WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological experience composed

  1. Student Composed Case Study in Adolescent Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a variation of the case study method where adolescent psychology students composed hypothetical cases, proposed solutions to problems, and surveyed other groups regarding case dilemmas and adolescent issues. (Author/JDH)

  2. [Experiences with disc lenses composed of silicone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, C; Menapace, R; Scholz, U; Scheidel, W; Grasl, M

    1993-01-01

    Our study presents the results with a silicone disc-lens (Adatomed 90D) over a postoperative period of 18 months. It includes 47 patients, 42 could be reexamined. The implantation was done after continuous circular capsulorhexis and phacoemulsification with a Faulkner-folder directly into the capsular bag. The implantation was sometimes difficult. Skill and experience of the surgeon are required. The IOL springs forth of the implantation forceps, which can lead to traumatization of the capsule and the iris. Three times the posterior capsule ruptured, in two cases the implantation was stopped because of vitreous pressure and the risk of rupturing the capsule. In 6 cases the rim of the anterior capsule ruptured during the implantation. Postoperatively one IOL had a sulcus position, all other IOLs were in the capsular bag. A deposit of viscoelastic substance (Healon) between the IOL and the posterior capsule in 34 cases (72%) was remarkable. In 14 cases (33%) it remained for 18 months. 16 times (38%) regeneratory after-cataract reached the central part of the capsule. The visual disturbance was different, in 6 cases (14%) a YAG-laser-capsulotomy was performed. An influence of the deposit of viscoelastic substance on the development of posterior capsule opacification could not be proved. 17 IOLs (40%) were minimally decentrated upwards. Only 11 cases (26%) had an excellent mydriatic pupillary reaction. The reason is not clear. 10 eyes (24%) developed iridocapsular synechia, 22 eyes (52%) foreign body giant cells and 20 eyes (48%) dispersed pigment on the IOL surface. The giant cells did not diminish.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  4. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight Judy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.

  5. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  6. Evaluating Psychology Students' Library Skills and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steve; Allen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Extensive engagement with current academic sources is expected of all psychology undergraduates. Thirty-eight undergraduate psychology students took part in a series of focus group discussions of their information-searching experiences and skills. The majority of students had not been required to engage with any form of information searching while…

  7. The career psychological experiences of academic department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... experienced conflict and loss in the role, personal well-being and future career as an ADC. ... Frans Cilliers is a Professor in the Department of Industrial & Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa. ... the manifesting dynamic psychological experiences (Wolverton, Ackerman & Holt. 2005).

  8. Pristine Inner Experience and Descriptive Experience Sampling: Implications for Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapping-Carr, Leiszle R; Heavey, Christopher L

    2017-01-01

    Pristine inner experience is that which is directly present in awareness before it is distorted by attempts at observation or interpretation. Many psychological methods, including most introspective methods, attempt to measure some aspect of pristine inner experience (thoughts, feelings, mental imagery, sensations, etc.). We believe, however, that these methods produce unspecifiable combinations of pristine inner experience, beliefs about the self, beliefs about what inner experience should be like, inaccurate recollections, miscommunications, and other confounding influences. We argue that descriptive experience sampling (DES) can produce high fidelity descriptions of pristine inner experience. These descriptions are used to create idiographic profiles, carefully crafted, in-depth characterizations of the pristine inner experience of individuals. We believe these profiles, because they are built from moments apprehended via a method that confronts the challenges inherent in examining inner experience, are uniquely valuable in advancing the science of inner experience and psychology broadly. For example, DES observations raise important questions about the veracity of results gathered via questionnaires and other introspective methods, like casual introspection. DES findings also provide high fidelity phenomenological data that can be useful for those developing psychological theories, such as theories of emotional processing. Additionally, DES procedures may allow clinicians and clients to practice valuable skills, like bracketing presuppositions and attending to internal experiences. This paper will describe difficulties inherent in the study of pristine inner experience and discuss implications of high fidelity descriptions of pristine inner experience for psychological research, theory development, and clinical practice.

  9. Pristine Inner Experience and Descriptive Experience Sampling: Implications for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapping-Carr, Leiszle R.; Heavey, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine inner experience is that which is directly present in awareness before it is distorted by attempts at observation or interpretation. Many psychological methods, including most introspective methods, attempt to measure some aspect of pristine inner experience (thoughts, feelings, mental imagery, sensations, etc.). We believe, however, that these methods produce unspecifiable combinations of pristine inner experience, beliefs about the self, beliefs about what inner experience should be like, inaccurate recollections, miscommunications, and other confounding influences. We argue that descriptive experience sampling (DES) can produce high fidelity descriptions of pristine inner experience. These descriptions are used to create idiographic profiles, carefully crafted, in-depth characterizations of the pristine inner experience of individuals. We believe these profiles, because they are built from moments apprehended via a method that confronts the challenges inherent in examining inner experience, are uniquely valuable in advancing the science of inner experience and psychology broadly. For example, DES observations raise important questions about the veracity of results gathered via questionnaires and other introspective methods, like casual introspection. DES findings also provide high fidelity phenomenological data that can be useful for those developing psychological theories, such as theories of emotional processing. Additionally, DES procedures may allow clinicians and clients to practice valuable skills, like bracketing presuppositions and attending to internal experiences. This paper will describe difficulties inherent in the study of pristine inner experience and discuss implications of high fidelity descriptions of pristine inner experience for psychological research, theory development, and clinical practice. PMID:29312047

  10. The career psychological experiences of academic department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The career psychological experiences of academic department chairpersons at a South African university. ... into the career dilemmas experienced, resulting in their lack of work satisfaction and productivity. Key words: career, task, role, boundaries, confl ict, loss, work stress, non-coping, job demands, role identity ...

  11. Transforming Experience: Negotiations of Sexual Identity in the Composing Processes of Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating meaning, knowledge, and identity is fundamental to composing processes. These negotiations occur both individually and socially for writers. Sexual identity is an intrinsic part of these negotiations, but is often overlooked by researchers. This study explored the phenomenon of negotiating sexual identity in the composing processes of…

  12. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  13. Composing Distributed Services for Selection and Retrieval of Event Data in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinek, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Zhang, Q

    2010-01-01

    TAGs are event-level metadata allowing a quick search for interesting events for further analysis, based on selection criteria defined by the user. They are stored in a file-based format as well as in relational databases. The overall TAG system encompasses a range of web services providing functionality for the required use cases. The data as well as the services are replicated to several ATLAS sites, i.e. inside each service group there exist several concrete deployments, differing only in site-related non-functional attributes. In order to satisfy a user’s request, the above mentioned atomic data sources and web services have to be composed on demand to provide the full functionality. As several instances of each service exist, one service has to be selected out of each group. The overall goal is to maximize the system’s throughput, in order to give to as many users as possible efficient access to the TAGs, while meeting end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. Many approaches can be found to ...

  14. Composing Distributed Services for Selection and Retrieval of Event Data in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinek, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    TAGs are event-level metadata allowing a quick search for interesting events for further analysis, based on selection criteria defined by the user. They are stored in a file-based format as well as in relational databases. The overall TAG system encompasses a range of web services providing functionality for the required use cases. The data as well as the services are replicated to several ATLAS sites, i.e. inside each service group there exist several concrete deployments, differing only in site-related non-functional attributes. In order to satisfy a user's request, the above mentioned atomic data sources and web services have to be composed on demand to provide the required functionality. As several instances of each service exist, one service has to be selected out of each group. The overall goal is to maximize the system’s throughput, in order to give to as many users as possible efficient access to the TAGs, while meeting end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. Many approaches can be found t...

  15. The Traumatic Experiences and Psychological Health of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...

  16. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students' Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Bender, C. J. Gerda; Carvalho-Malekane, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we employed an instrumental case…

  17. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the. Psychological Career Resources Inventory) and the subjective work experiences of a sample of working adults (as measured by a fouritem global work experiences scale). The research also aimed ...

  18. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  19. Introductory Psychology: How Student Experiences Relate to Their Understanding of Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Thomas; Richardson, Deborah; Hammock, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Many students who declare a psychology major are unaware that they are studying a scientific discipline, precipitating a need for exercises and experiences that help students understand the scientific nature of the discipline. The present study explores aspects of an introductory psychology class that may contribute to students' understanding of…

  20. Using Novel Experiences in Introductory Psychology: Insects 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Krista D.; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2009-01-01

    This demonstration provides students with 1 active experience capable of representing cross-cultural psychology, personality and nature-nurture. Early in the semester, students completed Sensation Seeking and television preference questionnaires. We offered students the opportunity to eat insects during a cross-cultural psychology lecture. After…

  1. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    success. Key words: career drivers; career harmonisers; career preferences; happiness; job/career satisfaction; life satisfaction; psychological career resources; subjective work experiences. Prof. M. Coetzee and Mr Z.C. Bergh are in the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa.

  2. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  3. The career psychological experiences of academic department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... other so-called positive psychological (Snyder & Lopez 2009) behaviours such as engagement, resilience, flow, flourishing, mindfulness, positive emotions and authentic happiness. Problem statement. 1The review of international research confirms the inherent complexity and confused identity of the ADC ...

  4. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guid...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...... the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles...

  5. Coverage of Milgram's Obedience Experiments in Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…

  6. School Psychology and Childhood – a public school experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Cintra da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an activity performed as part of coursework in Psychology class during a school semester which aimed to provide students an effective experience of what public school psychologists do, based on the critical presumptions about Psychology and also aimed to present reflections on the performance of this professional together with children. The proposal involved encounters with teachers and children and the undergraduates were responsible for the preparation and execution of activities under the supervision of professors. The Psychology students highlighted the importance of this practice for their professional training, which provided discussions on key questions such as childhood, education and the impact of School Psychology in the Brazilian educational scope.

  7. Building Computer-Based Experiments in Psychology without Programming Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisoto, Pablo; Bellido, Alberto; Ruiz, Javier; Juanes, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Research in Psychology usually requires to build and run experiments. However, although this task has required scripting, recent computer tools based on graphical interfaces offer new opportunities in this field for researchers with non-programming skills. The purpose of this study is to illustrate and provide a comparative overview of two of the main free open source "point and click" software packages for building and running experiments in Psychology: PsychoPy and OpenSesame. Recommendations for their potential use are further discussed.

  8. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....

  9. Prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of senior rugby players in South Africa. The study population included 139 trans-national players, 106 provincial players and 95 club rugby players (N=340). A cross-sectional design was ...

  10. Memory and digit span experiment among psychology students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was an experiment that investigated short-term memory and digit span among the psychology students in a federal and state university in Lagos State, Nigeria. Memory is the process involved in retaining; retrieving and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and skills after original information was ...

  11. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…

  12. Burden and psychological effects : caregiver experiences in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burden and psychological effects : caregiver experiences in a psychiatric outpatient unit in Lagos, Nigeria. ... It is recommended that effectively planned interventions are targeted at alleviating this burden and at improving the ability of caregivers to cope, within the Nigerian mental health service delivery system. Key Words: ...

  13. Linking psychological need experiences to daily and recurring dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Campbell, Rachel; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    The satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as conceived from a self-determination theory perspective, is said to be conducive to personal growth and well-being. What has been unexamined is whether psychological need-based experiences, either their satisfaction or frustration, manifests in people's self-reported dream themes as well as their emotional interpretation of their dreams. A cross-sectional study ( N  = 200; M age = 21.09) focusing on individuals' recurrent dreams and a three-day diary study ( N  = 110; M age = 25.09) focusing on daily dreams indicated that individuals experiencing psychological need frustration, either more enduringly or on a day-to-day basis, reported more negative dream themes and interpreted their dreams more negatively. The contribution of psychological need satisfaction was more modest, although it related to more positive interpretation of dreams. The discussion focuses on the role of dreams in the processing and integration of psychological need-frustrating experiences.

  14. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  15. Positive psychology leadership coaching experiences in a financial organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are practising leadership coaching more and more from a positive psychology perspective, yielding positive results. The current qualitative research focused on this coaching using work engagement, learned resourcefulness, sense of coherence, selfactualisationand locus of control as constructs. Although the researcher could find no previous research on this combination of constructs, the findings did link to previous studies with other constructs and combinations.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the positive psychology leadership coaching experiences of leaders in a large financial organisation. Motivation for the study: The researcher addressed the organisation’s need to develop leadership by structuring and presenting a coaching programme. He chose positive psychology as the paradigm and experiential learning as the method to meet the organisation’s goal of enabling its leaders to take up their roles with self-awareness, internal motivation and effective interpersonal connections.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative and descriptive research design with a case study. Leaders attended ten experiential leadership-coaching sessions over three months. The sessions focused on work engagement, learned resourcefulness, sense of coherence, self-actualisation values and locus of control. The data gathering consisted of the coach’s field notes and the participants’ reflective essays, which they wrote after the last coaching session. The researcher analysed the data using discourse analysis.Main findings: The manifesting themes were the coaching context, engagement in roles, understanding role complexity, emotional self-awareness and demands, self-authorisation and inability to facilitate the growth of others.Contribution/value-add: Although intrapersonal awareness increased significantly, leaders struggled with the interpersonal complexity of the leadership

  16. My Career: Composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  17. Psychological consequences in victims of maritime piracy: the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Degli Angioli, Rolando; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Amenta, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Maritime piracy is a worrying phenomenon. Its recurrence in the last few years iscausing several problems to the safety of maritime routes. In spite of the number of seafarers kidnappedand maintained in captivity, psychological/mental disorders developed in victims of these criminal actshave not been investigated. This study has assessed psychological consequences of kidnapping in a groupof Italian seafarers held in captivity from 7 to 10 months. Four Italian seafarers were examined at the 5th month after release. An initial, semi-structured interview was followed by 2 structured clinical evaluations for assessing the possible presence of psychopathological disorders. Instruments used were the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment (CBA 2.0) and the Clinician-Administered Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS-DX). All victims showed high scores of state anxiety (56.00 ± 3.36) and social adjustment disorder (12.75 ± 2.21) to CBA 2.0. Moreover, 3 of them revealed traits of anxiety (58.75 ± 8.50) and emotionalinstability (8.25 ± 2.50). Two of them had somatic disorders (63.25 ± 15.94), depression (17.25 ± 4.78) and phobic problems (91.00 ± 7.02). In 3 of 4 victims examined, a PTSD diagnosis was made. Symptomsof recall resulted in higher CAPS-DX (13.00 ± 4.05) scores. Traumatic experiences such as being kept in captivity by pirates could entail relevant psychopathological disorders in victims and their families. Quality care interventions, aimed to develop paradigms for resilience training, represent a priority. An international partnerships and collaboration between institutions, clinicians and seafarer organisations can be useful to evaluate psychological conditions of these workers.

  18. User Experience As A Challenge For Cognitive Psychology And Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marchitto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on human–technology interaction has been concerned with assessing the experience of interacting with technology that is already in the process of being designed. However, the challenge nowadays is to help industry find out what technology should be designed. In this new context, cognitive psychology and ergonomics should be able to assist the innovation process through an analysis of the actions that constitute human life and the role that technology plays in these actions. In this paper, we present our approach to the definition of the role of cognitive psychologists and cognitive ergonomists in the innovation process. We aim to define new concepts and methodologies that would help in the process. One example, taken from a research project from a Spanish consortium of universities and industries, is described.

  19. The Psychologist's Troubled Background: Major Related Life Experiences of Psychology and Law Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Janina; Buechner, Vanessa L.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores major-related life experiences (MRLE) of psychology and law students to examine the stereotype of the wounded psychology student. Previous studies have shown that psychology students know people with mental disorders and are seeking treatment themselves. However, these studies do not allow drawing conclusions about the…

  20. Whatever happened to the human experience in undergraduate psychology? Comment on the special issue on undergraduate education in psychology (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Hook, Derek

    2017-01-01

    This comment addresses the omission of a series of critical reflections in recent discussions of undergraduate education in psychology. The lack of a stronger focus on human meaning and experience, on social context, on methodological diversity, and on social critique limits the critical horizons of undergraduate psychology education. Many perspectives are routinely excluded from undergraduate psychology curricula and associated guidelines, particularly psychoanalytic theories, human science approaches, and related critical standpoints. These perspectives can offer an educational focus vital for development of students capable of critical reflection and social action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Psychological experiences in South African society before the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The researchers conducted a literature review to analyse the assumptions of systems psychodynamics, the Tavistock model of group relations, object relations theory and the most relevant constructs in the systems psychodynamic perspective. They then described the assumptions and most relevant constructs in the positive psychology perspective in order to analyse theoretically the psychological effect of large-scale sports events on a community or country. The objective of the empirical study was to investigate some of the unconscious emotions, fears, anxieties and conflicts (dynamics that prevailed in South Africa before the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup and some of the positive emotional experiences associated with it.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients.Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes.Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.

  2. Expertise in Clinical Psychology. The Effects of University Training and Practical Experience on Expertise in Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sabine; Spada, Hans; Caspar, Franz; Burri, Salome

    2013-01-01

    How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competence to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgraduate psychotherapist curriculum, and behavior therapists with more than 10 years of experience were tested (100 in total: 20 each of novice, intermediate, and advanced university students, postgraduate trainees, and therapists). Clinical knowledge and competence increased up to the level of trainees but unexpectedly decreased at the level of experienced therapists. We discuss the results against the background of expertise research and the training of clinical psychologists (in Germany). Important factors for the continuing professional development of psychotherapists are proposed. PMID:23543213

  3. Racism experiences and psychological functioning in African American college freshmen: is racial socialization a buffer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The process of the Community Psychologist training: Experiences in the Community Psychology nucleus (NUCOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, James Ferreira; Brito da Silva, Lorena; Cidade, Elívia Camurça; Braga, Alana Alencar; Ximenes, Verônica Morais

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Community Psychology training concept created at the Community Psychology Nucleus (NUCOM), Federal University of Ceará (Brazil); mainly composed of university extension processes and their theoretical-methodological bases. Thus, university extension/cooperation emerges as a space to build new knowledge based on a cooperative perspective opposed to traditional anti-dialogical and hegemonic mechanisms. By evidencing the unabridged training of NUCOM's graduate students, we seek to provide elements that will enable the comprehension of the learning concept present in daily relations constructed in extension activities. We also plan to socialize a way of thinking Community Psychology performance, whose reference is the people, with their needs and potentials, emphasizing them as the true subjects of psychological practice.

  5. Mixed Emotional Experience Is Associated with and Precedes Improvements in Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. Methods 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for emotional content. Results The specific concurrent experience of happiness and sadness was associated with improvements in psychological well-being above and beyond the impact of the passage of time, personality traits, or the independent effects of happiness and sadness. Changes in mixed emotional experience preceded improvements in well-being. Conclusions Experiencing happiness alongside sadness in psychotherapy may be a harbinger of improvement in psychological well-being. PMID:22539987

  6. Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Mikola, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Mikola, Noora 2016. "Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches” Sport and Exercise Psychology master's thesis. The Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä. 50 p. Background: Perceptions of sport psychology consulting in Finnish premier football have not been studied before. The current study was inspired by two earlier studies made in England by Pain and Hardwood (2004) and in Sweden by Johnso...

  7. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  8. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  9. Improving the Quality of Experience Journals: Training Educational Psychology Students in Basic Qualitative Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Keefer, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of teaching basic qualitative methodology to preservice teachers enrolled in an educational psychology course in the quality of observation journals. Preservice teachers enrolled in an educational psychology course requiring 45 hr of field experience were given qualitative methodological training as a part of the…

  10. Children's Views Matter Too! A Pilot Project Assessing Children's and Adolescents' Experiences of Clinical Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…

  11. Psychology Experiments on the Internet: An Evaluation of the Impact on Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Chris; Mackintosh, Bundy; Watt, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The internet offers considerable potential for open and distance learning in psychology. Research reveals an abundance of psychology demonstrations and experiments available online, directed both at students and potential research participants. Although expertise is being developed to overcome the technical problems associated with this medium,…

  12. Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on centralizing the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color in counseling psychology. The roles of LGB people of color in LGB sociopolitical movements and their invisibility in the psychological literature are discussed as a context for this series of articles. This article…

  13. The psychology of electoral mobilization: a subtle priming experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyhuis, Martin; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; Rosema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we test the idea that citizens can be stimulated to vote in an election via subtle psychological processes, which have little or nothing to do with the act of voting as such. More specifically, we argue that presenting voters with stimuli that induce an active mood will increase their

  14. Memory and Digit Span Experiment among Psychology Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was an experimental field that investigated short-term memory and digit span among the psychology students in federal and state universities in Lagos State, Nigeria. Memory is the process involved in retaining, retrieving and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and skills after original ...

  15. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  16. Psychology Student Experience of a Brief, Interprofessional Team Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Reneé A.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers, including psychologists who work as health service providers and with older adults, must be able to work effectively with professionals from other disciplines. Interprofessional education (IPE) engages students from two or more professions to learn collaboratively. To date, only a few studies have examined psychology student…

  17. Preferential treatment of women and psychological reactance theory: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    187 male academic staff members read a low- or high-threat (freedom restricting) description of measures for the preferential treatment of women in job selection for academic staff functions. The high-threat condition evoked more psychological reactance than the low-threat condition. Ss with high

  18. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  19. Composers in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Anne-Marie; O'Connell, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Today’s ever-changing contexts of music and music education demand that composers are increasingly required to be an artistic voice for the communities in which they live and work. Yet much teaching of composing in third-level institutions in Ireland, while developing a high level of musical craftsmanship, often fail to promote the vital connection between those skills and the social and civic contexts in which many composers work. The aim of this project was to enhance the learning experienc...

  20. Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Liu, Yan [Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, (Canada).; Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division

    2013-07-17

    Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

  1. Therapeutic abortion and its psychological implications: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenglass, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Approximately 9 months after a legal therapeutic abortion, 188 Canadian women were interviewed. One half were single and the rest were married, separated or divorced. They were matched closely for a number of demographic variables with control women who had not had abortions. Neurotic disturbance in several areas of personality functioning was assessed from questionnaire responses. Out of 27 psychological scales, differences between the abortion and control groups were found on only 3: in general, women who had had abortions were more rebellious than control women, abortion tended to be associated with somewhat greater depression in married women, and single women who had had abortions scored higher on the shallow-affect scale. However, all the personality scores were well within the normal range. Perceived social support was strongly associated with favourable psychological reactions after abortion. Use of contraceptives improved greatly after the abortion, when over 90% of women reported using contraceptives regularly. PMID:803127

  2. Professional development in sport psychology : relating learning experiences to learning outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R. I. (Vana); Oldenhof-Veldman, Tanja; Pijpers, J. R. (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance the training of sport psychology consultants, it is important to know which learning experiences are useful for which components of professional development. We interviewed 15 novice consultants on their learning experiences related to 13 different topics. Traditional learning experiences

  3. Breast cancer and psychological distress: mothers' and daughters' traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this exploratory retrospective study was to assess the effects of breast cancer diagnosis upon the psychological distress of adult breast cancer patients and their mothers, particularly mothers who experienced past trauma. Four groups of mother-daughter dyads were evaluated using self-reporting measures of psychological distress [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)], familial support (PFS), and adjustment to cancer (MAC, IES): breast cancer patients whose mothers were Holocaust survivors (group 1), breast cancer patients with non-traumatized mothers (group 2), healthy daughters of Holocaust survivor mothers (group 3), and a control group of healthy daughters with non-traumatized mothers (group 4). Distress levels of both mothers and daughters in group 1 were significantly higher than distress levels of mothers and daughters in the other three groups. Daughters' distress levels in all four groups were found to be significantly related to mothers' distress levels, with the highest correlation found in both groups of cancer patients. The factors of having a clinically distressed mother and being a second-generation daughter contributed the most to predicting the clinical distress of the daughter. The outcomes imply that the mother's traumatic past intensifies the distressing effect of cancer diagnosis upon both the patient and her mother. The findings concerning the impact of cancer diagnosis upon the patients' non-traumatized mothers were more ambiguous. The results support the idea that in the case of breast cancer patients, a complete psychological evaluation must include not only spouses and children but also the familial background of the patient and the history of the patients' mothers.

  4. Experiments on affordance in the journal "ecological psychology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trettvik, Johan

    2009-01-01

    There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances.......There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances....

  5. After Science and Technology Studies: Recomposing the Psychological and Experience Before the Bifurcation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a theoretical inquiry into the ways in which we can understand the psychological and experience, considering the challenges posed to these notions by the field of science and technology studies (STS. STS have developed a form of constructivist critique that rejects the 'bifurcation of nature', that is to say, the divide of the world between primary qualities -the material world, reality itself-, and secondary qualities -experience, consciousness and human affairs. Taking as guideline theoretical questions that emerged during an empirical research about public health users’ “experience of being a patient”, I argue that the critique of the bifurcation of nature often assumes notions of the psychological and human experience that positions them as a dead end. I claim that process philosophy provides useful tools to refute this simplification, articulating the psychological as a constant flux of co-affectation of the human and the world, where experience is not separated from nature.

  6. The psychological experience of women who survived HELLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... These circles overlap at the next set of major themes of not knowing and trance and/or surreal experience that underpin the cognitive aspects of the HELLP syndrome experience. The outermost circle comprises major themes that explore feelings related to whirlwind and/or rapid pace, inability to.

  7. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  8. The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Winkelman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences. Objective evidence that psychedelics produce classic mystical experiences, coupled with the finding that hallucinatory experiences can be induced by many non-drug mechanisms, illustrates the need for a common model of visionary effects. Several models implicate disturbances of normal regulatory processes in the brain as the underlying mechanisms responsible for the similarities of visionary experiences produced by psychedelic and other methods for altering consciousness. Similarities in psychedelic-induced visionary experiences and those produced by practices such as meditation and hypnosis and pathological conditions such as epilepsy indicate the need for a general model explaining visionary experiences. Common mechanisms underlying diverse alterations of consciousness involve the disruption of normal functions of the prefrontal cortex and default mode network (DMN. This interruption of ordinary control mechanisms allows for the release of thalamic and other lower brain discharges that stimulate a visual information representation system and release the effects of innate cognitive functions and operators. Converging forms of evidence support the hypothesis that the source of psychedelic experiences involves the emergence of these innate cognitive processes of lower brain systems, with visionary experiences resulting from the activation of innate

  9. The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences. Objective evidence that psychedelics produce classic mystical experiences, coupled with the finding that hallucinatory experiences can be induced by many non-drug mechanisms, illustrates the need for a common model of visionary effects. Several models implicate disturbances of normal regulatory processes in the brain as the underlying mechanisms responsible for the similarities of visionary experiences produced by psychedelic and other methods for altering consciousness. Similarities in psychedelic-induced visionary experiences and those produced by practices such as meditation and hypnosis and pathological conditions such as epilepsy indicate the need for a general model explaining visionary experiences. Common mechanisms underlying diverse alterations of consciousness involve the disruption of normal functions of the prefrontal cortex and default mode network (DMN). This interruption of ordinary control mechanisms allows for the release of thalamic and other lower brain discharges that stimulate a visual information representation system and release the effects of innate cognitive functions and operators. Converging forms of evidence support the hypothesis that the source of psychedelic experiences involves the emergence of these innate cognitive processes of lower brain systems, with visionary experiences resulting from the activation of innate processes based in the

  10. Review of some phenomena in sport psychology from the point of view of the athlete's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Smrdu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many quantitative studies have been carried out on various aspects of sport, it seems our understanding of them has not advanced considerably. Because of that there has been a greater acceptance of qualitative methods and with that also the value of employing phenomenological approaches in the academic discipline of sport psychology has increased in recent years. Phenomenological psychology can allow us to look more closely to athletes’ experiences and therefore plays a mediating role between applied and theoretical aspects of sport psychology. We find its special importance at phenomena connected to peak performance and different stages of consciousness.

  11. Teachers' experiences of power relations as psychological violence / Alecia Human-van der Westhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Human-van der Westhuizen, Alecia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ experiences of power relations as psychological violence and the impact it has on their health. This study, using a qualitative approach, thus investigates the association between power relations and the dimensions thereof and how it manifests as psychological violence. In turn, it may have detrimental effects on the health of the teacher and the whole teaching-learning process. Based on the findings, recommendations for this - ...

  12. Achieving a College Education: The Psychological Experiences of Latina/o Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Maristela C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychological and subjective experiences of Latina/o community college students. The impact of these experiences on their persistence toward achieving their education goals is also examined. Interviews with 17 community college students yielded 8 themes: overcoming personal and social challenges, maturation, self-discovery…

  13. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users' Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Jacqueline Susan; Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-06-30

    The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users' experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main limitations in the research were the nascency of the topic

  14. The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael J. Winkelman

    2017-01-01

    ... by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences...

  15. The First Experience of Clinical Practice on Psychology Students’ Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Regina Gallo-Belluzzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the academic development of the psychologist as a complex process which articulates the transmission of scientific knowledge and changes in imaginative activity, we psychoanalytically investigate the collective imaginary of Psychology students regarding the first clinical consultation. We conducted a group interview with 52 undergraduate students, using the Thematic Story-Drawing Procedure as a way to open a dialogical field. The material obtained, through the psychoanalytical method, resulted in the creation/gathering of four affective-emotional meaning fields: “I came, I saw and I conquered”, “I know that I (do not know”, “I survived and I will save” and “I am and I do”, from which we see an emotionally immature imaginary about the meeting with the patient, since students are more self-centered than concerned with the patient. The overall situation indicates the need for care regarding student academic development, in order to encourage a more mature approach toward the suffering of the other.

  16. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartig, T.; Berg, van den A.E.; Hagerhall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we consider how experiences of nature can affect human health and well-being. We first address the matter of ‘what has been’; that is, we sketch the development of theory and research concerned with health benefits of natural environments, from ancient times to the current situation.

  17. Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piper, Brian J; Li, Victoria; Eiwaz, Massarra A; Kobel, Yuliyana V; Benice, Ted S; Chu, Alex M; Olsen, Reid H. J; Rice, Douglas Z; Gray, Hilary M; Mueller, Shane T

    2012-01-01

    ... Experiment Building Language (PEBL) test battery http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ and evaluate whether this pattern is comparable to data previously obtained with the non-PEBL versions of these tests. Participants (N = 1,223; ages, 5–89 years...

  18. The composing process in technical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  19. Consequences of Casual Sex Relationships and Experiences on Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Casual sexual relationships and experiences (CSREs) are still considered to be detrimental to the psychological well-being of youth even though findings remain inconclusive. Most studies have focused on emerging adulthood. Using a prospective design based on a representative sample of high school students in the province of Québec, we measured sexually active adolescents’ (N = 2,304) psychological well-being six months after engaging in these relationships while controlling for prior well-being. We analyzed two forms of CSREs, friends with benefits (FWB) and one-night stand (ONS) relationships, as well as levels of sexual intimacy. The results show that CSREs had a small impact (small effect sizes) on subsequent psychological well-being, especially among girls; FWB relationships involving penetrative contact increased girls’ psychological distress and both their alcohol and drug consumption. ONSs including sexual touching increased girls’ psychological distress and their drug use. None of the CSREs influenced boys’ psychological well-being. The findings underscored the importance of using caution when arguing that CSREs are detrimental or harmless to the psychological well-being of adolescents. The results also highlight the importance of taking into account gender and forms of CSREs in prevention and health interventions. PMID:28010123

  20. FLOW AND OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE: METHODOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONALIZINGAND CONTEXTUALIZING A POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONCEPT. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Rich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first part of a two part series of articles focusing upon one core positive psychology concept - the peak experience termed flow developed by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - as a test case for examining some of the issues involved when positive psychology is internationalized and made indigenous. In particular, methodological, measurement, and theoretical issues regarding flow research will be discussed. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to flow, including interviews, surveys, and the experience sampling method among others will be described. Evidence is examined from a range of existing research projects on flow from around the globe, raising questions concerning the positive psychology enterprise, including the value of psychological assessment tools and the debate over cross-cultural universals/comparisons. Rather than viewing qualitative and quantitative approaches (or anthropological and psychological perspectives as rival factions, this project seeks to develop constructive dialogue that acknowledges both strengths and limitations of each approach to facilitate engagement with the topics of mixed methods and human strengths, subjects often neglected in cross-cultural research. The first part of the article series examines methodological implications of this positive psychology concept, and the second part of the article series focuses upon the cross-cultural implications.

