Van den Broeck, Uschi; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Enzlin, Paul; Demyttenaere, Koen
The distress that couples experience in IVF treatment is well-documented though research exploring factors that might contribute to the distress is scarce and the role of infertility-specific versus more general psychological characteristics in predicting psychological distress remains unexplored. This exploratory study aimed to describe, explore and test a self-constructed conceptual framework designed to understand the relative impact of infertility-specific and general psychological characteristics, in predicting psychological distress. Validated self-report questionnaires that measured the concepts of the encompassing framework (personality characteristics self-criticism and dependency, attachment in the partner relationship, child wish, coping, intrusiveness, infertility-related stress and general psychological distress) were completed by 106 women and 102 men before starting the first IVF/ICSI treatment at a university hospital-based fertility centre. Data were analysed by hierarchical multivariate linear regression analysis and path analysis. The overall conceptual psychological framework explained 55% of the variance in psychological distress. The strongest predictors of psychological distress were general psychological characteristics: passive and active coping, self-criticism and dependency and intrusiveness. A path analysis confirmed the framework and highlighted the mediating role of coping and intrusiveness. In the final analysis, none of the infertility-specific variables significantly predicted psychological distress. The current study of patients starting IVF-treatment demonstrated that general psychological characteristics, specifically active and passive coping, personality characteristics, dependency and self-criticism and intrusiveness, are more important in predicting the variability in psychological distress than infertility-specific concerns. The results raise important questions for infertility counselling. However, the cross
Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Brewer, Jacqueline L
.... Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress...
Jackson, J; Cochran, S D
Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.
Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakaya, Naoki; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Kakizaki, Masako; Sone, Toshimasa; Nagai, Masato; Sugawara, Yumi; Nitta, Akemi; Tomata, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Tsuji, Ichiro
Although green tea or its constituents might reduce psychological stress, the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress has not been investigated in a large-scale study. Our aim was to clarify whether green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress. We analyzed cross-sectional data for 42,093 Japanese individuals aged > or =40 y from the general population. Information on daily green tea consumption, psychological distress as assessed by the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale, and other lifestyle factors was collected by using a questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, history of disease, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, time spent walking, dietary factors, social support, and participation in community activities to investigate the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress. We classified 2774 (6.6%) of the respondents as having psychological distress (Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale > or =13/24). There was an inverse association between green tea consumption and psychological distress in a model adjusted for age and sex. Although the relation was largely attenuated when possible confounding factors were adjusted for, a statistically significant inverse association remained. The odds ratio (with 95% CI) of developing psychological distress among respondents who consumed >/=5 cups of green tea/d was 0.80 (0.70, 0.91) compared with those who consumed Green tea consumption was inversely associated with psychological distress even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.
Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Blais, Rebecca K.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.
Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with elevated psychological distress in service members’/veterans’ spouses. Researchers use a variety of terms to describe this distress, and recently, secondary traumatic stress and secondary traumatic stress disorder (STS/STSD) have become increasingly commonly used. Although STS/STSD connotes a specific set of symptoms that are linked to service members’/veterans’ symptoms, researchers often use general measures of distress or generically worded measures of PTSD symptoms to assess STS/STSD. To determine how often scores on such measures appear to be an accurate reflection of STS/STSD, we examined responses to a measure of PTSD symptoms in 190 wives of male service members with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Wives rated their own PTSD symptoms, and then answered questions about their attributions for the symptoms they endorsed. Fewer than 20% of wives who endorsed symptoms on the PTSD measure attributed these symptoms completely to their husbands’ military experiences. Moreover, compared with wives who attributed symptoms only to events in their own lives, wives who attributed symptoms completely or partially to their husbands’ military experiences had a greater overlap between some of their responses on the PTSD measure and their responses to a measure of general psychological distress. These results suggest that most wives of service members/veterans with PTSD experience generic psychological distress that is not conceptually consistent with STS/STSD, although a subset does appear to endorse a reaction consistent with this construct. Implications of these findings for intervention and research with this vulnerable population are discussed. PMID:21639635
Ridner, Sheila H
The term 'distress' is frequently used in nursing literature to describe patient discomfort related to signs and symptoms of acute or chronic illness, pre- or post-treatment anxiety or compromised status of fetuses or the respiratory system. 'Psychological distress' may more accurately describe the patient condition to which nurses respond than does the term 'distress'. Psychological distress is seldom defined as a distinct concept and is often embedded in the context of strain, stress and distress. This creates confusion for nurses attempting to manage the care of people experiencing psychological distress. This paper is a concept analysis of psychological distress based on Walker and Avant's (1995) criteria that identifies the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of psychological distress based upon the findings of the literature review. In addition, empirical references are identified and constructed cases presented. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid, PsychINFO, and Cancer Lit databases over the last 50 years. The purposes of this concept analysis were: (1) to establish the concept of psychological distress as a clear and distinct concept, separate from strain, stress and distress, and (2) to provide nurses with a base of knowledge from which to plan effective clinical interventions. Content analysis of the literature revealed that, although used frequently in health care literature, the origin of the concept of psychological distress has not been clearly articulated and is ill-defined. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many of the people whom nurses encounter on a daily basis. An understanding of the concept of psychological distress will help nurses ameliorate this problem in patients. Nursing research related to the exploration of psychological distress is also needed.
Östergren, Per-Olof; Canivet, Catarina; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Lindeberg, Sara; Karasek, Robert; Isacsson, Sven-Olof
Purpose Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. Methods About 1,940 male and female workers from the Malmö Shoulder and Neck Study were chosen for this cross-sectional study. Job control, social support at work, and job demands were measured by the Swedish version of the Job Content Questionnaire, and general psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Results A significant excessive risk increase for general psychological distress was observed when workers had both low job control and low social support at work in both men and women. The synergistic effect was stronger in women, when job demands were low (Rothman’s synergy index was 2.16 vs. 1.51 when job demands were high). However, in male workers, while a strong synergistic effect between job control and social support at work was found when job demands were low (synergy index was 9.25), there was an antagonistic effect when job demands were high (synergy index was 0.52). Conclusions There was a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress, but the synergistic effect or its effect size differed by the level of job demands and gender. An atomic, additive approach to the risk assessment of the psychosocial work characteristics on common mental disorders could be misleading or lead to a risk underestimation. PMID:20582551
Tesfaye, Solomon H; Bune, Girma T
Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19). Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27-20.81), low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85-36.29), number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77-8.99), not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33-20.62), and CD4 cell count of prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health services with HIV/AIDS care and support program.
Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, Jose A; Harper, Gary W; Musiime, Victor; Lepkowski, James; Resnicow, Ken; Snow, Rachel C
HIV infection increases the risk of psychological distress among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), which, in turn, increases risky behaviours such as medication non-adherence, substance use, and sexual risk-taking. The majority of studies on psychological distress among ALHIV have been conducted in high-income countries; data on the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among ALHIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce, yet over two-thirds of the global population of ALHIV resides in SSA. The purpose of this study was to identify the contextually relevant correlates of psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV. Utilizing the stress and coping framework, we explored the risk and protective factors for psychological distress in cross-sectional sample of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) at a large HIV treatment centre in Kampala, Uganda. The stressors associated with psychological distress included daily hassles, major negative life events, HIV-related quality of life, and stigma. Protective factors included psychosocial resources such as religious coping, satisfaction with social support, and general coping style and behaviours. Social support and optimism were significantly associated with psychological distress. Findings underscore the need for mental health services for ALHIV in Uganda and other resource-limited settings.
Blainey, Sarah Heidi; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren; Beck, Alison
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. Method: In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnai...
Solomon H. Tesfaye
Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART. Design: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results: The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19. Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81, low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29, number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99, not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62, and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83 and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73. Conclusions: This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health
Mehmet Baran Karataş
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF. Methods: In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scales were administered to each patient. Results: The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 , p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 , p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively. Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01, BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01, and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01. The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies.
Mehmet Baran Karataş
Full Text Available AbstractBackground:The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF.Methods:In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scales were administered to each patient.Results:The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 , p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 , p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively. Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01, BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01, and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01. The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis.Conclusion:Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies.
Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Şahan, Ebru; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Çanga, Yiğit; Güngör, Barış; Onuk, Tolga; İpek, Göktürk; Çakıllı, Yasin; Arugaslan, Emre; Bolca, Osman
The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF). In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA) were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scales were administered to each patient. The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 , p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 , p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively). Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01), BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01), and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01). The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder. Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53 in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02. There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required.
Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika
There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of hypertension with psychological distress, such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. The association may be because of a direct effect of the raised blood pressure, adverse effects of treatment, or the consequences of labeling. In a representative study of 33 105 adults (aged 51.7+/-12.1 years; 45.8% men), we measured levels of psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and collected blood pressure, data on history of hypertension diagnosis, and medication usage. Awareness of hypertension was confirmed through a physician diagnosis or the use of antihypertensive medication, and unaware hypertension was defined by elevated clinic blood pressure (systolic/diastolic > or =140/90 mm Hg) without previous treatment or diagnosis. In comparison with normotensive participants, an elevated risk of distress (General Health Questionnaire score > or =4) was observed in aware hypertensive participants (multivariable adjusted odds ratio: 1.57 [95% CI: 1.41 to 1.74]) but not in unaware hypertensives (odds ratio: 0.91 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.07]). Antihypertensive medication and comorbidity were also associated with psychological distress, although this did not explain the greater risk of distress in aware hypertensives. We observed a weak curvilinear association between systolic blood pressure and distress, which suggested that distressed participants were more likely to have low or highly elevated blood pressure. These findings suggest that labeling individuals as hypertensive, rather than having elevated blood pressure, per se, may partially explain the greater levels of distress in patients treated for hypertension.
Tesfaye, Solomon H.; Bune, Girma T.
Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected su...
Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison
To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin
Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination.
