Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood.
Introduction Evolutionary psychology (EP) is a discipline born between evolutionary biology, cognitive science, and physical anthropology. It's both a theoretical and practical scientific discipline which principal purpose is to study human behavior, in order to understand the biological and evolutionary causes that generated it. Evolutionary psychology finds its roots in the Darwinian theory, considering human behavior as the product of adaptations to recurring problems in the ancestra...
Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Carbine, Kaylie M; Kirwan, C Brock
This review aims to provide a brief introduction of the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in pediatric psychology research, describe several exemplar studies that highlight the unique benefits of MRI techniques for pediatric psychology research, and detail methods for addressing several challenges inherent to pediatric MRI research. Literature review. Numerous useful applications of MRI research in pediatric psychology have been illustrated in published research. MRI methods yield information that cannot be obtained using neuropsychological or behavioral measures. Using MRI in pediatric psychology research may facilitate examination of neural structures and processes that underlie health behaviors. Challenges inherent to conducting MRI research with pediatric research participants (e.g., head movement) may be addressed using evidence-based strategies. We encourage pediatric psychology researchers to consider adopting MRI techniques to answer research questions relevant to pediatric health and illness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Winkler, Georg W.; Varjas, Dániel; Skolasinski, Rafal; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Wimmer, Michael
Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value—contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots. We show that an L .S coupling in higher subbands leads to an enhancement of the g factor of an order of magnitude or more for small effective mass semiconductors. We validate our theoretical finding with simulations of InAs and InSb, showing that the effect persists even if cylindrical symmetry is broken. A huge anisotropy of the enhanced g factors under magnetic field rotation allows for a straightforward experimental test of this theory.
Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.
Glavin, Ronnie; Flin, Rhona
We look at the changing nature of medical education in the developed world with particular reference to those areas of the new curriculum frameworks which have introduced topics from the psychosocial realm. Research in the branch of psychology dealing with human factors has developed a useful body of working knowledge which applies to other industries where humans interact with the complex systems in which they function. Some findings are already being applied to facets of anesthesia performance, including situation awareness, effective teamwork, countermeasures against active errors and latent pathogens, and limitations of human performance. However, existing lessons and practices from industrial or military research may not translate directly into effective strategies for anesthesiologists. Collaborative studies between psychologists and clinicians should continue in order to provide the anesthetic curriculum with an effective body of knowledge for each role of the anesthesiologist. Although individual anesthesiologists have made important contributions in this field, such material has not been formally incorporated into the curricula serving anesthesiologists in the developed world. There is a gap between the human factors psychologists now know and the human factors anesthesiologists need to know. As that gap closes, anesthesiologists may come to think more like human factor psychologists as well as biomedical scientists.
Monique S. Roy
Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.
Voerman, G.E.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Fleuren, J.F.; Hermens, H.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.
PURPOSE: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete
Voerman, Gerlienke; Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; Fleuren, Judith F.M.; Fleuren, J.F.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.
Purpose: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. - Methods: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.
Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew
Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.
Helmus, M.; Preuper, H.R.S.; Hof, A.L.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Reneman, M.F.
Background: Enhancement of physical activities is an important goal in rehabilitation programmes for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). A relationship between activity level and psychological factors is suggested but studied scarcely. Aim: To explore the relationship between the
Poblano-Verástegui, Ofelia; Figueroa-Perea, Juan Guillermo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth
To identify factors associated with utilization of breast clinical examination (BCE) and their relationship with institutional medical practice. This is a qualitative study conducted between 1996 and 1997 in medical units of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security) and Secretaria de Salud (Ministry of Health). Eight focus groups were included: four groups of female users and four groups of health professionals; in total, 47 users and 29 physicians and nurses participated. Interpretations of information were based on the organizational ability to respond to the user's expectations, "ability/knowledge" within the organization and the institutional medical practice, at the light of the Grounded Theory. Service demand was conditioned on the perception of poor quality of care, lack of trust in physicians, and organizational aspects. When providing care, male physicians were not interested and felt uneasy about performing the BCE. Female physicians seemed more interested and were well accepted by users. Psychological, cultural, social, and institutional barriers exist in the access and utilization of BCE. Identifying these barriers and their origins could support the development of actions to improve the physician-patient relationship. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria
Even a century after its first publication in "Archives of Criminology" (in German: Archiv für Kriminologie), the doctoral thesis of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), which was newly edited in 1996, continues to be of interest. Although the crimes described by Jaspers, which took place in a rural area, do no longer occur in this form just as the rural culture itself has disappeared, this paper nevertheless contains reflections that may also be relevant for the interpretation of modern potentials of conflict and violence and crimes rooted therein. The former homesickness has developed into novel phenomena of uprooting. In both cases, problems of maladjustment are a contributing factor to crime motivation. Thus despite all terminological and methodological change, Jaspers' thesis is an example for the continuing relevance of certain subjects in criminological discourse.
Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William
Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies has explored whether pre-existing psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first-onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. PMID:24275225
Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan
This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.
Cummings, Greta; Lee, How; Macgregor, Tara; Davey, Mandy; Wong, Carol; Paul, Linda; Stafford, Erin
Leadership practices of health care managers can positively or negatively influence outcomes for organizations, providers and, ultimately, patients. Understanding the factors that contribute to nursing leadership is fundamental to ensuring a future supply of nursing leaders who can positively influence outcomes for health care providers and patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the multidisciplinary literature to examine the factors that contribute to nursing leadership and the effectiveness of educational interventions in developing leadership behaviours among nurses. The search strategy began with 10 electronic databases (e.g. CINAHL, Medline). Published quantitative studies were included that examined the factors that contribute to leadership or the development of leadership behaviours in nurse leaders. Quality assessments, data extraction and analysis were completed on all included studies. A total of 27,717 titles/abstracts were screened resulting in 26 included manuscripts reporting on 24 studies. Twenty leadership factors were examined and categorized into four groups - behaviours and practices of individual leaders, traits and characteristics of individual leaders, influences of context and practice settings, and leader participation in educational activities. Specific behaviours and practices of individual leaders, such as taking on or practising leadership styles, skills and roles, were reported as significantly influencing leadership in eight studies. Traits and characteristics of individual leaders were examined in six studies with previous leadership experience (three studies) and education levels (two of three studies) having positive effects on observed leadership. Context and practice settings had a moderate influence on leadership effectiveness (three of five studies). Nine studies that examined participation in leadership development programs all reported significant positive influences on observed leadership. These
Siren, Pontus M A
The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)-critical diaphragm failure (CDF) hypothesis was first published by Siren and Siren in 2011 (1). Since its publication, the hypothesis has continued to generate interest and several colleagues have contributed perspectives and insights to it (2-5). The basic premise of the hypothesis is that the diaphragm is a vital organ that must continuously generate adequate force to maintain ventilation, and that CDF is a terminal event and the cause of death in SIDS. I have argued in two follow-up articles that all SIDS factors either increase the workload of the respiratory muscles, the diaphragm being the primary muscle affected, or reduce its force generating capacity (6, 7). The SIDS-CDF hypothesis posits that SIDS has many contributing factors but only one cause, namely, the failure of the vital respiratory pump. There are several known SIDS factors, such as the prone sleeping position, non-lethal infections, deep sleep, gestational prematurity, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, male gender, and altitude, but of these, some such as the prone sleeping position more significantly both impact diaphragm function and correlate with SIDS. However, SIDS cases are multifactorial and as such can be caused by different combinations of factors. An infection combined with a prone sleeping position and elevated room temperature could lead to SIDS, whereas in other circumstances, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, prone sleeping position, and altitude could result in CDF and SIDS. The SIDS-CDF hypothesis also posits that SIDS does not have a congenital or genetic origin, and that efforts to identify significant genetic anomalies in SIDS victims are unlikely to be successful (8-11).
Heesakkers, John; Farag, Fawzy; Bauer, Ricarda M; Sandhu, Jaspreet; De Ridder, Dirk; Stenzl, Arnulf
The incidence and awareness of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) has increased during the past few years, probably because of an increase in prostate cancer surgery. Many theories have been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of PPI. The current review scrutinizes various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the occurrence of PPI. A search was conducted on PubMed and EMBASE for publications on PPI. The primary search returned 2518 publications. Animal and basic research studies, letters, publications on prostatectomy for benign reasons, pathology of prostatic carcinoma, radiotherapy and hormone therapy of prostatic carcinoma, and review articles were all used as criteria for exclusion from the study. A total of 128 publications were selected for final analysis. Neuromuscular anatomic elements and pelvic support are known to influence PPI as evidenced by multiple publications. A number of non-anatomic and surgical elements have been postulated as contributing factors to PPI. Biological factors and preoperative parameters include: functional bladder changes, age, body mass index (BMI), pre-existing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), prostate size, and oncologic factors. Multiple studies reported the impact of specific anatomic/surgical factors, including fibrosis, shorter membranous urethral length (MUL), anastomotic stricture, damage to the neurovascular bundle, and extensive dissection, all of which have a negative impact on the continence status of patients following radical prostatectomy (RP). Investigation of the impact of techniques to spare the bladder neck and additional procedures to reconstruct the posterior or anterior support structures (eg, the Rocco stitch) on continence status is ongoing. Anatomic support and pelvic innervation appear to be important factors in the etiology of PPI. Biological/preoperative factors including greater age at time of surgery, pre-existing LUTS, high BMI, shorter MUL, and functional bladder changes have a
Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi
The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.
Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J
To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Ppsychological violence against children: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.
The APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. The 2016 recipient is James W. Pennebaker, whose research on the therapeutic benefits of expressive writing and the computer-based analysis of everyday language have affected most theoretical and applied areas of psychology. His award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kunitake, Ryan C; Howard, Benjamin M; Kornblith, Lucy Z; Christie, Sabrinah A; Conroy, Amanda S; Cohen, Mitchell J; Callcut, Rachael A
Acute traumatic coagulopathy affects 20% to 30% of trauma patients, but the extensive collinearity of the coagulation cascade complicates attempts to clarify global clotting factor dysfunction. This study aimed to characterize phenotypes of clotting factor dysfunction and their contributions to mortality after major trauma. This prospective cohort study examines all adult trauma patients of the highest activation level presenting to San Francisco General Hospital between February 2005 and February 2015. Factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, and X and protein C activity on admission and mortality status at 28 days were assessed. Predictors of 28-day mortality in univariate analysis were included in multiple logistic regression controlling for traumatic brain injury (TBI), acidosis, age, and mechanism of injury. Principal component analysis was utilized to identify phenotypic coagulation. Complete coagulation factor data were available for 876 (61%) of 1,429 patients. In multiple logistic regression, factors V (odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.97), VIII (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and X (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92) and protein C (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30) significantly predicted 28-day mortality after controlling for age, base deficit, mechanism of injury, and TBI. Principal component analysis identified two significant principal components (Phenotypes 1 and 2) that accounted for 66.3% of the total variance. Phenotype 1 (factors II, VII, IX, and X and protein C abnormalities) explained 49.3% and was associated with increased injury, coagulopathy, TBI, and mortality. Phenotype 2 (factors V and VIII abnormalities) explained 17.0% and was associated with increased coagulopathy, blunt injury, and mortality. Only Phenotype 2 remained significantly associated with 28-day mortality in multiple logistic regression. Principal component analysis identified two distinct phenotypes within the entirety of global clotting factor abnormalities, and these
Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz
The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…
Bessaha, Melissa L.