  1. FLOW AND OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE: METHODOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONALIZING AND CONTEXTUALIZING A POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONCEPT. PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Rich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the second part of a two part series of articles focusing upon one core positive psychology concept - the peak experience termed flow developed by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - as a test case for examining some of the issues involved when positive psychology is internationalized and made indigenous. In particular, methodological, measurement, and theoretical issues regarding flow research will be discussed. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to flow, including interviews, surveys, and the experience sampling method among others will be described. Evidence is examined from a range of existing research projects on flow from around the globe, raising questions concerning the positive psychology enterprise, including the value of psychological assessment tools and the debate over cross-cultural universals/comparisons. Rather than viewing qualitative and quantitative approaches (or anthropological and psychological perspectives as rival factions, this project seeks to develop constructive dialogue that acknowledges both strengths and limitations of each approach to facilitate engagement with the topics of mixed methods and human strengths, subjects often neglected in cross-cultural research. The first part of the article series examined methodological implications of this positive psychology concept, and this second part of the article series focuses upon the cross-cultural implications.

  2. Effects of Bullying Experience on Psychological Well-Being Mediated by Conflict Management Styles and Psychological Empowerment among Nursing Students in Clinical Placement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liping; Kim, Hyunli

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test a proposed structural equation model in which bullying experience, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment predict psychological well-being among Chinese nursing students in clinical placement. Three hundred and sixty-six nursing students recruited from five hospitals in J city and Y city were assessed with self-report questionnaires on bullying experience, conflict management styles, psychological empowerment and psychological well-being including depression, self-esteem, and academic major satisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 22.0. The evaluation parameters included the comparative fit index at .90, the goodness of fit index at .93, the root mean square error of approximation at .07, and χ²/df ratio at 2.66, indicating that the proposed structural equation model provided a good fit to the data. Experience of being bullied during clinical placement, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment explained 93.0% of the variance and had significant effects on psychological well-being, with conflict management styles and psychological empowerment mediating the association between bullying and psychological well-being. The findings indicated that mediation by conflict management styles and psychological empowerment alleviated the negative influence of bullying on psychological well-being. To limit bullying and its negative effects, development of effective guidelines to deal with bullying will be a critical tool for both Chinese nursing students and their instructors. Further research should incorporate conflict management styles and psychological empowerment into the specific intervention strategies for handling bullying behaviors among nursing students and staff nurses and promoting nursing students' psychological well-being.

  3. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.

  4. [Psychological experience of pregnancy and childbirth in minors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl, B

    1984-03-01

    Despite the 1975 law which legalized voluntary termination of pregnancy in France, some adolescent women still choose to keep their children despite the precariousness of their personal and financial situation. How do they experience their pregnancy and childbirth and are there any specific features which differentiate their desire for a child from that of a mother who has reached her legal majority? This study is based on an analysis of statements made by young mothers ages 15-17 during a semidirected interview carried out soon after childbirth. 2 trends were apparent in the population studies. There was either a rejection of the father of the child with an annexation of the child by the maternal line, or else the child was accepted, which did not necessarily imply a mature outlook on the part of the adolescent mother. Other features involved in the relationship between pregnancy and female maturity were also analyzed. Valuable information was obtained, but it was not sufficient to identify generalized specific features of the pregnancy and childbirth experience by minors. (author's modified)

  5. Towards Composable Concurrency Abstractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janwillem Swalens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many different programming models for managing concurrency in applications have been proposed, such as the actor model, Communicating Sequential Processes, and Software Transactional Memory. The ubiquity of multi-core processors has made harnessing concurrency even more important. We observe that modern languages, such as Scala, Clojure, or F#, provide not one, but multiple concurrency models that help developers manage concurrency. Large end-user applications are rarely built using just a single concurrency model. Programmers need to manage a responsive UI, deal with file or network I/O, asynchronous workflows, and shared resources. Different concurrency models facilitate different requirements. This raises the issue of how these concurrency models interact, and whether they are composable. After all, combining different concurrency models may lead to subtle bugs or inconsistencies. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of the concurrency abstractions provided by the Clojure language. We study all pairwise combinations of the abstractions, noting which ones compose without issues, and which do not. We make an attempt to abstract from the specifics of Clojure, identifying the general properties of concurrency models that facilitate or hinder composition.

  6. Work Experiences of Foreign-Born Asian Women Counseling and Psychology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Mok, Geoffrey; Nishida, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    Eleven foreign-born and -raised Asian women faculty in counseling and psychology programs in the United States were interviewed about their work experiences. Analysis using consensual qualitative research revealed 7 sources of stressors, 6 emotional reactions associated with stressors, 5 coping strategies, and 4 types of intrinsic rewards gained…

  7. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the nature of the coverage in introductory social psychology textbooks of the Stanford prison experiment (SPE), given the many criticisms, especially recently, of the SPE. These criticisms concern both the study's methodology and the situationist explanation of the outcome. Ten textbooks were analyzed for coverage of…

  8. Experience of Teacher Education Students in Taking the Course of Adolescent Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-nii; Chiu, Yi-hsing Claire; Lai, Pi-hui

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the learning and development experiences of teacher education students after taking an introductory course on adolescent psychology. The instructor adopted the developmental instruction model (DIM) (Knefelkamp, 1998) in this study and facilitated students learn through experiential learning. Fifteen students (aged between 20…

  9. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  10. The Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    The present content analysis examines the coverage of theoretical and methodological problems with the Stanford prison experiment (SPE) in a sample of introductory psychology textbooks. Categories included the interpretation and replication of the study, variance in guard behavior, participant selection bias, the presence of demand characteristics…

  11. Experiences of Master's Students Regarding Clinical Supervision in an Applied Psychology Programme in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Lindi; Fouche, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study explored and described the experiences regarding clinical supervision of master's students in professional psychology programmes in South Africa. Four participants were purposively selected from four different universities. The participants engaged in reflective writings and in-depth interviews over a one-year span. Data were analysed…

  12. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  13. Adolescents' psychological health and experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated

  14. Fulfillment of the basic psychological needs of student teachers during their first teaching experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelein, F.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on an under-researched area, namely the fulfilment of basic psychological needs of student teachers during their first teaching experiences. Based on the Self-determination Theory of Ryan and Deci [(2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical

  15. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Fan, Daisy

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience scale (DSES; Underwood (2006) "Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie," 28, 181-218). Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General…

  16. Experiences of Being Ignored by Peers during Late Adolescence: Linkages to Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Gilman, Rich

    2014-01-01

    In this study on being ignored by peers, 934 twelfth-grade students reported on their experiences of being ignored, victimized, and socially withdrawn, and completed measures of friendship and psychological adjustment (depression, self-esteem, and global satisfaction). Peer nominations of being ignored, victimized, and accepted by peers were also…

  17. A qualitative exploration of acute care and psychological distress experiences of ECMO survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramm, Ralph; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Sheldrake, Jayne; Pellegrino, Vincent; Hodgson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    To explore the acute care experience of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients. ECMO is used in life-threatening scenarios of acute lung or heart failure. The patient's experience with ECMO treatment and the psychological distress are unknown. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with ECMO survivors 12 months after discharge were conducted and thematically analyzed. Ten participants treated with ECMO for life-threatening acute heart or lung failure were interviewed. Six themes that captured the ICU experience of ECMO patients were identified including; dealing with crisis, critical care, memory, role of significant others and existence today and tomorrow. Deconditioning was the most frequently reported experience. Patchy factual memories contrasted with detailed delirious memories and paranoid ideations. Patients treated with ECMO experienced deconditioning, perceived threats of serious injury or death and delusional episodes with recalls of psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  19. Pre-Biopsy Psychological Factors Predict Patient Biopsy Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. J.; Schnur, J. B.; Margolies, L.; Bolno, J.; Szabo, J.; Hermann, G.; Montgomery, G. H.; Sohl, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excisional/surgical breast biopsy has been related to anticipatory emotional distress, and anticipatory distress has been associated with worse biopsy-related outcomes (e.g., pain, physical discomfort). The present study was designed to investigate: a) whether anticipatory distress before an image-guided breast biopsy would correlate with biopsy-related outcomes (pain and physical discomfort during the biopsy); and b) whether type of distress (i.e., general anxiety, worry about the procedure, worry about biopsy results) would differentially relate to biopsy-related outcomes. Methods 50 image-guided breast biopsy patients (mean age = 44.4 years) were administered questionnaires pre- and post-biopsy. Pre-biopsy, patients completed the Profile of Mood States-Tension/Anxiety subscale and two Visual Analog Scale items (worry about the biopsy procedure, worry about the biopsy results). Post-biopsy, patients completed two Visual Analog Scale items (pain and physical discomfort at their worst during the procedure). Results 1) Pre-biopsy worry about the procedure was significantly related to both pain (r=0.38, p=0.006) and physical discomfort (r=0.31, p=0.026); 2) Pre-biopsy general anxiety was significantly related to pain (r=0.36, p=0.009), but not to physical discomfort; and 3) Pre-biopsy worry about the biopsy results did not significantly relate to pain or physical discomfort. Conclusions Worry about the procedure was the only variable found to be significantly correlated with both biopsy-related outcomes (pain and physical discomfort). From a clinical perspective, this item could be used as a brief screening tool to identify patients who might be at risk for poorer biopsy experiences, and who might benefit from brief interventions to reduce pre-biopsy worry. PMID:23065421

  20. ?I am anxious and desperate?: psychological experiences of women with infertility in The Greater Accra Region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Donkor, Ernestina S.; Naab, Florence; Kussiwaah, Deborah Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Research has shown that infertility affects millions of couples worldwide. Infertility is considered one of the most difficult life experiences and can result in psychological consequences for couples, especially for women. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological experiences of women with infertility. Methods A qualitative exploratory descriptive approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews. The psychological component of the bio-psychosocial model was used a...

  1. Simulation Experiments with the Model of Information-Psychological Influences on Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Minaev

    2017-06-01

    which system- dynamic models are based are systems of differential equations. The authors of the article constructed an imitation model that makes it possible to identify the interrelationships between factors that effect the dynamics of information and psychological influences on mass consciousness, and its implementation has been carried out in the Anylogic software environment. This environment is one of the most promising environments for simulation. Temporal graphs reflecting the dynamics of the number of persons capable of adopting the idea of information and psychological influence, the number of persons who adopted the idea of information and psychological influences, and graphs reflecting the distribution in time of the number of persons who adopted the idea of information and psychological influences under certain initial conditions are given. Simulation experiments related to variations of the model parameters in which the dependence of increasing rate of person’s number who adopted the idea of information and psychological effects on the frequency of person’s contacts sharing these ideas is studied.

  2. Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: a qualitative examination of participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported as being efficacious treatments for a variety of psychological and somatic conditions. However, concerns have arisen relating to how mindfulness is operationalized in mindfulness-based interventions and whether its 'spiritual essence' and full potential treatment efficacy have remained intact. This qualitative study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to examine participant experiences regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of a newly designed secularized intervention called meditation awareness training (MAT) that follows a more traditional Buddhist approach to meditation. Participants (with issues of stress and low mood) reported experiencing improvements in psychological well-being due to receiving MAT. The wider implications are discussed.

  3. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women...

  4. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  5. From referral to discharge: Young people and parents' experience of a systemic paediatric psychology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Isabella; Colville, Susie; Borrelli, Mimi; Bowman, Nicola; Christie, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The paediatric and adolescent clinical psychology service at the University College London Hospital provides age-appropriate services to young people up to 19 years of age under the care of a hospital consultant. This short report describes how young people and parents experience what we provide as a systemic paediatric psychology team from referral to discharge. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to gather service user perspectives on the systemic clinical psychology service. The questionnaire included open and closed questions to generate qualitative and quantitative data about the different stages of the treatment process. A total of 44/79 families discharged in the previous year were contacted by phone. The majority of young people and parents were happy being called to discuss the referral before being offered an appointment and liked the way in which the psychologist worked with the family. The majority of young people and parents reported their situation had improved as a result of the work offered by the psychology team. Negative aspects of the experience reflected the realities of service driven constraints including having to travel a long distance for the appointment, lack of rooms and having to be discharged at 19 years of age. Service user feedback is imperative to providing a high standard of care. This study highlighted positive experiences of a systemic service and indicated areas for future improvement that we are attempting to address. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Experiences and Perceptions of Interpersonal, Environmental, and Institutional Racism among African-American Students in Psychology Graduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Tracey

    Racist incidents that graduate students in psychology may experience can be reflective of Eurocentric values and forces which permeate present institutions. To better understand these forces, the experiences and perceptions of racism as experienced by minority graduate students are explored. Seventeen doctoral students in psychology, who…

  7. Reproducibility of Psychological Experiments as a Problem of Post-Nonclassical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.

  8. Coming out experiences and psychological distress of Chinese homosexual men in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi-yan; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2004-04-01

    This study adopted a cognitive-behavioral conceptual framework based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in understanding coming out experiences and psychological distress of 187 Chinese gay men. Results showed that participants' coming out experiences were characterized by same-sex sexual fantasy at teenage years, followed by awareness of homosexual tendency, same-sex sexual contact, and then self-identification and disclosure of homosexual orientation in young adulthood. Regarding targets of disclosure, participants tended to disclose their sexual orientation to their gay friends first, followed by heterosexual friends, siblings, parents, and coworkers. This study also supported the extension of the TRA conceptual framework to Chinese societies. Results showed that a low level of psychological distress in Chinese gay men was linked to their coming out experiences, which were in turn related to TRA components of involvement and identification with gay communities and positive attitudes toward coming out. Limitations and implications were also discussed.

  9. Psychological counseling as an adjunct to stuttering treatment: Clients' experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alanna; Langevin, Marilyn

    2017-06-01

    Stuttering can trigger anxiety and other psychological and emotional reactions, and limit participation in society. It is possible that psychological counseling could enhance stuttering treatment outcomes; however, little is known about how clients view such counseling. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of clients' experiences with, and perceptions of, a psychological counseling service that was offered as an optional adjunct to speech therapy for stuttering. Nine individuals who stutter (13-38 years old) participated in semi-structured interviews. Six participants had taken part in psychological counseling; three participants did not do so. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory as a guiding framework. Four thematic clusters emerged from participants' accounts: insights into personal decision-making, why others may not participate in counseling, psychological counseling as a worthwhile part of therapy, and counseling as a necessary component in a stuttering treatment program. In addition to experiencing barriers and facilitators to help-seeking that are reported in related fields, participants accounts also revealed novel facilitators (i.e., a 'why not' mentality and the importance of having a pre-existing relationship with the clinician who offered the service) and barriers (i.e., viewing the service as a 'limited resource,' and, the overwhelming nature of intensive stuttering treatment programs). Findings suggest that clients value the option to access psychological counseling with trained mental health professionals to support the stuttering treatment provided by speech-language pathologists. Participants made recommendations for the integration of psychological counseling into stuttering treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mathematics, experience and laboratories: Herbart's and Brentano's role in the rise of scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Wolfgang; Landerer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present and compare two early attempts to establish psychology as an independent scientific discipline that had considerable influence in central Europe: the theories of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) and Franz Brentano (1838-1917). While both of them emphasize that psychology ought to be conceived as an empirical science, their conceptions show revealing differences. Herbart starts with metaphysical principles and aims at mathematizing psychology, whereas Brentano rejects all metaphysics and bases his method on a conception of inner perception (as opposed to inner observation) as a secondary consciousness, by means of which one gets to be aware of all of one's own conscious phenomena. Brentano's focus on inner perception brings him to deny the claim that there could be unconscious mental phenomena - a view that stands in sharp contrast to Herbart's emphasis on unconscious, "repressed" presentations as a core element of his mechanics of mind. Herbart, on the other hand, denies any role for psychological experiments, while Brentano encouraged laboratory work, thus paving the road for the more experimental work of his students like Stumpf and Meinong. By briefly tracing the fate of the schools of Herbart and Brentano, respectively, we aim to illustrate their impact on the development of psychological research, mainly in central Europe.

  11. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  12. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  13. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  14. Psychologically informed physiotherapy for chronic pain: patient experiences of treatment and therapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; Chaloner, N; Osborn, M; Gauntlett-Gilbert, J

    2017-03-01

    Psychologically informed physiotherapy is used widely with patients with chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate patients' beliefs about, and experiences of, this type of treatment, and helpful and unhelpful experiences. A qualitative study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants (n=8) were recruited within a national specialist pain centre following a residential pain management programme including 2.25hours of physiotherapy each day. Participants were eligible for inclusion if they had achieved clinically reliable improvements in physical functioning during treatment. Interviews were conducted 3 months post-treatment. Participants reported differing experiences of physiotherapy interventions and differences in the therapeutic relationship, valuing a more individualised approach. The themes of 'working with the whole of me', 'more than just a professional', 'awareness' and 'working through challenges in the therapeutic relationship' emerged as central to behavioural change, together with promotion of perceptions of improved capability and physical capacity. Psychologically informed physiotherapy is an effective treatment for some patients with chronic pain. Participants experienced this approach as uniquely different from non-psychologically informed physiotherapy approaches due to its focus on working with the patient's whole experience. Therapeutic alliance and management of relationship ruptures may have more importance than previously appreciated in physiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affect 4.0: a free software package for implementing psychological and psychophysiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Adriaan; Clarysse, Jeroen; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Baeyens, Frank; Hermans, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    We describe Affect 4.0, a user-friendly software package for implementing psychological and psychophysiological experiments. Affect 4.0 can be used to present visual, acoustic, and/or tactile stimuli in highly complex (i.e., semirandomized and response-contingent) sequences. Affect 4.0 is capable of registering response latencies and analog behavioral input with millisecond accuracy. Affect 4.0 is available free of charge.

  16. Pain experience in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: The role of alexithymia and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tella, Marialaura; Ghiggia, Ada; Tesio, Valentina; Romeo, Annunziata; Colonna, Fabrizio; Fusaro, Enrico; Torta, Riccardo; Castelli, Lorys

    2017-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with a high prevalence of alexithymia, a personality disposition that affects emotional self-awareness. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and pain, differentiating between the sensory and affective components of pain experience, in a sample of FM patients. One hundred and fifty-nine FM patients completed a battery of tests assessing pain experience, pain intensity, alexithymia and psychological distress. In order to characterize the clinical profile of alexithymic FM patients, alexithymic and non-alexithymic groups were compared on the different measures. Two regression analyses were performed on the total sample, in order to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and pain, controlling for psychological distress. Alexithymic FM patients presented higher scores on all the clinical measures compared to non-alexithymic ones. Positive correlations were found between alexithymia and the affective, but not the sensory, dimension of pain experience variables. Regression analyses showed that alexithymia (difficulty identifying feelings factor) ceased to uniquely predict affective pain, after controlling for psychological distress, particularly anxiety. In addition, none of the alexithymia variables significantly explained pain intensity variance. Finally, a significant effect of anxiety in mediating the relationship between alexithymia and affective pain was found. No longitudinal data were included. These findings show the presence of higher levels of pain and psychological distress in alexithymic vs. non-alexithymic FM patients, and a relevant association between alexithymia and the affective dimension of pain experience. Specifically, this relationship appears to be significantly mediated by anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The relation between the experience of time and psychological distress in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Vollmer, Tanja; Schweiger, Claudia; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    The experience of time is strongly related to our momentary mood states. Patients with a life-threatening illness experience an extreme change in mood and suffer from psychological distress that can develop into clinically relevant psychiatric disorders, like anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among the subjective perception of time, psychological distress, and quality of life in patients with hematological malignancies. Eighty-eight inpatients with hematological malignancies rated how fast time passes subjectively on a visual analog scale and prospectively estimated a time span of 13 min. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) self-report measures of health-related quality of life (FACT-G) and spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp) were employed to assess psychological distress and quality of life. Those patients who reported a lower quality of life, less spiritual well-being, and more anxiety experienced a slower passage of subjective time and overestimated the 13-min time interval. Our interpretation of the results is that patients with a life-threatening illness who show symptoms of psychological distress draw attention away from meaningful thoughts and actions and, thus, experience time as passing more slowly. An altered sense of time can be a sign of mental suffering, which should be addressed within psycho-oncological interventions. As this is the first study to demonstrate this relation in cancer patients, further research is needed to investigate the experience of time and its relation to meaning as an issue in clinical diagnostics.

  18. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic app...

  19. Diagnostic exome sequencing in children: A survey of parental understanding, experience and psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J; Ottman, R; Duong, J; Wilson, A L; Ahimaz, P; Martinez, J; Rabin, R; Rosen, E; Webster, R; Au, C; Cho, M T; Egan, C; Guzman, E; Primiano, M; Shaw, J E; Sisson, R; Klitzman, R L; Appelbaum, P S; Lichter-Konecki, U; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Iglesias, A; Chung, W K

    2017-12-20

    Clinical exome sequencing (CES) is increasingly being used as an effective diagnostic tool in the field of pediatric genetics. We sought to evaluate the parental experience, understanding and psychological impact of CES by conducting a survey study of English-speaking parents of children who had diagnostic CES. Parents of 192 unique patients participated. The parent's interpretation of the child's result agreed with the clinician's interpretation in 79% of cases, with more frequent discordance when the clinician's interpretation was uncertain. The majority (79%) reported no regret with the decision to have CES. Most (65%) reported complete satisfaction with the genetic counseling experience, and satisfaction was positively associated with years of genetic counselor (GC) experience. The psychological impact of CES was greatest for parents of children with positive results and for parents with anxiety or depression. The results of this study are important for helping clinicians prepare families for the possible results and variable psychological impact of CES. The frequency of parental misinterpretation of test results indicates the need for additional clarity in the communication of results. Finally, while the majority of patients were satisfied with their genetic counseling, satisfaction was lower for new GCs, suggesting a need for targeted GC training for genomic testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S.; Lauring, Jon O.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art. PMID:27199697

  1. How we treat our own: the experiences and characteristics of psychology trainees with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M; Andrews, Erin E; Holt, Judith M

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the characteristics and experiences of psychologists and trainees with disabilities. An invitation to participate in a survey of psychologists and psychology trainees with disabilities was sent to professional listservs related to psychology and/or disability. Fifty-six trainees and psychologists with doctoral training in clinical, counseling, school, or rehabilitation psychology completed the survey. Over half (57.1%) were practicing psychologists and 42.9% were current trainees. The most commonly reported disabilities were physical, sensory, and chronic health. The majority of the participants reported experiencing disability-related discrimination during their training, and less than one third had received mentorship from psychologists with disabilities. Less than half of respondents disclosed their disability to a university disability services office, and many relied on informal accommodations alone. Most participants did not disclose their disability during the graduate school, internship, or postdoctoral application processes. Professional psychology programs and training sites should work to remove barriers and provide support for trainees with disabilities, especially during preinternship doctoral training. Programs should not expect disability services offices to provide all support for students with disabilities, especially support related to clinical training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S; Lauring, Jon O; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art.

  3. The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in…

  4. Psychological adaptation and quality of life of adult intestinal transplant recipients: University of Bologna experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfieri, L; Lauro, A; Tossani, E; Sirri, L; Venturoli, A; Dazzi, A; Zanfi, C; Zanello, M; Vetrone, G; Cucchetti, A; Ercolani, G; Vivarelli, M; Del Gaudio, M; Ravaioli, M; Cescon, M; Grazi, G L; Faenza, S; Grandi, S; Pinna, A D

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has become an accepted therapy for individuals permanently dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with life-threatening complications. Quality of life and psychological well-being can be seen as important outcome measures of transplantation surgery. We evaluated 24 adult intestinal transplant recipients and 24 healthy subjects (a control group). All subjects were administered the Italian Version of the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB) by C. Ryff, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) by R. Kellner and G.A. Fava, a symptomatology scale. Quality of life and psychological well-being were assessed in transplant recipients in relationship to the number of rejections, the number of admissions, and the immunosuppressive protocol. Intestinal transplant recipients reported significantly higher scores in the "personal growth" category (P = .036) and lower scores in the "positive relation with others" (P = .013) and "autonomy" (P = .007) dimensions of PWB, compared with the controls. In the WHOQOL, the scores of transplant recipients were lower only in the psychological domain (P = .011). Transplant recipients reported significantly higher scores in the "somatic symptom" (P = .027) and "hostility" (P = .018) dimensions of the SQ, compared with the controls. Transplant recipients with number of admissions >8 reported higher scores in "anxiety" (P = .019) and "depression" (P = .021) scales of the SQ, and the patients with a Daclizumab protocol reported higher scores in "depression" (P = .000) and "somatic symptom" (P = .008) of the SQ. There were no significant differences regarding number of rejections and socio-demographic variables. Improvement of psychological well-being in the transplant population may be related to the achievement of the goal of transplantation: recovery of bowel function. But the data confirmed that the transplant experience required a long and difficult

  5. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  6. Revenge is sour, but is forgiveness sweet? Psychological health and cortisol reactivity among women with experiences of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the relations among women's experiences of abuse, forgiveness, revenge, psychological health, and physiological stress reactivity. Both dispositional (Study 1; N = 103) and state (Study 2; N = 258) forgiveness and vengeance were associated with psychological symptoms. However, the relation between revenge and greater depression was magnified among psychologically abused women, whereas-unexpectedly-the positive link between forgiveness and psychological health was strengthened among physically abused women. Moreover, while revenge coincided with increased cortisol reactivity following any relationship conflict, this was only evident for forgiveness following physical abuse. The complex interactions among these variables are discussed within a stress and coping framework.

  7. A Youth Performing Arts Experience: Psychological Experiences, Recollections, and the Desire to Do It Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayes, Jan; Harre, Niki; Overall, Nickola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stage Challenge is a performing arts competition for New Zealand secondary schools. This longitudinal study used observations, repeated questionnaires, informal conversations, and a graffiti board to follow the 5-month experience of a student-led girls' team aged 10 to 17 years (n = 103). The focus was on the quality of their experience and what…

  8. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2002-05-01

    The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work.

  9. Psychological experiences in South African society before the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koortzen, Pieter; Oosthuizen, Rudolf M

    2012-01-01

    ... theoretically the psychological effect of large-scale sports events on a community or country. The objective of the empirical study was to investigate some of the unconscious emotions, fears, anxieties and conflicts...

  10. The relationship study between image features and detection probability based on psychology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Yu-hua; Wang, Ji-yuan; Gao, Hong-sheng; Wang, Ji-jun; Su, Rong-hua; Mao, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Detection probability is an important index to represent and estimate target viability, which provides basis for target recognition and decision-making. But it will expend a mass of time and manpower to obtain detection probability in reality. At the same time, due to the different interpretation of personnel practice knowledge and experience, a great difference will often exist in the datum obtained. By means of studying the relationship between image features and perception quantity based on psychology experiments, the probability model has been established, in which the process is as following.Firstly, four image features have been extracted and quantified, which affect directly detection. Four feature similarity degrees between target and background were defined. Secondly, the relationship between single image feature similarity degree and perception quantity was set up based on psychological principle, and psychological experiments of target interpretation were designed which includes about five hundred people for interpretation and two hundred images. In order to reduce image features correlativity, a lot of artificial synthesis images have been made which include images with single brightness feature difference, images with single chromaticity feature difference, images with single texture feature difference and images with single shape feature difference. By analyzing and fitting a mass of experiments datum, the model quantitys have been determined. Finally, by applying statistical decision theory and experimental results, the relationship between perception quantity with target detection probability has been found. With the verification of a great deal of target interpretation in practice, the target detection probability can be obtained by the model quickly and objectively.

  11. Liturgy as Experience - the Psychology of Worship.
 A Theoretical and Empirical Lacuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Wikström

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has three aims: 1 to plead for an approach to the study of the liturgy based on the psychology of religion, 2 to draw up a preliminary theoretical model for how the liturgy can be interpreted, and 3 to narrow down the field for further interdisciplinary development and empirical analysis. People undergo more or less strong experiences during and in conjunction with church services. Perhaps people are moved, experience holiness, reverence, fellowship or closeness to the risen Christ. The problem is what factors during the service strengthen such a religious experience. What is the role played by the music, symbols, the place or building where the service is held, the number of participants and the liturgical event?

  12. Psychological consultation in a paediatric setting: A qualitative analysis of staff experiences of a psychosocial forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jessica L; Benson, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The use of psychosocial forums in paediatric settings has been recommended as a means of providing psychological consultancy. However, no research has explored staff perceptions of these meetings or whether they have a positive impact on patient care. In this study, six members of a paediatric gastroenterology multidisciplinary team were interviewed about their experience of a weekly psychosocial forum using a qualitative approach. The data revealed that staff regarded the forum as an essential and useful part of the service. Staff reported a number of benefits to their clinical work as a result of attending the forum, in addition to the general benefits of having a clinical psychologist available to see patients. However, staff also made recommendations for improving the forum. The results suggest that psychosocial forums may provide an efficient means of delivering specialist psychological consultation for patients with psychological difficulties, in line with Department of Health recommendations for paediatric services. Future research should aim to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial forums in different settings and to establish the cost-effectiveness of these meetings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Wilson-Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.

  14. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain

    2014-01-01

    A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. PMID:24785743

  15. Contributions of risk and protective factors to prediction of psychological symptoms after traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eve B; Palmieri, Patrick A; Field, Nigel P; Dalenberg, Constance J; Macia, Kathryn S; Spain, David A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic experiences cause considerable suffering and place a burden on society due to lost productivity, increases in suicidality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychological disorder. The impact of traumatic experiences is complicated because many factors affect individuals' responses. By employing several methodological improvements, we sought to identify risk factors that would account for a greater proportion of variance in later disorder than prior studies. In a sample of 129 traumatically injured hospital patients and family members of injured patients, we studied pre-trauma, time of trauma, and post-trauma psychosocial risk and protective factors hypothesized to influence responses to traumatic experiences and posttraumatic (PT) symptoms (including symptoms of PTSD, depression, negative thinking, and dissociation) two months after trauma. The risk factors were all significantly correlated with later PT symptoms, with post-trauma life stress, post-trauma social support, and acute stress symptoms showing the strongest relationships. A hierarchical regression, in which the risk factors were entered in 6 steps based on their occurrence in time, showed the risks accounted for 72% of the variance in later symptoms. Most of the variance in PT symptoms was shared among many risk factors, and pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors accounted for the most variance. Collectively, the risk factors accounted for more variance in later PT symptoms than in previous studies. These risk factors may identify individuals at risk for PT psychological disorders and targets for treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia M. Serra-Negra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  17. Experiences of parental divorce after grade 12: an educational psychological perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Ed. Divorce is one of the most traumatic experiences that families can encounter. Children suffer when parents divorce and much research has been done on the effects that divorce has on young children in terms of their social, socio-economic and psychological development. As a result of this extensive research, parents are aware that, if they divorce when their children are young, it may have negative effects on their children’s development. Hence, some couples wait until they believe th...