Nguyen, Thi; Dennis, Sarah; An, Huy; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Liaw, Siaw Teng
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress among Vietnamese adults attending Vietnamese-speaking general practices and explore possible risk factors in this population.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adult patients was conducted at 25 general practices with Vietnamese-speaking general practitioners (GPs) in south-western Sydney between October 2012 and February 2013. Patients completed the Kessler (K10) scale and a demographic questionnaire, available in Vietnamese or English. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21.Results: Of the 350 patients invited to participate, 247 completed surveys (response rate 71%). One-quarter (25%) of participants had a very high K10 score for psychological distress, nearly twice that reported in the NSW Health Survey. Participants with high exposure to trauma were at increased risk of psychological distress (odds ratio 5.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4-14.4; P speaking general practices is associated with exposure to trauma. This highlights the importance of personal, social and professional support in effective management. Vietnamese-speaking GPs who see Vietnamese or similar refugee groups should actively seek out a history of exposure to trauma, a past history of mental illness and the existence of support systems.
Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others
Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…
Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.
This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... is a purely linear function. Specifically, we have examined self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, and IQ, among 1869 young men appearing before the Danish Draft Board with a view to assessing suitability for conscription. The assessment included a 25-item questionnaire concerning a broad range...... was 0.15, but the relationship was better described by a model incorporating a negatively accelerating quadratic function and individuals above the 90th percentile on the PHS had a mean IQ of 94. This finding confirms the need to consider any general psychological distress, especially at high levels...
Matud, M Pilar; Bethencourt, Juan M; Ibáñez, Ignacio
Epidemiological and community-based surveys consistently report gender differences in mental health. This study examines gender differences in psychological distress by analyzing the relevance of stress, coping styles, social support and the time use. Psychological tests were administered to a convenience sample of 1,337 men and 1,251 women from the Spanish general population, aged between 18 and 65 and with different socio-demographic characteristics, although both the women and men groups had similar age and educational levels. Women had more psychological distress than men. Although psychological distress in the women and men groups have some common correlates such as more stress, more emotional and less rational coping and less social support, we find some gender differences. Work role dissatisfaction was more associated with distress in the men than in the women group. In addition, women's distress was associated with more daily time devoted to childcare and less to activities they enjoy, and men's distress was associated with more time devoted to housework and less to physical exercise. Social roles traditionally attributed to women and men - and the differences in the use of time that such roles entail - are relevant in gender differences in psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin
Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…
Wagena, EJ; Arrindell, WA; Wouters, EFM; van Schayck, CP
This study was designed to assess the level of psychological distress in a heterogeneous group of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and compare them with the general population and psychiatric outpatients. A total of 118 patients with COPD, a random sample of 500 subjects
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients...
Background: Physical illness is commonly associated with psychological distress that may be a direct effect of the illness or an adjustment in coping with the physical illness or its treatment. Little is known about psychological distress of patients on general wards in developing countries. Objectives: This study aimed to ...
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.
Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523
Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio
The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.
Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew
Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.
Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.
This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761
Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne
We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress.......We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress....
Purpose: patients undergoing radiotherapy have physical and psychological symptoms related to the underlying disease and the treatment. In order to give the best possible support to the patients, more knowledge about the amount and the changing of distress in the course of radiotherapy is of essentially importance. Methods: The distress was measured in a consecutive sample of cancer patients (n=82) undergoing radiotherapy. Each patient was given the EORTC-QLQ-C30, the HADS and a special questionnaire which ascertain radiotherapy-specific items before starting the radiotherapy, at the onset of radiotherapy, in the third week of radiotherapy and 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: within the first week of treatment the psychological distress of the patients is increasing; 98.8 % of the patients are 'moderate distressed', 46 % 'severe distressed'. General physical symptoms seem not to be affected by the radiotherapy, there is no changing. The distress caused by the organization of the radiotherapy is...
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A
Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deno, Minako; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Nakajima, Satomi; Ito, Masaya
The current study investigated whether the influence of alexithymia on psychological distress (PD) differed according to the seriousness of complicated grief (CG) and the time since bereavement in the Japanese general population. 1162 participants between 40 and 79 years of age (effective response rate: 58.8%) completed a cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire regarding the following factors: alexithymia (DD: Difficulty describing feeling, DI: Difficulty identifying feeling, EO: Externally oriented thinking), PD, and CG. To compare the non-bereaved (group 1) with four other groups, which were organized by CG score (high/low) and the time since bereavement (within half/two years postloss); the half year_low/high CG (group 2 and 3) and the two years_low/high CG (group 4 and 5), a simultaneous analysis of the five groups with standard maximum likelihood estimations was performed and hypothesized models were verified. The model (RMSEA=0.000, AIC=57.686) showed that the models' constructions for group 1 and 4 were significantly similar. In the other groups, the degree of correlation between alexithymia (especially EO) and psychological distress was significantly different. The study is a cross-sectional design and not with a clinical population. Our findings showed that the relationship between alexithymia and psychological distress was significantly same for group 1 and 4. In group 2, EO was less correlated with the other subscales of alexithymia, which suggests that EO is utilized as a coping style for bereavement that, in turn, influences convalescence during the half year following bereavement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Canavan, Maureen E; Sipsma, Heather L; Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Jack, Helen; Udry, Christopher; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.
Leino, T M; Selin, R; Summala, H; Virtanen, M
Police officers and security guards are more exposed to violence during their work duties than the general workforce and it can damage their psychological health. Still research on specific forms of violence and a potential pathway through which violence may affect distress is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of two forms of violence with distress among police officers and security guards and whether personal worry about future violence mediates this association. Violence was specified as physically violent acts and threats or assaults with a deadly weapon. Symptoms of psychological distress were measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 scale. Analyses of 1993 completed responses (response rate 58%) showed that the odds ratio of distress for 'physically violent acts was' 1.67 (95% CI = 1.11-2.51) and for 'threats or assaults with a deadly weapon' 1.62 (95% CI = 1.20-2.17). When personal worry about future violence was taken into account, the association between exposure to physically violent acts and distress was completely broken. Instead, with the same adjustment, the association between exposure to threats or assaults with a deadly weapon and distress held. The results indicate that the association between physically violent acts and distress is mediated by personal worry about future violence, while threats or assaults with a deadly weapon had a stronger and independent association with distress. It is concluded that there is association between violence and distress. Personal worry about future violence mediates this association.
Feb 7, 2018 ... Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A ...
Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...
Pasch, Lauri A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Katz, Patricia K.; Millstein, Susan G.; Nachtigall, Robert D.; Bleil, Maria E.; Adler, Nancy E.
Objective To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Design Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Setting Five community and academic fertility practices. Patients Two hundred and two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Interventions Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months follow-up. Main Outcome Measures IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. Results Using a binary logistic model including covariates (woman’s age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pre-treatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. Using linear regression models including covariates (woman’s age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. Conclusions IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. PMID:22698636
Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…
Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J
Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.
Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer
PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS...
Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena
Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231
Leijon, Ola; Wahlström, Jens; Mulder, Marie
Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys. To investigate the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain and psychological distress in a geographical area over a 16-year period. A large number of studies have shown that nonspecific neck, shoulder, and arm pain is a very common symptom in the general population. However, few studies have followed the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain within a geographical area, in order to investigate time-trends. This study provides an analysis of questionnaire data collected every 4 years between 1990 and 2006 on the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain or psychological distress in the County of Stockholm, Sweden (response rate: 61%-69%). All individuals aged 21 to 64 years (n = 1976-26,611) were included in the study. Over the 16-year period, the prevalence of self-reported neck-shoulder-arm pain rose slightly, from 22.8% to 25.0% among females (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]: 1.10) and from 12.8% to 15.4% among males (PRR: 1.21). The prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent low back pain also rose slightly, from 8.4% to 10.8% among females (PRR: 1.28) and from 5.3% to 6.6% among males (PRR: 1.24). In contrast, the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent psychological distress rose more substantially, from 4.4% to 8.5% among females (PRR: 1.91) and from 2.0% to 4.3% among males (PRR: 2.18). All prevalence rates rose between 1990 and 2002, and decreased in 2006 compared to 2002. The gender gap in prevalence did not change over time. Although the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent symptoms decreased in 2006 compared to 2002, it is still too early to conclude that we have reached and passed the peak of the "epidemic" of neck-shoulder-arm pain.
Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali
The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…
Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Ps...
Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...
Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria
Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.
It was carried out among patients attending the chest clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. ... About half of the participants suffered from somatisation, neuroticism, depression and anxiety and as regards GHQ scores, more than half (51.9%) indicated psychological distress. Likewise ...
Socio-demographic correlates of psychological distress among male ... using the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI) depression and anxiety module. ... Psychological distress was significantly associated with a history of marital ...
Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.
An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…
Petroni, Maria Letizia; Villanova, Nicola; Avagnina, Sebastiano; Fusco, Maria Antonia; Fatati, Giuseppe; Compare, Angelo; Marchesini, Giulio
Very few data are available on psychological distress in morbidly obese subjects in relation to the history of their weight. In subjects with childhood obesity, psychological distress might be better than in adult-onset obesity, because of progressive adaptation to the social stigma. Psychological distress was tested in relation to BMI at age 20 years (BMI-20), weight history and somatic co-morbidities in 632 treatment-seeking, morbidly obese participants from the QUOVADIS cohort (130 men, 502 women; mean age 45.5 years). The number of dieting attempts/year, BMI increase and cumulative BMI loss since age 20 were calculated as weight cycling parameters. The Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), the Binge-Eating Scale, and the ORWELL-97 questionnaire were used to score psychometry and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Complications were quantitatively assessed by a modified Charlson's score. BMI-20 was normal in 35% of cases and >35 kg/m2 in only 14%. Psychometric scores were not different in relation to BMI-20, when corrected for age, with the exception of the General Health scale of PGWB, showing a greater distress in subjects with normal BMI-20. In most cases, the prevalence of pathological results of questionnaires showed a J-shaped curve, with participants with normal BMI-20 or those with Class II-III obesity in early adulthood having the highest prevalence of psychological/psychiatric distress and poor HRQL. Weight cycling was a risk factor for binge-eating, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in SCL-90, whereas somatic co-morbidities adversely affected most SCL-90 and all PGWB scales. Weight cycling and somatic co-morbidities, but not age of onset of obesity, are the main factors negatively influencing psychological health in treatment-seeking, morbidly obese subjects.
Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D
Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.
Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...
Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...
Bore, Miles; Pittolo, Chris; Kirby, Dianne; Dluzewska, Teresa; Marlin, Stuart
Previous research has found university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Our aim was to investigate the degree to which personality and contextual factors predict psychological distress and well-being in students over the course of a semester. We also examined whether resilience-building…
Schonfeld, I S
This article describes a cross-sectional study of the links between job-related stressors and depressive and psychophysiologic symptoms and morale in 67 New York City teachers. The teachers' mean score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; M = 13.03) was higher than might be expected from average community residents. The teachers also tended to express dissatisfaction with their jobs. The CES-D and the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale were correlated as highly as their reliabilities would permit, a finding consistent with the view that the CES-D and the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale measure the same construct, nonspecific psychological distress. The correlational findings suggest that distress is distinct from job-related morale, which was indexed by measures of motivation to continue teaching and job satisfaction. The results of regression analyses, which controlled for sociodemographic factors, indicated that the level of job strain (frequency of ongoing stressors) is more closely related to psychological distress and low morale than episodic stressors, including crimes in which the teacher was victim. The regression analyses also indicated that colleague support was related to lower symptom levels and higher morale.
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix
Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Golder, Seana; Engstrom, Malitta; Hall, Martin T; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K
Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social support and formal service utilization; perceived life stress; and resource loss). The present research was effective in uncovering important heterogeneity in psychological distress using a highly reliable and easily accessible measure of general psychological distress. Differentiating levels of psychological distress and associated patterns of psychosocial risk can be used to develop intervention strategies targeting the needs of different subgroups of women. Implications for treatment and future research are presented. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.
This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…
Full Text Available Psychological distress have been found to be high and influence negatively nurses’ and teachers’ work. In this nine-year project, we present the first longitudinal study comparing psychological distress from 1467 students and young professionals in nursing and teaching. Psychological distress was measured with GHQ 12 at the start and the end of their studies and three and six years after graduation. Both descriptive statistics and estimated models were used to assess psychological distress over time. Psychological distress increased significantly in both groups during education. The reduction of psychological distress was significant among the nurses, and they clearly showed a “healthy worker effect” when coming into clinical work. The teachers had a small and non-significant reduction in the same period and did not show a positive effect after starting pedagogical work.
Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Larsen, Anelia; Vinding, Anker Lund; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind
Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees' assessment of work environment.
Chiou, Yu-Jie; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Wang, Liang-Jen; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wu, Yi-Shan; Lee, Yu
Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1%) were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82), having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43), and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58) were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3%) with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%), followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%), depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%), and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%). Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not received chemotherapy. The most common psychiatric disorder was adjustment disorder. Early detection of psychological distress and prompt psychiatric consultation and management are very important for cancer inpatients.
Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna
This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.
Gundelach, Amy; Henry, Barb
Cancer-related psychological distress, as a concept, has limited research literature substantiation. Several studies report that patients with cancer suffer from significant psychological distress; however, the description of the concept of cancer-related psychological distress has not been clearly described. Theoretical work based on the concept is also unclear. This article is a report on the concept of cancer-related psychological distress to clarify the concept as separate from non-cancer-related psychological distress and promote the use of the term in nursing practice and research across the cancer trajectory. This article used a content analysis to examine the literature. The literature review for this article used CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and PubMed to search publications from 1999-2016. Content analysis of the literature revealed that the term psychological distress was used often with regard to distress in patients with cancer, but the concept of cancer-related psychological distress was not clearly defined. Four attributes encompass the concept of cancer-related psychological distress.
Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko
The present study investigated the relationship between violence and psychological distress experienced by parents of patients with schizophrenia. Questionnaire data from 379 parents were analyzed. A total of 151 parents (39.8%) had not experienced violence in the past year, whereas 96 (25.3%) and 132 (34.8%) had experienced psychological violence only or physical violence, respectively. A total of 216 (57.0%) of parents reported being psychologically distressed. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk of psychological distress significantly increased with the experience of psychological and physical violence, lower household income, greater family stigma, and the increasing age of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R
Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia
Background Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. Methods This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. Results A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between “escape-avoidance” and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. Conclusion The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and
Full Text Available Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students.This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire of a total sample (n = 1557 of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59 provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping.A significant percentage (41.9% of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity.The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia
Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also
Love, Keisha McGhee
African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…
Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K
The objective of the research was to explore the role of psychological distress in the self-reported risky driving of young novice drivers. A cross-sectional online survey incorporating Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale and the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale was completed by 761 tertiary students aged 17-25 years with an intermediate (Provisional) driving licence in Queensland, Australia, between August and October 2009. Regression analyses revealed that psychological distress uniquely explained 8.5% of the variance in young novices' risky driving, with adolescents experiencing psychological distress also reporting higher levels of risky driving. Psychological distress uniquely explained a significant 6.7% and 9.5% of variance in risky driving for males and females respectively. Medical practitioners treating adolescents who have been injured through risky behaviour need to be aware of the potential contribution of psychological distress, while mental health professionals working with adolescents experiencing psychological distress need to be aware of this additional source of potential harm. The nature of the causal relationships linking psychological distress and risky driving behaviour are not yet fully understood, indicating a need for further research so that strategies such as screening can be investigated.
Galfin, John M; Watkins, Edward R
Patients with a life-limiting illness, such as cancer, and their carers experience elevated psychological distress. However, the psychological mechanisms underpinning distress in palliative care have been little studied. Recent theories predict that individuals who experience increased uncertainty in the context of ongoing difficulties, such as palliative patients and their carers, will (a) think more abstractly; (b) ruminate more; and (c) be more distressed. Palliative patients (n = 36, 90% with cancer), their carers (n = 29), and age-matched controls (n = 30) completed standardized questionnaires to assess anxiety, depression, and rumination, and open-ended interviews to identify their concerns and idiosyncratic levels of rumination. Concerns were analyzed linguistically for level of abstraction. As predicted, (i) palliative patients and carers reported significantly more uncertainty, rumination, and abstract thinking than controls; (ii) uncertainty, abstractness, and rumination were associated with psychological distress. Abstraction and rumination are psychological mechanism potentially involved in increased psychological distress in palliative care. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Greil, A L
This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis is now rejected by most researchers, but a related hypothesis, which states that stress may be a causal factor in infertility, is worthy of exploration. The descriptive literature on the psychological consequences of infertility presents infertility as a devastating experience, especially for women. Attempts to test the psychological consequences hypothesis have produced more equivocal results. In general, studies which look for psychopathology have not found significant differences between the infertile and others. Studies which employ measures of stress and self-esteem have found significant differences. The psychological consequences literature is characterized by a number of flaws, including over sampling of women, small sample size, non-representative samples, failure to study those who have not sought treatment, primitive statistical techniques, and an over-reliance on self-reports. Studies on infertility and psychological distress need to take into consideration both the duration of infertility and the duration of treatment. Finding an appropriate set of "controls" is a particularly intractable problem for this area of research. In general, the psychological distress literature shows little regard for the social construction of infertility. By taking what should be understood as a characteristic of a social situation and transforming it into an individual trait, the literature presents what is essentially a medical model of the psycho-social impact of infertility. Most researchers conclude that
Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality
Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS and psychological distress are hypothesized to have a bidirectional relationship. According to their high prevalence in most populations, appraisal of this theory would be of great clinical and research interest. Methods. Data were available as part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP. A total of 9553 men and women aged ≥19 years from three counties in central Iran were selected. Measurements consisted of serologic tests, anthropometrics, and self-reported 12-item general health questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the association between MetS, MetS components, and distress level. Results. The mean age of 9553 participants (50% male was 38.7 ± 15.8 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.37, central obesity (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15–1.49, and hypertension (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.42–1.70 were associated with high distress level. However, after adding smoking status and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to the adjustment factors, hypertension (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.53–1.98 and central obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17–1.55, but not the MetS, remained significantly associated with distress level. Conclusion. The presence of association between the MetS as well as its key components and high distress level signifies the importance of integrating psychological assessment and intervention in the standard management of MetS patients.
Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.
This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334
Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.
Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...
Ali S Radeef; Ghasak G.Faisal
Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stres...
Ali S Radeef; Ghasak G.Faisal
Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stres...