Objective: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the 6-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Methods: A subsample of emerging adults, aged 18-29 (n = 20,699), from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health were used in this study. Results: Each of the models (one-factor, two-factor…
Muhammad Dawood Idrees
Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.
Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.
Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E
Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.
Wicks, Charlotte Rose; Ward, Karl; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan; Ford, Helen L
People with multiple sclerosis often stop working earlier than expected. Psychological factors may have an impact on job retention. Investigation may inform interventions to help people stay in work. To investigate the associations between psychological factors and work instability in people with multiple sclerosis. A multi-method, 2-phased study. Focus groups were held to identify key themes. Questionnaire packs using validated scales of the key themes were completed at baseline and at 8-month follow-up. Four key psychological themes emerged. Out of 208 study subjects 57.2% reported medium/high risk of job loss, with marginal changes at 8 months. Some psychological variables fluctuated significantly, e.g. depression fell from 24.6% to 14.5%. Work instability and anxiety and depression were strongly correlated (χ2 p < 0.001). Those with probable depression at baseline had 7.1 times increased odds of medium/high work instability, and baseline depression levels also predicted later work instability (Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.899; Nagelkerke R Square 0.579). Psychological factors fluctuated over the 8-month follow-up period. Some psychological variables, including anxiety and depression, were significantly associated with, and predictive of, work instability. Longitudinal analysis should further identify how these psychological attributes impact on work instability and potential job loss in the longer term.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The
Olson, Linda G
This study compares pre- and posttest Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores for public health leaders who completed the Regional Institute for Health and Environmental Leadership (RIHEL) training program at least 2 years earlier; it seeks to identify factors contributing to changes in practices and overall leadership development for public health and environment leaders. Sixty-seven alumni who completed the yearlong RIHEL program between 1999 and 2002 participated through mailed surveys and phone interviews. The Leadership Practices Inventory, an alumni leadership development survey, and interviews provided evidence for positive change in leadership practices. Alumni experienced significant increases in pre- to post-LPI scores, collaborative leadership practices, and communication skills consistent with those taught in the RIHEL program. Women presented higher Encourage the Heart scores than men. Years of public health service negatively correlated with Total Change scores of LPI. The RIHEL program as a training intervention was credited significantly with changes in leadership practices for alumni studied. Nine influencing factors were identified for leadership development and are embedded in a Leadership Development Influence Model. These include self-awareness, a leadership development framework, and skills important in multiple leadership situations. Confidence was both an encouraging factor and a resulting factor to the increased exemplary leadership practices. Leadership development in public health must include multiple factors to create consistent increases in exemplary leadership practices. While the study focused on the leadership development process itself, RIHEL training was reported as having a positive, significant impact overall in participant leadership development. This study adds research data as a foundation for training content areas of focus. Studies to further test the Leadership Development Influence Model will allow public health
Ciyin, Gülten; Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe
This study adopted Self-Determination Theory tenets and aimed to explore whether student physical education (PE) teachers' satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs independently predicts well-being. 267 Turkish student PE teachers were recruited for the study. Two stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed in which each outcome…
Evon, Donna M.; Golin, Carol E.; Fried, Michael W.; Keefe, Francis J.
Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the existing literature on psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and antiviral treatment; provide the state of the behavioral science in areas that presently hinder HCV-related health outcomes; and make recommendations for areas in which clinical psychology…
Kudliskis, Voldis; Burden, Robert
The strengths and weaknesses of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) are described with reference to its origins, previous research and comments from critics and supporters. A case is made for this allegedly theoretical approach to provide the kind of outcomes focused intervention that psychology and psychologists can offer to schools. In…
Santos, Veruska; Paes, Flavia; Pereira, Valeska; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio
The present study aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature by checking the impact of positive emotion in the treatment of depression and on the use of strategies of positive psychology which involves positive emotion to treat and reduce symptoms of depression. For this purpose, we conducted searches in databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed and found a total of 3400 studies. After inclusion application and exclusion criteria, 28 articles remained, presented and discussed in this study. The studies have important relations between humor and positive emotion as well as a significant improvement in signs and symptoms of depression using differents strategies of positive psychology. Another relevant aspect is the preventative character of the proposed interventions by positive psychology by the fact that increase well-being and produce elements such as resilience and coping resources that reduce the recurrent relapses in the treatment of depression. The strategies of positive psychology, such as increasing positive emotions, develop personal strengths: seeking direction, meaning and engagement for the day-to-day life of the patients, appear as potentially tools for the prophylaxis and treatment of depression, helping to reduce signs and symptoms as well as for prevention of relapses.
Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process.
Morandi, N; Williams, J
The objective was to study the intent of exposure to snakes and other factors contributing to snakebite injuries in order to develop prevention strategies. We used a retrospective chart review and a follow-up telephone interview of snakebite victims who were admitted to a tertiary care center between 1985 and 1994. The data collected included demographics, intent of exposure and host and environmental factors. I performed descriptive analysis. Twenty-four males and six females ranging in age from 2 to 93 years sustained bites from a variety of snakes including rattlesnakes, copperheads, and Egyptian cobra, and others. Sixty-seven percent (20/30) of all bites resulted from intentional exposures to snakes: professional snake handlers (7), snake hunts (8), and playing with (aggravating) snakes in the wild (5). Sixty-five percent (13/20) of intentional exposures involved novices in a recreational/home setting, and 35% (7/20) occurred in an occupational setting. Unintentional exposures occurred while victims were walking in wooded areas, fishing by streams, gardening, and washing dishes indoors. Forty percent (12/30) of all victims had consumed alcohol before the snakebite, 92% (11/12) of whom were nonprofessionals with intentional exposures. Only eight victims (seven of whom were professional handlers) were using protective equipment. I concluded that the majority of snakebite injuries resulted from intentional exposures to snakes in which a variety of factors such as the use of alcohol and lack of protective equipment likely played a role.
Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H
Objective Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Method: Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Results: Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from any one factor, such as bullying. PMID:25702362
Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H
Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from anyone factor, such as bullying.
Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin
Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.
João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz
Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate contributing factors in patients requiring surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures. Of all the patients with mandibular fractures who were treated using internal fixation at a trauma hospital over a seven-year period, 20 patients (4.7% required a second surgery and thus composed the “reoperated” group. The control group comprised 42 consecutive patients with mandibular fractures who were treated at the same clinic and who healed without complications. Medical charts were reviewed for gender, age, substance abuse history, dental condition, etiology, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure, teeth in the fracture line, associated facial fractures, polytrauma, time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, surgical approach and fixation system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0; descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used to determine differences between groups. Significant differences in substance abuse (p = 0.006, dental condition (p < 0.001, location of fracture (p = 0.010, degree of fragmentation (p = 0.003 and fracture exposure (p < 0.001 were found. With regard to age and time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, older patients (31.4 years, SD = 11.1 and a delay in fracture repair (19.1 days, SD = 18.7 were more likely to be associated with reoperation. It was concluded that substance abuse, age, dental condition, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure and the time between trauma and initial treatment should be considered contributing factors to the occurrence of complications that require surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures.
Doig, Kathy; Beck, Susan
To identify factors contributing to retention of clinical laboratory practitioners. A paper survey addressing retention was distributed to a potential of 4000 clinical laboratory professionals. The survey was distributed to subjects by their laboratory manager to be completed at the worksite or home. 599 usable surveys were received from non-supervisory individuals employed in clinical laboratory science (CLS) for five years or more. Surveys were mailed to laboratory managers in March 2003 with directions to distribute to practitioners with five or more years of work experience. Percentages of respondents agreeing and disagreeing with Lickert-type opinion items were determined. The means, ranges, and standard deviations were calculated for the number of hours of continuing education, years of experience, percentage of time spent on tasks, and years in the current job. The means for job satisfaction were calculated and compared statistically based on respondents' job function, satisfaction with salary, job independence, sense of appreciation, and responsibility for continuing education. Open-ended responses were tabulated and categorized. Committed practitioners believe their work is important and find it challenging. Those who are most satisfied with their jobs believe they make a good salary (p = 0.000), have work independence (p = 0.000), and feel that their work is appreciated (p = 0.000). Job satisfaction does not differ for CLTs vs. CLSs. Salaries comparable to nurses and appreciation from physicians, nurses, and hospital administrators are cited by respondents as the most important factors to retaining laboratory staff. Committed practitioners believe that salaries comparable to nurses are needed to improve retention of staff. Respondents said that being appreciated by hospital administrators, nurses, and physicians would also contribute to improved retention.
Li, Li; Yuan, Wei-Jun; Chen, Qiao-Lu; Yao, Yao; Huang, Ying-Bi
To investigate the positive psychological reaction of patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma and related factors. One hundred and five hospitalized patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma were investigated by self-designed general data questionnaire, positive psychological scale posttraumatic growth evaluation of quantitative PTG, and self-image questionnaire. SPSS 18.0 software package was used to analyze the data. Positive psychological score of the patients was 56.01±17.322, and self-image average score was 51.33±7.306. There were significant differences between male and female patients after trauma in new possibilities, personal power, self transformation and personal feeling (Ppositive psychological reaction.With the improvement of educational level of patients, better personal power (P=0.031) and self transformation (P=0.01), and more positive psychological reaction were observed; Posttraumatic positive psychology of patients was negatively correlated with self-image score (r=-0.318, Ppositive attitude than female. With the improvement of educational level, more positive psychological reaction was documented in term of personal strength, self-transformation,but no obvious change in relationship with others, new possibilities and personal feeling. The better self image, the more positive psychological reaction was displayed.