  18. The Rubato Composer Music Software

    CERN Document Server

    Milmeister, Gerard; Thalmann, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The Rubato Composer system is open to arbitrary extension and is freely available under the GPL license. This title gives an introduction to the theory of module categories and the theory of denotators, as well as the design of a software system, called Rubato Composer, which is an implementation of the category-theoretic concept framework.

  19. Planes of phenomenological experience: The psychology of deafness as an early example of American Gestalt psychology, 1928-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marion A

    2017-11-01

    When, in 1928, the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, opened a psychological research division, it was nothing unusual in a time fascinated with the sciences of education. Yet with its longstanding ties to Northampton's Smith College, the school was able to secure the collaboration of eminent Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, who, in turn, engaged 2 more German-speaking emigrants, Margarete Eberhardt and social psychologist Fritz Heider, and Heider's American wife Grace Moore Heider. This collaboration has seen little attention from historians, who have treated Koffka's and Heider's time in Northampton as a transitory phase. I argue, however, that their research on deafness adds to the history of emigration and knowledge transfer between European and American Schools of psychology, and to historical understanding of the interrelation of Gestalt, child, and social psychology. Professionals in child studies and developmental psychology were keenly interested in the holistic and introspective approach Gestalt psychology offered. Deaf children were considered a particularly fascinating research population for exploring the relationship between thought and language, perception and development, Gestalt, and reality. At the Clarke School, Grace Moore Heider was among the first Americans to apply Gestalt principles to child psychology. In a time in which pejorative eugenic beliefs dominated professional perceptions of disability, the Heiders' groundbreaking work defined the deaf as a social and phenomenological minority. This was in opposition to dominant beliefs in deaf education, yet it points to early roots of a social model of deafness and disability, which historians usually locate in 1960s and '70s activism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Organists and organ music composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural Basis of Psychological Growth following Adverse Experiences: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi X Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, research on the aftereffects of stressful or traumatic events has emphasized the negative outcomes from these experiences. However, the positive outcomes deriving from adversity are increasingly being examined, and such positive changes are described as posttraumatic growth (PTG. To investigate the relationship between basal whole-brain functional connectivity and PTG, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the neural networks using independent component analysis in a sample of 33 healthy controls. Correlations were calculated between the network connectivity strength and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI score. There were positive associations between the PTGI scores and brain activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal lobule (SPL within the left central executive network (CEN (respectively, r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.49, p < 0.001. Individuals with higher psychological growth following adverse experiences had stronger activation in prospective or working memory areas within the executive function network than did individuals with lower psychological growth (r = 0.40, p < 0.001. Moreover, we found that individuals with higher PTG demonstrated stronger connectivity between the SPL and supramarginal gyrus (SMG. The SMG is one of the brain regions associated with the ability to reason about the mental states of others, otherwise known as mentalizing. These findings suggest that individuals with higher psychological growth may have stronger functional connectivity between memory functions within the CEN and social functioning in the SMG, and that their better sociality may result from using more memory for mentalizing during their daily social interactions.

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SPOUSE’S EXPERIENCE OF SOME FAMILY CRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Anatolyevna Ivanchenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available By this research authors tried to find any psychological features of spouse’s experience of some normative family crises. 24 married couples from Novosibirsk, aged 20 to 41 years, take a part in this research. There were 8 couples at the «Childless couple stage» and 16 couples at the stage «Family with young children».Purpose is an identifying of psychological characteristics of some normative family’s crisesMethodology based on using of psychodiagnostic testing with Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III, test of Role expectations of partners (N.Volkova, test of  the interaction of the spouses in a conflict situation (Yu.E.Aleshina, L.Ya.Gozman, E.M.Dubovskaya and method of mathematical statistics with the Spearman rank criterion and the non- parametric Mann-Whitney U test.Results describe some psychological characteristics of spouses at the «Childless couple stage» and at the stage «Family with young children», include difference between men and women in this experience. The most important at the «Childless couple stage» is an attitude to expression of jealousy. If the family endures the crisis, spouses have an active negative reaction on an expression of jealousy. At the stage «Family with young children» at the forefront there are money disagreements, which prove an existence of family crisis from our point of view.   Practical implications are in the area of practical and scientific activity of family psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-14

  3. Reusing and Composing Components : Problems and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    Building software from reusable components is considered important in reducing development costs. Object-oriented languages such as C++, Smalltalk and Java, however, are not capable of expressing certain aspects of applications in a composable way. Software engineers may experience difficulties in

  4. A Blended Learning Experience in Statistics for Psychology Students Using the Evaluation as a Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto VALENTÍN CENTENO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching statistics course Applied Psychology, was based on different teaching models that incorporate active teaching methodologies. In this experience have combined approaches that prioritize the use of ICT with other where evaluation becomes an element of learning. This has involved the use of virtual platforms to support teaching that facilitate learning and activities where no face-to-face are combined. The design of the components of the course is inspired by the dimensions proposed by Carless (2003 model. This model uses evaluation as a learning element. The development of this experience has shown how the didactic proposal has been positively interpreted by students. Students recognized that they had to learn and deeply understand the basic concepts of the subject, so that they can teach and assess their peers.

  5. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  6. Optimal Color Design of Psychological Counseling Room by Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ye, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Color is one of the most powerful aspects of a psychological counseling environment. Little scientific research has been conducted on color design and much of the existing literature is based on observational studies. Using design of experiments and response surface methodology, this paper proposes an optimal color design approach for transforming patients’ perception into color elements. Six indices, pleasant-unpleasant, interesting-uninteresting, exciting-boring, relaxing-distressing, safe-fearful, and active-inactive, were used to assess patients’ impression. A total of 75 patients participated, including 42 for Experiment 1 and 33 for Experiment 2. 27 representative color samples were designed in Experiment 1, and the color sample (L = 75, a = 0, b = -60) was the most preferred one. In Experiment 2, this color sample was set as the ‘central point’, and three color attributes were optimized to maximize the patients’ satisfaction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can get the optimal solution for color design of a counseling room. PMID:24594683

  7. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.

  8. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic Of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.

  9. The Impact of Service-Learning-Type Experiences on Preservice Teachers' Integration of Principles of Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Beverly; He, Ye; Higgins, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this study, members (n = 48) of 2 sections of a required educational psychology course conducted 3 service-learning-type field experiences and wrote reflections on the experiences in relationship to the theories and principles addressed in the course. Participants also described their vision for teaching at the beginning and the end of the…

  10. Social and Psychological Predictors of Initial Cigarette Smoking Experience: A Survey in Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menati, Walieh; Nazarzadeh, Milad; Bidel, Zeinab; Würtz, Morten; Menati, Rostam; Hemati, Rohollah; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Zareimanesh, Elham; Mohammadi, Mohammad Sabour; Akhlaghi Ardekani, Farzad; Tazval, Jafar; Delpisheh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about social and psychological risk factors for initial cigarette smoking experience (ICSE) is sparse. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ICSE and to examine the psychological and social factors related to ICSE. In a cross-sectional survey, 1,511 male college students were recruited using multistage sampling techniques from four universities located within the city of Ilam, Iran. Self-administered multiple-choice questionnaires were distributed to students from March to June 2013. Risk factors for ICSE were evaluated using logistic regression models. Participants were 22.3 ± 2.4 years of age. ICSE prevalence was 30.6%. In multivariable adjusted analysis, risk taking behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.33), perceived peer smoking prevalence (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.03-5.97), positive thoughts about smoking (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02-1.10), high self-efficacy (OR = 0.95, 95% CI [0.93, 0.98]), presence in smokers' gathering (OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 2.88-6.81), comity of smokers (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.66, 3.92), very hard access to cigarettes (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.16-4.16), close friends' medium reaction toward smoking (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.02-1.88), and sporting activity (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.56-0.98) were significantly associated with ICSE. This study identified that a combination of psychological and social variables account for up to 78% of the probability of ICSE. The most important protective factor against ICSE was physical activity, whereas the most important risk factor for ICSE was frequent gathering in the presence of smokers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Seeking help for perinatal psychological distress: a meta-synthesis of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Susan; Thornton, Alexandra; Lee, Suzanne; Shakespeare, Judy; Ayers, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  12. Medical and Psychology Student's Experiences in Learning Mindfulness: Benefits, Paradoxes, and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Ida; Eriksen, Thor E; de Vibe, Michael; Haavind, Hanne; Friborg, Oddgeir; Sørlie, Tore; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    Mindfulness has attracted increased interest in the field of health professionals' education due to its proposed double benefit of providing self-help strategies to counter stress and burnout symptoms and cultivating attitudes central to the role of professional helpers. The current study explored the experiential aspects of learning mindfulness. Specifically, we explored how first-year medical and psychology students experienced and conceptualized mindfulness upon completion of a 7-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Twenty-two students participated in either two focus group interviews or ten in-depth interviews, and we performed an interpretive phenomenological analysis of the interview transcripts. All students reported increased attention and awareness of psychological and bodily phenomena. The majority also reported a shift in their attitudes towards their experiences in terms of decreased reactivity, increased curiosity, affect tolerance, patience and self-acceptance, and improved relational qualities. The experience of mindfulness was mediated by subjective intention and the interpretation of mindfulness training. The attentional elements of mindfulness were easier to grasp than the attitudinal ones, in particular with respect to the complex and inherently paradoxical elements of non-striving and radical acceptance. Some participants considered mindfulness as a means to more efficient instrumental task-oriented coping, whilst others reported increased sensitivity and tolerance towards their own state of mind. A broader range of program benefits appeared dependent upon embracing the paradoxes and integrating attitudinal elements in practising mindfulness. Ways in which culture and context may influence the experiences in learning mindfulness are discussed along with practical, conceptual, and research implications.

  13. "I am anxious and desperate": psychological experiences of women with infertility in The Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Ernestina S; Naab, Florence; Kussiwaah, Deborah Y

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that infertility affects millions of couples worldwide. Infertility is considered one of the most difficult life experiences and can result in psychological consequences for couples, especially for women. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological experiences of women with infertility. A qualitative exploratory descriptive approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews. The psychological component of the bio-psychosocial model was used as a guiding framework to understand the experiences of women with infertility. Fourteen women were selected based on the purpose of the study and provided their informed consent, and were interviewed between November 2015 and January 2016. All the women were recruited from the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Each interview lasted for 30 to 40 min. All interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The findings from the study showed that women with fertility problems experienced many emotional difficulties such as loneliness, anxiety, depression, lack of concentration, worrying, and reduced sexual satisfaction. Women in this study encountered psychological challenges and experienced emotional distress. Such women would benefit from psychological support such as counseling to help alleviate their psychological problems. These findings have implications for the care of women with infertility in Ghana.

  14. Exploring the experience of psychological morbidity and service access in community dwelling stroke survivors: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Dickson, Alexandra; Magin, Parker; Tapley, Amanda; Attia, John; Sturm, John; Carter, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression occurs in one-third of stroke survivors with a similar risk of development across short, intermediate and long-term recovery stages. Knowledge of factors influencing psychological morbidity beyond the first year post-stroke can inform long-term interventions and improve community service access for stroke survivors. This paper aimed to identify the physical and psycho-social functioning status of stroke survivors beyond 12 months post-stroke. Qualitative processes explored the longer term experiences of psychological morbidity and service access needs. A cross-sectional follow-up of participants from a prospective cohort study. In that study, patients and were followed for 12 months post-stroke. In this study, participants from that cohort study were interviewed up to five years post-stroke. Data generation and analysis were concurrent and were analysed thematically, employing a process of constant comparison. Our sample included 14 participants, aged 58-89 years at an average of three years post-stroke (range 18 months to five years). Our qualitative key themes emerged as follows: physical impacts on post-stroke psychological morbidity, the experience of psychological distress, factors attenuating distress and service delivery implications. The experience of psychological morbidity persists beyond 12 months post-stroke, having a profound impact on community access, and social participation. Clinical implications are a need for long-term psychological monitoring post-stroke and for ongoing rehabilitation that addresses disability, community participation and social support.

  15. Psychological distress in families of victims of maritime piracy - the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Angioli, Rolando Degli; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Amenta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This work has investigated the psychological status of family members of kidnapped seafarers, 5 months after their release. The goal of this study was to assess if relatives of victims of maritime piracy showed signs of psychological distress, to diagnose eventual pathologies and to measure their severity. Twelve family members (8 females and 4 males) of 4 kidnapped seafarers were examined. They were first interviewed by a semi-structured approach and then examined using the self-report questionnaire State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Five months after the relatives had been released, 42% of the family members of kidnapped seafarers obtained pathological scores in the STAI-Y questionnaire, and 33% showed depression according to the HDRS. Family members of kidnapped seafarers show significant psychopathological symptoms 5 months after relatives have been released. Symptoms may be severe enough to interfere with daily life in about one half of them. Kidnapping is a changing life experience and both victims and relatives require attention and support.

  16. Transformations of self and sexuality: psychologically modified experiences in the context of forensic mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Reavey, Paula; Kanyeredzi, Ava; Batty, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Forensic mental health inpatients in medium-secure settings have a limited capacity for sexual expression during their stay in hospital. This is due to a number of factors, including a lack of willingness on behalf of staff to engage with sexual issues, as a result of safety fears and ambiguity regarding the ability of the patient to consent. Furthermore, UK forensic medium-secure units do not provide conjugal suites for patients to have sexual relations, with their spouse or other patients. To date, there is no empirical research on how forensic psychiatric patients (or service users) manage their sexuality, while in hospital and when released into the community. Here, we present an analysis of semi-structured interviews with patients at a UK medium forensic unit, in order to explore these issues further. More specifically, we examine how the public exclusion of sexuality from these units results in sexuality being experienced as sectioned off or amputated, such that a new form of sexuality emerges, one that has been cultivated by the psychologically informed practices operating within the unit. This process, we argue, produces a psychologically modified experience, a new form of self-relation that continues to modify when released into the broader ecology of the community.

  17. Clinical psychology service users' experiences of confidentiality and informed consent: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, S J; Chambers, E; Thompson, A R

    2009-12-01

    To explore and describe the experience of clinical psychology service users in relation to the processes associated with confidentiality and the generation of informed consent in individual therapy. A qualitative interview-based study employing interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted with service users. User researchers were active collaborators in the study. A focus group of four users was convened to explore issues related to confidentiality and consent, which then informed the development of the semi-structured interview schedule. Twelve users of community mental health clinical psychology services were interviewed by user researchers. A user researcher and a clinical psychologist undertook joint analysis of the data. A second clinical psychologist facilitated reflexivity and wider consideration of validity issues. Four main themes were identified from the data: being referred; the participant's feelings, mental health difficulties, and their impact; relationships with workers and carers; and autonomy. The meaningfulness of processes of discussing confidentiality, and generating informed consent, can be improved by psychologists placing a greater emphasis on choice, control, autonomy, individual preferences, and actively involving the user in dialogue on repeated occasions.

  18. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  19. Children's experiences of maternal incarceration-specific risks: predictions to psychological maladaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Thrash, Todd M

    2015-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children's experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother's arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children's psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age = 9.8 years, range = 6-12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children's experiences related to maternal incarceration and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children's incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children's exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration.

  20. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  1. Psychological characteristics and perceptions of stuttering of adults who stutter with and without support group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P

    2013-12-01

    To compare adults who stutter with and without support group experience on measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, life satisfaction, self-stigma, perceived stuttering severity, perceived origin and future course of stuttering, and importance of fluency. Participants were 279 adults who stutter recruited from the National Stuttering Association and Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed a Web-based survey comprised of various measures of well-being including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, a measure of perceived stuttering severity, the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale, and other stuttering-related questions. Participants with support group experience as a whole demonstrated lower internalized stigma, were more likely to believe that they would stutter for the rest of their lives, and less likely to perceive production of fluent speech as being highly or moderately important when talking to other people, compared to participants with no support group experience. Individuals who joined support groups to help others feel better about themselves reported higher self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction, and lower internalized stigma and perceived stuttering severity, compared to participants with no support group experience. Participants who stutter as an overall group demonstrated similar levels of self-esteem, higher self-efficacy, and lower life satisfaction compared to averages from normative data for adults who do not stutter. Findings support the notion that self-help support groups limit internalization of negative attitudes about the self, and that focusing on helping others feel better in a support group context is linked to higher levels of psychological well-being. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe the potential psychological benefits of stuttering self-help support groups for people who stutter, (b) contrast between

  2. Assessing the monitor warm-up time required before a psychological experiment can begin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poth, Christian H.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual experiments in psychology, psychophysics, and cognitive neuroscience require precise control over stimulus characteristics, such as luminance and contrast. In such experiments, stimuli are most often presented using computer monitors. These monitors bear an often neglected and rarely reported source of experimental confounds and uncontrolled variation: they take a warm-up time in which their luminance systematically changes until a stable level is eventually reached. Here we demonstrate this problem by measuring luminance over time for five different monitors. Results indicate that not only the warm-up time but also the course that the warm-up takes can vary greatly between different monitors. To address this problem, we propose a simple method of approximating a monitor\\IeC {\\textquoteright }s warm-up time, which takes into account theoretical considerations of the specific experiment. On this basis, we suggest a standardized experimental procedure and a standardized way of reporting its results to enable experimenters to control for monitor warm-up time.

  3. PsyToolkit: a software package for programming psychological experiments using Linux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2010-11-01

    PsyToolkit is a set of software tools for programming psychological experiments on Linux computers. Given that PsyToolkit is freely available under the Gnu Public License, open source, and designed such that it can easily be modified and extended for individual needs, it is suitable not only for technically oriented Linux users, but also for students, researchers on small budgets, and universities in developing countries. The software includes a high-level scripting language, a library for the programming language C, and a questionnaire presenter. The software easily integrates with other open source tools, such as the statistical software package R. PsyToolkit is designed to work with external hardware (including IoLab and Cedrus response keyboards and two common digital input/output boards) and to support millisecond timing precision. Four in-depth examples explain the basic functionality of PsyToolkit. Example 1 demonstrates a stimulus-response compatibility experiment. Example 2 demonstrates a novel mouse-controlled visual search experiment. Example 3 shows how to control light emitting diodes using PsyToolkit, and Example 4 shows how to build a light-detection sensor. The last two examples explain the electronic hardware setup such that they can even be used with other software packages.

  4. Psychological profile of Turkish rock climbers: an examination of climbing experience and route difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşçi, F Hülya; Demirhan, Giyasettin; Dinç, S Cem

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and intrinsic and extrinsic motives of rock climbers and to compare these psychological constructs with respect to their years of climbing experience and the difficulty of their climbing routes. 64 climbers (M age=29.1 yr., SD=6.4) voluntarily participated in this study. The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) were administered to the rock climbers. Analysis indicated that the mean score of rock climbers on the Novelty subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale was 33.9 (SD= 3.6) and mean value on the Intensity subscale was 29.2 (SD=5.2). The mean scores of rock climbers on the PSDQ ranged between 3.9 (SD= 1.0, Physical Activity) and 5.1 (SD= 1.1, Body Fat). Descriptive analysis indicated that the highest mean score of rock climbers on the SMS was obtained in Intrinsic motivation to Experience Stimulation (5.7, SD= 0.9). The independent sample t test showed no significant differences in sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and sport motivation with regard to years of climbing experience and route difficulty (p>.05). It may be concluded that sensation seeking in climbers is high, and they have internal motivational orientation and positive physical self-perception; their competence in climbing has no obvious relationship to these variables.

  5. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Influence of Combat Experience on Psychologically Healthy Soldiers' Attentiveness to Environmental Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranes, Bethany; Long, Chris P; Traynham, Stephanie; Hayes, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain. We predict that the intensity of one's combat experience positively influences Soldiers' attention to environmental threats. Participants included U. S. Army Soldiers with a score of 50 or below on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Participants completed the Combat Exposure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental prediction task we employed assesses the expectation of an intrusively loud white noise sound that occurred on three variable patterns in a pseudorandomized order. Each tone pattern was used 20 times over a total of 60 trials. The experimental prediction task included two neutral tones (700 and 1,300 Hz) that were presented in a repeated pattern along with a 100-dB burst of white noise (0.5-second duration). In each trial, one of three possible tone combinations was presented. To assess their attentiveness to threats, participants were asked to continuously rate their expectancy of the burst of white noise using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. VAS ratings were collected at controlled points throughout the task. None of the participants reported scores on any of the diagnostic surveys that met standards for clinical significance. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the overall effect of the three prediction conditions on participants' VAS ratings. There was a significant

  7. Identifying Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in Childhood that Jeopardize Mental Health in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…

  8. Personal Experience in Positive Psychology May Offer a New Focus for a Growing Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article presents comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham ("American Psychologist," v67 n2 p101-110 Feb-Mar 2012). The authors indicated the need to think beyond positive psychology. In particular, they argued that positive psychology needs "to move beyond labeling psychological traits and processes as positive." In general,…

  9. Psychology of democracy and democratization: Experience from Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Supplement (2012), s. 694-694 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : political psychology * democratization * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  10. When expectations predict experience: the influence of psychological factors on chemotherapy toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Hayley S; Olver, Ian N

    2012-06-01

    Patients with cancer undergoing similar treatments experience variable severity and frequency of side effects not adequately explained by pharmacological mechanisms, suggesting psychological influence. First, this study aimed to further examine the relationship between patients' expectations of multiple chemotherapy-related toxicities and experiences. Second, this study aimed to explore the impact of anxiety and cancer coping styles to aid in informing interventions to lessen such expectations. A total of 59 eligible, consenting patients with cancer rated their expectations of 20 chemotherapy toxicities on 100-point linear analogue self-assessment indicators before treatment and completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale. Patients then rated their experience of side effects after one chemotherapy session. Regressions controlling primary treating nurse influence and patient performance status showed toxicity experience was significantly predicted by patient expectations of mood changes, bleeding, skin itchiness, hair loss, feeling tired, and sleep disturbance (β=0.30-0.55). Anxiety was significantly related to expectations of nervousness and mood changes; the coping style Fighting Spirit showed no significant associations, whereas conversely, Anxious Preoccupation showed some degree of association with all 20 toxicities (r=0.11-0.34). Findings support the growing contention that patient expectations influence experience, negatively impacting quality of life. As it is unethical to withhold treatment information, research into screening for at-risk patients and offering brief interventions to minimize Anxious Preoccupation could be one way to reduce overall side effect burden, perhaps in the case of many medical interventions. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  12. Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. Keywords: thinking geometries; literature; possible place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marandola Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. t

  13. Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. Keywords: thinking geometries; literature; possible place

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Marandola Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. t

  14. [Psychology and basic attention: experiences of trainees in Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Valdemar Donizeti; Cury, Vera Engler

    2009-10-01

    This study shows a qualitative research based on a humanist theory in relation to the experiences of trainees from the psychology course of PUC-Campinas, that are participating in family health teams in the areas of Health/Clinic and basic attention in public health. The participants were six trainees in the last year of the course and located in two Health-School Centers in the Northwest region of Campinas. The methodology used was an ethnographic view. The processes of data composition were produced in two different moments: a) by weekly register on the trainee's personal diary during five months; b) semi-directed individual interviews at the end of the term. These data were analyzed according to a phenomenological reading. It was found evolutive stages in the process of the trainee formation. Initially, the experience was lived with surprise and strangeness, resulting in contradictory feelings of innapropriation to their inexperience to work in teams. On the other hand, because they were well received by the group, there was a personal transformation considered to be very enriching, symbolized as a single felling of belonging, motivating efforts to a creative and integrating clinic practice.

  15. Microgenetic experiment in developmental psychology: A new approach to discover cognitive change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Svetina

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Microgenetic experiment is relatively new tool in a developmental psychology research. It is primarily used in discovering broad range of cognitive processes such as the development of logical operations, memory and attention as well as beliefs or school adaptation. Designed as an extension of simple longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches it is convinient to research mental processes in all developmental stages of human being, from infancy to the old age. Microgenetic approach is characterised with repeated observations of behaviour. Observations are carried out in a relatively short period of time and yet they cover the whole interval between first appearance and stabilisation of a process in a subject. The microgenetic approach offers a good insight into the nature and development of the change. The article presents the general steps in both forming and performing of a microgenetic experiment, as well as the approaches used in the data analyses. On more general level, the article presents major practical and theoretical advantages and disadvantages of a microgenetic approach to be considered in the future.

  16. A reminder on millisecond timing accuracy and potential replication failure in computer-based psychology experiments: An open letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    There is an ongoing 'replication crisis' across the field of psychology in which researchers, funders, and members of the public are questioning the results of some scientific studies and the validity of the data they are based upon. However, few have considered that a growing proportion of research in modern psychology is conducted using a computer. Could it simply be that the hardware and software, or experiment generator, being used to run the experiment itself be a cause of millisecond timing error and subsequent replication failure? This article serves as a reminder that millisecond timing accuracy in psychology studies remains an important issue and that care needs to be taken to ensure that studies can be replicated on current computer hardware and software.

  17. The eXperience Induction Machine: A New Paradigm for Mixed-Reality Interaction Design and Psychological Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Duff, Armin; Inderbitzin, Martin; Le Groux, Sylvain; Manzolli, Jônatas; Mathews, Zenon; Mura, Anna; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    The eXperience Induction Machine (XIM) is one of the most advanced mixed-reality spaces available today. XIM is an immersive space that consists of physical sensors and effectors and which is conceptualized as a general-purpose infrastructure for research in the field of psychology and human-artifact interaction. In this chapter, we set out the epistemological rational behind XIM by putting the installation in the context of psychological research. The design and implementation of XIM are based on principles and technologies of neuromorphic control. We give a detailed description of the hardware infrastructure and software architecture, including the logic of the overall behavioral control. To illustrate the approach toward psychological experimentation, we discuss a number of practical applications of XIM. These include the so-called, persistent virtual community, the application in the research of the relationship between human experience and multi-modal stimulation, and an investigation of a mixed-reality social interaction paradigm.

  18. Experiences of Psychological Distress and Sources of Stress and Support During Medical Training: a Survey of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Katherine M; Barrett, Tessa; Landine, Jeff; McLuckie, Alan; Soh, Nerissa Li-Weh; Walter, Garry

    2016-02-01

    The authors examine the prevalence of psychological distress, the stressors experienced, and the supports used by medical students and residents during their medical training at a Canadian university. This study used an online survey that included a standardized instrument to evaluate psychological distress (Kessler-10) and Likert-based survey items that examined stress levels related to family relationships, living accommodations, commuting, finances, and program requirements. Depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation were also measured, as were supports accessed (e.g., counseling) and students' perceptions of the overall supportiveness of the university. Non-parametric descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of psychological distress, sources of stress, and supports accessed. Surveys were received from 381 students (37% response). Most students (60%) reported normal levels of psychological distress on the K10 (M = 19.5, SD = 6.25), and a subgroup reported high to very high levels of psychological distress. A small number also reported substance use, symptoms of depression, and/or suicidal ideation. These results indicate that students experience psychological distress from a number of stressors and suggest that medical schools should act as key partners in supporting student well-being by promoting self-care, educating students on the risks of burnout, and developing programs to support at-risk students.

  19. If It's Going to Be, It's up to Me: First-Year Psychology Students' Experiences Regarding Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Luzelle; Nel, Lindi; van der Watt, Ronel; Tadi, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Student life is marked by substantial growth in areas such as self-regulation abilities. In this article, the experiences of first-year Psychology students are explored through the lenses of the self-determination theory. Both content and thematic analyses were done with 79 students' reflections on the aspects they regarded as…

  20. Reaction to the Special Issue on Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This reaction article comments on the Major Contribution "Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology." The content analysis of the published literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color from 1998 to 2007 provides much-needed information that will help psychologists set future research agendas and…

  1. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to a specific perceptual, emotional, attentional, or cognitive process and observing it in a non-judgmental, non-personal way. In addition, students could choose to participate, for bonus credit, in a longer exercise designed to expand upon the weekly class activity. In the exercise, students continued their “personal brain investigations” for 10 min a day, 4 days a week. They wrote “lab reports” on their daily observations, obtained feedback from the teacher, and at the end of the year reviewed their reports and reflected upon their experiences during the semester. Out of 265 students, 102 students completed the bonus track and their final reflections were analyzed using qualitative methodology. In addition, 91 of the students answered a survey at the end of the course, 43 students participated in a quiz 1 year after course graduation, and the final grades of all students were collected and analyzed. Overall, students reported satisfaction from the exercises and felt they contributed to their learning experience. In the 1-year follow-up, the bonus-track students were significantly more likely than their peers to remember class material. The qualitative analysis of bonus-track students' reports revealed that the bonus-track process elicited positive feelings, helped students connect with class material and provided them with personal insights. In addition, students acquired contemplative skills, such as increased awareness and attention, non-judgmental attitudes, and

  2. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  3. Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation. Effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, J A

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an 8-week stress reduction program based on training in mindfulness meditation. Previous research efforts suggesting this program may be beneficial in terms of reducing stress-related symptomatology and helping patients cope with chronic pain have been limited by a lack of adequate comparison control group. Twenty-eight individuals who volunteered to participate in the present study were randomized into either an experimental group or a nonintervention control group. Following participation, experimental subjects, when compared with controls, evidenced significantly greater changes in terms of: (1) reductions in overall psychological symptomatology; (2) increase in overall domain-specific sense of control and utilization of an accepting or yielding mode of control in their lives, and (3) higher scores on a measure of spiritual experiences. The techniques of mindfulness meditation, with their emphasis on developing detached observation and awareness of the contents of consciousness, may represent a powerful cognitive behavioral coping strategy for transforming the ways in which we respond to life events. They may also have potential for relapse prevention in affective disorders.

  4. Association between socioeconomic and psychological experiences of parents with children on Leukemia treatment in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne Anyango Okumu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data were collected between May and August 2015 using structured questionnaires while qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions. This manuscript is based on quantitative data which were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Psychological distress index was created by counting the number of psychological experiences reported by respondents. Kendall's tau-b was used to test the association between the psychological distress index and socioeconomic characteristics; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The respondents experienced anxiety, shock, and fatigue. Spending a higher proportion of family's income was associated with higher psychological distress index (P = 0.009. The economic challenge led to significantly heightened tension in the family (P = 0.021. Conclusions: Financial challenge is a major cause of psychological distress thus needs for financial support through collaboration with government institutions, for example, NHIF, development agencies, and nongovernment organization who can contribute toward the treatment cost. Need to decentralize effective leukemia treatment centers. Psychological support and counseling should be done to alleviate tension. The nurse needs to be empathetic when caring for the child and family as well as to apply the ethical principles of justice and beneficence so that the child gets the best care despite the financial challenge.

  5. Q&A: The AI composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Computer scientist Luc Steels uses artificial intelligence to explore the origins and evolution of language. He is best known for his 1999-2001 Talking Heads Experiment, in which robots had to construct a language from scratch to communicate with each other. Now Steels, who works at the Free University of Brussels (VUB), has composed an opera based on the legend of Faust, with a twenty-first-century twist. He talks about Mozart as a nascent computer programmer, how music maps onto language, and the blurred boundaries of a digitized world.