Borsje, Petra; Hems, Marleen A P; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Bor, Hans; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Pot, Anne Margriet
The course of psychological distress in informal caregivers of patients with dementia has been investigated in longitudinal studies with conflicting outcomes. We investigated the course and determinants of psychological distress in informal caregivers of patients with dementia in primary care. In this prospective observational cohort study, data were collected at baseline, after 9 and 18 months. We assessed cognition and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of the patient (Mini-Mental State Examination and Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and psychological distress (Sense of Competence Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and General Health Questionnaire 12-tem version) of the informal caregivers. Determinants for the course of psychological distress were caregivers' age, gender and relationship with the patient, patients' cognition and NPS, participation in a care program and admission to long-term care facilities (LTCF). With linear mixed models, the course over time for psychological distress and its determinants were explored. We included 117 informal caregivers, of whom 23.1% had a high risk for depression and 41.0% were identified to be likely to have mental problems at baseline. We found a stable pattern of psychological distress over time. Higher frequency of NPS, informal caregivers' age between 50 and 70 years and being female or spouse were associated with higher psychological distress. For patients who were admitted to a LTCF during the study psychological distress of the informal caregivers improved. GPs should focus on NPS in patients with dementia and on caregivers' psychological distress and be aware of their risk for depression and mental problems, specifically to those who are spouse, female or between 50 and 70 years of age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Matthiesen, Stig Berge
This study investigates the prevalence of psychological distress and stressors in the work environment as prospective predictors of distress, among employees in the offshore petroleum industry. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were employed to examine longitudinal relationships between stressors and distress in a randomly drawn sample of 741 employees from the Norwegian petroleum offshore industry. Time lag between baseline and follow-up was 6 months. Work environment stressors included safety factors, leadership, and job characteristics. The prevalence of psychological distress was 9 % at baseline and 8 % at follow-up. All investigated work environment factors correlated with subsequent distress. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, caseness of distress was predicted by baseline distress, near miss accidents, risk perception, poor safety climate, tyrannical leadership, laissez-faire leadership, job demands, and workplace bullying. After adjustment for baseline distress, control variables, and other predictors, laissez-faire leadership (OR = 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.12-2.54) and exposure to bullying (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI: 1.07-2.10) emerged as the most robust predictors of subsequent distress. The findings show that the prevalence of psychological distress is lower among offshore employees than in the general population. Although offshore workers operate in a physically challenging context, their mental health is mainly influenced by stressors in the psychosocial work environment. This highlights the importance of developing and implementing psychosocial safety interventions within the offshore industry.
Min, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sujung; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Chul; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk
Although a considerable number of cancer patients suffer from emotional distress which may have an impact on their quality of life, it still remains poorly understood which psychosocial factors contribute to individual vulnerabilities to emotional distress of cancer patients. Recently, resilience has been suggested as the capacity to cope with adversities like cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between resilience and emotional distress in cancer patients. One hundred fifty-two cancer patients who were consecutively hospitalized for their scheduled treatments at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled and completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale to measure resilience and emotional distress. The relationships between the levels of psychological resilience and emotional distress were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Psychological resilience levels were negatively associated with emotional distress after controlling for relevant covariates. The highest quartile of resilience level was associated with a 90% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.34, P cancer patients, resilience was also found to be a significant protective factor for emotional distress (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.79, P = 0.02). The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress in cancer patients. The relationship between resilience and emotional distress was also significant in the subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. Psychosocial interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome cancer-related emotional distress.
Ali S Radeef
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stress which were chosen depending on previous studies. Results: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 32.6%. Science students showed a significantly higher rate and mean score of psychological distress than medical students, and the mean score was significantly higher during the clinical phase rather than the pre-clinical phase in medical students. Overall, female students had a significantly higher mean score than males, however although the mean score was higher in females it was only significant in the pre-clinical phase. In addition to academic and psychological stressors, factors such as reduced holidays, lack of time for relaxation, and limitation of leisure/entertainment time were among the top ten stressors reported by the students. Conclusions: Psychological distress is common among university students, and it is higher among science students than medical students. Academic and psychological factors can be considered as sources of stressors which may precipitate psychological distress among college students.
McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey
Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…
Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.
Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…
Kristy N. Carlisle
Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.
Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Schiffer, Angélique A
Depression, anxiety, and type D ("distressed") personality (tendency to experience negative emotions paired with social inhibition) have been associated with poor prognosis in coronary heart disease, but little is known about their role in chronic heart failure. Therefore, we investigated whether...... these indicators of psychological distress are associated with mortality in chronic heart failure....
Morten Birkeland Nielsen; Jørn Hetland; Stig Berge Matthiesen; Ståle Einarsen
Objectives The aims of this study were to examine reciprocal longitudinal associations between exposure to workplace bullying and symptoms of psychological distress and to investigate how self-labeled...
William W. Dressler
Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.
Features of residency training and psychological distress among residents in a Nigerian teaching hospital. O Esan, A Adeoye, P Onakoya, O Opeodu, K Owonikoko, D Olulana, M Bello, A Adeyemo, L Onigbogi, O Idowu, T Akute ...
Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie
The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development.
Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne
... that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress...
Daubs, Michael D; Hung, Man; Adams, Jacob R; Patel, Alpesh A; Lawrence, Brandon D; Neese, Ashley M; Brodke, Darrel S
Psychological distress has been shown to adversely affect the treatment outcomes of many spinal disorders. Most physicians do not routinely use psychological screening questionnaires. Additionally, physicians have not performed well when assessing patients for psychological distress while using clinical impression alone. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical factors that most accurately predict the presence of psychological distress in patients presenting for the evaluation of a spinal disorder. This is a retrospective study. Three hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients presented for an initial evaluation of a spinal disorder at a tertiary spine clinic. Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS), and distress risk assessment method (DRAM). Three hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients presenting for the evaluation of a spinal disorder with a completed DRAM, ODI, and VAS were evaluated. The DRAM was used to classify the patients' level of psychological distress. Clinical variables such as history of depression, use of antidepressants, use of other psychotropic medications, history of surgery, and history of chronic pain syndromes along with ODI and VAS scores were used to develop a model to predict a patient's level of psychological distress. Our model was highly accurate (92%), sensitive (92%), and specific (95%) in predicting a patient's level of psychological distress. If patients' VAS is 4 or 5, their ODI is less than 45, and they are not on any psychotropic medications, they likely will fall into the normal group. Patients with a VAS greater than 7, currently taking antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, an ODI greater than 58, and a history of surgery are likely to fall into the higher distressed categories of distressed depressive or distressed somatic. A patient's clinical history, ODI, and VAS scores can predict their level of psychological distress. In general, patients with higher VAS pain scores, higher
Stevens Garry J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.
Takaki, Hiroko; Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito
Providing information related to medication has many benefits for patients. However, patients' conflicting perceptions about medical information provided by physicians and pharmacists may be associated with their psychological distress regarding treatment and medication. This study investigated associations between patients' perceptions of agreement between physicians and pharmacists about medical information and improvements in their psychological distress. It also clarified the specific relationships of their perceptions with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Japanese community pharmacy settings. Pharmacists approached 1,500 patients visiting community pharmacies and provided them with questionnaire packages. Patients completed the questionnaires at home and returned them to the researchers by mail. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and signal detection analysis were conducted to examine associations of patients' perceptions of information agreement with improvement in psychological distress. Measures of improvement in worry and anxiety about disease, improvement in worry and anxiety about medication, and improvement in depressive mood were used to assess alleviation of psychological distress. A total of 645 patients returned the questionnaires; 628 contributed to the data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses clarified that patients' perceptions of agreement in information regarding need for medication, methods for adverse drug reaction reduction, adverse drug reaction symptoms, coping with forgetting to take medication, and advice for daily life were significantly associated with improvements in psychological distress. Furthermore, signal detection analysis showed that several combinations of patients' perceptions of agreement between physicians and pharmacists about specific medical information were also significantly associated with improvement in psychological distress. Consistent information provision by
Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients
Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia; Midouhas, Emily; Ploubidis, George B
There is much research to suggest that maternal psychological distress is associated with many adverse outcomes in children. This study examined, for the first time, if it is related to children's affective decision-making. Using data from 12,080 families of the Millennium Cohort Study, we modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal psychological distress in early-to-middle childhood (3-11 years) on child affective decision-making, measured with a gambling task at age 11. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal psychological distress (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal distress typology predicted decision-making but only in girls. Specifically, compared to girls growing up in families with never-distressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high maternal psychological distress showed more risk-taking, bet more and exhibited poorer risk-adjustment, even after correction for confounding. Most of these effects on girls' decision-making were not robust to additional controls for concurrent internalising and externalising problems, but chronically high maternal psychological distress was associated positively with risk-taking even after this adjustment. Importantly, this association was similar for those who had reached puberty and those who had not. Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. Therefore, we cannot propose that treating chronic maternal psychological distress will reduce decision-making pathology in young females. Our study suggests that young daughters of chronically distressed mothers tend to be particularly reckless decision-makers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Abstract Since 1983, studies have suggested an interaction between the severe life events, psychological distress and the etiology of Cancer. However, these associations are still under dispute. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between life events, psychological distress and Breast Cancer (BC among young women. Methods A case control study. The study population included 622 women, under the age of 45 years. 255 were diagnosed for BC, and 367 were healthy women. A validated Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI and Life Event Questionnaire were used. Results The cases presented significantly higher scores of depression compared to the controls and significant lower scores of happiness and optimism. A significant difference was found when comparing the groups according to the cumulative number of life events (two or more events. A multivariate analysis suggest that exposure to more than one life event is positively associated with BC [Odds Ratio(OR :1.62 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.09–2.40], and that a general feeling of happiness and optimism has a "protective effect" on the etiology of BC. (OR-0.75, 95% CI:0.64–0.86. Conclusion Young women who were exposed to a number of life events, should be considered as a risk group for BC and treated accordingly.
Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Smith, Mitchell; Eagar, Sandy; Stone, Glenn
Psychological distress has been well identified in recently resettled refugee groups; however, evidence on psychological distress over time is not conclusive. Australia has welcomed a large refugee population in recent decades, including Iraqis who currently form one of the largest groups being resettled in Australia. This study aimed to explore psychological distress in two samples of Iraqi refugees, those who recently arrived (n = 225, average length of stay = 0.55 months) and those with a longer period of resettlement (n = 225, average length of stay = 58.5 months). To assess general symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was employed. Associations between participants' demographic characteristics and psychological distress levels were examined. A significant difference between groups, t (441) = -2.149, p = 0.0324, was found, indicating that study participants with longer periods of resettlement were experiencing higher levels of psychological distress than recent arrivals. Our findings have implications for both for government and non-government funded organisations who should consider the provision of assistance programs beyond the initial arrival period.