Heidari, Jahan; Hasenbring, Monika; Kleinert, Jens; Kellmann, Michael
Health issues represent a frequent problem for athletes, as this particular demographic is repeatedly confronted with physically and psychologically stressful situations. Back pain (BP) materialises as comparatively common health problem being regarded as functionally limiting and psychologically straining burden for athletes. According to research conducted on athletes with BP, biomechanical and physiological mechanisms emerge as influential, whereas stress-related psychological factors appear to be neglected. For athletic injuries, the essential impact of psychological processes on injury occurrence and return from injury has already been corroborated. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to: (1) introduce a conceptual differentiation between injuries and BP; (2) summarise the results obtained regarding stress-related psychological aspects for injuries; and (3) connect the injury research to the state-of-the-art evidence regarding stress-related factors for BP among athletes. A distinction between injuries and BP could be established based on previous definitions, despite the fact that a considerable overlap between both concepts prevails. Injuries can be attributed to a physical origin, whereas BP frequently lacks this physical criterion. For BP, our enquiry yielded four studies including psychological measures of stress - with two studies specifically examining the association between BP and psychological stress among athletes longitudinally. Abundant findings from the general population support the importance of considering psychological and specifically stress-related factors in BP prevention and rehabilitation, but evidence related to the athletic field remains elusive. Further scientific investigations with a wider methodological approach are needed to deepen the knowledge about the crucial relationship between psychological stress, BP, and athletes.
Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman; Ayers, Andrew L; McNeer, Richard R
In this study, an operating room simulation environment was adapted to include quadraphonic speakers, which were used to recreate a composed clinical soundscape. To assess validity of the composed soundscape, several acoustic parameters of this simulated environment were acquired in the presence of alarms only, background noise only, or both. These parameters were also measured for comparison from size-matched operating rooms at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The parameters examined included sound level, reverberation time, and predictive metrics of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise. It was found that the sound levels and acoustic parameters were comparable between the simulated environment and the actual operating rooms. The impact of the background noise on the perception of medical alarms was then examined, and was found to have little impact on the audibility of the alarms. This study is a first in kind report of a comparison between the environmental and psychological acoustical parameters of a hospital simulation environment and actual operating rooms.
During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and
岩中, 貴裕; Takahiro, IWANAKA; 香川大学
Self-Determination Theory posits 3 basic psychological needs which should be fulfilled for integrated and vital human functioning: the need for competence, relatedness and autonomy. It is assumed that classroom environment which allows satisfaction of the 3 basic needs increases learners' motivation for learning. Nineteen students took part in the course which consisted of activities intended to satisfy the 3 basic needs. After taking the course, they increased their motivation for learning E...
Sokolova, Anna; Smith, Saxon D
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of the skin and is the most common paediatric dermatological condition. While no cure is available, it can be treated effectively if adherence to a therapeutic plan is maintained. Poor adherence to treatment is common in AD and can lead to treatment failure, which has significant impacts on the patient, family and society. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify factors that contribute to poor treatment adherence in childhood AD and to identify possible strategies to remedy these. Identified factors leading to poor treatment adherence include: complexity of treatment regimen, lack of knowledge, impaired quality of life, dissatisfaction with treatment strategies, infrequent follow up, corticosteroid phobia and the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Effective strategies to increase treatment adherence include: caregiver education and utilisation of education adjuncts, optimisation of the patient/caregiver-clinician relationship, early and frequent follow up and improvement of patient and caregiver quality of life. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir
58 years after the creation of impact factor (IF) the professional public shows interest in IFs and their significance for academia and individuals. Really, is a medical journal with IF needed for Macedonia? Some other small and developing countries have pursued and accomplished this goal: Serbia, Slovenia, and Croatia. On the other hand the survey of publications in Macedonian medical journals has been found to lack quality. We believe that to strive to obtain an IF would be beneficial for all Macedonian interest groups involved. This would introduce an ambition among the members of Macedonian academia to publish (so far rare), than to publish in Pubmed listed journals (ambition present in very few Macedonian academics) and then to publish in journals with the highest IF possible (so far a very exclusive group of Macedonian medical professionals). In time this will help in creating and enforcing legal obligation for the academia for a promotion based on merit of IF scientific publications. We believe that this is possible only by Parliament legislation. This will be of benefit for Macedonian patients, the medical community and will unable this country to contribute to the universe of science. Lastly it would certainly be helpful in getting a Macedonian university in the prestigious first 500 Shangai list. Key words: impact factor, Macedonia, medical journals.
Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.
Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)
María Jesús Albar
Full Text Available Mobility is a human dimension that has been a part of human behaviour since humanity began. However, the actual exodus of impoverished people to the more opulent zones of the planet represents new challenges that need to be explored with new perspectives and approaches. Liberation psychology can assist in answering these challenges. On one hand, it permits an explanation of displaced people and poor immigrants’ human suffering in terms of the life experiences oppressively imposed on them by other human groups as a means to maintain privileges. On the other hand, it allows knowing how immigrants confront and overcome unjust conditions, destroy their position as oppressed, strengthen bonds with other groups, and carry out actions as a means to forge cohesion and cooperation in the contexts of reception and to achieve equitable multicultural international relations. This paper describes the initiatives that we have achieved in CESPYD for the purpose of studying these aspects in depth. First we discuss the difficulties that the dominant perspective of acculturation psychology poses in tackling the challenges that new migration represents. Additionally, we suggest liberation psychology as an adequate focus to complete a traditional perspective. Furthermore, we redefine concepts of integration and cultural competency as processes of psychopolitical empowerment and the community-based organizations and health organizations as empowering community settings. Finally, this paper proposes some research directions that can broaden its focus.
Greenfield, Emily A.; Nadine F. Marks
This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported e...
Huang, Bo; Xu, Shabei; Xiong, Jin; Huang, Guangying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei
To observe the differences in psychological status between Bell's palsy (BP) patients and healthy subjects, and to examine the relationship between psychological factors and the severity of BP, we conducted a case-control, multi-center clinical investigation. A total of 695 subjects were assigned to the case group (n=355) and the control group (n=340). House-Brackmann grading system and Facial Disability Index (FDI) were adopted to assess the BP patients; Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and 16 Personality Factor (16PF) scale were employed to evaluate the psychological distress and personality profiles of all subjects. Two independent samples t test was used to compare the differences between cases and controls, and to compare the differences among different BP patients. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological factors and severity of facial paralysis. The results showed that psychological distress (K10) in case group (27.09±5.80) was significantly higher than that in control group (13.43±3.02) (t=-37.219, P=0.000). The scores of personality factor Warmth (A), Openness to Change (Q1), Self-Reliance (Q2) were lower in cases than in the controls (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively), whereas the scores of Sensitivity (I), Vigilance (L), Apprehension (O), and Tension (Q4) were significantly higher in cases than in the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). In addition, the psychological distress was significantly higher in female patients, severe (HB score IV-VI) patients, and subacute (onset time 72-168 h) patients compared with that in male patients, mild (HB score I-III)patients, and acute (onset time[Symbol: see text]72 h) patients (P<0.05). The scores of personality factor in female patients, severe patients, and subacute patients were also significantly different from male patients, mild patients, and acute patients (P<0.05). The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that
Emde, R N
Contributions of Sigmund Freud and René Spitz to developmental psychology are presented in terms of today's research. The work of each of these pioneers draws our attention to the need for increasing our knowledge about the meaning of individual experience and increasing complexity in the course of development. Freud's contribution to today's developmental thinking is reviewed in terms of his observations of play, his schematic perspectives on developmental processes, and his innovative theoretical approaches involving nonconscious mental activity in the context of constructivism. Spitz's contribution to today's thinking is reviewed according to a similar array of topics. These include his observational assessments of infants, his schematic perspectives on developmental processes, and his innovative theoretical approaches involving affective communications in the context of caregiving.
Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Studer, M; Stewart, J; Egloff, N; Zürcher, E; von Känel, R; Brodbeck, J; Grosse Holtforth, M
Increased pain sensitivity is characteristic for patients with chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41). Persistent stress can induce, sustain, and intensify pain sensitivity, thereby modulating pain perception. In this context, it would be favorable to investigate which psychosocial stressors are empirically linked to pain sensitivity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial stressors and pain sensitivity in a naturalistic sample of patients with chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41). We assessed 166 patients with chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41) at entry into an inpatient pain clinic. Pain sensitivity was measured with a pain provocation test (Algopeg) at the middle finger and earlobe. Stressors assessed were exposure to war experiences, adverse childhood experiences, illness-related inability to work, relationship problems, and potentially life-threatening accidents. Correlation analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine which stressors showed the strongest prediction of pain sensitivity. Patients exhibited generally heightened pain sensitivity. Both exposure to war and illness-related inability to work showed significant bivariate correlations with pain sensitivity. In addition to age, they also predicted a further increase in pain sensitivity in the structural equation model. Bearing in mind the limitations of this cross-sectional study, these findings may contribute to a better understanding of the link between psychosocial stressors and pain sensitivity.
Sonneville, Romain; de Montmollin, Etienne; Poujade, Julien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Souweine, Bertrand; Darmon, Michael; Mariotte, Eric; Argaud, Laurent; Barbier, François; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Marcotte, Guillaume; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Jamali, Samir; Lacave, Guillaume; Ruckly, Stéphane; Mourvillier, Bruno; Timsit, Jean-François
Identifying modifiable factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy may help improve patient care and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) was defined by a score on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) encephalopathy. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, site of infection, and type of admission, the following factors remained independently associated with sepsis-associated encephalopathy: acute renal failure [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.67], hypoglycemia 10 mmol/l (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.72), hypercapnia >45 mmHg (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.53-2.38), hypernatremia >145 mmol/l (aOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.48-3.57), and S. aureus (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.25). Sepsis-associated encephalopathy was associated with higher mortality, higher use of ICU resources, and longer hospital stay. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, year of admission, and non-neurological SOFA score, even mild alteration of mental status (i.e., a score on the GCS of 13-14) remained independently associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76). Acute renal failure and common metabolic disturbances represent potentially modifiable factors contributing to sepsis-associated encephalopathy. However, a true causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. Our study confirms the prognostic significance of mild alteration of mental status in patients with sepsis.
MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR
Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl
The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.
Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David
Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must utilise and optimise a range of mental qualities to withstand the pressures that they experience. In this article, we discuss psychological resilience in sport performers via a review of the stressors athletes encounter and the protective factors that help them withstand these demands. It is hoped that synthesising what is known in these areas will help researchers gain a deeper profundity of resilience in sport, and also provide a rigorous and robust foundation for the development of a sport-specific measure of resilience. With these points in mind, we divided the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we review the different types of stressors encountered by sport performers under three main categories: competitive, organisational and personal. Based on our recent research examining psychological resilience in Olympics champions, in the second section we discuss the five main families of psychological factors (viz. positive personality, motivation, confidence, focus, perceived social support) that protect the best athletes from the potential negative effect of stressors. It is anticipated that this review will help sport psychology researchers examine the interplay between stressors and protective factors, which will, in turn, focus the analytical lens on the processes underlying psychological resilience in athletes.
Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara
To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.
Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David
OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in
Van der Houwen, H.K.
In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on
Gregg, R L; Banderet, L E; Reynolds, K L; Creedon, J F; Rice, V J
This 9 month prospective study, conducted at the US Army Sergeants Major Academy (USASGMA), examined the association of selected psychological variables (e.g., measures of tension/anxiety, sleep disturbance, Type A behavior pattern) with injury occurrence and physical performance in 126 soldiers. ANOVA and logistic regression analyses revealed significant relationships between: 1) Traumatic injury occurrence and mean tension/anxiety scores, 2) Mean self-reported sleep disturbance scores and traumatic injury occurrence, 3) The Type A behavior pattern (abbreviated Jenkins Activity Survey) and number of sit-ups repetitions completed in 2 minutes, one component of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), 4) The Type A behavior pattern and total score APFT. No significant associations were found for mean tension/anxiety scores and overuse injuries, or Type A behavior pattern and two mile run time or number of push-up repetitions completed in 2 minutes. These data suggest traumatic injury occurrence is influenced by tension/anxiety and disturbances in sleep habits. Additionally, individuals with higher Jenkins Activity scores (characteristic of the Type A behavior pattern) perform better physically.
da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte
To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.
Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi
Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations. PMID:25598618
Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi
The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations.
... opinion leaders identified by means of sociometric methods with the number of nominations as the major indicator of degree of influence or strength of opinion leadership. The findings reveal that socio-psychological accessibility is not a serious constraint in the diffusion of innovations through opinion leaders, because the ...
administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of .... psychological identification with or commitment to his or her job. It reflects the degree to which they are .... manipulating the picture) as indicated in the syllabus. • The tests were as follows after calculation: MS ...
Mayer, Richard E.
Patricia Alexander (2018) provides a thought-provoking analysis of the past and future of educational psychology. Based on the themes in Alexander's paper, the present paper explores the past and future of educational psychology's contributions to: (a) the science of learning, corresponding to Alexander's theme of "a focus on learning as a…
Clemente, Miriam; Rey, Beatriz; Alcañiz, Mariano; Bretón-López, Juani; Moragrega, Inés; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Avila, César
Many studies have been developed using brain imaging methods to investigate psychological disorders. On the other hand, there are many studies that make use of virtual reality (VR) to simulate a real condition during psychological treatments. In this research, we plan to analyze brain activity during the exposure to a virtual environment related to phobias. Our first goal is to study the possibility of activating brain areas related to phobias, specifically phobias to small animals (spiders and cockroaches), using virtual reality as stimulus, while the patient is inside a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine. The second goal of the research is to analyze if there are differences in the activated areas after patients have followed a psychological treatment for this specific phobia. That is why two different sessions with fMRI will be performed, before and after an intensive treatment for the phobia. In the fMRI room, participants will wear special glasses to visualize the VR environments in which they have to navigate (using also a joystick adapted to fMRI). They will have to perform some tasks while being exposed to the phobic stimuli. The VR environment used in the fMRI sessions has three different conditions: first, a clean room without spiders or cockroaches; second, the same room, but dirty and disordered (giving the sensation of having small animals, although actually there are none); third, the same dirty room but having spiders and cockroaches. It is our hypothesis that the patients will get anxious in the situation in which it is possible that the animal appears and the patterns of brain activation will be different in this condition.
Full Text Available Talking about intelligence as a complex system of operations which conditioning the general approach and solving different problematic situations and tasks, we have insight operations and abilities such as: adaptation to the new situations, the deduction and generalization, the correlation and integration into a unified whole of rather disparate parties, the consequences and anticipation of the outcome, the qiuck comparing of actionable variants and retaining the best alternative, the correct and accurate solutions of some problems with increasing degrees of difficulty. All these skills and operations reveals at least three fundamental characteristics of intelligence: the ability to solve the new situations, quickness, mobility, adaptability, the suitable and efficient flexibility to the circumstances.The intelligence appears as a quality that whole mental activities, as expression of higher organization of all mental processes, including the emotional - motivational. According as forming and developing the mechanisms and operations of whole mental functions, we encounter a flexible and supple intelligence. At present, is still continue in psychology the question if the intelligence is the capacity to acquire knowledge, to reason and solve problems, or it involves different types of skills. The majority is choose the first assumption. The new research made by cognitive psychology perspective and neuropsychology, which connects the intelligent behavior of neurological efficiency, brings valuable clarification in this regard. The study is approaches the complexity of this side of personality, which arising from the approach advocated in the history of philosophy and psychology. The opinions considering to the intelligence have ranged from acceptance and highlighting its role in knowledge, to the decrease its significance or even to eliminate it from human existence.
Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe
There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ 2 = 122.1, df = 6, p fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
Stevens Garry J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.
Xiong, Jin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guang-ying
To explore the relationship between psychological factors and efficacy of acupuncture on primary dysmenorrhea. Sixty cases of primary dysmenorrhea were observed. Before acupuncture treatment, the self-designed confidence questionnaire was used to assess patients' confidence in acupuncture efficacy. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was adopted to assess patients' tension level during acupuncture. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were applied to assess the situations of patients' anxiety and depression. Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ) and Cattell sixteen personality factors questionnaire (16PF) were provided to assess the personal characters of patients. Pain intensity, pain duration and accompanied symptoms were recorded before and after acupuncture treatment so as to assess the efficacy. Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the psychological factors and acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea. There were significant differences in grading of dysmenorrhea, pain intensity score and pain duration after treatment as compared statistically with those before treatment (all Panxiety (r=-0.5906) in personality factors and the reduction of pain duration (r=0.9042) among efficacy indices were the highest. The overall correlation coefficients were all lower between the indices of psychological factors and canonical variables of dysmenorrhea efficacy. Acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea has a certain correlation with dominance and anxiety of patients' personality factors. But, the psychological factors do not play a leading role in acupuncture treatment.
Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José
This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galli, Federica; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Vegni, Elena
Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic medical condition characterised by hot, painful sensations in the lips, oral mucosa, and/or tongue mucosa. On examination, these appear healthy, and organic causes for the pain cannot be found. Several studies have yielded scant evidence of the involvement of psychological and/or psychopathological factors, and several have outlined a model for the classification of BMS. Aim This review aims to provide a systematic review of research examining the psychological, psychiatric, and/or personality factors linked to BMS. Findings Fourteen controlled studies conducted between 2000 and the present were selected based on stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. All studies but one reported at least some evidence for the involvement of psychological factors in BMS. Anxiety and depression were the most common and the most frequently studied psychopathological disorders among BMS patients. Discussion and conclusion Anxiety and depression play critical roles in this condition. Evidence on the role of personality characteristics of BMS patients has also been produced by a few studies. Further studies on the role of specific psychological factors in BMS are warranted, but the importance of a multidisciplinary approach (medical and psychological) to BMS is no matter of discussion.
Bean, Melanie K; Gibson, Douglas; Flattery, Maureen; Duncan, Angela; Hess, Michael
Advances in treatment have prolonged life in heart failure (HF) patients, leading to increased attention to quality of life (QOL) and psychological functioning. It is not clear if ethnic differences exist in factors associated with psychological well-being. We examined psychosocial factors associated with depression and anxiety in 97 HF patients. Medical records were reviewed and patients (M age 53, 50% African American) completed surveys examining social support, coping, spirituality, and QOL for their association with depression and anxiety. Multiple regressions suggested that psychosocial factors were associated with psychological health. Patients with lower social support, lower meaning/peace and more negative coping reported greater depression; positive coping, and lower meaning/peace were associated with higher anxiety. Ethnicity stratified models suggested that spiritual well-being was associated with depression only among African Americans and QOL partially mediated this relationship. Findings suggest the importance of considering the unique psychosocial needs of diverse populations to appropriately target clinical interventions.
Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie
An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
DANIELA LIVIA DOLTU
Full Text Available This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The process is examined from the perspective of the interaction between human personality and different elements of organizational culture. Philosophy and psychology differently approach this problem. Our intention is to bridge the gap between the two perspectives, by demonstrating their belonging to the same continuum as well as the need for knowledge from both fields in order to have a complete overview of its internal mechanisms. Deontological and utilitarian theories fail to explain by themselves the decision making process and so psychology does: moral development theories, the leadership type, and emotions have on their basis a personal moral philosophy. We will also consider the influence of social groups on individual decision making.
E. C. Thomas
Full Text Available This article demonstrates that Frederick Winslow Taylor, acknowledged "Father of Scientific Management", also merits acknowledgement as the spiritual if not actual founder of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. His work in performance motivation and satisfaction; selection, training, and placement of workers; management and organizational development; and in labour relations is shown probably to have preceded that of acknowledged psychologists in these several fields. It is proposed that, whilst not a trained psychologist, Dr. Taylor should be recognized for advocating, and with his colleagues, practising most of the principles and tenets of modern Industrial and Organizational psychology.OpsommingIn die artikel word getoon dat F.W. Taylor die erkende "vader van wetenskaplike bestuur" ook erkenning behoort te geniet as grondlegger van die Bedryf en -organisasiesielkunde. Sy werk op die terreine van prestasiemotivering en tevredenheid, opleiding, plasing van werkers, bestuurs- en organisasieontwikkeling en arbeidsverhoudinge het waarskynlik die werk van erkende sielkundiges op hierdie gebiede vooruitgeloop, of grondslag daarvoor gelê. Daar word tot die slotsom gekom dat alhoewel Taylor nie 'n opgeleide sielkundige was nie, hy en sy kollegas erkenning moet kry vir die praktiese implimentering van die beginsels en teorieë van die moderne Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkunde.