  6. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  7. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  8. Composing Music with Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  9. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    data types and to define extensible functions on data types in an ad hoc manner. The implementation makes essential use of closed type families in Haskell. The use of closed type families instead of type classes comes with a set of trade-offs, which we review in detail. Finally, we show that our......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  10. Counseling psychology trainees' experiences with debt stress: a mixed methods examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Garriott, Amber N; Garriott, Patton O; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2015-04-01

    Financial debt accrued by graduate psychology students has increased in recent years and is a chief concern among psychology trainees (El-Ghoroury, Galper, Sawaqdeh, & Bufka, 2012). This study examined debt stress among counseling psychology trainees using a complementary mixed methods research design. Qualitative analyses (N = 11) using the consensual qualitative research method (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997; Hill et al., 2005) revealed six domains, 15 categories, and 34 subcategories. Domains included social class contributions, institutional contributions, long-term effects, coping mechanisms, personal relationships, and effect on well-being. The transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and social class worldview model (Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, & Pickett, 2004) guided quantitative analyses. Results of a path analysis (N = 285) indicated total debt and subjective social class were significant predictors of debt stress and that the relationship between debt stress and psychological distress was mediated by avoidant coping. Avoidant coping also moderated the association between debt stress and psychological distress. Results are discussed in relation to professional training and the career development of counseling psychology trainees. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Principles and practical procedures for acute psychological first aid training for personnel without mental health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.

  12. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati; Seyyed Mohiadin Bahari; Pejman Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men) of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier...

  13. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic Of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati; Seyyed Mohiadin Bahari; Pejman Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men) of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier...

  14. Labor market integration, immigration experience, and psychological distress in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrants residing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana F; Dias, Sónia F

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at examining how factors relating to immigrants' experience in the host country affect psychological distress (PD). Specifically, we analyzed the association among socio-economic status (SES), integration in the labor market, specific immigration experience characteristics, and PD in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrant individuals residing in Lisbon, Portugal. Using a sample (n = 1375) consisting of all main immigrant groups residing in Portugal's metropolitan area of Lisbon, we estimated multivariable linear regression models of PD regressed on selected sets of socio-economic independent variables. A psychological distress scale was constructed based on five items (feeling physically tired, feeling psychologically tired, feeling happy, feeling full of energy, and feeling lonely). Variables associated with a decrease in PD are being a male (demographic), being satisfied with their income level (SES), living with the core family and having higher number of children (social isolation), planning to remain for longer periods of time in Portugal (migration project), and whether respondents considered themselves to be in good health condition (subjective health status). Study variables negatively associated with immigrants' PD were job insecurity (labor market), and the perception that health professionals were not willing to understand immigrants during a clinical interaction. The study findings emphasized the importance of labor market integration and access to good quality jobs for immigrants' psychological well-being, as well as the existence of family ties in the host country, intention to reside long term in the host country, and high subjective (physical) health. Our research suggests the need to foster cross-national studies of immigrant populations in order to understand the social mechanisms that transverse all migrant groups and contribute to lower psychological well-being.

  15. The experience of psychological distress, depression, and anxiety during pregnancy: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra A; Bogossian, Fiona; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-06-01

    to systematically review qualitative research that explores the experience of maternal antenatal psychological distress, such as depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy. a meta-synthesis was conducted to integrate the findings of qualitative studies. Eight final eligible studies were scrutinised, recurring themes were extracted and compared across studies, and core themes were identified. five core themes of the experience of pregnancy distress were identified: Recognising that things are not right, Dealing with stigma, Negotiating the transformation, Spiralling down, and Regaining control. In the interpretation of these concepts the experience of maternal antenatal distress was depicted as a process similar to the one of grief and loss, as a result of women׳s inability to situate their experience within the 'perfect mother' discourse. women who experience psychological distress undergo a specific process of transformation towards motherhood that begins during pregnancy. This process is exacerbated by their interpretation of their experience as deviant and often as inadequate. this review will assist health professionals in translating and negotiating the transformation towards motherhood for women experiencing pregnancy distress, in a timely and meaningful manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  17. African American elders' psychological-social-spiritual cultural experiences across serious illness: an integrative literature review through a palliative care lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Heather Lea

    2017-07-01

    Disparities in palliative care for seriously ill African American elders exist because of gaps in knowledge around culturally sensitive psychological, social, and spiritual care. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize the research examining African American elders' psychological, social, and spiritual illness experiences. Of 108 articles, 60 quantitative, 42 qualitative, and 6 mixed methods studies were reviewed. Negative and positive psychological, social, and spiritual experiences were noted. These experiences impacted both the African American elders' quality of life and satisfaction with care. Due to the gaps noted around psychological, social, and spiritual healing and suffering for African American elders, palliative care science should continue exploration of seriously ill African American elders' psychological, social, and spiritual care needs.

  18. Psychological Readiness for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery: Describing and Comparing the Adolescent and Adult Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, Eileen; Donald Shelbourne, K; Gray, Tinker

    2003-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to describe the preoperative mood levels and psychological readiness levels of patients undergoing primary reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to examine differences between adolescent and adult sports medicine patients relative to psychological readiness for ACL surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects prospectively completed assessments of preoperative mood and psychological readiness for ACL surgery and rehabilitation. SUBJECTS: The sample consisted of subjects (N = 121) involved, on average, in sport or exercise participation 12.5 h/wk (SD = 7.5); subgroups included adolescents (15-19 years of age, n = 67) and adults (>/=30 years of age, n = 32). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects preoperatively provided self-reported assessments of demographics, mood disturbances, 10 psychological processes of change (consciousness raising, dramatic relief, environmental reevaluation, social liberation, self-reevaluation, counterconditioning, helping relationships, reinforcement management, stimulus control, and self-liberation), decisional balance (pros versus cons of surgery), and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Relative to the first objective, subjects reported more pros than cons associated with surgery and relatively high levels of self-efficacy. Relative to the second objective, a significant main effect was noted (Wilks lambda = 0.58, P <.01), with 42% of the variance in the dependent variables being attributed to differences among adolescents as compared with adults. Follow-up analyses indicated that, as compared with adults, adolescents reported higher mood disturbances, more pros associated with surgery, and greater use of dramatic relief, environmental reevaluation, social liberation, helping relationships, and self-liberation. CONCLUSIONS: It may be advantageous to screen patients preoperatively relative to their psychological readiness for surgery and rehabilitation. Also, adolescents reported higher preoperative mood

  19. "I Don't Feel Trapped Anymore…i Feel Like a Bird": People with Learning Disabilities' Experience of Psychological Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicola; Lewis, Karin; Davies, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are very few studies that investigate the qualitative experiences of people with a learning disability who have engaged in psychological therapy. Indeed, having a learning disability has traditionally been an exclusion criterion for good quality research about psychological treatments ("Psychotherapy and Learning Disability.…

  20. Afghan and Kurdish refugees, 8-20 years after resettlement, still experience psychological distress and challenges to well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-04-01

    To examine the resettlement experiences and provide data of well being and psychological distress for Afghan and Kurdish refugees settled between eight and 20 years in New Zealand and Australia. Participants completed the Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and Personal Well Being Index (PWI) for subjective well being. A mixed methods approach was used, with participants also discussing during interview resettlement difficulties, quality of life (QOL) and sources of stress. Data from 81 Muslim participants is reported; all spoke English, were generally well educated with 88% having secondary or tertiary level education, and the majority of those resettled before 2001 lived in Perth. Although psychological distress levels were mostly within the low-moderate risk range, significant differences were observed by gender and employment status. Participants identified a range of ongoing stressors with unemployment of particular concern. Social isolation and a sense that they would never really 'fit in' was also reported by some. Participants particularly valued the safety and improved quality of life in their host communities. Despite their appreciation of the overall resettlement experience, too much time to introspect, separation from family, status dissonance and still occasionally feeling overwhelmed by resettlement challenges is a long-term ongoing reality for some former refugees. Former refugees continue to struggle with unemployment, possible discrimination and loss of status long-term. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Racial Group Membership and Multicultural Training: Examining the Experiences of Counseling and Counseling Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Lee, Minsun; Fetzer, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    This study documents various process elements of multicultural training from the perspective of counseling and counseling psychology students within the United States (US). Using a mixed-methods approach, findings indicate that racial group membership is an important variable that differentially impacts White students and students of Color while…

  2. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  3. Leadership Style and Communication Process: An Experiment Using the Psychological Isotope Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.; And Others

    The "psychological isotope" technique was used to study the effect of leadership style on group process and productivity, by planting identifiable units of information with specific group members. Data indicated that the movement of these traceable bits provides data on the flow of information in the group, the relative influence and impact of…

  4. Psychological Availability : How work experiences spill over into daily family interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner-Vlaardingerbroek, G.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigated how workday residuals spill over into the quality of marital relationships and into the quality of parent–child interactions after the workday, through being more or less psychologically available for the other. In addition, in this dissertation we investigated which

  5. Exploring Reticence in Research Methods: The Experience of Studying Psychological Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…

  6. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…

  7. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescents Orphans with Different Experience of Living in a Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Tatyana I.; Savchenko, Daria D.; Filinkova, Evgeniya B.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of settling adolescents-orphans in foster families and significant number of break-downs in these families are the problems which determine the relevance of current research. Many adolescent orphans get in social institutions repeatedly, because their psychological features lead to difficulties that their foster parents are unable…

  8. Report of the Conference on Psychological Experiments Related to Second-Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimsleur, Paul; And Others

    Fourteen research proposals related to the psychology of second-language learning are described in this report. Each project description includes: (1) background and objectives, (2) procedure, (3) duration, (4) personnel recommendations, and (5) budget estimates. Discussion questions center on the areas of language teaching materials, student…

  9. Perceptions & Experiences in Higher Education: A National Study of Multiracial Asian American and Latino/a Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tara D.; Maton, Kenneth I.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending US campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to utilize data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared two multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, to their single heritage counterparts on several variables of interest – academic supports and barriers; linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity; and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research and implications are discussed. PMID:25111546

  10. Sport psychological associations role to create growth and stimulate networking in sports, federations and academia - experiences from Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker-Larsen, Astrid; Edvardsson, Arne

    of SIPF or DIFO. The association’s goals are to promote and develop sports psychology research, teaching and applied practice by gathering experiences from different practitioners (e.g., academia, federations and sports). Therfore, it is in both assocations intrest to come togheter and discuss the past...... and networkning in sports, federations and academia. Metod/Method Board members from DIFO and SIPF have been invited to participate in this symposium. To initate discussion the participants have been given the assignment to answer the 3 open questions regarding their association: “What have you done in the past...... directions for future growth and networking opportunities. Resultat/Results The ideas and future direction regarding growth and networking in sport psychology discussed in this symposium will be summarized in a shared guideline document. Diskussion och slutsatser/Discussion and conclusions For the continued...

  11. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  12. The Experience of Death and Dying: Psychological, Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Grof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some psychological, philosophical, and spiritual aspects of the research on death and dying. The author challenges materialistic understanding of death, based on metaphysical assumption inherited from the Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm that had became one of the leading myths of the Western science, according to which consciousness is an epiphenomenon of matter, a product of the physiological processes in the brain, and thus critically dependent on the body. By reviewing the existing data and observations from various fields of research he points out to the fact that there is no proof for such a reductive claim. The research of the psychological, philosophical, and spiritual aspects of death and dying discussed in this paper offers considerable theoretical and practical implications, enabling the refusal of materialistic interpretation of death as the final end of human existence and conscious activity of any kind.

  13. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling

  14. Older Brazilian women's experience of psychological domestic violence: a social phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Guruge, Sepali; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de

    2015-05-12

    Domestic violence is a global public health issue, as it is in Brazil. The psychological violence is one of the most prevalent forms of domestic violence, affecting more women than men. However, many older adults do not consider it as a type of domestic violence. In addiction, psychological violence has received little attention from researchers. So, this study aims to further understand the phenomenon of psychological domestic violence perpetrated by relatives against older adult women (60 years and older). A qualitative study was conducted using a social phenomenological approach proposed by Alfred Schütz. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 older Brazilian women from three different agencies, two in Campina Grande and one in São Bernardo do Campo. Data collection took place between November 2012 and February 2013. We performed data analysis using the key concepts (such as the world of everyday life, natural attitude, intersubjetivity, stock of knowledge, biographical situation, social action, motivation and typification) proposed by Alfred Schutz. Despite the fact that participants reported being psychologically abused, they also referred to being neglected and financially abused. They revealed being threatened, disrespected, neglected, financially abused, forced to do housework, and humiliated. Older women expressed feelings of sadness, anger, grief, and fear, which had negative effects on their health. Attempts by the participants to change their current situations were unsuccessful and resulted in feelings of helplessness. The abuser's behaviour will change, and leaving the abusive situation were two possible outcomes pointed for participants. A support network is crucial to help changing the behaviour of aggressors and/or to help older adult women leave the abusive situation. Further research is needed to understand the risk factors linked to abuse behaviours, to develop educational programs for the abusers, and to design social support for the

  15. Psychological responses to a marine disaster during a recoil phase: experiences from the Estonia shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiminen, T J; Tuominen, T

    1996-06-01

    The sinking of the car ferry, Estonia, was one of the world's most devastating marine disasters that has ever occurred in peace time. Altogether 138 passengers and crew members were rescued, and 38 of them were taken to the Turku University Central Hospital in Finland. The present article describes the various psychological reactions among the survivors during the first three days of the recoil phase.

  16. Analysis of sociodemographic, sport and psychological profile in a rock-climbing experience on university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Morilla Portela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among several psychological factors in rock climbing was proved a long time ago, nevertheless, most researches are limited to very artificial situations, far away from nature. There are few studies which have carried out this kind of investigation in the natural environment and have combined data collection with real rock climbing practice. The instruments used for this data collection were two questionnaires: CSAI-2 and another one specifically designed to gather the necessary information about sociodemographic characteristic and sport habits. In our work we have studied various individuals’ features (sociodemographic, general sport and outdoor profiles and we have confirmed how they are interrelated and their influence on several psychological factors (cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Through this article we show that there are higher percentages of women than men participants who climb IV-V grade, whereas in higher grades the percentages equalize. Regarding psychological factors, we can notice how on the one hand those participants who climb higher grades and are more interested in rock climbing, feel lower cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety, while on the other hand they feel higher self-confidence levels

  17. [12-Month Prevalence and Consequences of Current Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in a Sample of Patients who Entered First Time a Psychotherapeutic Outpatient Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, André; Fetz, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf; Schlack, Robert; Franz, Matthias; Joksimovic, Ljiljana

    2017-09-01

    Objective To examine current experiences of violence and its relationship with psychological burden in a psychotherapeutic outpatient sample. Methods 1074 patients of a psychotherapeutic outpatient-clinic of a university hospital completed a written violence screening questionnaire. Results Current experienced physical and psychological violence was two times higher compared to general population. Patients who experienced current violence reported significantly more psychological burden. Conclusion Use of violence screening in daily routine of a psychotherapeutic outpatient-clinic seems to be a promising approach to detect violence experiences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A Qualitative Description of HIV-Infected African American Women's Experiences of Psychological Distress and Their Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Jill N; Ogawa, Lisa; Tusher, Susan; Farnan, Rose; Gerkovich, Mary M

    HIV-infected individuals are at risk for psychological distress, including depression, sadness, and suicidality. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine 22 HIV-infected African American women's experiences of psychological distress and use of coping strategies. Data were collected through in-person one-on-one interviews until conceptual saturation was reached. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Four themes were found: (a) psychoemotional suffering, (b) contextual factors negatively influence the everydayness of living with HIV infection, (c) HIV-related stigma perpetuates isolation and loneliness, and (d) creating a safe haven. Implications for nurses and other health care providers include (a) holistic assessment to include evaluation of emotional and mental state, and (b) coping strategies. Integration of spiritual practices into plan of care is also important. Development and evaluation of individualized coping interventions that address stigma and psychological distress through holistic modalities is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychological experience of patients 3 months after a stay in the intensive care unit: A descriptive and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahraoui, Khadija; Laurent, Alexandra; Bioy, Antoine; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2015-06-01

    The purpose was to describe psychological experiences of patients 3 months after a stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) using qualitative methods. Twenty patients underwent clinical interview lasting 1 hour and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and Hospital Anxiety and Depression questionnaires. All interviews were recorded and coded using thematic analysis. All patients (100%) reported that they could not remember their ICU stay; half reported confused memories (50%) or disorientation (50%). Negatives memories were also reported (20%-45%), namely, pain, distress, sleep difficulties, noise, fear, feeling of abandonment; 20% reported positive memories. At 3 months, for 10 (50%) of 20 patients, their ICU experience was characterized by anxiety; 3 (15%) of 20 presented posttraumatic stress disorder; 7 (35%) of 20 reported a feeling of well-being with positive life changes. Well-being seems to be associated with use of coping strategies, such as active coping, positive reframing, optimism, humor, acceptance, leisure activities, and family support. Our study highlights the need to investigate patients' memories of ICU and the coping strategies used by patients to improve their ICU experience. Our findings suggest that a systematic follow-up consultation after ICU discharge would be useful for monitoring of post-ICU psychological outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The psychological health and well-being experiences of female military veterans: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gemma L; Hanley, T

    2017-10-01

    Women in the military are a minority group who, in addition to facing exposure to traumatic events due to the nature of the work, face additional stressors while deployed. It is argued that these exposures and experiences place individuals at a significantly higher risk of finding it difficult adjusting post deployment. This paper focuses on the psychological health and well-being of female veterans post-deployment. A systematic review of the literature related to female veterans' experiences upon returning home from deployment was conducted. Eight in-depth qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria for the study and were analysed using thematic analysis. Five key themes were identified in the papers: (1) bringing the war home, (2) post-deployment adjustment, (3) loss, (4) failed belongingness and (5) post-traumatic growth. These studies provide a useful insight into the different psychological health and well-being experiences that female veterans encounter. Additionally, the associated effects upon the individual and their families and communities are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Why Is 10 Past 10 the Default Setting for Clocks and Watches in Advertisements? A Psychological Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Karim; Lützenkirchen, Britta; Khedr, Eman; Khalil, Radwa

    2017-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that in watch advertisements the time is usually set at 10:10? The reasons and psychological effects of this default time setting are elusive. In Experiment 1, we hypothesized that watches showing a time setting resembling a smiling face (10:10) would enhance emotional valence and intention to buy compared to a neutral time setting (11:30), whereas a time setting resembling a sad face (8:20) would have the opposite effect. Moreover, we investigated a possible interaction...

  2. A Qualitative Exploration of the Help-Seeking Behaviors of Students Who Experience Psychological Distress Around Assessment at Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rachel I; Patel, Rakesh; Norman, Robert I

    2017-08-01

    Medical students are at high risk of experiencing psychological distress at medical school and developing mental ill-health during professional practice. Despite efforts by faculty to raise awareness about this risk, many students choose to suffer in silence in the face of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore drivers that prompted help-seeking behavior and barriers that prevented individuals prioritizing their well-being around the time of high-stakes assessment at medical school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-seven students who failed high-stakes assessment at two UK medical schools, exploring their experience of academic difficulty and perceptions about causes. A thematic analysis of twenty transcripts that met inclusion criteria was completed to identify key factors that influenced participants' decisions around seeking help for their psychological distress, and in some cases, mental health problems. Twenty participants who specifically described a deterioration in their mental health around the time of assessment were included in this study. Barriers to seeking help in these instances included: normalization of symptoms or situation; failure to recognize a problem existed; fear of stigmatisation; overt symptoms of mental distress; and misconceptions about the true nature of the medical school, for example beliefs about a punitive response from the school if they failed. Drivers for seeking help appropriately included: building trust with someone in order to confide in them later on, and self-awareness about the need to maintain good mental health. There are various drivers and barriers for students' help seeking behaviors when experiencing psychological distress around the time of assessment, particularly self-awareness about the problem and prioritisation of well-being. Students who fail to recognize their own deteriorating mental health are at risk of academic failure and medical schools need to develop

  3. “It's Your Problem. Deal with It.” Performers' Experiences of Psychological Challenges in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Pecen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Musicians need to deal with a range of challenges during their performance career and in response to these have reported a number of conditions that impact on their performance. Although social support from peers and teachers has been identified as part of the process of dealing with these challenges, little is understood about musicians' coping methods, beliefs and their attitudes toward support. Therefore, this study aimed to explore (a performers' previous experiences of psychological challenges, (b the types of support they used and, (c how this might inform future support programs in learning environments. Fifteen interviews were conducted with pre-elite (n = 5 transitioning elite (n = 3 and established elite performers (n = 7 in order to elicit data on psychological challenges, coping, beliefs and preferences for support. Inductive content analysis suggested that elite performers in this sample reported positive health habits, philosophical views of performance, health and life, positive anxiety reappraisal, and use of various psychological strategies, albeit without being explicitly aware of it. The need for various professional skills (e.g., communication, business, self-management, and organizational skills was emphasized by all participants. Transition into conservatoire was marked by severe psychological challenges, disorders and trauma. Primary sources of support included friends, family and self-help literature. Professional help was predominantly sought for physical problems. The impact of teachers was paramount, yet securing good teachers was considered a matter of “luck.” The most negative aspects recounted included abusive teachers, unsupportive environments, social comparison, competition, and disillusionment after entering the profession. Participants believed that talent could be developed and also valued wellbeing in relation to performance. Positive effects of late specialization on social development and professional

  4. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  5. New trends in «Traffic Psychology»: foreign experience , problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    T.V. Kochetova

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years the so-called «Traffic psychology» became a very popular object of research among foreign scientists.Economical and social development of the modern world and substantial affect of technological devices on human behavior, enhanced interest to the problem of subjects’ interaction in societal and «hand-made» environment. One of the subject matters connected with the study of this interaction is a special interest to the problems of road and traffic environment of a contemp...

  6. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  7. Psychological impact of disasters and terrorism on children and adolescents: experiences from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Sally; Raphael, Beverley

    2004-01-01

    Recent acts of terrorism have emphasised the need for research to further establish not only the nature of the impact of disaster and terrorism on the population, but also further define methods of effective intervention. Those affected, and often overlooked, include children and adolescents, yet, our knowledge of the impact upon the younger members of our community is limited. The literature is evolving, and there are a small number of valuable studies that can inform a response to the mental health needs of this younger population. This article reviews some of the psychological impacts of disaster and terrorism upon children and adolescents, and considers both risk and protective factors. The importance of a developmental approach to children's understanding of disaster, particularly death and the nature of grief and loss are discussed as is the distinction between the phenomenology of bereavement and trauma. Family and community support are highlighted as protective factors, and a number of recent, valuable recommendations for intervention including psychological first aid and cognitive-behavioral therapy are described. Finally, the complex role of the media and the degree that children should be exposed to images of violence and disaster is considered. Disasters, whether they are natural or human-made always will be with us. It is necessary that a public-health approach that not only prepares for such scenarios, but responds by maximising the use of existing systems and agency linkages, is taken.

  8. Real behavior in virtual environments: psychology experiments in a simple virtual-reality paradigm using video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Johansen, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to illustrate the broad usefulness of simple video-game-based virtual environments (VEs) for psychological research on real-world behavior. To this end, this research explored several high-level social phenomena in a simple, inexpensive computer-game environment: the reduced likelihood of helping under time pressure and the bystander effect, which is reduced helping in the presence of bystanders. In the first experiment, participants had to find the exit in a virtual labyrinth under either high or low time pressure. They encountered rooms with and without virtual bystanders, and in each room, a virtual person requested assistance. Participants helped significantly less frequently under time pressure but the presence/absence of a small number of bystanders did not significantly moderate helping. The second experiment increased the number of virtual bystanders, and participants were instructed to imagine that these were real people. Participants helped significantly less in rooms with large numbers of bystanders compared to rooms with no bystanders, thus demonstrating a bystander effect. These results indicate that even sophisticated high-level social behaviors can be observed and experimentally manipulated in simple VEs, thus implying the broad usefulness of this paradigm in psychological research as a good compromise between experimental control and ecological validity.

  9. Experiences in disaster-related mental health relief work: An exploratory model for the interprofessional training of psychological relief workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.

  10. [Reaction time tests in Leipzig, Paris and Würzburg. The Franco-German history of a psychological experiment, 1890-1910].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline; Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This article diiscusses from a comparative perspective the complex history of the reaction experiment with the Hipp chronoscope, one of the central experiments of late 19th-century psychology. It focuses on Wilhelm Wundt's (1832-1920) Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig and on the Paris Laboratory for Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne, which was initially directed by Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), but soon came to be dominated by the research activities of Alfred Binet (1857-1911). When the Paris psychologists founded their Laboratory in 1889, they took the Leipzig Institute as their model. In the early 1890s they adopted the reaction time experiment that had been central to Wundt's psychology. Shortly after, they modified this experiment according to their own specific interests. For Binet, it no longer served as a method for identifying the elementary components of "general" consciousness (as in Wundt), but for classifying "individual" personalities. The methodological and technological changes that Binet introduced into the experimental practice of psychology had no immediate impact on the research work in Leipzig. However, they influenced the "Wurzburg School" of psychology under Wundt's former assistant, Oswald Külpe (1862-1915). This illustrates that the comparative history of transfers of "experimental systems" (Rheinberger) across national borders is not simply a history of mere transports. Rather, it is a history of transferences that sometimes includes surprising "re-transferences".

  11. Workplace conflicts and psychological work-related injuries: our experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Taino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.

  12. Internet-Based Learning Tools:Development and Learning Psychology (DLP Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The project aims to establish a deeper involvement of students and teachers in the learning process by using the ICT in higher education. We will try to address the following two questions: "how can the use of ICT help educators to accomplishing their academic goals and how do the students use the ICT to develop their academic skills?" The work team constituted by four teaching staff and two researchers at the University of Aveiro has developed a project on the 'Development and Learning Psychology' course. The course follows the traditional style of lecturing but with a Web site as a supporting tool aiming at increasing the involvement and responsibility of the students in the class.

  13. Psychological characteristics of adolescent orphans with no experience of socialization in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Shulga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the study results of psychological characteristics of adolescent orphans living outside the family and having a violation of socialization at the micro level. It was assumed that children experiencing total maternal deprivation from birth, have difficulties in adapting to life. It was revealed that in this group of adolescents the level of motivational tendencies is higher, reflecting a fear of rejection, and the level of suspicion. They are more than their peers convinced that other people are plotting something evil and can cause harm to demonstrate high degree of irritability, ready to show negative feelings at the slightest excitation (short temper, rudeness, stress, anger. These features are important to understand by specialists to create an educational system that allows to correct the negative aspects, prepare the child for substitute family, provide support and maintenance for a period of adaptation, to help prospective parents.

  14. Psychological distress and job stressors among Lebanese workers: experience from a private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkis, Najla A; Osman, Mona H; Musharrafieh, Umayya M; Issa, Ghassan M

    2012-01-01

    No published data exists on the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among the Lebanese working population, and its association with job stressors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003 among Lebanese employees in a private administrative company. All employees (n = 200) received an anonymous questionnaire by mail. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to estimate the prevalence of PD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between GHQ-28 Likert score (0-84) and job stressors and other covariates. The participation rate was 79.3%. PD was identified in 30.0% of the studied population. A significant association was found between PD and lack of moral support, a recent disturbing event, feeling of job insecurity, and inability to be proactive. The results showed a high prevalence of PD in the studied population with significant association with job stressors.

  15. The difficulty of making psychology research and clinical practice relevant to medicine: experiences and observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rodger

    2008-03-01

    Psychology and medicine research and practice have demonstrated substantial and unique bodies of knowledge designed to both improve patient care and respond to contemporary health care needs for use of evidence and cost consciousness. At their full potential they represent a significant paradigm shift in healthcare. Despite impressive successes, it is clear that we are just on the cusp of such a change. These findings have had limited impact and penetration into medical practice, particularly outside of academic medicine and large, organized systems of health care, and there are multiple examples of such limitations in various arenas of health care. There also appear to be common themes to such examples which provide us opportunities to consider how psychologists might move things ahead. They also suggest how our unique position in academic medicine can both limit our impact and provide ways of creating continued shifts in the healthcare paradigm.

  16. Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

  17. Composing Dances with Children: An Instructional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Francine

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-component instructional model to helpdance and movement educators compose dances with children. The paper discusses how to develop and expand the compositional base,select aesthetic content for children's dances, and compose dances using a sequential process. A curriculum theme, "The Praries," is used to illustrate the…

  18. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  19. Association between daily life experience and psychological well-being in people living with nonpsychotic mental disorders: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffery; Ngai, Shirley P C; Wu, William K K; Hou, Wai Kai

    2018-01-01

    Evidence has shown that people living with nonpsychotic mental disorders experience difficulties in maintaining their daily living, consequently impacting on psychological well-being. However, the role of daily life experience remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the association between daily life experience and psychological well-being in people living with nonpsychotic mental disorders, and evaluate daily life experience as a moderator of psychological well-being in this population. Literature search will be performed using a combination of title/abstract words and subject headings on 7 electronic databases according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted by 4 independent reviewers (JH, SPCN, WKKW, and WKH). Disagreement will be resolved by discussion with senior reviewers. Observational studies involving subjects with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, acute stress disorder, as post-traumatic stress disorder as distinct groups with quantitative measurement of daily life experience and psychological well-being will be included. Effect sizes will be pooled by random effects model. The quality of the studies will be assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity between studies will be quantified using I index. This review is registered in PROSPERO. While symptoms and existing treatments of nonpsychotic mental disorders could be long term and dependent upon medical regimens, sustaining daily life experience will be a potentially important and concrete pathway that empowers patients to recover from the disorders, maintain or enhance psychological well-being, and be reintegrated into society. Findings of this review will inform prospective interventional trials of enhancing daily life experience in prevention of recurrence and enhancing psychological well-being in people living with nonpsychotic mental disorders.

  20. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  1. Experience-based co-design in an adult psychological therapies service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kate; Gillmore, Chris; Hogg, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Experience-based co-design (EBCD) is a methodology for service improvement and development, which puts service-user voices at the heart of improving health services. The aim of this paper was to implement the EBCD methodology in a mental health setting, and to investigate the challenges which arise during this process. In order to achieve this, a modified version of the EBCD methodology was undertaken, which involved listening to the experiences of the people who work in and use the mental health setting and sharing these experiences with the people who could effect change within the service, through collaborative work between service-users, staff and managers. EBCD was implemented within the mental health setting and was well received by service-users, staff and stakeholders. A number of modifications were necessary in this setting, for example high levels of support available to participants. It was concluded that EBCD is a suitable methodology for service improvement in mental health settings.

  2. Psychological and Biological Validation of a Novel Digital Social Peer Evaluation Experiment (digi-SPEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Decoster, Jeroen; van Winkel, Ruud; Collip, Dina; Rutten, Bart P F; Delespaul, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2017-03-01

    Negative social evaluation is associated with psychopathology. Given the frequency of evaluation through increasingly prevalent virtual social networks, increased understanding of the effects of this social evaluation is urgently required. A new digital social peer evaluation experiment (digi-SPEE) was developed to mimic everyday online social interactions between peers. Participants received mildly negative feedback on their appearance, intelligence, and congeniality. Two hundred and forty-one young people [58.9% female, aged 18.9 years (15 to 34)] from an ongoing novel general population twin study participated in this study. Positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), implicit self-esteem, and cortisol were assessed before and after exposure to the social evaluation experiment. The social evaluation experiment decreased PA (B=-5.25, pevaluation stressor that elicits biological and implicit and explicit mental changes that are relevant to mechanisms of psychopathology.