Wichman, Christina L; Ehlers, Shawna L; Wichman, Scott E; Weaver, Amy L; Coddington, Charles
To compare multiple measures of psychological distress between men and women preparing for IVF. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient, academic infertility clinic. One hundred sixty-two consecutive couples presenting for infertility treatment with IVF. Measures were completed as part of a routine, infertility-focused psychological evaluation, including the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anger Inventory, and Impact of Events Scale. Scores of above psychological questionnaires. Psychological distress scores were statistically significantly higher among women than men for symptoms of depression, state anxiety, infertility specific distress, and general perceived stress. However, aside from infertility-specific distress (d = .43), effect sizes for the paired differences between females and males ranged from d = .18 to .23. Women consistently scored higher on multiple measures of psychological distress than their male partners in the context of preparing for IVF. Comparison of infertility-specific distress scores yielded the largest statistically and clinically significant difference compared with traditional measures of general depression and anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clarke, Kelly; Saville, Naomi; Bhandari, Bishnu; Giri, Kalpana; Ghising, Mamita; Jha, Meena; Jha, Sonali; Magar, Jananee; Roy, Rinku; Shrestha, Bhim; Thakur, Bhawana; Tiwari, Rinku; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma; King, Michael; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey
There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥ 5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity
Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with
Back ground: In developing countries the number of children orphaned by AIDS is growing rapidly. Consequently, the psychological well-being of these children has become a serious concern. Objectives: To assess the psychological distress of AIDS orphans as compared to non-AIDS orphan adolescents and factors ...
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger
The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Su Hyun Park
Full Text Available Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals' levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults.A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included. The Kessler 6 scale was used to measure psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between level of psychological distress and e-cigarette use.Both e-cigarette and cigarette use varied according to level of psychological distress as well as multiple socio-demographic characteristics. In a multivariate model, psychological distress was significantly associated with the following groups: (a exclusive e-cigarette ever-use (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6, (b current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (aOR = 4.6; 95% CI = 3.1, 6.7, (c former cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarette (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8 and (d current use of cigarettes only (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 2.6.These are the first data to demonstrate that, as is true for cigarettes, e-cigarette use is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of this relationship and to evaluate the long-term positive and negative consequences of such use.
Nakaya, Naoki; Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Kumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro
Cancer diagnosis influences both patients and their closest relatives. This cross-sectional study examined psychological distress among individuals whose partners had cancer in a population-based sample. Participants in the survey were citizens residing in Ohsaki City, Miyagi, Japan. Spouse pairs were identified by information of participants' relationship to the householder and address provided by municipality, and we collected self-report information on cancer history and current pain (but not the cause of pain). Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 scale (K6). We identified 29,410 potential participants (14,705 couples), of which 23,766 (11,690 men and 12,076 women) were included in the analyses. A total of 1,374 participants (581 male and 793 female participants) had partners with history of cancer. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these participants, regardless of sex, did not show significantly higher risk of psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). When stratifying the analysis by partners' current pain, men whose partners had cancer and pain showed greater odds of psychological distress (odds ratio = 1.5, p = 0.04), compared with men whose partners had no cancer and had pain. However, male subjects whose partners had cancer but no pain did not show greater odds of psychological distress compared with men whose partners had no cancer and no pain. By contrast, in women whose partners had cancer, psychological distress was not associated with pain status. In conclusion, men whose partners had cancer and pain have higher risk of psychological distress, and its screening to these individuals may reduce the risk.
Oksanen, Airi; Laimi, Katri; Björklund, Katja; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kunttu, Kristina
The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012. The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425). In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students. The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.
Ana Alice Vilas Boas
Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can
Background Study results concerning associations between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of the association between BMI and psychological distress in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Data was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), in 68,311 adults aged 18–74. Self-reported data was derived from a merger of the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Life and Health (Liv och Hälsa) questionnaires focusing general perceived distress as well as living conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between BMI and psychological distress when controlled for age and gender in combination. Results Women reported an overall higher psychological distress than men. A significant pattern of decreasing psychological distress with increasing age emerged among women in all BMI categories. Trends of this same pattern showed for men. Small or no differences were seen in psychological distress between those in normal weight, overweight, and obesity I categories (among women: 20.4%, 18.4%, 20.5%; among men: 12.8%, 11.2%, 12.9%). For both genders, any notable increase in psychological distress appeared first in the obesity II category (among women: 27.2%. Among men: 17.8%). Conclusions Psychological distress decreases with increasing age regardless of BMI; a pattern more obvious for women. Being categorized with obesity II leads to a markedly higher psychological distress than being categorized with normal weight, overweight or obesity I. From this, we suggest that future obesity research focusing on psychological distress could investigate the role of stigma and norm susceptibility in relationships where people are evaluated through the eyes of the other. PMID:23347701
Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hilton, Michael F; Scheurer, Roman W; Sheridan, Judith; Cleary, Catherine M; Whiteford, Harvey A
Although there is population data on the prevalence and treated prevalence of mental disorders by urban-rural indices, there is a lacuna of information pertaining to employees. This paper examines the prevalence and treated prevalence of psychological distress in employees by urban-rural indicators. Cross-sectional employee Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire responses (n=78,726 from 58 large companies) are interrogated by indices of remoteness (Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia), psychological distress (Kessler 6) and treatment-seeking behaviours for mental health problems. The overall prevalence of moderate or high psychological distress in employees was 35.2%. The prevalence varied only slightly (maximum to minimum difference of 4.6%) by rural/remote indices. Overall treatment-seeking behaviour for psychological distress was low (22.5%). The percentage of employees seeking treatment for high levels of psychological distress was the lowest in very remote regions (15.1%). Very remote employees are less likely to access mental health treatments and may be an employee subgroup that would benefit from specific employer health interventions aimed to increase treatment-seeking behaviours. Employees in very remote Australia could benefit from specific interventions aimed to increase mental health awareness/literacy. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Faessler, Lukas; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp
The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate (A) currently used instruments for assessing psychological distress, (B) the prevalence of psychological distress in medical emergency department (ED) patients with acute somatic conditions and (C) empirical evidence on how predictors are associated with psychological distress. We conducted an electronic literature search using three databases to identify studies that used validated instruments for detection of psychological distress in adult patients presented to the ED with somatic (non-psychiatric) complaints. From a total of 1688 potential articles, 18 studies were selected for in-depth review. A total of 13 instruments have been applied for assessment of distress including screening questionnaires and briefly structured clinical interviews. Using these instruments, the prevalence of psychological distress detected in medical ED patients was between 4% and 47%. Psychological distress in general and particularly depression and anxiety have been found to be associated with demographic factors (eg, female gender, middle age) and illness-related variables (eg, urgency of triage category). Some studies reported that coexisting psychological distress of medical patients identified in the ED was associated with physical and psychological health status after ED discharge. Importantly, during routine clinical care, only few patients with psychological distress were diagnosed by their treating physicians. There is strong evidence that psychological distress is an important and prevalent cofactor in medically ill patients presenting to the ED with harmful associations with (subjective) health outcomes. To prove causality, future research should investigate whether screening and lowering psychological distress with specific interventions would result in better patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Jaisoorya, T S; Geetha, D; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarasu, K
There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among adolescents in India. This study assessed psychological distress among adolescents who attended school in Kerala, India. A total of 7560 students from 73 schools, aged 12 to 19 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and other standardised instruments to assess various domains. Mild psychological distress was reported by 10.5%, moderate distress by 5.4%, and severe distress by 4.9% of students. Older age, not living with both parents, and urban residence were significantly associated with psychological distress (p psychological distress had a higher risk of reporting academic failure, alcohol and tobacco use, suicidality, and sexual abuse. Increasing severity of psychological distress was associated with higher odds of these correlates. Psychological distress is common among adolescents and its correlates with negative outcomes suggest the need for early recognition and treatment.
Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar
The objective of this exploratory retrospective study was to assess the effects of breast cancer diagnosis upon the psychological distress of adult breast cancer patients and their mothers, particularly mothers who experienced past trauma. Four groups of mother-daughter dyads were evaluated using self-reporting measures of psychological distress [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)], familial support (PFS), and adjustment to cancer (MAC, IES): breast cancer patients whose mothers were Holocaust survivors (group 1), breast cancer patients with non-traumatized mothers (group 2), healthy daughters of Holocaust survivor mothers (group 3), and a control group of healthy daughters with non-traumatized mothers (group 4). Distress levels of both mothers and daughters in group 1 were significantly higher than distress levels of mothers and daughters in the other three groups. Daughters' distress levels in all four groups were found to be significantly related to mothers' distress levels, with the highest correlation found in both groups of cancer patients. The factors of having a clinically distressed mother and being a second-generation daughter contributed the most to predicting the clinical distress of the daughter. The outcomes imply that the mother's traumatic past intensifies the distressing effect of cancer diagnosis upon both the patient and her mother. The findings concerning the impact of cancer diagnosis upon the patients' non-traumatized mothers were more ambiguous. The results support the idea that in the case of breast cancer patients, a complete psychological evaluation must include not only spouses and children but also the familial background of the patient and the history of the patients' mothers.
Walters, Kate; Buszewicz, Marta; Weich, Scott; King, Michael
There is much debate over when it is appropriate to intervene medically for psychological distress, and limited evidence on patients' perspectives about a broad range of possible treatment options. It is currently unclear whether preferences may differ for those patients with milder symptoms compared to those experiencing more severe distress. To determine patient preferences for professional, informal, and alternative help for psychological distress in primary care, and the impact of their current mental state on these. Cross-sectional survey in seven general practices across suburban/urban London. Participants were 1357 consecutive general practice attenders aged 18 years and over. The main outcome measure was the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version and a questionnaire on help-seeking preferences. Overall, only 47% of participants reported wanting 'some help' if feeling stressed, worried, or low and it was affecting their daily life. Those currently experiencing mild-to-moderate distress preferred informal sources of help such as friends/family support, relaxation/yoga, exercise/sport, or massage along with general advice from their GP and talking therapies. Self-help (books/leaflets or computer/internet) was not popular at any level of distress, and less favoured by those with mild-to-moderate distress (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.70). Those experiencing severe distress were much more likely to want talking therapies (OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.85 to 4.14), tablets (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.00 to 4.71), and support groups (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.72 to 5.47). People with mild-to-moderate distress appear to prefer informal sources of help and those involving human contact, compared to medication or self-help. This has implications for the implementation of potential interventions for psychological distress in primary care.