Jensen, Mark P; Turk, Dennis C
Chronic pain is a prevalent problem with significant costs to individuals, significant others, and society. In this article, which introduces the American Psychologist special issue on chronic pain, we provide an overview of the seminal contributions made by psychologists to our current understanding of this important problem. We also describe the primary treatments that have been developed based on psychological principles and models of pain, many of which have demonstrated efficacy for reducing pain and its impact on psychological and physical functioning. The article ends with an enumeration of directions for future research and clinical practice. We believe that the chronicle of psychology's role in improving our understanding and treatment of pain provides a model for how psychologists can have a significant influence on many fields, and that the models and approaches developed for understanding and treating pain may be of use to psychologists working in other areas. Thus, we think that chronic pain is an important area of study that offers insights about translational research for ALL psychologists. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Savard, Josée; Slim, Lisa-Maria; Roy, Renée-Claude; Flett, Gordon L; Hewitt, Paul L; Ivers, Hans
Significant levels of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms are found in cancer patients. Perfectionism, arousability and coping have been associated with these psychological symptoms in the general population but their role among cancer patients remains to be assessed. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia), and the intermediate role of the arousability trait and coping strategies. Participants (N = 853) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems questionnaire and the Arousal Predisposition Scale at the perioperative period (T1), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index two months later (T2). Higher levels of perfectionism (T1) were correlated with greater symptoms of anxiety, depression and insomnia (T2). Moderated mediation models indicated that arousability contributed to the association of perfectionism with all symptoms, with stronger associations found in men than in women. Coping was a significant pathway between perfectionism and anxiety, with associations of a comparable magnitude across sexes. If these results are replicated by future longitudinal studies, they would suggest that perfectionist cancer patients are at a higher risk of experiencing psychological symptoms, partly through their hyperarousability and the coping strategies they use.
Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Kingston, Sharon; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John S; Céspedes, Amarilis; George, Maureen
Adolescents are low users of medical care. Psychological factors and perceived reasons to not seek routine medical care may increase risk of nonuse by adolescents with undiagnosed asthma. This study tests if psychological factors were associated with seeing a medical provider for asthma-like symptoms; identifies adolescents' perceived reasons for not obtaining care; explores if psychological factors are associated with these perceptions; and explores if asthma severity moderates the relationships with psychological factors. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a baseline assessment of 349 urban, primarily ethnic minority adolescents with moderate to severe asthma-like symptoms but no asthma diagnosis who were enrolled in a controlled trial. The odds of seeing a provider for their asthma-like symptoms were significantly higher for those with asthma-related anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.644; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.242-2.176) and depressive symptoms (OR: 1.031; 95% CI: 1.004-1.059). The most commonly endorsed reason for noncare included a characterization of symptoms as not serious, past medical visits not diagnosed as asthma, fear of diagnosis, busy lifestyles, and not wanting medication. Psychological factors were not related to the number of reasons or to most of the commonly endorsed reasons. Adolescents with more asthma-related anxiety were less likely to characterize their breathing problems as serious (OR = .0583; 95% CI: .424-.802) and were more likely to report busy lifestyles (OR = 1.593; 95% CI: 1.122-2.261). Adolescent-perceived reasons for noncare were not pragmatic, but instead highlighted denial. Asthma-related anxiety was the most robust psychological factor associated with the decision to seek medical care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.
The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…
esteem, self-monitoring and social–demographic factors of gender, age, education qualification and duration of marriage. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study while a sample of 204 married people completed measures of ...
Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.
Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.
Full Text Available This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological factor is a factor that is mentally or spiritually concerned with the aspects in students’ acquisition. At least, four of many factors, such as anxiety, attitude, aptitude, and motivation influence the students’ process of language acquisition. However, to cope the psychological problems of learning second language, Kando, D. suggests the five strategies for coping with language anxiety, among of them are preparation strategy, relaxation, positive thinking, peer, and labeled resignation. Therefore, in maximizing the result of second language acquisition, the five strategies illustrated by Kando are important as an alternative solution.
Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R
Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Hopwood, Christopher J; Lewis, Katie C; Stevens, Jennifer L
This study's objective was determine the incremental association of reasons for living to the lifetime number of suicide attempts in relation to other known risk and protective factors in a sample of psychiatric patients with extensive psychopathology in residential treatment. Participants (n = 131) completed a demographic questionnaire that also asked for information about lifetime suicide history, psychiatric history, trauma, and abuse history. Additional measures of resilience, reasons for living (RFL), and impulsiveness were completed. A history of sexual abuse was associated with an increasing lifetime number of suicide attempts, while a history of physical abuse and trait impulsiveness were not associated with the lifetime number of suicide attempts. Survival and coping beliefs, a subscale of the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFLI), was found to add incremental predictive validity to the number of lifetime suicide attempts. A composite fear variable, combining fear of suicide and fear of social consequences of suicide, was negatively correlated with lifetime number of attempts but did not add incremental validity to the prediction of lifetime number of suicide attempts. In a sample of participants with significant psychiatric impairment, the protective factor of survival and coping beliefs may be an important barrier to repeated suicide attempts and may be considered a suicide-specific resilience measure. Understanding the psychological processes contributing to the development of such protective factors as resilience, meaning in life, and coping resources is an important area of study and a potential avenue for targeted therapeutic intervention in high-risk populations.
Mestrović, Ana Havelka; Bilić, Morana; Loncar, Larisa Buhin; Micković, Vlatko; Loncar, Zoran
Pain during delivery is unique because it is accompanied by powerful emotions. Emotions that occur in women during labor and delivery are closely tied to upbringing and culture in which they were raised and consequently with the sensation of experienced pain. According to the Melzack-Wall Theory of Pain, general mood is directly related to the intensity and quality of pain and it is therefore justifiable to presuppose that certain psychosocial factors will be linked with the intensity and quality of pain experienced during childbirth. (Melzack et al., 1981). We endeavored to show the effect of psychosocial factors that influence the intensity and quality of labor pain. Data was collected in a sample of 176 parturient women who delivered without Cesarean sections or epidural anesthesia. The intensity and quality of pain were obtained through the administration of the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form. Psychosocial factors included: number of births, presence of partner, self-evaluation of knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of birth and the completion of a pregnancy course. Labor and delivery pain is of high intensity anl the quality of pain is most frequently characterized as smarting, cramping, exhausting, and sharp. The presence of a partner and the completion of a pregnancy course is exercised by a small number of parturients. Self-evaluation of preexisting knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of delivery is predictive of the affective component of intensity of childbirth pain. Psychosocial factors have been shown as significant for the intensity and quality of experienced childbirth pain.
Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.
Altun, Insaf; Cınar, Nursan; Dede, Cemile
Sleep problems among university students are common; however, the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in university students. The study was cross-sectional, and the students completed self-report, anonymous questionnaires provided during an in-class survey. This is a single center study. A descriptive survey was conducted randomly on 256 university students in Turkey. The instruments for data collection consisted of the demographic data, and the contributing factors to poor sleep. The most frequent self-reported cause to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students were exposure psychological problems (67.2%), stress (64.8%), exposure to tobacco smoke in the sleeping room (63,7%), pain (62,9%), having family problems (62,5%), being patient (55,1%), air quality of the room (55,1%), strenuous physical activity (53,9%), fatigue (53,5%), sadness (53,1%), noise that caused by other people in the room (52.0%), room scents (sweat, perfume, humidity, naphthalene, etc.) (53.1%), depression (51, 6 %), anxiety, and tension (51, 1%). Students should be encouraged to solve psychological problems, to suitable stress-relieving measures, to follow sleep hygiene practice and adequate time management for academic and social activities.
Full Text Available Background: Sleep problems among university students are common; however, the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in university students. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, and the students completed self-report, anonymous questionnaires provided during an in-class survey. This is a single center study. A descriptive survey was conducted randomly on 256 university students in Turkey. The instruments for data collection consisted of the demographic data, and the contributing factors to poor sleep. Results: The most frequent self-reported cause to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students were exposure psychological problems (67.2%, stress (64.8%, exposure to tobacco smoke in the sleeping room (63,7%, pain (62,9%, having family problems (62,5%, being patient (55,1%, air quality of the room (55,1%, strenuous physical activity (53,9%, fatigue (53,5%, sadness (53,1%, noise that caused by other people in the room (52.0%, room scents (sweat, perfume, humidity, naphthalene, etc. (53.1%, depression (51, 6 %, anxiety, and tension (51, 1%. Conclusion: Students should be encouraged to solve psychological problems, to suitable stress-relieving measures, to follow sleep hygiene practice and adequate time management for academic and social activities.
Santos-García, D; de la Fuente-Fernández, R
To analyze the main determinants of burden and stress in caregivers of Spanish Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. One-hundred and twenty-one non-demented patients with PD (57.9% males; 70.9 ± 8.2 years old) were included in this cross-sectional, monocenter, evaluation study. Caregivers (n = 121; 71.9% females; 60.2 ± 15 years old) were assessed using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory (ZCBI) and Caregiver Strain Index (CSI). Multiple linear regression methods were used to evaluate factors contributing to caregivers' stress and burden: (i) PD motor dysfunction (ON-state Hoehn & Yahr/Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] part III and motor complications [UPDRS part IV]); (ii) Mood (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]); (iii) Non-motor symptoms (Non-Motor Symptoms Scale [NMSS]); (iv) Disability (Schwab & England Activities of Daily Living Scale [ADLS]); and (v) Socio-demographic and other disease-related variables. Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory and CSI mean scores were 16 ± 13.9 and 2.1 ± 2.3, respectively. High correlation was found between ZCBI and CSI (r = 0.819; P 40) was present in 9.1% of caregivers; 5.8% had high levels of stress (CSI ≥ 7). Moderate to strong correlations were observed between patient-related variables (Hoehn&Yahr, UPDRS-III, UPDRS-IV, BDI, NMSS, and ADLS) and ZCBI and CSI (P stress in caregivers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP of cochlear implanted (CI children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. Methods. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/ caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Results. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F (1, 28 = 2.909; p = 0.099 and age aberration in CP score (F (1, 28 = 0.114, p = 0.738. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Conclusion. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear
Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica
Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication
Harrison, A. A.
Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.