  3. A Psychological Experiment on the Correspondence between Colors and Voiced Vowels in Non-synesthetes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Tomoko; Koda, Ai; Sekiguchi, Rikuko; Amemiya, Toshihiko

    In this study, we investigated the nature of cross-modal associations between colors and vowels. In Experiment 1, we examined the patterns of synesthetic correspondence between colors and vowels in a perceptual similarity experiment. The results were as follows: red was chosen for /a/, yellow was chosen for /i/, and blue was chosen for /o/ significantly more than any other vowels. Interestingly this pattern of correspondence is similar to the pattern of colored hearing reported by synesthetes. In Experiment 2, we investigated the robustness of these cross-modal associations using an implicit association test (IAT). A clear congruence effect was found. Participants responded faster in congruent conditions (/i/ and yellow, /o/ and blue) than in incongruent conditions (/i/ and blue, /o/ and yellow). This result suggests that the weak synesthesia between vowels and colors in non-synesthtes is not the fact of mere conscious choice, but reflects some underlying implicit associations.

  4. The experience of participation in a brief cognitive behavioural group therapy for psychologically distressed female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdottir, J; Champion, J D; Skärsäter, I

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the experience of participation in four sessions of cognitive behavioural group therapy for psychological distress for female university students' (n = 19), aged 22-45 years. Data were gathered with semi-structured interviews during March and April 2008 and analysed according to thematic content analysis. The results identified four themes: 'Gaining knowledge and understanding', 'Becoming more balanced and positive in thinking', 'Feeling more self-confident and in control' and 'Opportunities for practice and in-depth reflections'. Future recommendations include an increase in sessions from four to five, with one booster session to follow-up on newly acquired skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Component Composability Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    1997-01-01

    Building software from reusable components is considered important in reducing development costs. Object-oriented languages such as C++, Smalltalk and Java, however, are not capable of expressing certain aspects of applications in a composable way. Software engineers may experience difficulties in

  6. The intensive care unit experience: Psychological impact on family members of patients with and without traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ann Marie; Rainey, Evan Elizabeth; Weddle, Rebecca Joanne; Bennett, Monica; Roden-Foreman, Kenleigh; Foreman, Michael L

    2016-05-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) has been identified as a possible contributor to emotional distress. This study seeks to identify whether families of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in the ICU experience psychological differences as compared with non-TBI patients' family members. Eighty-two family members in a trauma/critical care ICU were assessed at baseline and again at 3 months. The Patient Health Questionnaire 8-Item measured depression, the Primary Care PTSD Screen measured symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS). Forty of these individuals were the family members of ICU patients who had sustained a TBI; 42 of the individuals were the family members of non-TBI patients in the ICU. At baseline, 39% (33% non-TBI, 45% TBI, p = .28) of the total sample screened positive for depressive symptoms and 24.3% (26% non-TBI, 23% TBI, p = .69) screened positive for PTS symptoms. However, differences emerged between the groups at 3 months, with family members in the non-TBI group showing a significant decrease in both baseline depression and PTS symptoms. This study, to our knowledge, is the first of its kind to examine psychological differences in the ICU in those whose family members either have or do not have a TBI. Results suggest the TBI group endorsed more symptoms of depression and PTS symptoms at 3 months. Although it is unclear whether symptoms were directly related to the ICU experience or the injury itself, future research should explore the possible additive effect of postintensive care syndrome-family symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC EXPERIMENT IN FOREIGN-LANGUAGE TEACHING. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHERER, GEORGE A.C.; WERTHEIMER, MICHAEL

    A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A LARGE SCALE, TWO-YEAR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY COMPARING AN AUDIOLINGUAL WITH A TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS PRESENTED. THIS EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT WITH STUDENTS IN FIRST- AND SECOND-YEAR GERMAN CLASSES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO FROM 1960 TO 1962. RESULTS OF TESTS SEEM TO…

  8. A qualitative study exploring the experience of people with IBD and elevated symptoms of anxiety and low mood and the type of psychological help they would like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Cheryl; Ohlsen, Ruth; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-09-26

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing anxiety and low mood. We sought to explore the experience of people with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood to identify psychological processes which could be targeted in psychological interventions, as well as the kind of psychological support preferred. Twenty-five participants with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood were recruited for interview. Template analysis was utilised to analyse interview data. We explored the situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to symptoms of anxiety and low mood by people with IBD, as well as the kind of psychological help preferred. Two themes were identified within participants accounts of symptoms of anxiety; 'under performance' and 'preventing an accident'. Two further themes were identified for symptoms of low mood; 'lack of understanding' and 'stigma'. Expertise and understanding was the main theme identified for the type of psychological help desired. The analysis highlights situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to anxiety and low mood by people with IBD and the type of psychological support desired. Our findings link to the knowledge and competencies set for psychological therapist working with long-term conditions.

  9. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Counselling Psychology Trainees’ Experiences of Working with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: In view of the estimation that around one fifth of individuals abused in childhood will develop psychological difficulties which require professional input there is a high chance that counselling psychology trainees will encounter adult survivors in their practice. Counselling psychology trainees are continuously faced with philosophical and practical challenges when they seek to integrate psychological models into their practice. The critical literature review discusses the conte...

  10. Update on Psychological Trauma, Other Severe Adverse Experiences and Eating Disorders: State of the Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Kathryn; MacDonald, Danielle E

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism. Biological vulnerabilities may also be relevant to this relationship. Overall, the literature is limited by predominantly cross-sectional designs. There is clear evidence of a correlational relationship between trauma exposure and other severe adverse events, and eating disorders. Both risk and maintenance factor hypotheses have been put forth; however, prospective research testing these hypotheses remains limited. Future research should use prospective designs and focus on trauma-related symptoms (rather than trauma exposure) in order to advance research on risk and maintaining factors for eating disorders and inform treatment directions.

  11. Perceived Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Depressive Experiences: A Cross-Cultural Study with Belgian and South-Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Park, Seong-Yeon; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    In recent research on psychologically controlling parenting, debate has arisen about the cross-cultural relevance of this construct, with some scholars arguing that the developmental outcomes of psychological control are culture-bound and others arguing that the detrimental effects of psychological control generalize across cultures. This study…

  12. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2013-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

  13. Assistência psicológica ao estudante de medicina: 21 anos de experiência Psychological assistance to medical students: 21 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Millan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar a experiência de 21 anos do Grupo de Assistência Psicológica ao Aluno da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (GRAPAL. Inicialmente, é apresentada, de forma sucinta, uma introdução acerca do histórico da assistência psicológica ao estudante de medicina, seguida da criação do GRAPAL, em 1983, e do início de suas atividades, em 1986. São apresentados os principais motivos da procura psicológica pelos alunos, os obstáculos encontrados por parte da instituição, da equipe de trabalho e dos alunos. A seguir, são apresentados alguns trabalhos publicados pelo serviço, que abordam a personalidade do aluno de medicina, a escolha da profissão e o problema do suicídio. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões feitas pelos alunos para o aperfeiçoamento dos atendimentos e as providências tomadas pela equipe do GRAPAL para alcançar a realização destas sugestões.The purpose of this article is to report on the 21-year experience of the Group of Psychological Assistance to Students at the School of Medicine of the São Paulo University (GRAPAL. First, the authors briefly introduce historical aspects of the psychological assistance provided to medical students, followed by the organization of GRAPAL in 1983 and the beginning of activities in 1986. Major reasons for medical students to seek psychological assistance, obstacles found by the institution, the work team and students are presented. Then, several works published by the Service, which approach the personality traits of medical students, their choice for Medicine and the suicide problem, are listed. Finally, the authors present some suggestions made by students to improve assistance services and measures to be taken by the GRAPAL team to carry out such suggestions.

  14. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  15. Aesthetic perception of visual textures: a holistic exploration using texture analysis, psychological experiment, and perception modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Lughofer, Edwin; Zeng, Xianyi

    2015-01-01

    Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design, and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective, and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and non-linear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  16. Life detection experiments of the Viking Mission on Mars can be best interpreted with a Fenton oxidation reaction composed of H2O2 and Fe2+ and iron-catalysed decomposition of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Resat

    2008-10-01

    The findings of the life detection experiments carried out during the Viking mission to Mars were reinterpreted with a chemical hypothesis. The labelled release (LR), pyrolytic release (PR) and gas exchange (GEx) experiments were interpreted with Fenton chemistry. Oxygen and carbon dioxide evolution from Martian soil upon wetting and nutrient addition could be attributed to competition reactions between the Fenton-type oxidation of organic nutrients with the aqueous (hydrogen peroxide+Fe(II)) combination and the iron-catalysed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. A substantial evolution of radioactive gas upon addition of labelled organic nutrient solution to soil, whereas the ceasing of this gas with a heat treated sample in the LR experiments, was attributed to Fenton oxidation and hydrogen peroxide thermal decomposition, respectively. The peculiar kinetics of LR and PR experiments that cannot be fully explained by other chemical or biochemical scenarios were easily explained with this new hypothesis, i.e. limitation of the Fenton reaction may arise from the depletion of reactants, the build-up of ferric hydroxide on soil and excessive scavenging by the organic nutrients of the generated hydroxyl radicals. Reabsorption or adsorption of evolved or introduced CO2 may involve the formation of carbonate compounds (e.g., magnesium carbonate and bicarbonate) on the surface of alkalinized soil as a result of the Fenton reaction. A critical evaluation of the recent biological hypothesis assuming the utilization of a hydrogen peroxide water intracellular fluid by putative organisms (Houtkooper & Schulze-Makuch 2007) is also made.

  17. Systems and Methods for Composable Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    release; distribution is unlimited. This report is based on studies performed at Lincoln Laboratory, a federally funded research and development...approaches. Some of the industries that could benefit from Composable Analytics include pharmaceuticals, health care, insurance, actuaries , and

  18. Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Arbeus, Hillevi; Mahn, Christopher; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences.

  19. [Psychological experience of health care professionals in intensive care unit: a qualitative and exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahraoui, K; Bioy, A; Cras, E; Gilles, F; Laurent, A; Valache, B; Quenot, J-P

    2011-04-01

    Study the subjective and emotional experience of health care professionals in intensive care unit in front of sources of professional stress connected to the emergency and to the gravity of the pathologies of hospitalized patients. A clinical interview was proposed to health care professionals of an intensive care unit during which they had to develop their personal feeling about the organization of the work and their management of the most stressful emotional situations. All interviews were entirely recorded and rewritten. Then, they were the object of a procedure of coding and a thematic analysis was detailed with the consensus of several individuals. Eighteen professionals agreed to participate in this research. The analysis of these clinical interviews showed a strong feeling of pressure in works as being mainly focused on the necessity of control the procedures and the technical means involved in intensive care unit and in the strong emotional load due to deaths of patients and to the pain of families. The management of the death and its conditions appears as a major and central difficulty. The discussion approaches the question of the feeling of pressure at works and its various items by underlining the interpersonal variations of these experiences, then the question of the emotional adaptation through the individual and collective defensive strategies organized to cope with these various situations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Why Is 10 Past 10 the Default Setting for Clocks and Watches in Advertisements? A Psychological Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Karim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Have you ever noticed that in watch advertisements the time is usually set at 10:10? The reasons and psychological effects of this default time setting are elusive. In Experiment 1, we hypothesized that watches showing a time setting resembling a smiling face (10:10 would enhance emotional valence and intention to buy compared to a neutral time setting (11:30, whereas a time setting resembling a sad face (8:20 would have the opposite effect. Moreover, we investigated a possible interaction effect with the gender of the participants. In Experiment 2, we directly tested the hypotheses that watches set at 10:10 resemble a smiling face, whereas watches set at 8:20 resemble a sad face. The data of the first experiment reveal that watches set at 10:10 showed a significant positive effect on the emotion of the observer and the intention to buy. However, watches set at 8:20 did not show any effect on the emotion or the intention to buy. Moreover, watches set at 10:10 induced in women significantly stronger ratings of pleasure than in men. The data of the second experiment show that participants consistently perceive high resemblance between watches set at 10:10 and a smiling face as well as high resemblance between watches set at 8:20 and a sad face. This study provides for the first time empirical evidence for the notion that using watches with a time setting resembling a smiling face (like 10:10 can positively affect the emotional response of the observers and their evaluation of a seen watch, even though they are not aware of the fact that the shown time setting is inducing this effect. Practical implications of the observed findings and alternative explanations are discussed.

  1. Why Is 10 Past 10 the Default Setting for Clocks and Watches in Advertisements? A Psychological Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Ahmed A; Lützenkirchen, Britta; Khedr, Eman; Khalil, Radwa

    2017-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that in watch advertisements the time is usually set at 10:10? The reasons and psychological effects of this default time setting are elusive. In Experiment 1, we hypothesized that watches showing a time setting resembling a smiling face (10:10) would enhance emotional valence and intention to buy compared to a neutral time setting (11:30), whereas a time setting resembling a sad face (8:20) would have the opposite effect. Moreover, we investigated a possible interaction effect with the gender of the participants. In Experiment 2, we directly tested the hypotheses that watches set at 10:10 resemble a smiling face, whereas watches set at 8:20 resemble a sad face. The data of the first experiment reveal that watches set at 10:10 showed a significant positive effect on the emotion of the observer and the intention to buy. However, watches set at 8:20 did not show any effect on the emotion or the intention to buy. Moreover, watches set at 10:10 induced in women significantly stronger ratings of pleasure than in men. The data of the second experiment show that participants consistently perceive high resemblance between watches set at 10:10 and a smiling face as well as high resemblance between watches set at 8:20 and a sad face. This study provides for the first time empirical evidence for the notion that using watches with a time setting resembling a smiling face (like 10:10) can positively affect the emotional response of the observers and their evaluation of a seen watch, even though they are not aware of the fact that the shown time setting is inducing this effect. Practical implications of the observed findings and alternative explanations are discussed.

  2. Effects of heterogeneous risk factors on psychological distress in adolescents with autism and victimization experiences in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Lung; Kao, Senyeong; Tou, Shao-Wen; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of various types of bullying victimization among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and examine the effects of victimization on the mental health of adolescents with ASD. The sample was collected from the Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study (SNELS) database released in 2011. Variables comprising seven psychological distress (PD) items and four types of bullying victimization and family-, school-, and peer-related factors were included in a multivariate regression analysis. Exclusion and verbal bullying were most frequently reported, 72.4% of students with ASD experiencing exclusion bullying and 66% of them experiencing verbal bullying. Among the victims, delayed bedtime, use of medication, and conflicts with parents significantly increased PD. By contrast, good relationships with parents and friends and liking school environments relieved PD symptoms. Furthermore, delayed bedtime after 12 a.m. enhanced the effects of exclusion victimization on PD in the participants. Our results indicated that bullying victimization among adolescents with ASD was a risk factor for their psychological well-being. Nevertheless, good parent-adolescent and interpeer relationships improved their mental health. Our results can serve as a reference in implementing strategies for motivating parents and teachers to pay more attention to the needs of adolescents with ASD. Implications for Rehabilitation More than 80% of adolescents with autism experience at least one type of bullying victimization. Bullying victimization attributes to a major factor influencing mental health of adolescents with autism. Good parent-adolescent and interpeer relationships can play beneficial roles in improving mental health of the adolescents.

  3. The Impact of Teen Court on Rural Adolescents: Improved Social Relationships, Psychological Functioning, and School Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.

  4. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of social stigma and discriminatory experience on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-07-01

    The global literature has revealed a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among stigmatized individuals; however, the mechanisms through which social stigma affects the individual's quality of life and mental health are not well understood. This research simultaneously examines the relationships of several determinants and mediating factors of psychological distress and quality of life. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey among 1006 adult (predominantly male) rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported on their perceived social stigma, discriminatory experiences in daily life, preparation for migration, discrepancy between expectation and reality, coping with stigma-related stress, psychological distress, and quality of life. Structural equation modeling was performed. We found that perceived social stigma and discriminatory experiences had direct negative effects on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants. Expectation-reality discrepancy mediated the effects of perceived social stigma and discriminatory experiences on psychological distress and quality of life; coping mediated the effect of social stigma on quality of life. Psychological distress was associated with quality of life. Preparation prior to migration was positively related to coping skills, which were positively related to quality of life. We conclude that perceived social stigma and daily discriminatory experiences have a significant influence on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants. Pre-migration training with a focus on establishment of effective coping skills and preparation of migration may be helpful to improve their quality of life and mental health.

  6. Psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack: beyond traumatic experiences and emergency medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacquleen; Jaswal, Surinder

    2014-06-01

    The field of "Public Health in Disasters and Complex Emergencies" is replete with either epidemiological studies or studies in the area of hospital preparedness and emergency care. The field is dominated by hospital-based or emergency phase-related literature, with very little attention on long-term health and mental health consequences. The social science, or the public mental health perspective, too, is largely missing. It is in this context that the case report of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack survivors is presented to bring forth the multi-dimensional and dynamic long-term impacts, and their consequences for psychological well-being, two years after the incident. Based on literature, the report formulates a theoretical framework through which the lived experiences of the survivors is analyzed and understood from a social science perspective. This report is an outcome of the ongoing work with the survivors over a period of two years. A mixed methodology was used. It quantitatively captures the experience of 231 families following the attack, and also uses a self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ), SRQ20, to understand the psychological distress. In-depth qualitative case studies constructed from the process records and in-depth interviews focus on lived experiences of the survivors and explain the patterns emerging from the quantitative analysis. This report outlines the basic profile of the survivors, the immediate consequences of the attack, the support received, psychological consequences, and the key factors contributing to psychological distress. Through analysis of the key factors and the processes emerging from the lived experiences that explain the progression of vulnerability to psychological distress, this report puts forth a psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack.

  7. A Comparison of Deaf College Students’ and Hard of Hearing College Students’ Experiences and Risk Factors of Psychological and Physical Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVerne McQuiller Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 222 Deaf or hard of hearing college students in an upstate New York university provided a unique opportunity to explore possible differences between Deaf students’ and hard of hearing students’ experiences and risk factors of psychological and physical abuse in their intimate relationships. Previous research has indicated that Deaf and hard of hearing college students in the aggregate were significantly more likely to experience abuse than were hearing students. A comparison of Deaf students with hard of hearing students revealed that hard of hearing individuals were significantly more likely to experience physical abuse than were Deaf students but not more likely to experience psychological abuse. Findings also revealed that in most cases, traditional risk factors for partner violence (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, living on campus used in hearing college samples were not significant. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Psychological and emotional methods of affecting consumers’ behavior: generalization of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Borodkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions with the development of trade, intensifying of competition and strengthening of general informative pressure on a man, the efficiency of traditional methods of stimulation of sales (in particular, discounts, bonuses, gifts, free concomitant services, price methods and etc. substantially grows short. Such a situation induces specialists (marketing specialists, managers, managers of companies to search for new unconventional and non-standard approaches of moving of commodities and services, in particular, directly in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean marketing technologies used for designing of consumers’ behavior. Specialists say that for successful moving of commodities it is necessary to call to the emotional, subconscious sphere. The role of marketing is taken to communication with a consumer directly in the places of sale, where there is the possibility to provide the most complete immersion of a consumer in the world of brand and to stimulate spontaneous purchases. The task of marketing consists in forming of so-called indoor-environment that is the atmosphere in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean visual (color, voice (audiomarketing and aromatic (aromamarketing design inside a building. The essence of such technologies consists in the influence on man’s subconsciousness and in the creation of manipulation mechanism of management of consumer’s actions and behavior by complex influence on 5 organs of man’s feeling such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, touch, taste. The article generalizes the existent experience of the use of psycho-emotional methods of stimulation of sales used to influence on consumer’s behavior. The authors describe the basic methods of psyho-emotional influence such as color, audiomarketing (or voice design and aromamarketing. It is marked that there is the necessity of the complex use of psyho-emotional methods and receptions from the point of view of their utility for all

  9. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  10. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  11. [Study of association between adverse experiences in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y H; Ma, S S; Xu, S J; Zhang, S C; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To explore the relationship between adverse experience in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China. Methods: 15 278 adolescents were selected as subjects from 20 junior and senior middle schools located in 3 cities of China by stratified cluster sampling method. The survey collected the demographic information, ACEs, social support and physical-psychological status. A total of 14 820 valid questionnaires were retained for analysis. We assessed ACE score (count of six categories of childhood adversity), social support (adolescent social support questionnaire), and the prevalence of two outcomes: physiological and psychological sub-health status. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, social support, and physiological and psychological sub-health status. Results: The prevalence of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 26.4% (3 917/14 820) and 24.1%(3 572/14 820), respectively. A total of 89.4% (13 247/14 820) reported at least 1 adverse childhood experiences. The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher among girls (28.1%(2 092/7 443), 26.0%(1 932/7 443)) than boys (24.7%(1 825/7 377), 22.2%(1 640/7 377)). Among adolescents without ACEs, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 15.4%(243/1 573) and 10.4%(163/1 573), for those with 5-6 ACEs, the rate were 40.9%(636/1 556) and 43.6%(678/1 556). Among adolescents with higher social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 19.9%(724/3 635) and 13.0%(474/3 635) for those with lower social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 35.9%(1 403/3 913) and 39.0%(1 528/3 913). The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher with more ACE exposure or less social support. At each level of ACE exposure

  12. An Area Efficient Composed CORDIC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUIRRE-RAMOS, F.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a composed architecture for the CORDIC algorithm. CORDIC is a widely used technique to calculate basic trigonometric functions using only additions and shifts. This composed architecture combines an initial coarse stage to approximate sine and cosine functions, and a second stage to finely tune those values while CORDIC operates on rotation mode. Both stages contribute to shorten the algorithmic steps required to fully execute the CORDIC algorithm. For comparison purposes, the Xilinx CORDIC logiCORE IP and previously reported research are used. The proposed architecture aims at reducing hardware resources usage as its key objective.

  13. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  14. Relations between trauma experiences and psychological, physical and neuroendocrine functioning among Somali refugees: mediating role of coping with acculturation stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Kimberly; Jorden, Skye; Anisman, Hymie

    2008-08-01

    Refugees may be prone to stress-related psychological and physical health disorders, coupled with disturbances of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning reflected by cortisol levels. It was suggested that traumatic encounters would directly influence stress-related outcomes, as well as indirectly influence them by undermining refugees' ability to cope with acculturation challenges. Somali refugees to Canada (N = 90) consistently reported encountering trauma, which was related to poorer self-reported outcomes (trauma symptoms, depressive affect, physical health), and these relations were mediated by increased use of emotion-focused (especially avoidant) coping strategies. Trauma symptoms and multiple traumatic experiences were associated with an exaggerated morning cortisol rise, but with a blunted response to stressor reminder cues. This blunted cortisol reactivity among participants encountering prior trauma was mediated by their increased propensity to cope by means of passive resignation. Evidently, refugees were at risk for stress-related dysfunction long after migrating, and the diminished capacity to cope with acculturation challenges was particularly important in this regard.

  15. "Not Just Right Experiences" as a psychological endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence from an Italian family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Claudio; Bottesi, Gioia; Caudek, Corrado; Orsucci, Antonella; Ghisi, Marta

    2016-11-30

    The heart of the obsessional process may be considered the subject's underlying impression that "something is wrong" or "that something is not just as it should be". This phenomenon, labeled "not just right experiences" (NJREs), has increasingly been receiving attention as a possible marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to add to the evidence that NJREs may be a putative endophenotype of obsessional symptoms. To this aim, measures of NJREs, obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and psychological distress were compared in offspring of parents with and without OC symptoms. The offspring of parents with OC symptoms (N=120) reported higher frequency and severity of NJREs compared to offspring of parents without OC symptoms (N=106). Such differences remained significant for NJREs frequency and close to significance for NJREs severity, when general distress (i.e., anxiety and depression) was controlled. The possible role of NJREs as an endophenotype for OCD is discussed in reference to Gottesman and Gould criteria and the National Institute of Mental Health RDoC initiative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Connecting Social Psychology to the Experience of Others through a Nonfiction Book Analysis: New Wine in an Old Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Gregory S.; Schurtz, D. Ryan; Powell, Caitlin A. J.; Combs, David J. Y.; Smith, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates a writing assignment in which students read a non-fiction book that they chose from a list provided by their instructor, identified examples of social psychological phenomena, and fully explained how those examples fit social psychology concepts. This novel twist on a traditional assignment yielded surprisingly robust…

  17. An Analysis of Composability and Composition Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Tekinerdogan, B.; Nagy, I.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The separation of concerns principle aims at decomposing a given design problem into concerns that are mapped to multiple independent software modules. The application of this principle eases the composition of the concerns and as such supports composability. Unfortunately, a clean separation (and

  18. Enhancing Memory in Your Students: COMPOSE Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The essence of teaching is, in fact, creating new memories for your students. The teacher's role is to help students store the correct information (memories) in ways that make recall and future access and use likely. Therefore, choosing techniques to enhance memory is possibly the most critical aspect of instructional design. COMPOSE is an acronym…

  19. Studies in Composing Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Peliti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies in composing elementary wavefunctions of a hydrogen-like atom and identify several relationships between physical phenomena and musical composition that helped guide the process. The hydrogen-like atom accurately describes some of the fundamental quantum mechanical phenomen...

  20. Composing for Digital Publication: Rhetoric, Design, Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, Douglas; Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the state of digital publication with the claim that, at this historical moment, nearly all composition is digital composition. But, as a field, composition studies has not yet made that shift completely explicit in the discussions of composing processes and writing pedagogies. A deeper engagement with this very rapid shift in…

  1. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  2. The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations.

  3. MELEC: Meta-Level Evolutionary Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Calvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA’s are global search mechanisms that have been applied to many disciplines including music composition. Computer system MELEC composes music using evolutionary computation on two levels: the object and the meta. At the object-level, MELEC employs GAs to compose melodic motifs and iteratively refine them through evolving generations. At the meta-level, MELEC forms the overall musical structure by concatenating the generated motifs in an order that depends on the evolutionary process. In other words, the structure of the music is determined by a geneological traversal of the algorithm’s execution sequence. In this implementation, we introduce a new data structure that tracks the execution of the GA, the Genetic Algorithm Traversal Tree, and uses its traversal to define the musical structure. Moreover, we employ a Fibonacci-based fitness function to shape the melodic evolution.

  4. Gene Composer in a structural genomics environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Mixon, Mark; Burgin, Alex; Staker, Bart; Stewart, Lance

    2011-09-01

    The structural genomics effort at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) requires the manipulation of large numbers of amino-acid sequences and the underlying DNA sequences which are to be cloned into expression vectors. To improve efficiency in high-throughput protein structure determination, a database software package, Gene Composer, has been developed which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their underlying gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bioinformatics steps used in modern structure-guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An example of the structure determination of H1N1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PB2 subunit is given.

  5. [Preoperative psychological experience and beliefs in adult patients scheduled for surgery at the University Hospital of Parakou in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaou, B A; Djidonou, A; Tognon, T F; Tagné Foko, J S; Gandaho, P; le Polain de Waroux, B; Chobli, M

    2014-11-01

    To study the preoperative psychological experience and beliefs in adult patients scheduled for surgery at the University Hospital of Parakou. A descriptive and analytical study with prospective data collection conducted over three months (June 1st to August 30, 2012) and involved 75 patients. Of the 108 patients scheduled for surgery, 75 patients (69.44%) had been chosen. The average age was 44.11±16.24 years with a male predominance (56%). Fifty-five patients (73.3%) were anxious and 32 patients (46.7%) were afraid of dying. Forty-five patients (60%) had not received any information about the procedure they should undergo and 60 patients (80%) were not informed of the possible complications of surgery. Fifty-eight patients (77.3%) were aware of the anesthetic technique and 5.2% of patients were aware of the possible complications of anesthesia. In 56 patients (74.7%), the disease was of natural origin, in 18.6% of cases there was an enchantment and 5 patients (6.7%) the disease is due to a deity. In the context of spiritual care, 15 patients (20%) had consulted a marabout, 11 patients (14.7%) a healer and 10 patients (13.3) a fetish. The preoperative period induces a significant burden of anxiety among patients and their families. In Benin, the announcement of surgery is an opportunity for confrontation of the patient to an obsession with death which he manages to escape despite the countless sacrifices of traditional conjuring. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Process evaluation of the MOSAIC trial: treatment experience of two psychological therapies for out-patient treatment of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Kelly Ann; Renwick, Beth; Keyes, Alexandra; Lose, Anna; Kenyon, Martha; DeJong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Whitehead, Linette; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a series of process evaluations within the MOSAIC Trial (Maudsley Outpatient Study of Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa and Related Conditions). This randomised controlled trial (RCT) compared two psychological treatments, the Maudsley Model for Treatment of Adults with Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA) and Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM) for adult outpatients with Anorexia Nervosa. The present process study integrates quantitative (treatment acceptability and credibility) and qualitative (written) feedback to evaluate patients' treatment experiences. All 142 MOSAIC participants were asked to (a) rate treatment acceptability and credibility on visual analogue scales (VAS) at six and 12 months post-randomisation, and (b) provide written feedback regarding their views on their treatment at 12 months. Transcripts were first analysed thematically and then rated according to the global valence of feedback (positive, mixed/negative). 114/142 (80.3 %) MOSAIC participants provided VAS data and 82 (57.7 %) provided written feedback. At 12 months, MANTRA patients gave significantly higher acceptability and credibility ratings compared to SSCM patients. A significantly higher proportion of MANTRA patients provided written feedback. MANTRA patients also tended to write in more detail and to give globally more positive feedback when compared to individuals receiving SSCM. Qualitative themes suggest that patients experienced the two treatments differently in terms of characteristics and outcomes. This study highlights the benefits of incorporating qualitative and quantitative data into RCT process evaluations. MANTRA patients were more willing to express their views on treatment and generally felt more positively about this than those receiving SSCM.