Byrd, DeAnnah R
Little is known about the relationship between discrimination and distress among multiple racial groups because previous studies have focused primarily on either blacks or Asian Americans. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress among 5 racial/ethnic groups in California. I used data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey describing an adult sample of 27,511 non-Hispanic whites, 8,020 Hispanics, 1,813 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,875 non-Hispanic Asians, and 1,660 people of other races/ethnicities. The Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale determined symptoms of psychological distress. I used a single-item, self-reported measure to ascertain experiences of racial discrimination. Reports of racial discrimination differed significantly among racial groups. Self-reported discrimination was independently associated with psychological distress after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, sex, education level, employment status, general health status, nativity and citizenship status, English use and proficiency, ability to understand the doctor at last visit, and geographic location. The relationship between discrimination and psychological distress was modified by the interaction between discrimination and race/ethnicity; the effect of discrimination on distress was weaker for minority groups (ie, blacks and people of other races/ethnicities) than for whites. Self-reported discrimination may be a key predictor of high levels of psychological distress among racial/ethnic groups in California, and race appears to modify this association. Public health practitioners should consider the adverse effects of racial discrimination on minority health.
Nilsen, Wendy; Dion, Jacinthe; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Skipstein, Anni
Objective: To examine the long-term prediction of psychological maladaptive (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) and adaptive adjustment (i.e., self-efficacy) in emerging adult offspring from trajectories of maternal psychological distress from toddlerhood to adolescence. Method: Trajectories of maternal psychological distress (low, moderate, high, and low-rising patterns) from toddlerhood (age 1.5 years) to adolescence (age 14.5 years) were used to predict psychologica...
Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth
This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.
Background: Mental health among university students represents an important public health concern and the health of university students has been the subject of increasing focus in recent years. Available evidence suggests that there are significantly more students experiencing high levels of distress compared with the ...
Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715 have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing
Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne
Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health
Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar
Psychological distress levels of breast cancer patients whose parents were Holocaust survivors ('second-generation Holocaust' patients) were previously shown to be significantly higher than those of a matched group of patients with non-traumatized parents. In this study, we investigated whether this effect reflects only the generally higher distress levels of second-generation Holocaust women or whether breast cancer patients with traumatized parents also present lower adaptation abilities, which result in increased distress to the breast cancer diagnosis. We assessed psychological distress and measures of coping in 193 second-generation Holocaust patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 164 breast cancer patients with non-traumatized parents, 176 healthy second-generation Holocaust women, and 143 healthy women with non-traumatized parents. The main effect of cancer and the main effect of second-generation Holocaust survivor on psychological distress were found to be significant. These two factors (cancer x second generation) had a synergistic effect on the levels of depression and psychoticism. These results support the hypothesis that, at least on some psychological measures, the cumulative distressing effect of having traumatized parents and breast cancer diagnosis is higher than the effect of each factor alone.
Kai Sing Sun
Full Text Available The stepped care model for psychological distress has been promoted in recent years, leading to the enhancing roles of primary care professionals and alternative sources of help. However, most of the research findings come from Western countries. This study investigates help-seeking behaviours of Chinese patients among different types of professional and alternative sources for psychological distress in Hong Kong.A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1626 adult primary care attenders from 13 private and 6 public clinics, 650 (40.0% reported that they had ever experienced psychological distress. Their help-seeking behaviours, demographic background and current distress level (measured by GHQ-12 were analysed.Among the respondents with experience of psychological distress, 48.2% had sought help from professional and/or alternative sources for their distress [10.2% from professionals only, 12.6% from alternative sources only, and 25.4% from both]. Those who had sought help from professionals only were more likely to be less educated and with lower income. In contrast, those using alternative sources only were more likely to be younger, better educated, and have higher income. Allowing multiple responses, psychiatrists (22.3% was reported to be the most popular professional source, followed by primary care physicians (17.5%, clinical psychologists (12.8% and social workers/counsellors (12.0%. Family members/friends (28.6% was the top alternative source, followed by exercise/sports (21.8%, religious/spiritual support (16.9% and self-help websites/books/pamphlets (8.9%.While psychiatrists remain the most popular professional source of help to the Chinese patients in Hong Kong, primary care professionals and alternative sources also play significant roles. Distressed patients who are younger, better educated and have higher income are more likely to use alternative sources only. The outcomes need further research.
Batterham, P J; Sunderland, M; Slade, T; Calear, A L; Carragher, N
Many measures are available for measuring psychological distress in the community. Limited research has compared these scales to identify the best performing tools. A common metric for distress measures would enable researchers and clinicians to equate scores across different measures. The current study evaluated eight psychological distress scales and developed crosswalks (tables/figures presenting multiple scales on a common metric) to enable scores on these scales to be equated. An Australian online adult sample (N = 3620, 80% female) was administered eight psychological distress measures: Patient Health Questionnaire-4, Kessler-10/Kessler-6, Distress Questionnaire-5 (DQ5), Mental Health Inventory-5, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) and Distress Thermometer. The performance of each measure in identifying DSM-5 criteria for a range of mental disorders was tested. Scale fit to a unidimensional latent construct was assessed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Finally, crosswalks were developed using Item Response Theory. The DQ5 had optimal performance in identifying individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria, with adequate fit to a unidimensional construct. The HSCL-25 and SRQ-20 also had adequate fit but poorer specificity and/or sensitivity than the DQ5 in identifying caseness. The unidimensional CFA of the combined item bank for the eight scales showed acceptable fit, enabling the creation of crosswalk tables. The DQ5 had optimal performance in identifying risk of mental health problems. The crosswalk tables developed in this study will enable rapid conversion between distress measures, providing more efficient means of data aggregation and a resource to facilitate interpretation of scores from multiple distress scales.
Rosenberg, Abby R; Dussel, Veronica; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J Russel; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne
Parent psychological distress can impact the well-being of childhood cancer patients and other children in the home. Recognizing and alleviating factors of parent distress may improve overall family survivorship experiences following childhood cancer. To describe the prevalence and factors of psychological distress (PD) among parents of children with advanced cancer. Cohort study embedded within a randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology [PediQUEST] study). Multicenter study conducted at 3 children's hospitals (Boston Children's Hospital, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Seattle Children's Hospital). Parents of children with advanced (progressive, recurrent, or refractory) cancer. Parental PD, as measured by the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Eighty-six of 104 parents completed the Survey About Caring for Children With Cancer (83% participation); 81 parents had complete Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale data. More than 50% of parents reported high PD and 16% met criteria for serious PD (compared with US prevalence of 2%-3%). Parent perceptions of prognosis, goals of therapy, child symptoms/suffering, and financial hardship were associated with PD. In multivariate analyses, average parent Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale scores were higher among parents who believed their child was suffering highly and who reported great economic hardship. Conversely, PD was significantly lower among parents whose prognostic understanding was aligned with concrete goals of care. Parenting a child with advanced cancer is strongly associated with high to severe levels of PD. Interventions aimed at aligning prognostic understanding with concrete care goals and easing child suffering and financial hardship may mitigate parental PD.
Okwaraji, F E; Aguwa, E N
The role of nurses in the health care delivery system cannot be overemphasized. Nurses are needed at all levels of healthcare and the profession requires a lot of dedication, time and energy with regards to patient management and service delivery. This time investment and dedication to duty is likely to lead to burnout and psychological distress among the nurses. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout and psychological distress among nurses working in Nigerian tertiary health institution. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to assess 210 nurses working in this health institution for symptoms of burnout and psychological distress. High levels of burnout were identified in 42.9% of the respondents in the area of emotional exhaustion, 47.6% in the area of depersonalization and 53.8% in the area of reduced personal accomplishment, while 44.1% scored positive in the GHQ-12 indicating presence of psychological distress. Prevalence of burnout and psychological distress is high among nurses.
Leske, Stuart; Strodl, Esben; Harper, Catherine; Clemens, Susan; Hou, Xiang-Yu
The purpose of this research was to explore which demographic and health status variables moderated the relationship between psychological distress and three nutrition indicators: the consumption of fruits, vegetables and takeaway. We analysed data from the 2009 Self-Reported Health Status Survey Report collected in the state of Queensland, Australia. Adults (N = 6881) reported several demographic and health status variables. Moderated logistic regression models were estimated separately for the three nutrition indicators, testing as moderators demographic (age, gender, educational attainment, household income, remoteness, and area-level socioeconomic status) and health status indicators (body mass index, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes status). Several significant interactions emerged between psychological distress, demographic (age, area-level socio-economic status, and income level), and health status variables (body mass index, diabetes status) in predicting the nutrition indicators. Relationships between distress and the nutrition indicators were not significantly different by gender, remoteness, educational attainment, high cholesterol status, and high blood pressure status. The associations between psychological distress and several nutrition indicators differ amongst population subgroups. These findings suggest that in distressed adults, age, area-level socio-economic status, income level, body mass index, and diabetes status may serve as protective or risk factors through increasing or decreasing the likelihood of meeting nutritional guidelines. Public health interventions for improving dietary behaviours and nutrition may be more effective if they take into account the moderators identified in this study rather than using global interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This study examined whether patients with TTC have higher levels of psychological distress (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, general anxiety), illness-related anxiety and distinct personality factors compared with healthy controls and patients with heart failure. Patients with TCC (N = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7 years, 77.8 % women) and two comparison groups (healthy controls: N = 19, age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68.4 % women and patients with chronic heart failure: N = 19, age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68.4 % women) completed standardised questionnaires to measure depression (PHQ‑9), perceived stress (PSS-10), general anxiety (GAD-7), illness-related anxiety (WI-7) and personality factors (NEO-FFI and DS-14). Psychological measures were obtained at 23 ± 18 months following the acute TTC event. Results showed that patients with TCC had higher levels of depressive symptoms (5.2 ± 5.2 vs. 2.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.039) and illness-related anxiety (2.1 ± 1.7 vs. 0.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. Patients with TCC did not display significantly elevated perceived stress (p = 0.072) or general anxiety (p = 0.170). Regarding personality factors, levels of openness were lower in TCC compared with healthy controls (34.2 ± 4.3 vs. 38.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.021). No differences between TCC and heart failure patients were found regarding the psychological measures. TCC is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, more illness-related anxiety and less openness compared with healthy controls. These data suggest that TCC is associated with adverse psychological factors that may persist well after the acute episode.