Paulus, Daniel J; Vanwoerden, Salome; Norton, Peter J; Sharp, Carla
The association between neuroticism and depression is well documented. However, neuroticism is a general risk factor associated with many forms of psychopathology, such as anxiety, eating, and personality disorders. Past research has suggested that other factors may mediate the relationship between neuroticism and symptoms of particular disorders. Self-report questionnaires measuring neuroticism, emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, shame, and symptoms of depression were administered to 105 inpatient adolescents (aged 12-17). The current study examined three factors (emotion dysregulation difficulties, psychological inflexibility, and shame) as concurrent mediators of the neuroticism/depression association. Neuroticism was significantly associated with depression, as expected. Neuroticism was also associated with emotion dysregulation and psychological inflexibility, which, in combination, fully mediated the association between neuroticism and depression. Shame was not significantly associated with neuroticism or depression, when controlling for anxiety, externalizing, sex, and age. Follow-up analyses examined six sub-factors of emotion dysregulation as multiple mediators of the neuroticism/depression association. Goal directed behavior, lack of emotion regulation strategies, and impulse control were significant mediators, controlling for the other three emotion dysregulation sub-factors. The study is limited by the cross sectional design, sample size, and self-report measurement. Despite limitations, this study demonstrated that the link between neuroticism and depression is explained by both emotion dysregulation and psychological inflexibility and that specific emotion dysregulation facets may be at play in adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Middendorp, Henriët; Evers, Andrea W M
Inflammatory rheumatic diseases have a long-lasting effect on patients' physical and psychological functioning, for instance, due to disabling symptoms and unpredictable disease course. Consequently, many patients show adjustment problems such as depressed mood, which in turn can negatively influence their disease outcome. Specific biopsychosocial factors have shown to affect this outcome. For example, daily stress, cognitive-behavioral risk factors such as pain catastrophizing and avoidance, and resilience factors such as optimism and social support influence the quality of life, physical symptoms of pain and fatigue, and inflammatory markers. Psychological interventions tackling these factors can have beneficial effects on physical and psychological functioning. Recent advances in screening for patients at risk, tailored treatment, and eHealth further broaden the efficiency and scope of these interventions while simultaneously optimizing patient empowerment. This chapter describes the biopsychosocial risk and resilience factors related to disease outcome and the possible benefits of psychological treatment strategies in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fucheng Bao; Feng Fu; Elvin Choong; Chung-Yun Hse
The term "Contribution Factor" (c.) was introduced in this paper to indicate the contribution ratio of solid wood properties to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) strength. Three poplar (Populus sp.) clones were studied, and the results showed that poplar with good solid wood properties has high Contribution Factor. The average Contribution...
Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna
In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.
Furedy, John J
The differential/experimental distinction that Cronbach specified is important because any adequate account of psychological phenomena requires the recognition of the validity of both approaches, and a meaningful melding of the two. This paper suggests that Pavlov's work in psychology, based on earlier traditions of inquiry that can be traced back to the pre-Socratics, provides a potential way of achieving this melding, although such features as systematic rather than anecdotal methods of observation need to be added. Pavlov's methodological behaviorist approach is contrasted with metaphysical behaviorism (as exemplified explicitly in Watson and Skinner, and implicitly in the computer-metaphorical, information-processing explanations employed by current "cognitive" psychology). A common feature of the metaphysical approach is that individual-differences variables like sex are essentially ignored, or relegated to ideological categories such as the treatment of sex as merely a "social construction." Examples of research both before and after the "cognitive revolution" are presented where experimental and differential methods are melded, and individual differences are treated as phenomena worthy of investigation rather than as nuisance factors that merely add to experimental error.
McKenzie, Wendy; Roodenburg, John
The importance of the role of peer and self-assessment in developing formative and sustainable assessment practice in higher education is increasingly becoming evident. PeerWise is an online software tool that engages students in contributing to their own and others' learning by authoring, answering and providing feedback on multiple choice…
Camps, Elisa; Morales-Vives, Fabia
Numerous studies show that intelligence and impulsiveness are important predictors of academic achievement in adolescence. However, it is not clear what contribution is made by the big five personality traits, because some studies suggest that Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Openness to experience are predictors while others show precisely the…
Krasnyanskaya, T M; Tylets, V G
speaking, the feeling of personal psychological security in the participants of the study reflected their subjective approach to structuralization and differentiation of the factors underlying the effectiveness, final outcome, and psychological security of the spa and health resort-based rehabilitative treatment. The results of the present study give evidence of the paramount importance of personal psychological security as a most important factor contributing to the solution of problems facing the practice of the rehabilitation treatment based at the spa and health resort facilities. This work should be organized taking into consideration the necessity to ensure the feeling of personal security and psychological comfort in the holidaymakers as an indispensable prerequisite for the successful rehabilitative treatment of the vacationers and meeting the requirements of the holidaymakers.
Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko
In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.
Annesi, James J; Whitaker, Ann C
Psychological and behavioral characteristics that predict success or failure with weight-loss treatments are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess whether social cognitive theory-based factors discriminate between women who are successful and unsuccessful at weight loss. Obese women (BMI = 30 to 45 kg/m(2)) who participated in a treatment of behavioral exercise support counseling and nutrition education were divided into quartiles based on percentage of body weight lost over 6 months. Factors based on social cognitive theory, both at baseline and change over 6 months, and exercise attendance were used to discriminate between the successful (highest quartile, M(change in body weight) = -9.3%; n = 40) and unsuccessful (lowest quartile, M(change in body weight) = 1.9%; n = 37) groups. Stepwise discriminant analyses indicated that body satisfaction and tension (anxiety) scores at baseline, and changes over 6 months in self-regulatory efficacy and body satisfaction, made significant contributions to predicting group membership (64% and 69% of cases were correctly classified, respectively). Attendance percentage of exercise sessions was significantly greater for the successful weight-loss group, and when added as a predictor, changes in self-regulatory efficacy and attendance made a significant contribution to predicting group membership (81% of cases were correctly classified). Further research may enable psychological determinants to better guide weight loss theory and treatments.
Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande
The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stéphanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul
The authors provide a within-group study of 65 Former Hidden Children (FHC; i.e., Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe) evaluated by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL), the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOCS), the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The aim of the present article is to address the sensitization model of resilience (consisting in a reduction of resistance to additional stress due to previous exposure to trauma) and to identify the family, psychological, and socio-demographic characteristics that predict resilience among a group of FHC. The RSA score is negatively correlated with the number of post-war traumas and positively correlated with the SOCS score. FHC who have children present a higher RSA score than FHC who have no children. RSA global score negatively and significantly predicts HSCL score. In a global multivariate model, and in accordance with the sensitization model, the number of post-war traumas negatively predicts the RSA score. Moreover, the SOCS score and the number of children positively predict it. Therapeutic implications are discussed, limitations are considered, and further investigations are proposed.
Pierobon, Antonia; Giardini, Anna; Callegari, Simona; Majani, Giuseppina
Patients with a chronic illness must continuously revise their lifestyle, adapting it to the behavioural limitations imposed by their state of health. These incessant adjustments of behaviour dictated by the patients' need to adapt to their clinical condition also cause profound psychological changes. The experience of a patient with a chronic illness often leads to a reformulation of self, which the patient may or may not be aware of, but which helps to facilitate successful behavioural adaptation. During the course of their disease, which spans from diagnosis to treatment, some patients have the opportunity to meet a psychologist, who has various tasks: understanding what stage of adaptation the chronically ill patients have reached, evaluating the patients' emotional state, facilitating their acceptance of their clinical condition, stimulating them to redefine their aims, if there are the presuppositions, and supporting their coping capacities and internal and external resources. This article is neither a review nor original research, but rather a "clinical exposition" with educational suggestions. The purpose of this article is to give a voice to the patients' internal dialogue, to what they say to themselves, to their narration of the illness, but also to explain the typical components of cognitive behavioural treatment in the setting of cardiological, respiratory and neuromotor rehabilitation.
Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional prospective study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer incidence. Methods: The subjects who scheduled to receive mammography screening were recruited from a medical center′s outpatient department in Taiwan. Psychological factors used for measurement were stress, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 1160 questionnaires were completed, which underwent statistical analysis using independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation, and multiple logistic regression. There were statistically significant differences in the average scores of the two groups with and without breast cancer for psychological factors of anxiety (t = −2.071; P = 0.039, depression (t = −3.035; P = 0.002, and stress (t = −4.087; P < 0.001. The crude odds ratio of the two groups showed that subjects with borderline anxiety were 2.576 times ( P = 0.001 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no anxiety. Subjects with depression were 4.078 times (P = 0.03 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no depression. Every point added to the average total stress score increased the additional risk of breast cancer by 1.124 times (P < 0.001. Conclusions: After making adjustments on educational factors, the results conclude that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can be considered predictors of breast cancer risk. To prevent and control breast cancer in women, the findings suggest that nurses should consider adding emphasis on psychological factors in women′s health education.
Zanello, Susana B.
the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.
Anne M. Casey
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories (IRs provide colleges and universities a way to ensure stability of access to and dissemination of digital scholarly communications. Yet, many institutions report that faculty willingness to contribute to IRs is often limited. This study investigates faculty attitudes about IR contributions by tenure status and category of material. METHODS Two focus group interviews were conducted in the spring of 2009 among English department faculty at a large Midwestern university. One group consisted of tenured faculty and the other of tenure-track and adjunct faculty. RESULTS Both groups recognize the benefit of open access to research materials but expressed concern about their intellectual property rights. Untenured faculty spoke more about nonprint research. Both groups also shared concerns about contributing instructional materials, primarily in regard to plagiarism and outdated materials. In regard to faculty service, the tenured group discussed many items they would contribute, while the untenured faculty mentioned very little. DISCUSSION Some minor differences emerged related to experience and tenure status in regard to contributing research and instructional artifacts, but the major variation was the strong support tenured participants gave for contributing service items, compared to the untenured faculty, who did not view this category positively. Tenured faculty viewed the IR as a way to document their own service activities, investigate those of colleagues, and had fewer concerns about plagiarism or other negative effects in the service category. CONCLUSION Promoting faculty contribution of service-related items to an IR may be a way to encourage larger numbers to participate.
Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.
The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by
de Bruijn, M.; Synhaeve, N.A.; van Rijsbergen, Marielle; de Leeuw, F.-E.; Mark, Ruth; Jansen, B.; de Kort, P.L.
Background Long-term prognosis in terms of quality of life (QoL) in young stroke patients is of importance because they usually have a long life expectancy and extensive daily life demands. We aimed at determining which medical and psychological factors influence the QoL in young stroke patients
Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia
Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…
Jan 24, 2012 ... The first hypothesis stated that there will be no significant relationship between peer influence and adolescent students' smoking behaviour. The findings this study indicate a significant relationship. It agrees with the. The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of Adolescent Students' ...
Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun
We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…
Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M.; van Mierlo, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480856; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047
The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients
Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees
This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.
BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related
Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris
Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related
D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); D. Díaz (Dario); R. Rodríguez-Carvajal (Raquel); A. Blanco (Amalio); B. Moreno-Jiménez (Bernardo)
textabstractThis article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An
van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo
This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…
Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.
The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…
van Dijk Jitse P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.
Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.
IVÓN PAOLA GUEVARA MARÍN
Full Text Available This study was aimed at testing a proposal relating contextual and emotional factors to prosocial and problematicbehaviors in adolescence. This proposal is based on ecological contextual models dealing with the influence ofmultiple factors on the explanation of psychological phenomena. The study was done on a sample of 239 nuclearfamilies with at least one son aged between 12 and 18 years old. The results showed that the main predictor ofprosocial behavior is the emotional factor, whereas for the psychological disadjustment behavior it is a proximal factor.It was also found that sympathy mediates both the relation between inductive discipline and the prosocial behavior,and the relation between acceptance and this adjustment behavior in adolescence.