  7. Different Approaches to the Social and Psychological Support for Adolescents in Conflict with the Law: Russian and Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikotskaya A.M.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the socio-psychological support and re-socialization of adolescents who are in conflict with the law. Effective conditions for social and psychological support and re-socialization of adolescents in the situation of the offense, according to the authors, is directly related to the response mechanisms of the state and society on juvenile delinquency. Therefore, this article focuses on the analysis of different ways to respond to juvenile delinquency in the Russian and foreign governmental systems. A separate section is devoted to the practice of restorative justice, which is implemented on the border of the legal, social, educational and psychological areas and is an important component of social and psychological support to the teenager in the situation of the offense and a valuable resource to support system and creating conditions for the re-socialization of juvenile offenders

  8. The relationship between paranormal beliefs and the personality trait Openness to Experience: A comparison of psychology majors with students in other disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Eric Dogan

    Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In particular, the relationship between PB and the personality trait Openness to Experience (OTE) was investigated, the goal being to both identify specific determinants of PB and better understand why PB are more prevalent in psychology compared with traditional sciences. Students majoring in the sciences, psychology, or arts and humanities were assessed across six domains of PB and six facets of the global personality trait OTE. Additionally, estimates of science education (SE) and IQ were obtained for each subject. Relationships among these variables were predicted to support the hypothesis that PB are largely determined by OTE rather than SE or IQ. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the prevalence of PB in contemporary psychology could be explained by a relative overabundance of PB and OTE within psychology majors when compared with science majors. The obtained results confirmed that psychology majors were significantly higher in both PB and OTE compared to science majors. Furthermore, psychology majors scored lower than arts and humanities majors in PB and OTE, supporting the notion that psychology as a field occupies a position intermediate between the traditional sciences and the humanities. Regarding the determinants of PB, while SE and IQ were both shown to be significant, OTE was the single most powerful predictor of PB when considering the entire, undifferentiated sample. An unanticipated result was that determinants of PB are substantially gender-related. Among females, PB were predicted by OTE though not SE, while among males, PB were predicted by SE and

  9. Organization of Practical Training of Research Master Students Enrolled in the Program of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education”: Testing Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maximov L. K.,; Maximova L. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the testing experience of the practical training of research master students in the integrative module of basic professional educational program of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education”, training direction of “Psycho-pedagogical education”. We reviewed the organization of the practical training, its object and purpose, formed competence and educational outcomes, the content and form of organization of activity of students that achieve these r...

  10. Residents’ experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing – a qualitative study based on Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønning SB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Abstract: One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization’s (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents’ self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants’ relational experiences and needs in supported housing. Keywords: mental health, nursing relationship, self psychology, supported housing, experiences

  11. Residents' experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing - a qualitative study based on Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Solrun Brenk; Bjørkly, Stål

    2017-01-01

    One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents' self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants' relational experiences and needs in supported housing.

  12. Improvisation: Performer as Co-composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Schick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elements of musical improvisation have been present throughout the medieval, renaissance, and baroque eras, however, improvisation had the most profound recorded presence in the baroque era. Improvisation is inherently a living practice and leaves little documentation behind for historians to study, but however elusive, it is still important to trace where instances of this improvised art appear throughout the eras listed above. It is also interesting to trace what role improvisation would later have in realizing the Baroque ideals of emotional expression, virtuosity, and individuality. This paper seeks to focus on a few of the best documented mediums of improvisation within each era. During the medieval period, improvisation took on the form of improvised counterpoint against a plainsong. In the renaissance, improvised harmony of faburden and the contenance angloise is this paper’s selected example. In the Baroque, this study seeks to describe several areas where improvisation appears such as the art of improvised accompaniment from figured bass symbols, the practice of expressive ornamentation on a written melody, and improvised vocal embellishments and cadenzas of the da capo aria. A final aim of this research is to provide examples to clarify the definition of improvisation as the degree to which the composer of a musical work has given control of its realization to the performer. Treatises and ear witness accounts of improvised musical forms provided primary sources. Other sources used in this research included writings on performance practices of different historical eras and writings on the changing relationship between the composer and the performer. This paper also consults writings on how improvised music was perceived historically as opposed to composed music.

  13. William Byrd: Political and Recusant Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Foshay Bacon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the pendulum of political and religious upheaval that pervaded England throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, William Byrd stands as one of the best loved and lauded composers. Byrd succeeded in the secular and sacred realms, contributing great works to the Anglican Church, popularizing the English madrigal and producing prolific amounts of sacred music. However, in a time where one’s religious beliefs were often linked with political loyalty, Byrd defied his monarch’s established and enforced Protestant religion, composing politically charged music for recusant use in clandestine Catholic Church services. His themes were aligned with the Jesuit mission and his texts were often drawn from the lips of martyred Catholics at the gallows; their last words forever immortalized by Byrd for the furthering of the Jesuit cause and the Counter-Reformation. The examination of sources by prominent Byrd scholars, an analyses of Byrd’s ‘political’ compositions and a study of the social and historical background are used to place Byrd within the appropriate context, prove his recusant and political leanings, and analyze his precarious relationship with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. It is shown that Byrd could not have proceeded with his recusant practices, personally or musically, had it not been for his status as a composer, as well as Byrd’s shrewdness in procuring diplomatic relationships with high persons at court and with Queen Elizabeth I through the Chapel Royal. Finally, Byrd’s success at writing for the Anglican Church service and popular secular music showcased his ability to take a moderate stance in situations that benefitted his status with the crown

  14. Clasp Together: Composing for Mind and Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harry Whalley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore questions of agency, control and interaction and the embodied nature of musical performance in relation to the use of human-computer interaction (HCI, through the experimental work Clasp Together (beta 2 for small ensemble and live electronics by J. Harry Whalley. This practice-led research is situated at the intersection of music neurotechnology for sound synthesis and brain-computer interfaces (BCI, and explores the use of neural patterns from Electroencephalography (EEG as a control instrument. The composition departed from the traditional composer/performer paradigm by including both non-instrumental physical gestures and cognitive or emotive instructions integrated into the score.

  15. Psychological Well-Being as a Predictor of Casual Sex Relationships and Experiences among Adolescents: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Psychological characteristics may predispose youths to engage in casual sex relationships and experiences (CSREs). Using a prospective longitudinal design and in a subsample of 2,601 high school students in the province of Québec, we explored possible shifts in engaging in one-night stands (ONSs) and friends with benefits (FWB) relationships over a six-month period among sexually active adolescents. We also examined the relationships among well-being predictors (psychological distress, self-esteem, suicidal ideation, and alcohol and drug consumption) and these shifts while exploring possible gender differences. Multinomial regressions in Mplus were used to explore whether initial psychological well-being was related to entrance type, the transition from having no CSREs to having one, or discontinuation or continuation type. Frequent alcohol consumption (i.e., once or twice a week or more) for boys and frequent consumption of both alcohol and drugs for girls were associated with continuation of CSREs. Suicidal ideation was associated with entrance into FWB relationships as well as continuation of FWB relationships and ONSs for girls. Psychological distress was a predictor of discontinuation of ONSs for boys. These results suggested that interventions should consider the specific and common needs of both genders in regard to ONSs and FWB relationships. PMID:28229246

  16. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  17. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  18. Review: Understanding barriers to online experience for people with physical and sensory disabilities using discursive social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of Internet users have physical or sensory disabilities. Work that addresses this group of users, as Bowker’s does, is rare. Bowker founded her work on philosophical, psychological, and linguistic theories, and conducted a qualitative analysis on her data. The paper presents the

  19. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk

  20. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  1. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  3. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  4. Linear mixed-effects models for within-participant psychology experiments: an introductory tutorial and free, graphical user interface (LMMgui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magezi, David A

    2015-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) are increasingly being used for data analysis in cognitive neuroscience and experimental psychology, where within-participant designs are common. The current article provides an introductory review of the use of LMMs for within-participant data analysis and describes a free, simple, graphical user interface (LMMgui). LMMgui uses the package lme4 (Bates et al., 2014a,b) in the statistical environment R (R Core Team).

  5. 12-month generic health status and psychological distress outcomes following an Australian natural disaster experience: 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, J; Mahar, P; Lee, S; Paul, E; Spinks, A; Pfitzer, B; Cleland, H; Gabbe, B

    2013-11-01

    To describe the generic health status, health-related quality of life and psychological distress over a 12-month period of burns patients affected by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires. Cohort study with retrospective assessment of pre-injury status and prospective assessment of physical and psychosocial functioning in the Black Saturday Wildfires burns patients across time. Generic health status and burn specific quality of life using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS) were collected at three, six and twelve months post-burn injury. In addition, similar time points were used to measure level of psychological distress and the presence of pain using the Kessler-10 questionnaire (K-10) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. At 12 months post-injury, patients reported a mean 16.4 (standard error, SE: 3.2) reduction in physical health and a 5.3 (SE 2.5) reduction in mental health scores of the SF-36 as compared to their pre-injury scores, with significant decreases observed in the "bodily pain", "physical functioning", "role physical" and "vitality" subscales. High levels of psychological distress and persistent pain were experienced, with no significant changes during the study period to the overall burns specific quality of life. Even 12 months post-burn injury, patients affected by the 2009 Victorian Wildfires still experienced a significant reduction in generic health, increased psychological distress and persistent pain. The need for early and ongoing identification of physical and psychosocial impairments during hospital admission and upon discharge could be helpful to establish systematic interdisciplinary goals for long-term rehabilitation after severe burn injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composing across Modes: A Comparative Analysis of Adolescents' Multimodal Composing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Blaine E.

    2017-01-01

    Although the shift from page to screen has dramatically redefined conceptions of writing, very little is known about how youth compose with multiple modes in digital environments. Integrating multimodality and multiliteracies theoretical frameworks, this comparative case study examined how urban twelfth-grade students collaboratively composed…

  7. Composing Mystics: Gertrude Stein between Zen and Zeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that there's no connection between Gertrude Stein and mysticism, but the passages they quote to support this claim show exactly the opposite. While it may be that Stein was no Zen master, her writing discloses something about the psychology of creativity. For Stein, the creation...... of an 'other' world through writing has not only a symbolic significance but also a metaphysical one – an idea also explored by her professor at Radcliffe, William James, in his work, 'The Varieties of Religious Experience.' Stein's compositions can be said to resemble old shamanic and mystical practices...

  8. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  9. The influence of patient gender on medical and psychology students' illness attributions: experiences with a narrative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona; Kakuk, Péter; Mills, Eszter M; Molnár, Péter; Máth, János; Csabai, Márta

    2014-05-01

    We attempted to identify whether and how the gender of the patient influences interpretations of an illness narrative. We investigated how medical and psychology undergraduates' (n = 313) views change according to the patient's gender, students' gender, and field of study. A short story about a female patient was chosen as stimulus material, and a gender-modified version with a male protagonist was created for comparison. Responses were content analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The female patient elicited more detailed descriptions and somatizing attributions. The gender of students had a stronger impact on responses than their field of study.

  10. The Embodied Self in Parkinson's Disease: Feasibility of a Single Tango Intervention for Assessing Changes in Psychological Health Outcomes and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabine C.; Mergheim, Katja; Raeke, Judith; Machado, Clarissa B.; Riegner, Eliane; Nolden, Joachim; Diermayr, Gudrun; von Moreau, Dorothee; Hillecke, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dance is an embodied activity with benefits for mobility, balance, and quality of life (QoL) of persons affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD). It is enjoyable and likely to support adherence to movement prescriptions. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring changes in psychological outcomes, specifically well-being, body self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and experienced beauty after a single Argentine Tango intervention in a workshop format. To anchor experienced beauty in a theory, the article introduces a model of embodied aesthetics featuring active art-making as a central aspect of healing in arts-based interventions. Methods: In a single-group pre–post design, we tested the feasibility of measuring psychological changes of 34 PD patients from Southern Germany after an introductory workshop in Argentine Tango. They participated in a 90 min Tango for PD intervention and completed the Heidelberg State Inventory (HSI-24; (Koch et al., 2007)), the Body Self-Efficacy Scale (BSE; (Fuchs and Koch, 2014)) with a sub-dimension on aesthetic experience, and the Credibility-Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ; (Devilly and Borkovec, 2000)) before and after the intervention. A subgroup completed the therapeutic factors of arts therapies-scale, a new measure to elaborate on the aesthetic experience. We analyzed pre–post-differences with a t-test for paired samples. Results and Discussion: The study supports the feasibility of measuring health-related psychological changes from a single Argentine Tango intervention for PD patients, as well as acceptance and appropriateness of the intervention for the patient group. After the tango intervention, well-being, body self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies increased. Participants also experienced an increase in beauty of their movements and other aesthetic aspects. We suspect that, in addition to the functional and psychological factors identified so far, the aesthetic experience in dance

  11. The Embodied Self in Parkinson's Disease: Feasibility of a Single Tango Intervention for Assessing Changes in Psychological Health Outcomes and Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabine C; Mergheim, Katja; Raeke, Judith; Machado, Clarissa B; Riegner, Eliane; Nolden, Joachim; Diermayr, Gudrun; von Moreau, Dorothee; Hillecke, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Dance is an embodied activity with benefits for mobility, balance, and quality of life (QoL) of persons affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD). It is enjoyable and likely to support adherence to movement prescriptions. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring changes in psychological outcomes, specifically well-being, body self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and experienced beauty after a single Argentine Tango intervention in a workshop format. To anchor experienced beauty in a theory, the article introduces a model of embodied aesthetics featuring active art-making as a central aspect of healing in arts-based interventions. In a single-group pre-post design, we tested the feasibility of measuring psychological changes of 34 PD patients from Southern Germany after an introductory workshop in Argentine Tango. They participated in a 90 min Tango for PD intervention and completed the Heidelberg State Inventory (HSI-24; (Koch et al., 2007)), the Body Self-Efficacy Scale (BSE; (Fuchs and Koch, 2014)) with a sub-dimension on aesthetic experience, and the Credibility-Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ; (Devilly and Borkovec, 2000)) before and after the intervention. A subgroup completed the therapeutic factors of arts therapies-scale, a new measure to elaborate on the aesthetic experience. We analyzed pre-post-differences with a t-test for paired samples. The study supports the feasibility of measuring health-related psychological changes from a single Argentine Tango intervention for PD patients, as well as acceptance and appropriateness of the intervention for the patient group. After the tango intervention, well-being, body self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies increased. Participants also experienced an increase in beauty of their movements and other aesthetic aspects. We suspect that, in addition to the functional and psychological factors identified so far, the aesthetic experience in dance may be an important therapeutic factor mediating

  12. A guided self-help intervention targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients: motivation to start, experiences and perceived outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, Anne-Marie H; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Melissant, Heleen C; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of a randomized clinical trial showed that a guided self-help intervention (based on problem-solving therapy) targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients is effective. This study qualitatively explored motivation to start, experiences with and perceived outcomes of this intervention. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 16 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed individually by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Patients participated in the intervention for intrinsic (e.g. to help oneself) and for extrinsic reasons (e.g. being asked by a care professional or to help improve health care). Participants indicated positive and negative experiences with the intervention. Several participants appreciated participating as being a pleasant way to work on oneself, while others described participating as too confrontational. Some expressed their disappointment as they felt the intervention had brought them nothing or indicated that they felt worse temporarily, but most participants perceived positive outcomes of the intervention (e.g. feeling less distressed and having learned what matters in life). Cancer patients have various reasons to start a guided self-help intervention. Participants appreciated the guided self-help as intervention to address psychological distress, but there were also concerns. Most participants reported the intervention to be beneficial. The results suggest the need to identify patients who might benefit most from guided self-help targeting psychological distress and that interventions should be further tailored to individual cancer patients' requirements.

  13. Illuminating the Psychological Experience of Elderly Loneliness from a Societal Perspective: A Qualitative Study of Alienation between Older People and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anna; Chau, Anson K C; Fang, Yang; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-21

    Loneliness is a common experience among older people that is associated with health risks and negative well-being. As a psychological phenomenon, it has typically been defined in Western research literature as the discrepancy between desired and actual interpersonal relations. In our qualitative study in Hong Kong, we offer insight into ageing and loneliness in an urban environment of the non-Western world and propose to reconceptualise loneliness by exploring older people's experience of alienation at the societal level as an important but often neglected dimension of their loneliness. Thirty-seven community-dwelling, Chinese adults aged 65 and above were interviewed in focus groups and their accounts analysed and interpreted using a phenomenological approach. Findings revealed that focus group participants perceived insufficient care for older people, a growing distance between themselves and society, and their disintegrating identity in society to be primary sources of societal alienation. In response, older people adopted a more passive lifestyle, attributed marginalisation and inequality to old age, and developed negative feelings including unease towards ageing, vulnerability and helplessness, and anger. The emergence of these key components and underlying themes of societal alienation illuminated neglected facets of the psychological phenomenon of loneliness and highlighted new implications for policy, practice, and research from a societal perspective to address older people's loneliness in urban settings.

  14. Formation and reinforcement of clusters composed of C60 molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosu Shunji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We carry out two experiments: (1 the formation of clusters composed of C60 molecules via self-assembly and (2 the reinforcement of the clusters. Firstly, clusters such as fibres and helices composed of C60 molecules are produced via self-assembly in supercritical carbon dioxide. However, C60 molecules are so weakly bonded to each other in the clusters that the clusters are broken by the irradiation of electron beams during scanning electron microscope observation. Secondly, UV photons are irradiated inside a chamber in which air is filled at 1 atm and the above clusters are placed, and it was found that the clusters are reinforced; that is, they are not broken by electron beams any more. C60 molecules located at the surface of the clusters are oxidised, i.e. C60On molecules, where n = 1, 2, 3 and 4, are produced according to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. It is supposed that oxidised C60 molecules at the surface of the clusters may have an important role for the reinforcement, but the actual mechanism of the reinforcement of the clusters has not yet been clearly understood and therefore is an open question.

  15. A Framework For Efficient Homomorphic Universally Composable Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Bernardo Machado

    Commitment schemes are a fundamental primitive in modern cryptography, serving as a building block for a myriad of complex protocols and applications. Universally composable commitment schemes are of particular interest, since they can be seamlessly combined with other universally composable...

  16. Development and Validation of a Brief Measure of Psychological Resilience: An Adaptation of the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Johnston, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Resilience helps determine how people respond to stress. The Response to Stressful Events Scale (RSES) is an existing 22-item measure of resilience. We investigate the psychometric properties of the RSES and develop a 4-item measure of resilience using the most discriminating items from the RSES. Among two samples of military personnel presenting to mental health clinics, we see that the abbreviated resilience measure displays comparable internal consistency and test-retest reliability (versus the existing RSES). Among a sample of deployed military personnel, the abbreviated scale relates to validated measures of psychological strain. The 4-item abbreviated RSES measure is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of resilience. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Piper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44 completed both the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the PEBL CPT (PCPT with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47 completed a non-computerized (Wechsler and a computerized (PEBL Digit Span (WDS or PDS both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT. Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66 on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p < .0005 and the PDS (p < .0005. The total WDS score was moderately correlated with the PDS (r = 0.56. The PARIGT and the PEBLIGTs showed a very similar pattern for response times across blocks, development of preference for Advantageous over Disadvantageous Decks, and Deck selections. However, the amount of money earned (score–loan was significantly higher in the PEBLIGT during the last Block. Conclusions. These findings are broadly supportive of the criterion validity of the PEBL measures of sustained attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  19. Composing the Self: Of Diaries and Lifelogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Can lifelogs and blogging be considered the digital counterpart of what used to be paper diaries and diary writing? This article examines three dimensions of this phenomenon in conjunction: the diary/lifelog as a cultural form or genre, as a material and technological object, and as cultural practice. Tracing the transformation of personal logs in the face of new digital technologies, it is argued that lifelogs and blogging are not outcomes but rather signifiers of cultural change, as they both reflect and construct new epistemologies. The current emergence of weblogs indicates a transformation of important cultural notions such as individual and collective, privacy and publicness, and memory and experience.

  20. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  1. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  2. Minority Stress Experiences and Psychological Well-Being: The Impact of Support from and Connection to Social Networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Holloway, Ian W.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2013-01-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk, but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using Minority Stress Theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N=233). Results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. Findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. Results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences. PMID:23412944

  3. Minority stress experiences and psychological well-being: the impact of support from and connection to social networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F; Schrager, Sheree M; Holloway, Ian W; Meyer, Ilan H; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-02-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using minority stress theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N = 233). The results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. The findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. The results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences.

  4. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  5. Preliminary investigation into sport and exercise psychology consultants' views and experiences of an interprofessional care team approach to sport injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.

  6. Learning Physiotherapy: The Impact of Formal Education and Professional Experience. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrandt, Madeleine

    This study investigated whether students of physiotherapy experienced the concepts "health,""movement,""function," and "interaction" differently during formal education and after some professional experience. Data were gathered by interviewing two groups of physiotherapy students at Linkoping University…

  7. Cuestiones Epistemológicas Relativas al Estudio Psicológico de la Vivencia Religiosa Epistemological Issues in the Psychological Study of Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Muñoz

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio psicológico de la vivencia religiosa es una de las posibles alternativas que ofrece el universo científico configurado por las ciencias de las religiones. Esta aproximación multidisciplinar es la más adecuada para la descripción y explicación del hecho religioso. La integración de conclusiones provenientes de diferentes perspectivas y métodos, y la aceptación de la complementariedad de diferentes aportaciones, son aún dos tareas por conseguir, especialmente entre la psicología y la teología. Este artículo establece las bases epistemológicas para una psicología de la religión que respete la identidad y aportes de la teología, mediante el desarrollo de un cuerpo de conocimientos teóricos y empíricos basados en el positivismo lógico, el método experimental, la asunción de la comprensión y la descripción como tareas propias derivadas de la influencia del fenomenalismo filosófico. Este enfoque implica la toma de conciencia que toda experiencia, cognición, o conducta religiosa, adquiere forma y se integra en el conjunto de habilidades, competencias, personalidad, y demás rasgos que definen nuestra identidad humana.Psychological research about religious cognition, behavior, and experience is one of the perspectives that aim to understand the religious dimension of human existence. The multidisciplinary approach is the most relevant way to describe and explain the religious experience. The integration of results that come from different methods and paradigms, and the acceptance of the idea that this perspectives are complementary, is a task that have no ended yet. This is specially important between psychology and theology. This article sets the epistemological foundations for a psychology of religion that considers theology's identity and contributions, through the development of empirical and theoretical knowledge based on logical positivism, experimental method, and the assumption of comprehension and description

  8. The experience of pain severity and pain interference in vulvodynia patients: The role of cognitive-behavioural factors, psychological distress and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Claudia; Chilcot, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic pain condition characterised by severe pain affecting the vulva. Biopsychosocial models have revealed the importance of illness perceptions, cognitive-behavioural variables and psychological distress in explaining the experience of pain and disability across several conditions. These factors have never been collectively examined in vulvodynia. We predicted that distress, fatigue, illness perceptions, and cognitive-behavioural factors would be associated with pain severity and interference among women with vulvodynia. This online cross-sectional study recruited 335 vulvodynia patients from an Italian charity association (Vulvodiniapuntoinfo.com), who completed pain severity and interference measures in addition to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Cognitive-Behavioural Symptom Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models controlling for demographic and illness characteristics, revealed that lower treatment control beliefs, greater illness identity, catastrophizing and psychological distress, were significant predictors of pain severity, explaining 35% of the variance. A second adjusted hierarchical regression model revealed that low treatment-control, higher fatigue, distress, and avoidance/resting behaviours were significant predictors of pain interference, explaining 48% of the variance. Distress, illness perceptions, fatigue, and cognitive-behavioural factors are associated with pain severity and interference in patients with vulvodynia, highlighting the importance of adopting a biopsychosocial approach in this setting. Future research should examine these factors over time to inform the development of future tailored interventions to help support women better manage vulvodynia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation into adult nursing students' experience of the relevance and application of behavioural sciences (biology, psychology and sociology) across two different curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowforth, Gillian; Harrison, Judy; Morris, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Curriculum development for nurse education is constantly changing to reflect the sociopolitical context and medical advancement. Throughout this process the contribution of the behavioural sciences to each curriculum has been widely debated. Nurse educators encourage students to acquire and develop academic knowledge to underpin their practical skills and professional competencies. However with new political agendas science content within the new curricula is being marginalised, [United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, 1999. Fitness for Practice. London, UKCC]. This qualitative study investigated adult branch nursing students' experiences of the behavioural sciences while studying two different curricula: one a new integrated delivery of the sciences, the other involving discrete science modules. The study utilised focus group interviews at two distinct phases of their courses: 12-18 and 24-30 months. Each interview was tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and inductive thematic analysis [Hayes, N., 1997. Doing Qualitative Analysis in Psychology. Psychology Press Erlbaum Taylor & Francis Ltd.] was applied. This article reports the findings and discusses the relevance of the sciences to students and their patient care, and how the sciences underpin their view of health and illness.

  10. Experiences of outcome monitoring in service users with psychosis: Findings from an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) demonstration site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Johns, Louise; Onwumere, Juliana; Garety, Philippa; Milosh, Craig; Iredale, Catherine; Peters, Emmanuelle; Webster, Adrian; Jolley, Suzanne

    2017-09-01

    Psychological therapy services are increasingly required to instate routine outcome monitoring (ROM), to demonstrate the clinical and economic impact of interventions. Professionals' views of ROM are an acknowledged barrier to implementation. Service user perspectives have rarely been examined, but acceptability and perceptions of ROM are critical to successful implementation. We investigated service users' experiences of ROM in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness psychosis demonstration site. ROM comprised a periodic assessment battery completed at baseline, mid-therapy, and end-of-therapy and a single measure completed session-by-session. Qualitative and quantitative feedback were sought at each periodic ROM administration, and, for sessional ROM, at mid-therapy and end-of-therapy. Demographic and clinical correlates of satisfaction were examined cross-sectionally at baseline. Consistency of satisfaction over time and associations of satisfaction with engagement were examined longitudinally. Service users rated baseline (n = 281/289), mid-therapy (n = 114/121), end-of-therapy (n = 124/154), and session-by-session (mid-therapy n = 63/87 and end-of-therapy n = 90/123) ROM from 0 ('extremely unhelpful') to 10 ('extremely helpful') and gave qualitative feedback. Service users predominantly found ROM helpful (score 6-10; 64-72%) or neutral (score 5; 19-29%). Finding ROM less helpful was associated with younger age and poorer general outcomes, but not with psychotic symptoms or therapy dropout. Emerging qualitative themes included feeling understood, valuing opportunities to reflect, expressing feelings, and tracking progress towards goals. Shorter batteries would be preferable, particularly for younger respondents, and those with poorer outcomes. ROM is acceptable for people with psychosis. Tailoring assessments to specific subgroups should be considered. Routine outcome monitoring for psychological therapy is

  11. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION DANGER EXPERIENCE AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF THE POPULATION FROM CONTAMINATED AREAS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of social-psychological consequences of radiation danger experience among different age groups of the population from contaminated areas of Russia (Oryol, Kaluga, Bryansk, Tula areas among whom the unfavorable emotional and personal changes were registered due to subjective features of perception of radiation threat have been represented (“risk” group. Experimental sample of the research consisted of 1 544 people from Russia. One of the main results of this research is establishment of the fact that adverse emotional and personal changes in connection with subjective features of perception of radiation threat were revealed for 53,9% of respondents of advanced age and more than 20% of respondents of middle and young age from contaminated areas of Russia. Among the respondents from contaminated areas of Belarus, about a third surveyed from each age group get to “risk” group.

  12. Process evaluation of the maudsley model for treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa trial. Part II: Patient experiences of two psychological therapies for treatment of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lose, Anna; Davies, Charlotte; Renwick, Beth; Kenyon, Martha; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-03-01

    This study is the second part of a process evaluation, embedded in the MOSAIC study, a large randomised controlled trial comparing two different psychological therapies, the Maudsley Model for Treatment of Adults with Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA) and Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM). The study adopted a qualitative approach to examine patient experiences of the two treatments. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with Anorexia Nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-Anorexia Nervosa type patients, and transcripts were analysed thematically. Patient responses yielded five main themes: positive and helpful aspects, beneficial outcomes, less helpful aspects, possible improvements to the treatments, and the therapeutic and external environment. The findings show clear differences and some overlaps between patients' views on MANTRA and SSCM. Both therapies were experienced by patients as credible and largely helpful, albeit in different ways. These results are in agreement with those of therapists' views on these treatments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (1. series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (1. serie d'experiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, St.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project, a study has been carried out to observe the correlation between particle contamination at the surface of the optical components and laser irradiation. The experiments consist in placing silica samples in the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) environment more precisely around the frequency conversion crystals and beam focusing area. Particle contamination at the surface samples is characterized and quantified. Then its behaviour under 1064 nm laser irradiation is observed. From the results of this first series of experiments, it appears that on irradiated silica samples treated with anti reflection coatings, surface particles or contamination can induce a surface defect. (author)

  14. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2017-12-27

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  15. Electric motors with linear and composed displacement; Moteurs electriques a mouvement lineaire et compose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, M. [Acdemie Europeenne des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-02-01

    The development of robotics and the replacement of complex mechanical gears by 'electronic axes' has led to the development of motors combining rotation and translation movements (linear rotating motors) and more generally of motors capable to perform multi-directional movements (composed displacement motors). This article presents this kind of motors: 1 - general presentation: theoretical recalls, possible configurations of electric motors, evolution; 2 - linear motor: configuration, basic operating principle, main differences between linear and rotating motors; 3 - special effects: end effects (finished length, finished width), penetration effect, resulting magnetic field configuration inside the air gap; 4 - motors with two mechanical degrees of freedom (rotation-translation); 5 - motors with three mechanical degrees of freedom (spherical motors); 6 - optimization of open magnetic circuit motors; 7 - different industrialized structures; 8 - applications; 9 - mathematical appendix. (J.S.)

  16. Learned helplessness or expectancy-value? A psychological model for describing the experiences of different categories of unemployed people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Y

    1997-06-01

    Various studies have explored the relationships between unemployment and expectation of success, commitment to work, motivation, causal attributions, self-esteem and depression. A model is proposed that assumes the relationships between these variables are moderated by (a) whether or not the unemployed individual is seeking a first job and (b) age. It is proposed that for the unemployed who are seeking their first job (seekers) the relationships among these variables will be consistent with expectancy-value theory, but for those who have had a previous job (losers), the relationships will be more consistent with learned helplessness theory. It is further assumed that within this latter group the young losers will experience "universal helplessness" whereas the adult losers will experience "personal helplessness".

  17. Portraits of PBL : Students' experiences of the characteristics of problem-based learning in physiotherapy, computer engineering and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine; Dahlgren, Lars-Ove

    2002-01-01

    The present study is part of a comprehensive research project with the general aims of comparing how problem-based learning is realised in three different professional educational programmes. The specific aims of this study are to describe and analyse how students in the three different programmes conceive of the meaning of problem-based learning and how they experience their studies within a problem-based learning programme. The PBL programmes are a Bachelor's programme in Physiotherapy, a M...

  18. How Relevant is an Expert Evaluation of User Experience based on a Psychological Needs-Driven Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Lallemand, Carine; Koenig, Vincent; Gronier, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Many methods and tools have been proposed to assess the User Experience (UX) of interactive systems. However, while researchers have empirically studied the relevance and validity of several UX evaluation methods, few studies only have explored expert-based evaluation methods for the assessment of UX. If experts are able to assess something as complex and inherently subjective as UX, how they conduct such an evaluation and what criteria they rely on, thus remain open questions. In the present...