Bardakçı, Ezgi; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak
The study aims to determine the influence of bullying on nurses' psychological distress. A descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 284 nurses of a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The Workplace Bullying Behavior Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used. After the study was completed, it was determined that nurses with a master's degree were exposed to bullying more and that nurses exposed to bullying suffered higher levels of psychological distress and preferred to keep silent about it. Perpetrators of bullying were mainly head nurses. Bullying is a common workplace phenomenon, and in most cases, nurses bully each other. Bullied nurses suffer more psychological distress. Managers of health care institutions should always remember that nurses have a higher risk of exposure to bullying and that measures should be taken to support nurses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee
Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs.
Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.
A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...
Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Ishizaki, Masao; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo
To investigate the cross-sectional association between organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) and psychological distress or work engagement, as well as the mediating roles of other job stressors (i.e., job demands and job control, or their combination, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], and worksite support). A total of 243 workers (185 males and 58 females) from a manufacturing factory in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, K6 scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and other covariates. Multiple mediation analyses with the bootstrap technique were conducted. In the bivariate analysis, procedural justice and interactional justice were significantly and negatively associated with psychological distress; they were significantly and positively associated with work engagement. In the mediation analysis, reward at work (or ERI) significantly mediated between procedural justice or interactional justice and psychological distress; worksite support significantly mediated between procedural justice or interactional justice and work engagement. The effects of organizational justice on psychological distress seem to be mediated by reward at work (or ERI) while those regarding work engagement may be mediated by worksite support to a large extent, at least in Japanese workers.
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
... 210 nurses working in this health institution for symptoms of burnout and psychological distress. Results: High levels of burnout were identified in 42.9% of the respondents in the area of emotional exhaustion, 47.6% in the area of depersonalization and 53.8% in the area of reduced personal accomplishment, while 44.1% ...
An assessment of personality and psychological distress of people living with delusional halitosis attending Oral Wellness Centre (OWC) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City over a six-month period was undertaken. Five (5) patients with age range of 18-30 years and a mean age of 24 years (SD = 4.47) ...
Psychological distress among adults admitted to medical and surgical wards of a Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. *Rukundo ZG1, Nakasujja N2, Musisi S2. 1. Department of Psychiatry, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda. 2. Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health ...
Full Text Available Can Nakkas,1 Hubert Annen,1 Serge Brand2,3 1Department of Military Psychology Studies, Military Academy at ETH Zurich, Zurich, 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods: A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility, and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results: Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion: Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for
Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
George, Jessica; Kinner, Stuart A; Bruno, Raimondo; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dunn, Matthew
Considerable concern has been raised about associations between ecstasy use and mental health. Studies of ecstasy users typically investigate varying levels of lifetime use of ecstasy, and often fail to account for other drug use and sociodemographic characteristics of participants, which may explain mixed findings. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between patterns of recent (last six months) ecstasy use and psychological distress among current, regular ecstasy users, controlling for sociodemographic risk factors and patterns of other drug use. Data were collected from regular ecstasy users (n = 752) recruited from each capital city in Australia as part of the Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS). Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Seven per cent of the sample scored in the 'high' distress category and 55% in the 'medium' distress category. Patterns of ecstasy use were not independently associated with psychological distress. The strongest predictors of distress were female sex, lower education, unemployment, 'binge' drug use including ecstasy (use for >48 h without sleep), frequent cannabis use and daily tobacco use. Regular ecstasy users have elevated levels of psychological distress compared with the general population; however, ecstasy use per se was not independently related to such distress. Other factors, including sociodemographic characteristics and other drug use patterns, appear to be more important. These findings highlight the importance of targeting patterns of polydrug use in order to reduce drug-related harm among regular ecstasy users.
Mancha, Brent E.; Brown, Qiana L.; Eaton, William W.
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,071 community dwelling adults from East Baltimore, Maryland who participated in the fourth (2004–2005) wave of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The 20-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20) was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between negative life events and distress as well as to measure the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the association between psychological distress and negative events while adjusting for demographic variables, past distress and social support from friends and relatives. Results In pooled analysis, negative events were significant predictors of distress, b = 1.00, β = 0.072, p spirituality did not affect or modify the association between negative events and distress. However, religious attendance was inversely associated with distress with higher frequency of attendance associated with lower distress after controlling for demographic and social support factors, b = −2.10, β = −.110, p spirituality, b = 1.23, β = 0.092, p spirituality; the association between religious attendance and decreased distress was true only for those scoring high in spirituality. Social support accounted for some of the inverse association between religious and distress. Conclusion Religious attendance and spirituality may play a role in how people experience and deal with difficult life situations. PMID:23732707
Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ﬁnd the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress
Bernhardsdóttir, J; Vilhjálmsson, R
Psychological distress among university students, especially young women, is of increasing concern. This study focuses on the prevalence of psychological distress among female university students and their need for mental health services. The analysis is based on two cross-sectional surveys, an internet survey among women students attending the University of Iceland in the spring of 2007, and a postal survey of Icelandic female adults conducted in the Fall of 2006. Psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Checklist-90 Depression and Anxiety subscales. The prevalence of above-threshold depression and anxiety among the university women students was 22.5% and 21.2% respectively. Results showed that the mean depression score was significantly lower among the students than among women of the same age in the general population. However, little less than one-third of students with elevated distress levels received any professional help. Only 1.4% of the distressed students received mental help care from nurses. The high proportion of distressed female students not receiving professional help is a challenge to the primary health-care system and the nursing profession. This also raises questions about the adequacy of the current system of health-care delivery and the potential advantages of on-campus health services, in closer proximity to the students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Kamps, Willem A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.
Objective This prospective 5-year longitudinal study examined the use of coping styles of fathers and mothers of pediatric cancer patients over time and the prospective effects of coping on distress. Methods Psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and the use of seven coping styles
Stewart, Ralph A H; Colquhoun, David M; Marschner, Simone L; Kirby, Adrienne C; Simes, John; Nestel, Paul J; Glozier, Nick; O'Neil, Adrienne; Oldenburg, Brian; White, Harvey D; Tonkin, Andrew M
A single assessment of psychological distress, which includes depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary heart disease, but the prognostic importance of persistence of distress symptoms is less certain. To determine whether intermittent and/or persistent psychological distress is associated with long-term cardiovascular (CV) and total mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease. 950 participants in the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) trial completed at least four General Health Questionnaires (GHQ-30) at baseline and after ½, 1, 2 and 4 years. In a landmark analysis from 4 years, Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the risk of CV and total mortality by increasing levels of psychological distress: never distressed, sometimes any severity (GHQ score >5), persistent mild (GHQ score >5 on three or more occasions) and persistent moderate distress (GHQ score >10) on three or more occasions, over a median of 12.1 (IQR 8.6-12.5) years. The models were both unadjusted and adjusted for known baseline risk factors. Persistent moderate or greater psychological stress was reported on three or more assessments by 35 (3.7%) subjects. These patients had a higher risk of both CV death (adjusted HR 3.94, 95% CI 2.05 to 7.56, pcoronary artery disease, persistent psychological distress of at least moderate severity is associated with a substantial increase in CV and all-cause mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. Results: The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen timeâ¥2h/day, and 20% slept<5h/night. Sixteen per cent (16% were addicted to video games and 54% had psychological distress. Addiction to video games was strongly associated with psychological distress (OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.80, 9.47. Other significant correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. Conclusions: The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance. Keywords: Video games, Addiction, Adolescent, Psychological distress, Screen time, Saudi Arabia
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.
Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I
Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (-1.62, 95%CI = -2.26-(-)0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level education (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82). These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.
Full Text Available Background: Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. Methods: We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. Results: We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38 and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70. Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (–1.62, 95%CI = –2.26- –0.98, but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level educations (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53 and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82. Conclusions: These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.
Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Steptoe, Andrew
Psychological distress and low socioeconomic status (SES) are recognized risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether lower SES amplifies the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality. We selected 66 518 participants from the Health Survey for England who were 35 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and living in private households in England from 1994 to 2004. Selection used stratified random sampling, and participants were linked prospectively to mortality records from the Office of National Statistics (mean follow-up, 8.2 years). Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and SES was indexed by occupational class. The crude incidence rate of death was 14.49 (95% CI, 14.17-14.81) per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for age and sex, psychological distress and low SES category were associated with increased mortality rates. In a stratified analysis, the association of psychological distress with mortality differed with SES (likelihood ratio test-adjusted P < .001), with the strongest associations being observed in the lowest SES categories. The detrimental effect of psychological distress on mortality is amplified by low SES category. People in higher SES categories have lower mortality rates even when they report high levels of psychological distress.