Wolfensberger, Adrian; Vuistiner, Philippe; Konzelmann, Michel; Plomb-Holmes, Chantal; Léger, Bertrand; Luthi, François
Validated clinician outcome scores are considered less associated with psychosocial factors than patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs). This belief may lead to misconceptions if both instruments are related to similar factors. We asked: In patients with chronic shoulder pain, what biopsychosocial factors are associated (1) with PROMs, and (2) with clinician-rated outcome measurements? All new patients between the ages of 18 and 65 with chronic shoulder pain from a unilateral shoulder injury admitted to a Swiss rehabilitation teaching hospital between May 2012 and January 2015 were screened for potential contributing biopsychosocial factors. During the study period, 314 patients were screened, and after applying prespecified criteria, 158 patients were evaluated. The median symptom duration was 9 months (interquartile range, 5.5-15 months), and 72% of the patients (114 patients) had rotator cuff tears, most of which were work injuries (59%, 93 patients) and were followed for a mean of 31.6 days (SD, 7.5 days). Exclusion criteria were concomitant injuries in another location, major or minor upper limb neuropathy, and inability to understand the validated available versions of PROMs. The PROMs were the DASH, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Patient Global Impression of Change, before and after treatment (physiotherapy, cognitive therapy and vocational training). The Constant-Murley score was used as a clinician-rated outcome measurement. Statistical models were used to estimate associations between biopsychosocial factors and outcomes. Greater disability on the DASH was associated with psychological factors (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale combined coefficient, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.25-1.03; p = 0.002) and social factors (language, professional qualification combined coefficient, -6.15; 95% CI, -11.09 to -1.22; p = 0.015). Greater pain on the Brief Pain Inventory was associated with psychological factors (Hospital Anxiety and
Cakir, S Gulfem; Yerin Guneri, Oya
This study examined the role of demographic factors (length of stay, education and language level), perceived discrimination, social support, four acculturation attitudes, and psychological distress in predicting empowerment among Turkish migrant women in the UK. The study sample comprised 248 Turkish migrant women (mean age: 34.38; SD: 7.6) living in London. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess empowerment, social support, acculturation attitude and psychological distress. The study hypothesized that perceived discrimination; acculturation attitudes of separation, assimilation and marginalization; and psychological distress would be negative predictors of empowerment and that social support and an integration acculturation attitude would be positive predictors of empowerment. To some extent, the study findings supported this hypothesis. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated psychological distress to be the most significant predictor of empowerment, with other significant predictors including level of education and social support. More specifically, lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of education and social support appeared to predict greater empowerment. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that level of education and social support may function as protective factors and that psychological distress may function as a risk factor for empowerment in the migration context. The paper discusses the findings of this study in relation to the previous literature and notes their implications for future research and practice.
Sarimatua, Yohannes Ronald; HUSAINI, ACHMAD
The purpose of this research is to know what psychological factors play a role in financial decision making on Kalrez Petroleum (Seram) Ltd. company. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research uses data collection method interviews and review of documentation. Data analysis using qualitative data analysis techniques to Miles and Hubberman. Based on the data analysis performed shows that there are thirteen factors that play a role in financial decision-makin...
Cherry, Amanda S; Mignogna, Melissa R; Roddenberry Vaz, Angela; Hetherington, Carla; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Anderson, Michael P; Gillaspy, Stephen R
Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS) in the NICU. Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111) were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB). Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620), which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227). Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score. Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS.
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Ribeyre, Laurence; Spitz, Elisabeth; Frère, Julien; Gauchard, Gerome; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile
Various individual factors have been described to influence postural performances related to vestibular schwannoma. However, psychological factors may also be involved in postural variations. To identify relationships between postural performances, illness perceptions, coping, anxiety-depression and quality of life of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Twenty-six patients who were scheduled for a surgical removal of a vestibular schwannoma underwent posturography tests and were asked to complete psychological questionnaires three days prior to surgery.The Sensory Organization Test, the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised, the Brief-COPE, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument were used for assessments. Correlations between posturography and psychological questionnaires were calculated. Balance disorders were associated with (i) impaired quality of life of patients, (ii) anxiety and depression affects, (iii) greater daily consequences, and with (iv) denial coping response. Given the association between balance disorders and psychological factors, health practitioners should be attentive to the deterioration of both aforementioned issues.
Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F
Searching for a coherent meaning in life has long been proposed to be a protective factor in adolescent development. The present study aimed to examine meaning in life as a protective factor in a largely unstudied population: Romanian adolescents. Additionally, we sought to provide a novel, multidimensional assessment of several health-related variables (substance abuse, health risk behaviors, psychological health). Potential gender differences were explored regarding the role of life meaning in adolescent health. Data were collected in 2006 from students enrolled in the secondary schools of the Middle Transylvanian Region, Romania (n = 1,977). Self-administered questionnaires were used as a method of data collection including items of life meaning and psychological health. Meaning in life played a protective role with regard to health risk behaviors except smoking and binge drinking. Among males, meaning in life was found to be correlated only to illicit drug and sedative use, whereas among females, meaning in life was associated with binge drinking, unsafe sex, and lack of exercise and diet control. Psychological health was strongly related to meaning in life. In Romanian adolescents, meaning in life is a protective factor against health risk behaviors and poor psychological health.
Roberts, Michael C
This article reflects on service contributions upon receiving the 2016 Society of Pediatric Psychology Wright Ross Salk Distinguished Service Award. As the title implies, worker bees make service contributions for the overall benefit of the hive and colony. So too, the scientific discipline, clinical profession, and the Society of Pediatric Psychology need the service contributions of multiple individuals to survive and thrive. Many people have made professional contributions to benefit the field and its organizational home; many more worker bees will volunteer in the future to fill important service roles and sustain the hive. The article discusses lessons learned about service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Irene O. Chiringa
Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model.Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC.Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data.Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%, shameful (30% and are tainted as promiscuous (20%, psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%, being ashamed and dehumanised (58%, stigmatised and discriminated (40.2% and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7% whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58% and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%.Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.Keywords: Factors, Low uptake, Medical Male Circumcision (MMC
Mathews, Lena; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Utuama, Ovie A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Veledar, Emir; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur; Zhao, Di; Michos, Erin D
The cardiovascular effects of stress and other psychological factors may be different between women and men. We assessed whether self-perceived adverse psychological factors were associated with achievement of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as measured by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven (LS7) and whether this differed by sex. This was a cross-sectional study of employees from a large healthcare organization. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), intermediate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were categorized as optimal (11-14), average (9-10), and inadequate (0-8). Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychological factors obtained by questionnaire (self-perceived stress, low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, depression, and anxiety) were associated with CVH, after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and education. Among 9,056 participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (12) years, 74% were women, 57% Hispanic/Latino, 17% white, and 16% black. Stress was associated with reduced odds of having optimal/average CVH [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50-0.66) and 0.63 (0.50-0.81), for women and men, respectively]. Similarly, depression was associated with reduced odds of optimal/average CVH [0.58 (0.43-0.78) and 0.44 (0.26-0.76), for women and men, respectively]. Low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, and anxiety were also associated with statistically significantly lower odds of optimal/average CVH in women, but not in men; however, there were no interactions by sex. In an ethnically diverse population, both women and men with several adverse self-perceived psychological factors were less likely to have optimal or adequate CVH. Future studies are needed to determine whether addressing psychological stressors can improve CVH.
Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C
Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.
Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç
The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…
It is generally believed that Academic environment provides avenue through which Leadership skills are acquired. The process of acquiring leadership skills does not involve only formal teaching, but other factors which may not be part of curricula of the schools. However, it is not known which other factors help in building ...
In conclusion the results of this study indicate that management, administrative factors and policy issues could be a leading cause of antimalarial drug resistance and a case control study to explore the exact extent of drug resistance in this population in relation to the identified factors is urgently recommended.
Shope, Jean T; Bingham, C Raymond
The motor-vehicle crash risk of novice teen drivers is unacceptably high. This article examines the historical trends in fatal crash rates for male and female teen drivers as compared to adult drivers by both population and person-miles driven. The effect of motor-vehicle policies on teen driver crashes, characteristics of teen driver crashes, and combinations of these crash characteristics are also examined. A framework of seven categories of influences on teen driving behavior is presented, including the following elements: driving ability, developmental factors, behavioral factors, personality factors, demographics, the perceived environment, and the driving environment. Because a complex set of different factors influence teen drivers' behavior, comprehensive, multilevel interventions are needed to reduce teen drivers' exposure to high-risk driving conditions and to address factors identified in the framework.
Steffen, K; Pensgaard, A M; Bahr, R
Identifying and understanding injury risk factors are necessary to target the injury-prone athlete and develop injury prevention measurements. The influence of psychological factors on injuries in football is poorly documented. The purpose of this 8-month prospective cohort study therefore was to examine whether psychological player characteristics assessed by a self-administered questionnaire represent risk factors for injury. At baseline, female football players (14-16 years) were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire covering player history, previous injuries, perception of success and motivational climate, life stress, anxiety and coping strategies. During the 2005 season, a total of 1430 players were followed up to record injuries. A history of a previous injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.9 (1.4; 2.5), Pfootball players.
Petrass, Lauren A; Blitvich, Jennifer D; McElroy, G Keith
Recreational fishing has been a popular activity for Australians over at least the past two centuries. While the use of waders for recreational fishing is widely adopted by participants, there is considerable speculation as to whether waders are contributing to fishing-related drowning deaths. This study involved a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify relevant information and a pilot investigation in a swimming pool to understand the accuracy of the currently available information. Extensive searching indicated that there is no published peer-reviewed evidence on the contribution of waders to drowning deaths, although the grey literature and personal communication with fishers offer a range of opinions, some that aim to discredit the claim that waders contribute to drowning, and others that support it. Improved understanding of the actual effect of waders based on biomechanical buoyancy principles and a pilot study of submersion in controlled conditions contributes to enhanced safety of fishers who choose to wear waders, dispels current myths and informs future studies of fishers wearing waders.