  19. [Experiences of breast reconstruction following mastectomy in cases of cancer and evaluation of psychological aspects of the patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, M

    1990-04-01

    The breasts are one of the symbols of femininity. Even if it is for the treatment of cancer, the loss or deformity of the breast brings a considerable psychological burden in addition to the physical pain. Authors have performed breast reconstruction on 150 cases during the past fifteen years and have obtained largely favorable results, which were already reported in several papers. Authors administered questionnaires to these patients in order to ascertain their candid opinions which are often not expressed in a hospital. The results of the survey are presented in this report. The survey was conducted anonymously and the questions were all multiple-choices. Approximately 82% of the patient responded. About the pain, inconvenience and motives for undergoing reconstruction, there was a wide variety of answers and many of those surprised authors. For instance; hesitant to go to a hot spring, or on a trip with friends (76%), hesitant to go to a clinic or a hospital for physical check-ups and common illness (74%), troublesome to wear special underwear (69%), inconvenient because ordinary clothes cannot be worn (56%), distressed when viewing own body (52%), unable to dress in thin clothes in hot summer season (50%), imbalance of the breasts (49%), inconvenient to participate in sports (47%). The most patients experienced inconveniences in daily life and had mental and emotional problems. Overall, an impression of the results of breast reconstruction was 83% satisfactory or near satisfaction. About the condition after reconstruction: Patients also expressed a wide variety of opinions about the improvements. For instance, they are relieved from the troubles of wearing special clothing and enjoy selecting and shopping for clothes. They are able to walk on the street with dignity. They enjoy hot spring baths, sports, and leisure activities. They can go for physical check-ups without hesitation. They have a sense of liberation, and become free from constant anxiety. They

  20. Birth Location, Migration and Clustering of Important Composers: Historical Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol; O’Hagan, John

    2010-01-01

    and 1899. This information is compiled from the large, Grove Music Online (2009) encyclopedia. There is also some discussion of the biases evident in choosing “significant” composers. The data show a marked level ofmigration of important composers going back many centuries suggesting that the phenomenon......This article examines the 522 most important composers in the last 800 years, as identified by Charles Murray (2003), in terms of their birth location and migration. It also examines detailed patterns of migration and tendencies to cluster in certain cities for those composers born between 1750...

  1. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  2. The illogicality of stock-brokers: psychological experiments on the effects of prior knowledge and belief biases on logical reasoning in stock trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauff, Markus; Budeck, Claudia; Wolf, Ann G; Hamburger, Kai

    2010-10-18

    Explanations for the current worldwide financial crisis are primarily provided by economists and politicians. However, in the present work we focus on the psychological-cognitive factors that most likely affect the thinking of people on the economic stage and thus might also have had an effect on the progression of the crises. One of these factors might be the effect of prior beliefs on reasoning and decision-making. So far, this question has been explored only to a limited extent. We report two experiments on logical reasoning competences of nineteen stock-brokers with long-lasting vocational experiences at the stock market. The premises of reasoning problems concerned stock trading and the experiments varied whether or not their conclusions--a proposition which is reached after considering the premises--agreed with the brokers' prior beliefs. Half of the problems had a conclusion that was highly plausible for stock-brokers while the other half had a highly implausible conclusion. The data show a strong belief bias. Stock-brokers were strongly biased by their prior knowledge. Lowest performance was found for inferences in which the problems caused a conflict between logical validity and the experts' belief. In these cases, the stock-brokers tended to make logically invalid inferences rather than give up their existing beliefs. Our findings support the thesis that cognitive factors have an effect on the decision-making on the financial market. In the present study, stock-brokers were guided more by past experience and existing beliefs than by logical thinking and rational decision-making. They had difficulties to disengage themselves from vastly anchored thinking patterns. However, we believe, that it is wrong to accuse the brokers for their "malfunctions", because such hard-wired cognitive principles are difficult to suppress even if the person is aware of them.

  3. The illogicality of stock-brokers: psychological experiments on the effects of prior knowledge and belief biases on logical reasoning in stock trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knauff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explanations for the current worldwide financial crisis are primarily provided by economists and politicians. However, in the present work we focus on the psychological-cognitive factors that most likely affect the thinking of people on the economic stage and thus might also have had an effect on the progression of the crises. One of these factors might be the effect of prior beliefs on reasoning and decision-making. So far, this question has been explored only to a limited extent. METHODS: We report two experiments on logical reasoning competences of nineteen stock-brokers with long-lasting vocational experiences at the stock market. The premises of reasoning problems concerned stock trading and the experiments varied whether or not their conclusions--a proposition which is reached after considering the premises--agreed with the brokers' prior beliefs. Half of the problems had a conclusion that was highly plausible for stock-brokers while the other half had a highly implausible conclusion. RESULTS: The data show a strong belief bias. Stock-brokers were strongly biased by their prior knowledge. Lowest performance was found for inferences in which the problems caused a conflict between logical validity and the experts' belief. In these cases, the stock-brokers tended to make logically invalid inferences rather than give up their existing beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the thesis that cognitive factors have an effect on the decision-making on the financial market. In the present study, stock-brokers were guided more by past experience and existing beliefs than by logical thinking and rational decision-making. They had difficulties to disengage themselves from vastly anchored thinking patterns. However, we believe, that it is wrong to accuse the brokers for their "malfunctions", because such hard-wired cognitive principles are difficult to suppress even if the person is aware of them.

  4. A randomized, double-blind pilot study of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for intensive care unit sedation: patient recall of their experiences and short-term psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Robert; Preslaski, Candice R; Mueller, Scott W; Kiser, Tyree H; Fish, Douglas N; Lavelle, James C; Malkoski, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Sedation with dexmedetomidine may facilitate ventilator liberation and limit the occurrence of delirium. No trial has assessed patient recall or the development of psychological outcomes after dexmedetomidine sedation. This pilot study evaluated whether transitioning benzodiazepine sedation to dexmedetomidine alters patient recall and the incidence of anxiety, depression, or acute stress disorder (ASD). This investigation was a randomized, double-blind, single-center study. Existing continuous benzodiazepine sedation was converted to dexmedetomidine or midazolam when patients qualified for daily awakenings. Sedation was titrated to achieve Riker sedation agitation scores of 3 to 4. The intensive care unit (ICU) Stressful Experiences Questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the impact of event scale-revised were administered before hospital discharge to assess recall, anxiety, depression, and manifestations of ASD. A total of 11 patients received dexmedetomidine, and 12 patients received midazolam. Median dosing was 0.61 µg/kg/h for 3.5 days for dexmedetomidine and 3.7 mg/h for 3 days for midazolam. Attainment of goal sedation and analgesia was similar; however, more dexmedetomidine patients experienced agitation and pain. The median duration of mechanical ventilation from study drug initiation to extubation was 3.4 days in dexmedetomidine patients and 2.9 days in midazolam patients. Dexmedetomidine patients remembered 18.5 experiences compared with 8.5 in midazolam patients (P = .015). Rates of anxiety and depression were similar. In all, 5 (62.5%) dexmedetomidine patients and 1 (12.5%) midazolam patient manifested ASD (P = .063), and 1 dexmedetomidine patient and 5 midazolam patients developed new-onset delirium (P = .07). Hypotension occurred in 10 (90.9%) dexmedotomidine patients and 6 (50%) midazolam patients (P = .069). Transitioning benzodiazepine sedation to dexmedetomidine when patients qualify for daily awakenings may reduce the

  5. Experience and psychological impact of anal cancer screening in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S; Mccaffery, K; Ellard, J; Poynten, M; Prestage, G; Templeton, D J; Hillman, R; Law, C; Grulich, A E

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomavirus-related anal cancer rates are increasing and are particularly high in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM/MSM), especially HIV-positive individuals. Although screening programs for high-risk populations have been advocated, concerns about possible adverse psychological consequences exist. This study aimed to investigate GBM/MSM's experience, understanding and emotional response to screening techniques for anal cancer to determine how best to minimise psychological distress in future programs. In-depth qualitative face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 GBM/MSM participating in the "Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer" in Sydney, Australia, between June 2013 and June 2014. Nonrandom, purposive sampling was used to ensure heterogeneity with respect to HIV status and screening test results. Framework analysis method was used to organise the data and identify emerging themes. Knowledge about anal cancer, human papillomavirus and the link between them was limited. Abnormal screening results affected participants' sense of well-being and were associated with anxiety and concern about developing anal cancer. HIV-negative men receiving abnormal results showed higher levels of distress compared to their HIV-positive counterparts. Consultations with general practitioners about abnormal results had an important role in increasing participants' understanding and in moderating their anxiety. Anal cancer screening should be accompanied by health education around anal cancer, its aetiology and the meaning of associated test results. Simple and effective communication strategies should be encouraged. Collaboration with general practitioners could assist the process of education and reporting test results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Alexia Without Agraphia in a Composer. Technical Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Tedd; And Others

    The case study of a 78-year-old music composer who had had a stroke revealed that he had a severe reading disturbance, a well-preserved writing ability, and no appreciable aphasia. He continued to read music and to compose. His text and music reading performance under different conditions suggested that this unusual dissociation (alexia without…

  7. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  8. FeelSound: Collaborative Composing of Acoustic Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, M.C.; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2009-01-01

    FeelSound is a multi-user application for collaboratively composing music in an entertaining way. Up to four composers can jointly create acoustic music on a top-projection multitouch sensitive table. The notes of an acoustic instrument are represented on a harmonic table and, by drawing shapes on

  9. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  10. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  11. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  12. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  13. PTSD and Psychological Debriefing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a personal, community or national crisis or disaster there is a need to provide some form of early intervention and crisis support. The essential components of successful early interventions include planning, education, training and support for those affected. The goal of all early interventions should be to maximize the likelihood of a positive mental health outcome using the person’s own adaptive coping mechanisms and support structures. Psychological debriefing (PD has been described as an intervention conducted by trained professionals shortly after a catastrophe, allowing victims to talk about their experience and receive information on “normal” types of reactions to such an event. Psychological debriefing has been developed and has been at the centre of significant levels of controversy during the past 15 years. Talking through traumatic or stressful events may help the psychological recovery of those who have suffered psychological insults.

  14. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  15. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  16. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  17. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  18. Psychological factors that impact on women's experiences of first-time motherhood: a qualitative study of the transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Ruth; Skirton, Heather; Farrand, Paul

    2010-06-01

    childbearing is a significant transition, especially for first-time mothers. The objectives of this study were to explore the maternal transition from womens' perspectives and to identify any unmet needs for support. grounded theory was chosen as the most appropriate method of analysis due to its ability to identify social processes in an inductive way. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from the participants, and the interview transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method. communities within one region of the UK. 13 women (aged 16 years) who had delivered their first child six to 15 weeks prior to the interview were recruited to the study. three main themes (control, support and forming a family) all contributed to the core category: 'changes in the woman's self-concept'. Women felt that they had lost some control over their lives in the early stages of pregnancy and after the birth. The early changes in their self-image and the shift in focus from themselves to the needs of the fetus indicate that the transition may begin at a very early stage in the first trimester. The unfamiliar territory of pregnancy and early motherhood created a need for a mentor or mentors to help guide them through the transition, and to 'normalise' their feelings and experiences. Finally, the women recognised that the act of childbearing fundamentally transformed them and their partners from individuals or a couple into founding members of a new family. first-time mothers start to undergo a transition at an early stage in their pregnancy. They face difficult periods both early in the pregnancy and after the birth, and have unmet needs for support in those periods, particularly the support of other new mothers. providing more information about early pregnancy before conception may enable women to form more accurate expectations of this period. Facilitating contact between pregnant mothers would help them to establish a more appropriate support network

  19. An Approach for Composing Services Based on Environment Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing is revolutionizing the modern computing paradigms with its aim to boost software reuse and enable business agility. Under this paradigm, new services are fabricated by composing available services. The problem arises as how to effectively and efficiently compose heterogeneous services facing the high complexity of service composition. Based on environment ontology, this paper introduces a requirement-driven service composition approach. We propose the algorithms to decompose the requirement, the rules to deduct the relation between services, and the algorithm for composing service. The empirical results and the comparison with other services’ composition methodologies show that this approach is feasible and efficient.

  20. [Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented.

  1. Personality traits such as neuroticism and disability predict psychological distress in medically unexplained symptoms: A three-year experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Shanmuganathan, Balasubramanian; Thamizh, Jaiganesh Selvapandian; Arun, Anand Babu; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-11-17

    People with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) may have psychological co-morbidities. Our objectives were to assess the rates and identify correlates of psychological distress in MUS. A total of 171 subjects with MUS seeking treatment at a tertiary care facility were assessed over a 3-year period. Psychological distress was assessed using the Tamil version of General Health Questionnaire-12. Apart from socio-demographic factors, personality, coping, perceived social support and subjective disability were assessed using standard instruments. Ninety subjects (52.6%) endorsed symptoms of psychological distress. MUS subjects with psychological distress reported higher levels of neuroticism (p disability (p disability (odds ratio 1.302, 95% CI 1.147 to 1.478) emerged as independent predictors of psychological distress in MUS. More than half of subjects with MUS have associated psychological distress. High levels of neuroticism and disability are potential markers of psychological distress in MUS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  3. Mechanics and properties of composed materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Altenbach, Holm

    2014-01-01

    This volume details the latest trends in characterization and developments of composed materials and structures, including textile composites, sandwich plates, hollow sphere structures, reinforced concrete as well as classical fibre reinforced materials.

  4. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in Adolescent Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy

    Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…

  6. The bereavement experience of adolescents and early young adults with cancer: Peer and parental loss due to death is associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza-Marie Johnson

    Full Text Available Adolescents commonly experience loss due to death, and perceived closeness to the deceased can often increase the intensity of bereavement. Adolescents and early young adult (AeYA oncology patients may recall previous losses or experience new losses, possibly of other children with cancer, while coping with their own increased risk of mortality. The bereavement experiences of AeYA patients are not well described in the literature.This analysis of bereavement sought to describe the prevalence and types of losses, the support following a death, and the impact of loss on AeYAs aged 13-21 years with malignant disease (or a hematologic disorder requiring allogeneic transplant. Participants were receiving active oncologic therapy or had completed therapy within the past 3 years. Participants completed a bereavement questionnaire and inventories on depression, anxiety, and somatization. The cross-sectional study enrolled 153 AeYAs (95% participation, most (88% of whom had experienced a loss due to death. The most commonly reported losses were of a grandparent (58% or friend (37%. Peer deaths were predominantly cancer related (66%. Many participants (39% self-identified a loss as "very significant." As loss significance increased, AeYAs were more likely to report that it had changed their life "a lot/enormously" (P<0.0001, that they were grieving "slowly or never got over it" (P<0.0001, and that they felt a need for more professional help (P = 0.026. Peer loss was associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes (P = 0.029, as was parental loss (P = 0.018.Most AeYAs with serious illness experience the grief process as slow or ongoing. Peer or parental loss was associated with increased risk of negative mental health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of peer loss, screening for bereavement problems is warranted in AeYAs with cancer, and further research on grief and bereavement is needed in AeYAs with serious illness.

  7. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  8. Cognitive procedures in sports psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rojšek

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.

  9. Can You Feel It?: Evaluation of Affective Expression in Music Generated by MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Eklund, Peter; Togelius, Julian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation conducted on the MetaCompose music generator, which is based on evolutionary computation and uses a hybrid evolutionary technique that combines FI-2POP and multi-objective optimization. The main objective of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...... express different mood-states. The experiment presented here aims to evaluate: (i) if the perceived mood experienced by the participants of a music score matches intended mood the system is trying to express and (ii) if participants can identify transitions in the mood expression that occur mid......-piece. Music clips including transitions and with static affective states were produced by MetaCompose and a quantitative user study was performed. Participants were tasked with annotating the perceived mood and moreover were asked to annotate in real-time changes in valence. The data collected confirms...

  10. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-02-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.

  11. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  12. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. VIH no feminino: vivência psicológica VIH en el feminino: vivencia psicológica HIV and the female gender: the psychological experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia do Rosário Piteira Natário de Lourenço

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A SIDA coloca questões sociais, humanitárias e jurídicas cruciais, e ameaça alterar seriamente fundamentos da estrutura social de tolerância e entendimento que sustém a vida das nossas sociedades. A partir de uma contextualização dos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos do VIH/SIDA, este artigo de revisão bibliográfica faz uma abordagem da vivência psicológica e das implicações da infecção com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana Adquirida na mulher grávida.SIDA plantea cuestiones sociales, humanitarias y jurídicas fundamentales, y amenaza cambiar gravemente motivos de la estructura social de tolerancia y comprensión, que sustenta la vida de nuestra sociedad. Desde una contextualización de los aspectos clínico y epidemiológicos del VIH / SIDA, en este artículo de revisión bibliográfica se hace un enfoque acerca de la v psicológica y la implicación de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana Adquirida en la mujer embarazada.AIDS raises a social issue, humanitarian, legal, and threatens to change the social structure founding of tolerance and understanding, that sustains the life of our societies. From a clinical and epidemiological background of HIV/AIDS, this article of literature review makes an approach about psychological experience and implication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in pregnant woman.

  14. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  15. [International adoption and child psychological vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérouse de Montclos, M-O

    2011-04-01

    Child psychiatry consultations specialised in filiation and international adoption help adopted children with psychological troubles and their adoptive parents. Regardless to this experience and to recent issues in the fields of attachment and narrativity, psychotraumatism and transcultural, some psychological risk factors for internationnally adopted children are described, requiring specialised psychological help. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  17. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Mor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  18. A Time-Composable Operating System for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziccardi, Marco; Schoeberl, Martin; Vardanega, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    . The Patmos time-predictable microprocessor used in the T-CREST project employs performance-enhancing hardware while keeping the system analyzable. Time composability, at both hardware and software level, is a considerable aid to reducing the integration costs of complex applications. A time......In the last couple of decades we have witnessed a steady growth in the complexity and widespread of real-time systems. In order to master the rising complexity in the timing behaviour of those systems, rightful attention has been given to the development of time-predictable computer architectures......, we extend an existing time-composable operating system, TiCOS, to make best use of advanced Patmos hardware features in the pursuit of time composability....

  19. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  20. Composers on Stage: Ambiguous Authorship in Contemporary Music Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, workflows within the field of contemporary classical music have changed drastically. Increasingly, composers are active in the process of creating and co-creating performances, not only the auditory dimensions but also the visual design and theatrical staging. The practice has...... but involving themselves in other ways. The article explores the ambivalent authorship at stake in these performances, arguing that they appear to be projects that reveal the processes of musical performance in ways that undermine the Romantic idea of the composer while concurrently celebrating that very same...

  1. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  2. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  3. Page composer to translate binary electrical data to optical form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G. A.; Cosentino, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Composer converts binary data to optical form for storage as hologram. Device consists of an array of deformable metal membranes controlled by MOSFET's. Device is fast, produces high contrast ratios, does not degrade with extended use, and can be addressed from diverse angles.

  4. Slow fusion of liposomes composed of membrane-spanning lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, MGL; vanBreemen, J; Konings, WN; Driessen, AJM; Wilschut, J; Elferink, Marieke G.L.

    1997-01-01

    The fusion characteristics of large unilamellar liposomes composed of bipolar tetraether lipids extracted from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, was investigated. These lipids span the entire membrane and form single monolayer liposomes in aqueous media [Elferink, M.G.L., de Wit,

  5. The Poetics of Computers: Composing Relationships with Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Bernadette; Reiss, Donna; Selfe, Cynthia L.; Young, Art

    2003-01-01

    Describes a course with three primary goals: to help students reflect on the complex relationship between humans and technology; to reflect on students' responsibility for shaping this relationship in contemporary contexts; and to provide opportunities within which to practice composing this relationship in personal terms. Concludes that in such…

  6. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  7. Composable security in the bounded-quantum-storage model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D.C. Wehner (Stephanie); J. Wullschleger

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a simplified framework for proving sequential composability in the quantum setting. In particular, we give a new, simulation-based, definition for security in the bounded-quantum-storage model, and show that this definition allows for sequential composition of protocols.

  8. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  9. Creativity and Composing: The Composition Teacher as Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that teachers use their own writing as a teaching tool. Discusses both the left-brain logical, rational approach and the right-brain intuitive approach to invention and states that in composing their own methods and materials, instructors can stress both patterns of creativity by illustrating how each complements the other. (EL)

  10. Non-Logical Discourse: Key to the Composing Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Richard C.

    One niche in which scholars have not looked for keys to the composing process is the sometimes illusory but vital area of nonlogical discourse, which includes fantasy, hallucination, dream, reverie, vision, trance, and meditation. Abundant evidence exists about the genesis, importance, and use of nonlogical discourse, but this evidence comes…

  11. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  12. The Nigerian Art Music Composer, His Training, Vocal Compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The music arena has undergone some changes within the past decades in Nigeria; partly due to contact of Nigerians with music of the other world cultures and due to intercultural borrowings within Nigeria. This trend has been a masterminding force in the shaping of the musical arena in Nigeria with the art music composer ...

  13. Psychological distress and user experiences with health care provision in persons living with spinal cord injury for more than 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakimovska, V M; Kostovski, E; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To gain more insight into the long-term health status in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), especially perceived psychological distress as well as self-reports of utilization of healthcare services. SETTING......: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway. METHODS: In total, 147 persons with SCI were examined for more than 20 years and interviewed (in 2004/2005) using a self-administrated questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20). Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression analysis were conducted...... to identify variables associated with psychological distress. RESULTS: Most participants had received SCI follow-up health services at least once after initial rehabilitation; 34% were satisfied, 51% neutral and 18% unsatisfied with the health services provided. Concerning psychological distress, 34 persons...

  14. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  15. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAZRAN, G

    1958-11-14

    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some

  17. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  18. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  19. What Impacts Do OER Have on Students? Students Share Their Experiences with a Health Psychology OER at New York City College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Cailean

    2017-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study conducted with students in three sections of a Health Psychology course that replaced a traditional textbook with open educational resources (OER) as the primary course material. The purpose of the study was to learn how OER impacted students. Data were collected in Fall 2015 with students from New York…

  20. Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Vonk, M.C.; Teunissen, H.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of skin deformity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) relative to other disease stressors and to find psychological correlates of appearance self-esteem (ASE) after controlling for disease status. METHODS: Disease-related stressors, symptoms, physical and

  1. The Future of Counseling Psychology: Improving Quality of Life for Persons with Chronic Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalisz, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…

  2. The Creative Studio Practice of Contemporary Dance Music Sampling Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Morey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate some of the considerations that inform and help to determine the creative studio practice of contemporary sampling composers. Collaborative writing and production, specifically the co-opted collaboration implicit in using samples, will be assessed to consider those aspects of the production process which the participants consider to be authorial. These considerations include acts of listening, selecting and editing. In examining these matters this paper places emphasis on how sampling composers actively constrain their options in order to promote a creative relationship with their musical material. Techniques such as, firstly, traditional sample manipulation, secondly, the use of a sample as an initial building block for a composition from which the sample is then removed and, finally, live performance in the studio which is subsequently cut up and treated as a sample, will be discussed. Case studies, in the form of semi-structured interviews with sampling composers, will be drawn upon to assess approaches to and views about these forms of studio composition.

  3. Composing the theme of city to be diverse and sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiranegara, H. W.

    2018-01-01

    To give a path for developing a city needs a theme. City’s goal stated in a document of a spatial plan were too broad and insufficient detail in giving a direction. To make more detail and precise, every city has to compose a city theme. It is developed based on the potential, the uniqueness, the excellence, and the sustainability of its human resources, natural resources, and man-made resources. An integration among the three of resources which have the highest score become a theme of the city. The aim of this research was to formulate the conceptual framework to compose a city theme. The research design was the interview survey in Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, and Kupang. Informants were the government officials, academics, figures, the private sector and public who considered related to the intended information being collected. Having set the conceptual framework, the interview directed to check the implementation in realities. The result was that the conceptual framework could accommodate the phenomenon of composing the theme of the city. Yet, it was a preliminary in nature and needed more research to get a complete result.

  4. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we ...

  5. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  6. Cognitive procedures in sports psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Rojšek

    2002-01-01

    Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carrie...

  7. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (3. series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (3. serie d'esperiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, St.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I

    2007-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Mega-Joule (LMJ) project, the third series of experiments achieved the particle contamination characterization found in the Laser Integration Line (LIL) environment. This study is focused on 2 zones: the frequency conversion crystals and beam focusing area and the amplification zone. In each zone, the particles have the same chemical nature. The irradiation of samples contaminated in these zones does not create any critical damage, as already observed in the first and second series of experiments. In this third series of experiments, an interesting phenomenon is quantified: the cleaning laser effect. In the best configuration studied (particles in the backward, fluence of 10 J/cm{sup 2}, 355 nm wavelength and 2.5 ns), 95% of the particles larger than 3 {mu}m are eliminated after one single irradiation. (authors)

  8. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  9. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  10. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  11. Functional neuroimaging of psychedelic experience: An overview of psychological and neural effects and their relevance to research on creativity, daydreaming, and dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Girn, Manesh; Parro, Cameron C.; Christoff, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Humans have employed an incredible variety of plant-derived substances over the millennia in order to alter consciousness and perception. Among the innumerable narcotics, analgesics, 'ordeal' drugs, and other psychoactive substances discovered and used in ritualistic contexts by cultures around the world, one class in particular stands out not only for its radical psychological effects, but also for the highly charged political and legal atmosphere that has surrounded it since its widespread ...

  12. Sequential optimality conditions for composed convex optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Radu Ioan; Csetnek, Ernö Robert; Wanka, Gert

    2008-06-01

    Using a general approach which provides sequential optimality conditions for a general convex optimization problem, we derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for composed convex optimization problems. Further, we give sequential characterizations for a subgradient of the precomposition of a K-increasing lower semicontinuous convex function with a K-convex and K-epi-closed (continuous) function, where K is a nonempty convex cone. We prove that several results from the literature dealing with sequential characterizations of subgradients are obtained as particular cases of our results. We also improve the above mentioned statements.

  13. The clinician's guide to composing effective business plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Alan B; Blondell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, clinicians need to understand the fundamentals of financial analysis, which are the underpinnings of their clinical programs, especially when seeking administrative support for new initiatives. The business plan for new clinical program initiatives is composed of diverse elements such as the mission statement, market and competitive analyses, operations plan, and financial analysis. Armed with a basic knowledge of financial analysis of clinical programs, as well as forward-looking analysis of an initiative's added value, the healthcare provider can work much more effectively with administration in developing or creating new healthcare program initiatives.

  14. From Milgram to Zimbardo: the double birth of postwar psychology/psychologization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Milgram's series of obedience experiments and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment are probably the two best-known psychological studies. As such, they can be understood as central to the broad process of psychologization in the postwar era. This article will consider the extent to which this process of psychologization can be understood as a simple overflow from the discipline of psychology to wider society or whether, in fact, this process is actually inextricably connected to the science of psychology as such. In so doing, the article will argue that Milgram's and Zimbardo's studies are best usefully understood as twin experiments. Milgram's paradigm of a psychology which explicitly draws its subject into the frame of its own discourse can be said to be the precondition of Zimbardo's claim that his experiment offers a window onto the crucible of human behaviour. This will be analysed by drawing on the Lacanian concepts of acting out and passage à l'acte. The question then posed is: if both Milgram and Zimbardo claim that their work has emancipatory dimensions - a claim maintained within mainstream psychology - does a close reading of the studies not then reveal that psychology is, rather, the royal road to occurrences such as Guantanamo and Abu Ghraib? The drama of a psychology which is fundamentally based on a process of psychologization is that it turns its subjects into homo sacer of psychological discourse.

  15. Psychological strains found in the suicides of 72 celebrities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tan, Jiandan; Lester, David

    2013-07-01

    The interpretation of suicide involves theories from many disciplines, and the strain theory of suicide is a social-psychological model that attempts to account for this complicated behavior. We have earlier explored the presence of psychological strains in a number of diverse samples of suicides and in the present study, we identified the strains experienced throughout the lives as documented in the biographies of 72 celebrities. The biographies were systematically identified through a number of requirements and composed by one of the authors of this study years before the strain theory of suicide was proposed. A graduate student coder, who was unaware of the strain theory of suicide, was hired to carry out a content analysis of the biography essays and categorize the life events and the responses of the suicide in terms of the four types of strains. Of the 72 suicides, one had no strains, one had all the four strains, four had only one, 30 had two, and 36 had three strains. The most common strain was aspiration strain (97%), followed by deprivation strain (89%), value strain (54%) and coping deficiency strain (4%). It is also noted that religious celebrities were more likely to experience value strain, while those celebrities who had experienced a downhill path in their careers were more likely to experience deprivation and coping strains. This analysis of the 72 celebrity suicides supported the strain theory of suicide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  17. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPOSING A REFERENCE BOOK OF REGIONAL TOPONYMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Dmitriy Yuryevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguistic issues of composing a reference book of regional toponyms – a genre that requires special consideration in national lexicography. The assortment of these issues gave the possibility to carry out complex description of regional toponyms on the basis of semantic, functional, and orpthologuos criteria that let unify the names of Volgograd region settlements that are registered in various documents. The significance of the composed reference book is determined by several factors – the presence of local subsystems of geographical names in Russian toponymy; the inconsistency of current orthography norms on using capital letter in compound proprius names and fused-with-hyphen spelling of toponyms and off-toponym derivations; the lack of linguistically justified explanation of peculiarities of grammatical norms in the field of proper names use. The reference book of regional toponyms is based on the object description (toponymic vocabulary, principles of lexical units selection (description of spelling and grammatical properties of toponyms, encyclopedic information, the glossary (full list of toponyms of Volgograd region, typical article. The articles in the reference book are arranged in lexicographical zones with grammatical and semantic markers, lexicographical illustrations, other lexicographical labels, word etymology including. The reference book on Volgograd region toponymy is addressed to executive and administration authorities, journalists, regional ethnographers.

  18. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan (Jenny); Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  19. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  20. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  1. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  2. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time......We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...

  3. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath composed largely of epithelioid histiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a relatively uncommon lesion. GCTTS composed largely epithelioid histiocytes are very rare. In the literature, the author could not find such cases. A 73-year-old man presented with a mass of right thumb, and resection of the mass was performed. Grossly, the mass was encapsulated and yellowish, and measured 1.5 x 2 x 2 cm. Microscopically, the mass was composed of cellular and hypocellular zones. The former was composed of spindle cells and osteoclast-like giant cells, while the latter of epithelioid clear histiocytes. The area of the former was 20%, and the latter 80%. Pigment was seen in the former elements. Mitotic figures were seen in 3/per 30 high power fields (HPFs) in the former element and 2/per 30 HPFs in the latter element. Histochemically, the pigment was hemosiderin positive with Prussian blue staining. Immunohistochemically, both the elements were negative for cytokeratin (CK) CE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CEA, HMB45, alpha-smooth muscle antigen, p53, CD10, TTF-1, and CDX2. Both the elements were positive for CD68 and Ki-67 (cellular element 30% and hypocellular element 20%). The histiocytes of the hypocellular element and osteoclast-like giant cell of the cellular element were positive for CD45. S100-protein positive Langerhans cells and CD45-positive lymphocytes were scattered. The pathological diagnosis was GCTTS. In the author's experience, GCTTS composed largely epithelioid histiocytes are very rare. In the literature, the author could not find such cases. Thus, the author reports herein this case.

  4. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  6. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Allan, Benjamin A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dahlgren, Tamara L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Epperly, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Foley, Samantha S [ORNL; Hulette, Geoffrey C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Prantl, Adrian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Panyala, Ajay [Louisiana State University; Sottile, Matthew [Galois, Inc.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  7. Large-scale Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Koichi; Goto, Hayato; Sato, Rie

    2017-10-01

    We propose Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons, that is, magnetic bits in a recording track. In large-scale machines, the sizes of both neurons and synapses need to be reduced, and neat and smart connections among neurons are also required to achieve all-to-all connectivity among them. These requirements can be fulfilled by adopting magnetic recording technologies such as race-track memories and skyrmion tracks because the area of a magnetic bit is almost two orders of magnitude smaller than that of static random access memory, which has normally been used as a semiconductor neuron, and the smart connections among neurons are realized by using the read and write methods of these technologies.