This study was conducted to examine characteristics contributing to high self control for incarcerated youth. Subjects include fifty youth (8 females and 42 males) ages 14 through 18 incarcerated for at least 60 days. Data on subjects' responses from a validated measure (Grasmick et. al. Scale, 1993) and data from historical records, STAR reading…
Full Text Available Structural modelling techniques and application of models that extract latent variables are recent predominant techniques in the applied multivariate statistical procedures in social sciences. We believe that correlation studies can provide adequate findings if they are supported by logical analysis or causal modelling procedures. It is important to emphasize that factor analysis methods alone do not reveal the cause of covariability and that the final result of factor analytical investigation depends, in part, on the decisions and interpretations of the researcher. The question of the minimum sample size in factor analysis, ambiguousness of results obtained by FA and mathematical problems in the use of FA is particularly scrupulously discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the factor analysis of data obtained from experiments on the scientific paradigm was analyzed, with emphasis on the current problems with its application in social sciences research. Neither method, including factor analysis, is sufficient to answer all problem issues in the field of psychology and kinesiology. Therefore, it is necessary to combine complementary methods within the research which will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the researched phenomena and a greater validity of empirical results. Finally, reducing theories in psychology to a psychometric method and theories in kinesiology to a kinesiometric method is an anomaly of numerous quantitative studies within these scientific disciplines, making identification, instead of explanation of multi-causal nature of psychological and kinesiological phenomena, a primary focus of the research.
Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi
In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.
Tadeu Ferreira Celestino
Full Text Available En el deporte de orientación, los estudios en el contexto de la excelencia deportiva son aún escasos. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en el análisis aislado de los factores específicos que contribuyen a la excelencia. El objetivo de este estudio, por tanto, fue identificar los factores que los entrenadores consideran de mayor prevalencia en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en este deporte. Diez entrenadores portugueses e españoles de orientación de nivel elite completaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y los datos fueran analizados mediante el análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que los entrenadores pusieron gran énfasis en un conjunto de factores personales, designados por factores de influencia primaria, donde se incluyen los atributos psicológicos, la preparación deportiva y los factores genéticos. Los entrenadores también identificaron los factores ambientales que ejercen una influencia secundaria, con especial énfasis en la familia, los aspectos socioculturales y los grupos de pares y de amistad. Por último, los entrenadores de elite reconocieron la necesidad de la interacción e interconexión entre estos factores de influencia primaria y secundaria para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en la orientación.
Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. Methods A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Results Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self-criticism, all constituted
Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer
This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.
Marisa Salanova; Isabel M. Martínez; Susana Llorens
The objective of the current paper is to summarize the main evidence-based practical contributions that the Universitat Jaume I’s WoNT team has carried out on Occupational Health Psychology and Positive Organizational Psychology in crisis settings. Specifically, we show the RED (Resources-Experiences-Demands) methodology that allows us to assess risks and psychosocial damages, as well as positive emotional states. Furthermore, we also propose a heuristic methodology that, focused on Positive ...
Full Text Available Haze is a major environmental concern in many cities because it adversely affects people’s physiological and psychological well-being. This paper examines the extent of haze in Macao during the period 1986–2016. It identifies the relationships between haze, energy use, and meteorological conditions directly. The haze in Macao changed over the period 1986–2016 with air pollution getting worse and then improving after 2007. Specifically, the number of haze hours increased from 3 in 1986 to 766 in 2007, and then dropped to 57 in 2016, while the total energy use increased from 12,246 TJ in 1986 to 37,144 TJ in 2007, and then to 42,405 TJ in 2016. As per primary energy, Macao used 12,096 TJ in 1986, 21,388 TJ in 2007, and 16,647 TJ in 2016 excluding aviation kerosene. Bivariate correlations show that haze was most positively and significantly associated with annual primary energy use. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the number of hours with haze was significantly, positively related to the consumption of gas oil/diesel, fuel oil, and natural gas in Macao and aviation kerosene. Nevertheless, the improvement in Macao could come at a cost to areas in downwind of Zhuhai’s coal power stations supplying Macao’s electricity energy.
Full Text Available The objective of the current paper is to summarize the main evidence-based practical contributions that the Universitat Jaume I’s WoNT team has carried out on Occupational Health Psychology and Positive Organizational Psychology in crisis settings. Specifically, we show the RED (Resources-Experiences-Demands methodology that allows us to assess risks and psychosocial damages, as well as positive emotional states. Furthermore, we also propose a heuristic methodology that, focused on Positive Psychology, facilitates the evaluation and intervention of HEROs (HEalthy & Resilient Organizations as a way to adapt to the occupational and social reality of the crisis.
Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja
Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...... was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number...... of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved...
Diniz, Maisa Reis; Sabadin, Patricia A; Leite, Fabiola P P; Kamizaki, Ricardo
The aim of this study was to research how stress and anxiety affected the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in 55 high school graduates at two different times: six months before and one the week before their college entrance examinations. The American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) Questionnaire, Lipp's Stress for Adults Inventory (ISSL) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate TMD, stress and anxiety, respectively. The data were submitted to Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests. At first the results showed higher positive correlation between anxiety and TMD than between stress and TMD. Out of the total participants, 36% had TMD, and of these, only 12.7% had no psychological disorder. One week before the tests there were high positive correlations between TMD and the psychological factors studied, and 50.9% of the students had TMD, of which only 9% had no psychological disorder The most prevalent signs of TMD symptomatology were joint sounds and headache, followed by neck pain. It was concluded that students preparing to take college entrance examinations are a potential risk group for developing TMD due to psychological factors generating anxiety and stress. Anxiety becomes more significant as the semester progresses, and both anxiety and stress increase as the examination dates approach.
Collin, Simon M; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Hughes, Rachael A; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Crawley, Esther
To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed up to eight times between pregnancy and age 6 years. We investigated critical periods for maternal effects and effects of paternal depression at three time points. Child psychological factors included internalizing and externalizing problems and upsetting life events occurring at age 7-8 years. Of 5,657 children, 110 (1.9%) had chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years. Maternal anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.31 per episode), maternal depression (AOR, 1.24; CI, 1.11-1.39 per episode), child psychological problems (AOR, 1.19; CI, 1.00-1.41 per problem), and upsetting events (AOR, 1.22; CI, .99-1.58 per event) were associated with chronic disabling fatigue. Associations of child psychological problems and upsetting events were attenuated (AOR, 1.12; CI, .93-1.33 per problem; AOR, 1.19; CI, .94-1.52 per event) after further adjusting for maternal anxiety and depression. Pediatricians need to be aware that children whose mothers experience anxiety and/or depression between pregnancy and child's age 6 years have an increased risk of developing chronic disabling fatigue in early adolescence. Conversely, clinicians need to be alert to fatigue in children whose mothers have longstanding anxiety and depression. These findings suggest the importance of family-based approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.
Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer
This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.
Tokushima, Yasuko; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi
Background The purpose of this study is to assess the association between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Methods We used follow-up data for 4,181 persons from 40 to 79 years over a period of 17.6 years from one part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The status of the individuals comprising the data of the study as of the end of December 2006 was determined from their registration cards and death records. We calculated the proportions of selected variables among 5 psychological factors by sex. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Data were adjusted for age, medical history, education, job status, marital status, drinking, smoking, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index and breakfast. Results During the follow-up period, a total of 791 deaths were recorded. Men who reported feelings of being trusted had a decreased risk for mortality risk from all causes compared with the risk of those who reported “maybe”, whereas those without feelings of being trusted had increased risk for mortality risk from all causes. Conclusion This study suggests that the absence of feelings of being trusted increases the risk of all causes of mortality among middle-aged and elderly men in a rural area. Our findings suggest that interpersonal relationships comprise an important factor in longevity. PMID:25324588
Mei, Jun-Hua; Gao, Shan; Chen, Guo-Hua
To study the influence of neuro-psychological factors on the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of Bell's palsy and the overall prognosis in patients. Fifty patients with Bell's palsy were randomized into the treatment group and the control group, and they were treated with manipulated and non-manipulated acupuncture, respectively. Scorings by subjective perceptive scale of acupuncture, Cartel personality test, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were performed and the curative effect was assessed according House-Brackmann grading standards. The total effective rate of acupuncture was 78.0% (39/50), and that of manipulated acupuncture was better than that of non-manipulated acupuncture [89.2% (25/28) vs. 63.6% (14/22), P 16PF) found that patients with personality factors of sociability, intellectuality, excitability, braveness, and independence were capable of getting "Deqi" more easily, there existed a significant correlation between personality factors and curative effect. By Hamilton Anxiety Scale scoring, 92.0% (46/50) of the patients were found being in an anxiety state, and the efficacy of treatment was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety (r = -0.9491, P < 0.05). Neuro-psychological factors put great influence on the efficacy of treatment for Bell's palsy, multiple measures, such as drug-therapy, acupuncture, psychological intervention, rehabilitation therapy, etc., should be taken in combination for improving patients' prognosis.
M. V. Ivanova
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the content of the concept ofsocio-psychological adaptation.Methods. In the course of work theoretical methods of research are used: an overview and synthesis of approaches to the study of such a theoretical construct as adaptation and disadaptation; practical methods: methods of diagnostics of socio-psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and P. Diamond (SPA and multi-factor personality questionnaire by R. Cattell (CPQ. The research is summative. Statistical processing is carried out using the computer programs STATISTICA 6.0 and MS Excel; the method of multiple regression analysis is used to highlight the personal factors influencing the level of adaptation of pupils of the Suvorov military school. Results. According to the empirical study, the authors describe the obtained factors of socio-psychological adaptation and disadaptation of adolescents enrolled in the course at Suvorov military school of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The results of empirical research of features of adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of a military educational institution are presented. Special attention is paid to the selection of personality traits characterizing the failure probability of disadaptation. The authors justified the need and described the possibility of organizing a psychological-pedagogical support of adolescents at the initial stage of studying in military educational institution of the closed type.Scientific novelty. The article proposes the authors’ approach to the concept of socio-psychological adaptation; the main indicators of successful socio-psychological adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of Suvorov military school are identified; the indicators that predict the risk of the failure probability of disadaptation are given. It is concluded that the development of adaptive capacity should be achieved through personal components.Practical significance. The
Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Lisa A. Croen; Robin Hansen; Carrie R. Jones; Judy van de Water; Isaac N. Pessah
Causes and contributing factors for autism are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that prevalence is rising, but the extent to which diagnostic changes and improvements in ascertainment contribute to this increase is unclear...
Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein
Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033
Full Text Available Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed.
Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge
This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.
Falk, John H.; Needham, Mark D.
Historically, most efforts to improve public knowledge of science and technology have focused on improvements in K-12 schooling, although post-secondary education and informal education have also been mentioned as important factors. Currently, little empirical data exist to determine how or when to best leverage science and technology education…
This study aims to identify factors that underpin gender disparity in participation in higher education in the context of an Ethiopian public university. Data were generated using a semi-structured interview with 20 female undergraduates and quantitative information obtained from. University's Registrar Office. The results show ...