  8. [The naphtha composing characteristics of geoherbs of Atractylodes lancea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Liu, Jun-ying; Ji, Li; Huang, Lu-qi

    2002-11-01

    To find the chemical diversity and characteristics of A. lancea on two levels--individuals and populations, and to discover the chemical essentials for forming geoherbs. 47 rhizomes of A. lancea were collected in 7 populations, and 6 naphtha components (1. elemol, 2. hinesol, 3. beta-eudesmol, 4. atractylone, 5. atractylodin, 6. atractylenolid I) in the rhizomes were determined by GC-MS combination. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were carried out by SPSS. Cluster Analysis of the 6 main components indicated that the chemical components of geoherbs were different from those of the non-geonerbs of A. lancea. Other analysis showed as follows: 1. The general oil of geoberbs were lower than that of non-geoherbs(P naphtha composing characteristics of geoherbs was the special proportionment sale, viz. atractylone: hinesol: beta-eudesmol: atractylodin being(0.70~2.00):(0.04~0.35):(0.09~0.40):1.

  9. Cultural Diversity: Resources for Music Educators in Selected Works of Three Contemporary African-American Classical Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjung; Keith, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary African-American classical composers Cedric Adderley, John Lane, and Trevor Weston intertwine strands of culture and individual experience to produce musical works whose distinct designs offer cultural resources that music educators can use to integrate diversity into instructional settings. Of special interest is their ability to…

  10. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  11. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  12. The Smartphone Psychology Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Psychological influence on American humanist education

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is meant to outline the modalities in which psychology has influenced humanist education in the USA, starting with a historical background and presenting its major trends: positive psychology, transcendentalism, the trend based on new discoveries in genetics and neurology with special focus on the third force psychology. It encourages self-actualization, enabling students to express themselves, to act, to experiment, to make mistakes, to discover and to self-discover. The major ob...

  14. Enabling positive change: flow and complexity in daily experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inghilleri, P; Riva, Eleonora; Riva, Giuseppe; Cipresso, Pietro; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Przepiórka, Aneta; Coleshill, Matthew

    .... Positive psychological experience: The focal point of the approach is the concept of Flow of Consciousness, an experience of subjective psychological wellbeing that nourishes and complexifies the Self...

  15. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  16. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  17. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  18. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  19. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Cindy E; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lambert, Joshua D; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L; Sauder, Katherine A; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-16

    Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the inhibitory effect of spices on digestive enzymes. In a 2 x 2, randomized, 4-period crossover design, we compared the effects of 14.5 g spices (black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, rosemary, and turmeric) vs. placebo incorporated into a high fat meal (1000 kcal, 45 g fat), followed by psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test) vs. rest on postprandial metabolism in 20 healthy but overweight adults. Blood was sampled at baseline and at 105, 140, 180, and 210 minutes for analysis of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Additional in vitro analyses examined the effect of the spice blend and constituent spices on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂). Mixed models were used to model the effects of spices and stress (SAS v9.3). Serum triglycerides, glucose and insulin were elevated following the meal (p < 0.01). Spices reduced post-meal triglycerides by 31% when the meal was followed by the rest condition (p = 0.048), but this effect was not present during stress. There was no effect of the spice blend on glucose or insulin; however, acute stress significantly increased both of these measures (p < 0.01; mean increase of 47% and 19%, respectively). The spice blend and several of the individual spices dose-dependently inhibited PL and PLA2 activity in vitro. Inclusion of spices may attenuate postprandial lipemia via inhibition of PL and PLA₂. However, the impact of psychological stress negates any

  20. Obese parents--obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0-3: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Bergmann, Sarah; Keitel, Anja; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2013-12-17

    The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children's weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants' weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent-child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent-child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the fathers, and the observation of parent

  1. A multicenter evaluation of a brief manualized psychoeducation intervention for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures delivered by health professionals with limited experience in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Hannah; Mousa, Saafi; Howlett, Stephanie; Reuber, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to add to our understanding of the impact of psychoeducation on patients' acceptance of the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs), the frequency of their seizures, and their quality of life. The study also aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of brief manualized psychoeducation interventions for PNESs, delivered by a more diverse range of clinicians and in a wider range of treatment settings. The final sample consisted of 25 patients diagnosed with PNESs by a neurologist specializing in the treatment of seizure disorder and referred to the psychotherapy service. The study included patients from four centers, using a manualized psychoeducation intervention delivered over 4 sessions by specialist epilepsy nurses and assistant psychologists. All patients completed self-measure questionnaires for Seizure Frequency, Impaired Functioning (WSAS), Psychological Distress (CORE-OM), Illness Perception (BIPQ), Health-Related Quality of Life: general (ED-QOL) and epilepsy-specific (NewQOL-6D), Symptom Attribution, and patient's perception of usefulness and relevance of the intervention. All measures were collected at baseline and after the completion of the fourth session. All measures improved from baseline to postintervention, but this improvement was only significant for CORE-OM (ppsychological distress, and have an effect on patients' illness perceptions that should help them engage with a more extended psychotherapy program if that was necessary. The intervention was carried out successfully by staff with relatively little training in delivering psychological interventions. Further controlled studies are required to provide proof of efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obese parents – obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0–3: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children’s weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants’ weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. Methods/Design We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent–child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent–child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Discussion Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the

  3. Psychologic Interventions for the Anxious Dental Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlicki, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article asserts that pharmacologic usage can be reduced by understanding that pain is composed of somatic, affective, and cognitive elements; the dentist should be assertive in addressing and dealing with the emotional and psychological aspects of the anxious and fearful patient. The dentist can measure levels of anxiety and fear through self-report and records of dental care; an easily administered test of dental anxiety, such as the Dental Anxiety Scale; and a structured interview in a...

  4. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  5. Modeling of river bed deformation composed of frozen sediments with increasing environmental temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Debolskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of river flow and of the temperature rise on the deformation of the coastal slopes composed of permafrost with the inclusion of ice layer. The method of investigation is the laboratory and mathematical modeling. The laboratory experiments have shown that an increase in water and air temperature changes in a laboratory analogue of permafrost causes deformation of the channel even without wave action, i.e. at steady-state flow and non-erosive water flow velocity. The previously developed model of the bed deformation was improved to account for long-term changes of soil structure with increasing temperature. The three-dimensional mathematical model of coastal slopes thermoerosion of the rivers flowing in permafrost regions, and its verification was based on the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the hydraulic tray. Analysis of the results of mathematical and laboratory modeling showed that bed deformation of the rivers flowing in the permafrost zone, significantly different from the deformation of channels composed of soils not susceptible to the influence of the phase transition «water-ice», and can occur even under the non-erosive velocity of the water flow.

  6. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2014-06-07

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion 'that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex'.

  7. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  8. Fruit for dessert. How people compose healthier meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; van der Horst, K; Siegrist, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed whether factual nutritional information on portion sizes helps consumers to select healthier meals. 124 people were invited to serve themselves lunch from a 'fake food buffet' containing 55 replica food items. Participants in the control group were instructed to serve themselves a meal, as they would normally eat from the given selections (control). Participants in the second condition were asked to select a healthy, balanced meal (instruction). People in the third group were also instructed to select a healthy meal, but in addition, they received nutrition information (instruction+information). The results suggest that participants in the instruction and instruction+information condition chose fewer sweets and desserts (F((2,121))=6.91, P<.05) but more fruits (F((2,121))=5.16, P<.05). This led to overall healthier meals than in the control group. All other food categories, including vegetables, were not altered. No difference was found between the two experimental groups. The results indicate that factual nutrition information does not help consumers compose healthier meals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, 7800024 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago, 9170124 (Chile)

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  10. Composing Cardinal Direction Relations Basing on Interval Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Jia, Haiyang; Liu, Dayou; Zhang, Changhai

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Skiadopoulos proposed a formal model for representing direction relations between compound regions (the finite union of simple regions), known as SK-model. It perhaps is currently one of most cognitive plausible models for qualitative direction information, and has attracted interests from artificial intelligence and geographic information system. Originating from Allen first using composition table to process time interval constraints; composing has become the key technique in qualitative spatial reasoning to check the consistency. Due to the massive number of basic directions in SK-model, its composition becomes extraordinary complex. This paper proposed a novel algorithm for the composition. Basing the concepts of smallest rectangular directions and its original directions, it transforms the composition of basic cardinal direction relations into the composition of interval relations corresponding to Allen's interval algebra. Comparing with existing methods, this algorithm has quite good dimensional extendibility, that is, it can be easily transferred to the tridimensional space with a few modifications.

  11. Computational design of synthetic gene circuits with composable parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, M A; Stelling, J

    2008-09-01

    In principle, novel genetic circuits can be engineered using standard parts with well-understood functionalities. However, no model based on the simple composition of these parts has become a standard, mainly because it is difficult to define signal exchanges between biological units as unambiguously as in electrical engineering. Corresponding concepts and computational tools for easy circuit design in biology are missing. Taking inspiration from (and slightly modifying) ideas in the 'MIT Registry of Standard Biological Parts', we developed a method for the design of genetic circuits with composable parts. Gene expression requires four kinds of signal carriers: RNA polymerases, ribosomes, transcription factors and environmental 'messages' (inducers or corepressors). The flux of each of these types of molecules is a quantifiable biological signal exchanged between parts. Here, each part is modeled independently by the ordinary differential equations (ODE) formalism and integrated into the software ProMoT (Process Modeling Tool). In this way, we realized a 'drag and drop' tool, where genetic circuits are built just by placing biological parts on a canvas and by connecting them through 'wires' that enable flow of signal carriers, as it happens in electrical engineering. Our simulations of well-known synthetic circuits agree well with published computational and experimental results. The code is available on request from the authors.

  12. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  13. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  14. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  15. Rendering clinical psychology an evidence-based scientific discipline: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Stoyanov, Drozdstoj; Machamer, Peter K; Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2012-02-01

    Both modern neuroscience and clinical psychology taken as separate fields have failed to reveal the explanatory mechanisms underlying mental disorders. The evidence acquired inside the mono-disciplinary matrices of neurobiology, clinical psychology and psychopathology are deeply insufficient in terms of their validity, reliability and utility. Further, no effective trans-disciplinary connections have been developed between them. In this context, our case study aims at illustrating some specific facets of clinical psychology as a crucial discipline for explaining and understanding mental disorder. The methods employed in clinical psychology are scrutinized using the exemplar case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). We demonstrate that a clinical interview and a clinical psychological rating scale consist of the same kind of cognitive content. The provisional difference can be described in terms of its having two comparable complementary cognitive structures. The test is composed of self-evaluation reports (items) formulated as questions or statements. The psychopathological structured interview is formulated in terms of subjective experience indicated as symptoms (these are self-reports recorded by the physician), complemented with the so-called 'signs' or the presumably 'objective' observations of the overt behaviours of the patient. However, the cognitive content of clinical judgment is beyond any doubt as subjective as the narrative of the patient. None of the components of the structured psychopathological interview is independent of the inter-subjective system created in the situation of clinical assessment. Therefore, the protocols from various clinicians that serve to sustain the reliability claim of the 'scientific' Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders cannot be regarded as independent measurements of the cognitive content and value of the psychological rating scales or vice versa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Langmuir monolayers composed of single and double tail sulfobetaine lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Gavin; Gee, Anthony P; Arnold, Thomas; Edler, Karen J; Lewis, Simon E

    2016-07-15

    Owing to structural similarities between sulfobetaine lipids and phospholipids it should be possible to form stable Langmuir monolayers from long tail sulfobetaines. By modification of the density of lipid tail group (number of carbon chains) it should also be possible to modulate the two-dimensional phase behaviour of these lipids and thereby compare with that of equivalent phospholipids. Potentially this could enable the use of such lipids for the wide array of applications that currently use phospholipids. The benefit of using sulfobetaine lipids is that they can be synthesised by a one-step reaction from cheap and readily available starting materials and will degrade via different pathways than natural lipids. The molecular architecture of the lipid can be easily modified allowing the design of lipids for specific purposes. In addition the reversal of the charge within the sulfobetaine head group relative to the charge orientation in phospholipids may modify behaviour and thereby allow for novel uses of these surfactants. Stable Langmuir monolayers were formed composed of single and double tailed sulfobetaine lipids. Surface pressure-area isotherm, Brewster Angle Microscopy and X-ray and neutron reflectometry measurements were conducted to measure the two-dimensional phase behaviour and out-of-plane structure of the monolayers as a function of molecular area. Sulfobetaine lipids are able to form stable Langmuir monolayers with two dimensional phase behaviour analogous to that seen for the well-studied phospholipids. Changing the number of carbon tail groups on the lipid from one to two promotes the existence of a liquid condensed phase due to increased Van der Waals interactions between the tail groups. Thus the structure of the monolayers appears to be defined by the relative sizes of the head and tail groups in a predictable way. However, the presence of sub-phase ions has little effect on the monolayer structure, behaviour that is surprisingly different to

  17. Reading, Writing, and Knowing: The Role of Disciplinary Knowledge in Comprehension and Composing. Technical Report No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, John M.

    A study explored how writers with extensive experience and learning in an academic discipline used both topical and rhetorical knowledge to construct synthesis essays. Subjects, 20 psychology graduate students and 20 business graduate students, wrote synthesis essays on either the topics of "supply-side economics" or "rehearsal in…

  18. Terahertz spectroscopic polarimetry of generalized anisotropic media composed of Archimedean spiral arrays: Experiments and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschaffenburg, Daniel J; Williams, Michael R C; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2016-05-07

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic polarimetry has been used to measure the polarization state of all spectral components in a broadband THz pulse upon transmission through generalized anisotropic media consisting of two-dimensional arrays of lithographically defined Archimedean spirals. The technique allows a full determination of the frequency-dependent, complex-valued transmission matrix and eigenpolarizations of the spiral arrays. Measurements were made on a series of spiral array orientations. The frequency-dependent transmission matrix elements as well as the eigenpolarizations were determined, and the eigenpolarizations were found be to elliptically corotating, as expected from their symmetry. Numerical simulations are in quantitative agreement with measured spectra.

  19. Psychological strains found from in-depth interviews with 105 Chinese rural youth suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Dong, Nini; Delprino, Robert; Zhou, Li

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of different aspects of psychological strain in Chinese rural young suicides, so as to test the strain theory of suicide with the Chinese samples. A Psychological Autopsy (PA) was conducted on 105 suicides in rural China. The background and deep reasons for suicide were obtained from in-depth interviews with survivors and close friends. For each suicide, a story is composed out of the provided information, and the stories were content-analyzed with the SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys. Depression or other mental disorders were observed for less than half of the sampled suicides (42.9%). All suicides (100%) had experienced at least one type of the four strains: conflicting values; aspiration and reality; relative deprivation; and coping deficiency. While 24.9% of all suicides experienced only one type of strain, 36.2% experienced two types of strains, 32.4% experienced three types of strains, and only 6.7% of the suicides experienced all four types of strains. Males are more likely than females to experience aspiration and deprivation strains, and the younger suicides (15-22 years of age) were more likely than the older suicides (23-29 years of age) to experience coping strain. Psychological strains are more prevalent than mental disorders among Chinese rural young suicides. Mental illness might be a function of strain resulting from some negative life events, and future studies need to disentangle the relationship between strain and mental disorders.

  20. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  1. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  2. Coping Strategies and the Development of Psychological Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jessie W.; Neill, James T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes psychological theory about stress, coping, and psychological resilience, and considers how coping strategies can help develop resilience in the context of outdoor education. Outdoor education programs often aim to develop psychological resilience through structured challenging and reflective experiences. Use of coping…

  3. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue–penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste–disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  4. Contextual Positive Psychology: Policy Recommendations for Implementing Positive Psychology into Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Atkins, Paul W. B.; Hayes, Louise L.; Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Parker, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to ...

  5. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed method research with the Portuguese communi...

  6. Effects of a Six-Session Introductory Psychology Programme on Year 9 Pupils' Interest in Psychology and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Chaves, Tahirah De Aguiar; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is a popular UK A-level, despite many pupils having no previous taught experience of it. Prior introduction to psychology teaching could help pupils make more informed choices to study it. This study evaluates a six-session introduction to psychology programme for 20 Year 9 pupils called "Myth-Busting the Brain." A…

  7. [Psychological aspects of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, L

    2016-12-01

    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical, psychological and social features in a large cohort of adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: experience from a dedicated centre in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurier, V; Lapeyrade, A; Copet, P; Demeer, G; Silvie, M; Bieth, E; Coupaye, M; Poitou, C; Lorenzini, F; Labrousse, F; Molinas, C; Tauber, M; Thuilleaux, D; Jauregi, J

    2015-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a developmental genetic disorder characterised by a variable expression of medical, cognitive and behavioural symptoms. In adulthood, the prevalence and severity of these symptoms determine the quality of life of the affected persons. Because of their rare disease condition, data on health and social problems in adults with PWS are scarce. In this research, we present medical, psychological and social features of a large cohort of adults admitted to a specialised PWS centre in France and analyse the differences according to genotype, gender and age. Data from 154 patients (68 men/86 women), with a median age of 27 years (range 16-54), were collected during their stay in our centre. Clinical histories were completed using information from parents or main caregivers, and the same medical team performed the diagnosis of different clinical conditions. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the influence of factors such as genotype, age or gender. Paternal deletion genotype was the most frequent (65%) at all ages. Most patients had mild or moderate intellectual disability (87%). Only 30% had studied beyond primary school and 70% were in some special educational or working programme. Most of them lived in the family home (57%). The most prevalent somatic comorbidities were scoliosis (78%), respiratory problems (75%), dermatological lesions (50%), hyperlipidaemia (35%), hypothyroidism (26%), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (25%) and lymph oedema (22%). Some form of psychotropic treatment was prescribed in 58% of subjects, and sex hormones in 43%. Patients with deletion had a higher body mass index (44 vs. 38.9 kg/m(2)) and displayed higher frequency of sleep apnoeas. Non-deletion patients received insulin treatment (19% vs. 4%) and antipsychotic treatment (54.8% vs. 32.7%) more frequently. No difference was observed in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes between the two genotype groups. Patients >27 years of age had a higher rate of

  9. The bereavement experience of adolescents and early young adults with cancer: Peer and parental loss due to death is associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Liza-Marie; Torres, Carlos; Sykes, April; Gibson, Deborah V; Baker, Justin N

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents commonly experience loss due to death, and perceived closeness to the deceased can often increase the intensity of bereavement. Adolescents and early young adult (AeYA) oncology patients may recall previous losses or experience new losses, possibly of other children with cancer, while coping with their own increased risk of mortality. The bereavement experiences of AeYA patients are not well described in the literature. This analysis of bereavement sought to describe the prevalence and types of losses, the support following a death, and the impact of loss on AeYAs aged 13-21 years with malignant disease (or a hematologic disorder requiring allogeneic transplant). Participants were receiving active oncologic therapy or had completed therapy within the past 3 years. Participants completed a bereavement questionnaire and inventories on depression, anxiety, and somatization. The cross-sectional study enrolled 153 AeYAs (95% participation), most (88%) of whom had experienced a loss due to death. The most commonly reported losses were of a grandparent (58%) or friend (37%). Peer deaths were predominantly cancer related (66%). Many participants (39%) self-identified a loss as "very significant." As loss significance increased, AeYAs were more likely to report that it had changed their life "a lot/enormously" (Pbereavement problems is warranted in AeYAs with cancer, and further research on grief and bereavement is needed in AeYAs with serious illness.

  10. Magnetically induced transparency of a quantum metamaterial composed of twin flux qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, K V; Il'ichev, E; Fistul, M V; Besedin, I S; Butz, S; Astafiev, O V; Hübner, U; Ustinov, A V

    2018-01-11

    Quantum theory is expected to govern the electromagnetic properties of a quantum metamaterial, an artificially fabricated medium composed of many quantum objects acting as artificial atoms. Propagation of electromagnetic waves through such a medium is accompanied by excitations of intrinsic quantum transitions within individual meta-atoms and modes corresponding to the interactions between them. Here we demonstrate an experiment in which an array of double-loop type superconducting flux qubits is embedded into a microwave transmission line. We observe that in a broad frequency range the transmission coefficient through the metamaterial periodically depends on externally applied magnetic field. Field-controlled switching of the ground state of the meta-atoms induces a large suppression of the transmission. Moreover, the excitation of meta-atoms in the array leads to a large resonant enhancement of the transmission. We anticipate possible applications of the observed frequency-tunable transparency in superconducting quantum networks.

  11. [Fuzzy mathematic quantitative law of composing principle in the study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Yue; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Bo-li

    2009-01-01

    This study is to analyze microcosmic significance of Chinese medicine composing principle "principal, assistant, complement and mediating guide" and it's fuzzy mathematic quantitative law. According to molecular biology and maximal membership principle, fuzzy subset and membership functions were proposed. Using in vivo experiment on the effects of SiWu Decoction and its ingredients on mice with radiation-induced blood deficiency, it is concluded that DiHuang and DangGui belonged to the principal and assistant subset, BaiShao belonged to the contrary complement subset, ChuanXiong belonged to the mediating guide subset by maximal membership principle. It is discussed that traditional Chinese medicine will be consummate medical science when its theory can be described by mathematic language.

  12. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  13. Composing art songs based on Igbo traditional music:concept and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composing modern African art music from the African stock has drawn the attention of many African and non-African composers and scholars alike in recent times. The common interest to decipher the creative concept and process of the new works emerging from the attempts of African composers at creative continuum of ...

  14. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  15. Predictors of Psychological Adaptation of Cape Verdean Students in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; Wilks, Daniela C.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the predictors of psychological adaptation regarding subjective well-being and loneliness among international students. The sample included 243 Cape Verdean students attending Portuguese universities, and the control group was composed by 265 native-born Portuguese students. The latter group reported higher levels of well-being and…

  16. Teachers' Views on Organizational Deviance, Psychological Ownership and Social Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify Bolu central district secondary school teachers' views on organizational deviance, psychological ownership and social innovation and to determine whether these views were related. The universe of the study conducted with relational screening model was composed of 360 teachers employed in Bolu central district secondary…

  17. The Protective Function of Neighborhood Social Ties on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…

  18. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  19. Psychological aspects of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Rafał; Filip, Rafał; Walczak, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. DEPRESSION AND RELATED PSYCHICAL DISORDERS: There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which

  20. Feeling close: emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; Kane, Joanne; McGraw, A Peter; Dale, Jeannette

    2010-06-01

    The results of 6 experiments indicate that emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance. People who described events emotionally rather than neutrally perceived those events as less psychologically distant, including embarrassing autobiographical events (Experiment 1), past and future dentist visits (Experiment 2), positive and negative events (Experiment 3), and a national tragedy (Experiment 6). People also perceived an event (dancing in front of an audience) as less psychologically distant when they were in a more emotionally arousing social role (of performer) than in a less emotionally arousing social role (of observer; Experiment 4). Two findings bolster the causal role of emotional intensity in reducing perceived psychological distance. First, reported emotional intensity was negatively correlated with perceived psychological distance and statistically mediated the effect of being in an emotionally arousing social role on perceived psychological distance (Experiment 4). Second, providing people with an alternative interpretation of their emotions (emotionally ambiguous whale songs) significantly reduced, even reversed, the negative correlation between self-reported emotional intensity and perceived psychological distance (Experiment 5). These findings about emotional intensity are consistent with the broader idea that perceived psychological distance is grounded in and influenced by the phenomenology of objective distance. Implications for theories of psychological distance, emotionality, and choice are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Interprofessional experiences of recent healthcare graduates: A social psychology perspective on the barriers to effective communication, teamwork, and patient-centred care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Krist; Outram, Sue; Gilligan, Conor; Levett-Jones, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Achieving safe, quality health care is highly dependent on effective communication between all members of the healthcare team. This study explored the attitudes and experiences of recent healthcare graduates regarding interprofessional teamwork and communication within a clinical setting. A total of 68 pharmacy, nursing, and medicine graduates participated in 12 semi-structured focus group discussions in clinical workplaces across three Australian states. Discussion focussed on graduates' experiences of interprofessional education and its impact on their capacity for interprofessional teamwork and communication. The Social Identity and Realistic Conflict theories were used as a framework for qualitative data analysis. A consistent pattern of profession-focussed, rather than patient- or team-focussed goals was revealed along with reports of negative stereotyping, hierarchical communication, and competition for time with the patient. Graduates acknowledged the importance of communication, teamwork, and patient-centred care and felt a better understanding of the roles of other health professionals would assist them to work together for patients' wellbeing. Identifying workplace identities and differential goals has uncovered possible motivations underlying health professionals' behaviour. These insights may help improve interprofessional collaboration by focusing attention on common team goals, increasing feelings of worth and being valued among different professionals, and decreasing the need for competition.

  2. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  3. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  4. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  5. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  7. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  8. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  9. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  10. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  11. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  12. Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n = 111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased identification with

  13. Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Carter

    Full Text Available The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour. All participants (n = 111 were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased

  14. Sheet music by mind: Towards a brain-computer interface for composing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-08-01

    Providing brain-computer interface (BCI) users engaging applications should be one of the main targets in BCI research. A painting application, a web browser and other applications can already be controlled via BCI. Another engaging application would be a music composer for self-expression. In this work, we describe Brain Composing: A BCI controlled music composing software. We tested and evaluated the implemented brain composing system with five volunteers. Using a tap water-based electrode biosignal amplifier further improved the usability of the system. Three participants reached accuracies above 77% and were able to copy-compose a given melody. Results of questionnaires support that our brain composing system is an attractive and easy way to compose music via a BCI.

  15. Cultural identity in Bahamian art music: The expression of four Bahamian composers. Panel discussion at the International Symposium on Composers of African and Afro-Caribbean Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright, Carleton Leroy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a transcription of the presentations delivered by participants of the session: Cultural Identity in Bahamian Art Music: The Expression of Four Bahamian Composers. Edward Bethel moderated the session, which featured Bahamian composers Cleophas Adderley, Audrey Dean-Wright, Christian Justilien, and K. Quincy Parker. They discussed their work, focusing on their compositional style and how or if cultural identity is a strong component in their work. Featured compositions contain hyperlinks to audio/video-recorded examples. Composer and moderator biographies are included, and more information may be found in the Symposium brochure.

  16. Compaction processes in granular beds composed of different particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, C. A.; Greenaway, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    A piston impacting a granular bed will cause the material to compact; the strength of a granular bed is significant during weak impact relating to piston speeds of 100m/s. The strength associated with the granular structure is described as the intergranular stress; this is the resistance of a granular bed to compaction which can be measured by carefully constructing experiments. The compaction process may then be modeled by solving a hyperbolic system of equations that utilizes these data to close the system. The compaction behavior of a porous material is particle-size dependent; to accurately describe the response of two granular beds that may be of different particle sizes and distributions, it is essential that the intergranular stress is derived for each particle bed. This work uses recent compaction experiments to derive intergranular stress curves for prepressed conventional HMX material that is of nonuniform distribution with a mean diameter of 40μm and a microfine HMX of more uniform distribution of mean diameter speed and extent of compaction can be simply determined through the solution of a quadratic equation. Following this, the assumption is relaxed allowing changes in solid-phase density; a complicated equation of state makes the use of numerical methods mandatory. The speed of steady-state waves in HMX due to low impact compaction can be determined within 2% accuracy using the simple closed solution based on solid incompressibility, which is a function of the initial material porosity and density, piston speed, and the intergranular stress of the granular bed. This analysis reveals the difference between the weak impact response of a coarse nonuniform bed and a fine almost uniform granular bed that are initially loaded to 75% of the theoretical maximum density. The fine particle beds have increased resistance to compaction meaning that the extent of compaction is reduced and the speed of compaction waves are faster. The long-term objective of this

  17. Straight eye for the gay guy: composing queerness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Didier Eribon and his theorization of the construction of gay male subjectivity, this article examines different "texts," broadly defined, that grapple specifically with straight men attempting to represent male homosexuality: Norman Mailer's essay, "The Homosexual Villain"; the Bravo reality television series Boy Meets Boy, and Michael Griffith's short story, "Hooper Gets a Perm." These texts represent attempts by straight authors to grapple with queer experience in ways that move the imagination of queers beyond simple stereotypes or uncritical explorations of the sexual "other." In the process of examining these texts, the following questions are addressed: What happens when a straight man attempts to represent a gay man? Does he "get it right," and is such a question even useful? More specifically, what is the value in having straights imagine queerness? Is such an imagining possible? Is such desirable? And, if so, what are the contours of such an imagining-as well as its possibilities and limitations, pedagogically, personally, and politically? Ultimately, I contend that the straight imagining of queerness offers rich potential for mutual understanding; furthermore, attempting to understand what goes into the making of those representations tells us much about how queerness circulates in our culture as a subject, a figure of discussion, contention, and representation.

  18. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  19. Disaster psychology, stress, crisis, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miroslav Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe or disaster entails material destruction - ecological and psychosocial - that transcends the coping capacities of the affected community. Undesirable consequences of disasters, which can be due to both human and natural causes, are reflected in the loss of life of millions in the last decades of the twentieth century, as well as in detrimental influence on the lives of several hundred million people and multi-billion dollar material and financial losses. For these reasons, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the decade of prevention and reduction of the incidence of disasters under resolution 42/169. In order to succeed in preventing and reducing the incidence of disasters, as well as help those affected by them, we have to enrich our theoretical knowledge (i.e., get to know the nature of disaster psychology, understand stress, crisis and trauma, as International Classification of Diseases ISC-10 determines and describes psychosocial psychological reactions and psychological disorders… and practical, experiential and research results. The research we have conducted shows that as far as the spectrum of psychosocial reactions and psychological disorders is concerned, individuals who experience disasters most often exhibit anxiety-, depression-, and anxiety-depression-related disorders, Among the anxiety-related reactions, the most common ones are elevated tension and uneasiness. In some individuals, we can also expect the appearance of fears that were formerly not present, such as fears of being hurt, of mutilation and death. Our experience from working with the refugee population warns us that psychosocial reactions and reactive psychological disorders can emerge even years after disasters such as war and refuge, as well as that individuals affected by such disasters always deserve special attention and psychotherapeutic treatment.

  20. College Females With Maltreatment Histories Have Atypical Autonomic Regulation and Poor Psychological Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P; Shaikh, Samia K; Fasciano, Laura C; Watorek, Vanessa D; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2017-11-20

    This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD. Participants completed measures assessing psychological and PTSD symptomatology. Heart rate was monitored before, during, and after riding a stationary bike (physical stressor) and viewing a video of a child being maltreated (emotional stressor). Baseline and stressor related patterns of heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were quantified from the beat-to-beat heart rate. Women with maltreatment histories reported more psychological distress and PTSD symptomatology, had lower levels of RSA and faster heart rate, and reacted to the stressors with atypical vagal regulation of RSA and heart rate. Accompanying psychological difficulties, women with maltreatment histories exhibit atypical physiological regulation to stressors consistent with clinical observations of lower thresholds to defensiveness and other manifestations of compromised resilience. The findings are consistent with polyvagal theory, which emphasizes the role of the "vagal brake" in social engagement and coregulation behaviors-features frequently compromised in survivors of emotional and physical abuse. Future research should investigate whether these features of atypical autonomic regulation are lead indicators of mental and physical health risks and whether these features can be reversed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).