Navrady, L B; Ritchie, S J; Chan, S W Y; Kerr, D M; Adams, M J; Hawkins, E H; Porteous, D; Deary, I J; Gale, C R; Batty, G D; McIntosh, A M
Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS. Neuroticism was strongly associated with increased risk for depression and higher psychological distress in both samples. Although intelligence conferred no consistent independent effects on depression, it did increase the risk for depression across samples once neuroticism was adjusted for. Results suggest that higher intelligence may ameliorate the association between neuroticism and self-reported depression although no significant interaction was found for clinical MDD. Intelligence was inversely associated with psychological distress across cohorts. A small interaction was found across samples such that lower psychological distress associates with higher intelligence and lower neuroticism, although effect sizes were small. From two large cohort studies, our findings suggest intelligence acts a protective factor in mitigating the effects of neuroticism on psychological distress. Intelligence does not confer protection against diagnosis of depression in those high in neuroticism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Nilsen, Wendy; Dion, Jacinthe; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Skipstein, Anni
To examine the long-term prediction of psychological maladaptive (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) and adaptive adjustment (i.e., self-efficacy) in emerging adult offspring from trajectories of maternal psychological distress from toddlerhood to adolescence. Trajectories of maternal psychological distress (low, moderate, high, and low-rising patterns) from toddlerhood (age 1.5 years) to adolescence (age 14.5 years) were used to predict psychological adjustment in emerging adult offspring (age 18-20 years) (n = 400). Adverse maternal distress trajectories during childhood were linked to maladaptive and adaptive adjustment in adult offspring. Consistently high maternal distress levels experienced across childhood predicted higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower self-efficacy than low maternal distress trajectories. Two other adverse maternal distress trajectories (consistently moderate and low-rising patterns) compared with the low trajectory predicted higher offspring depressive symptoms. The findings persisted when adjusting for potential confounders: offspring gender and maternal education, relationship status, language, and economy. The current study showed longitudinal multi-informant impact from adverse maternal distress trajectories to adult offspring maladjustment over 18 years, emphasizing the importance of early identification and prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4, mostly were males (53%, married (66% and had secondary school education (50%. Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2003, this study recruited Arab Americans (337 males, 385 females) living in Michigan, United States. The main independent variable was discrimination. The main outcome was psychological distress. Covariates included demographic factors (age), socioeconomic status (education, employment, and income), and immigration characteristics (nativity and years living in United States). Gender was the focal moderator. We used multivariable regression with and without discrimination × gender interaction term. In the pooled sample, discrimination was positively associated with psychological distress [B = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-1.03, p = 0.003]. We found a significant gender × discrimination interaction in the pooled sample (B = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.01-1.59, p = 0.050), suggesting a stronger association in males than females. In our gender-specific model, higher discrimination was associated with higher psychological distress among male (B = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.33-1.42, p = 0.002) but not female (B = 0.18, 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.78, p = 0.567) Arab Americans. While discrimination is associated with poor mental health, a stronger link between discrimination and psychological symptoms may exist in male compared to female Arab Americans. While efforts should be made to universally reduce discrimination, screening for discrimination may be a more salient component of mental health care for male than female Arab Americans.
Hani Ramli Zafirah
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Medical education is a laborious program which may give negative consequences on the physical and psychological health of medical students. The aims of this study were to evaluate psychological distress among Malay medical students and to assess its relationship with their lifestyle.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 221 Malay medical students. Psychological distress and lifestyle were assessed using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII respectively.Results: About 30.8% of Malay medical students had mild to extremely severe depressive symptoms, 62.9 % showed mild to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 34.9% of them had mild to extremely severe stress. The depressive subscale was significantly higher among female than male students (Z=-2.613, P=0.009. There was a significant negative correlation between total psychological distress and spiritual growth (r=-0.217, P=0.001. Depression was found not only negatively correlated with spiritual growth (r =-0.328, P=0.000 but also interpersonal relationship (r=-0.161, P=0.016. Stress was inversely correlated with physical activity (r =-0.172, P=0.011. Preclinical students had significantly better scores in health responsibility (Z=-2.301, P=0.021, interpersonal relationship (Z=-2.840, P=0.005, stress management (Z=-2.339, P=0.019, spiritual growth (Z=-2.483, P=0.013 and nutrition and diet (Z =-2.456, P=0.014 than clinical students.Conclusions: Malay medical students had significant symptoms that indicate psychological distress that related to their lifestyle. This warrants further psychiatric evaluation and management for them to be good and safe future doctors. Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Lifestyle, Medical Students
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L
Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.
Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L.
Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship. PMID:25530980
Park, Jin-Hee; Chun, Mison; Jung, Yong-Sik; Bae, Sun Hyoung
Psychological distress is a significant and ongoing problem for breast cancer. These mental health problems are often neglected as they are not always properly understood. This study was performed to explore the trajectory of psychological distress over 1 year since breast cancer surgery and to identify the associated factors for the trajectory. One hundred seventeen women who underwent surgery for breast cancer completed the psychological distress thermometer and problem lists from after surgery to 12 months after surgery. Information on their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was also obtained. Group-based trajectory modeling was performed to identify the distinct trajectories of psychological distress. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of psychological distress trajectories. A two-group linear trajectory model was optimal for modeling psychological distress (Bayesian information criterion = -777.41). Group-based trajectory modeling identified consistently high-distress (19.4%) and low-decreasing distress (80.6%) trajectories. Old age, depression, nervousness, and pain were significant predictors of consistently high-distress trajectory. Our results indicate that distinct trajectory groups can be used as a screening tool to identify patients who may be at an increased risk of psychological distress over time. Screening for psychological distress during disease diagnosis is important and necessary to identify patients who are at an increased risk of elevated distress or at risk of experiencing psychological distress over time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan
Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.
Mitchell, Amanda M; Christian, Lisa M
The effects of financial strain during pregnancy have received limited attention. In addition, data examining the pathways by which SES indicators contribute to birth weight are lacking. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential pathway of psychological distress in the relationship between financial strain and birth weight. Participants consisted of 138 pregnant women who completed measures assessing financial strain, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific distress, perceived stress, and general anxiety during pregnancy (mean gestational age = 18.5, SD = 7.2). Birth outcome data were obtained via medical record review. Simple and parallel mediation models were conducted using PROCESS. Simple mediation models showed that depressive symptoms (95% CI -24.65, -0.90) and pregnancy-specific distress (95% CI -37.31, -5.91), but not perceived stress (95% CI -31.17, 4.69) or anxiety (95% CI -25.84, 5.57), served as mediators in the relationship between financial strain and birth weight. When depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific distress were included in the same mediation model, only pregnancy-specific distress remained significant. Financial strain was positively associated with all facets of psychological distress and negatively associated with birth weight during pregnancy. The current study demonstrated the mechanistic role of pregnancy-specific distress in the link between financial strain and birth weight in a racially diverse sample. Interventions targeting pregnancy-specific distress may mitigate the effects of financial strain on birth weight. Studies examining whether pregnancy-specific distress accounts for the relationship between other types of stressor exposures and birth weight would be informative.
Full Text Available It is usually observed that nursing students undergo tremendous stress during various stages oftheir course but the knowledge about the stress process and depressive symptoms in this population is limited. TheAim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety and depression amongnursing students in Greece. For that purpose 170 nursing students (34 males, 136 females of the Department of Nursingof the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki completed 3 self-report questionnaires, the General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The mean agewas 21.5 years. No difference in stress and depression on the basis of gender was observed. Our results showed that thescores on the GHQ, BDI and STAI tend to increase in the year 2 and 3. The majority of students reported relatively highscores on the GHQ suggesting increased psychiatric morbidity. 52.4% of students experienced depressive symptoms(34.7% mild, 12.9% moderate and 4.7% severe. The scores on the state scale were higher in the years 2 and 3, whilethe majority of students who had no or mild stress was observed in the first and the last year. Low stress personalitytraits were also observed in the first and the last year. However, no significant differences between the four years wereobserved. Our results suggest that nursing students experience different levels of stress and depression and that thesefactors are positively correlated.
Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J
Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nicholson, Amanda; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Marmot, Michael
This paper examines the role of psychological distress in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD), with particular reference to the persistence of distress symptoms, the contribution that undetected CHD at baseline makes to the observed associations and to the effect of separate components of psychological distress. 5449 men in an occupational cohort (79% of the total), with at least two prior measurements of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), were followed for CHD events (including CHD death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and angina) for (mean) 6.8 years. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-30, and general/anxiety, depression and sleep subscales were created based on a principal components analysis. Psychological distress increased the risk of CHD events, with the risk highest in men with recent onset of distress. Age-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.48 (1.03-2.13) for persistent and 1.77 (1.13-2.78) for new distress. Angina events accounted for much of the observed associations. This increased risk was independent of conventional CHD risk factors, markers of underlying CHD, or measures of reporting bias, and it was related to anxiety items and sleep disturbance rather than depressive symptoms. Psychological distress increases the risk of a future diagnosis of angina in men. This risk is not accounted for by the presence of underlying CHD. These results highlight the importance of identifying both the role of underlying atherosclerosis in the pathway linking distress to heart disease and the timing of action of the components of psychological distress.
Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J
Psychological entitlement is a personality trait characterized by pervasive feelings of deservingness, specialness, and exaggerated expectations. The present review expands upon this understanding by conceptualizing entitlement as a cognitive-personality vulnerability to psychological distress. A review of research is conducted, and a novel, multipart model is described by which entitlement may be seen as such a vulnerability. First, exaggerated expectations, notions of the self as special, and inflated deservingness associated with trait entitlement present the individual with a continual vulnerability to unmet expectations. Second, entitled individuals are likely to interpret these unmet expectations in ways that foster disappointment, ego threat, and a sense of perceived injustice, all of which may lead to psychological distress indicators such as dissatisfaction across multiple life domains, anger, and generally volatile emotional responses. Furthermore, in the wake of disappointment, ego threat, or perceived injustice, entitled individuals are likely to attempt to bolster their entitled self-concept, leading to a reinforcement of entitled beliefs, thereby initiating the cycle again. At each stage of this process, entitlement presents the individual with the possibility of experiencing distress, predisposes further risk factors for distress (e.g., the subsequent steps in the model), and increases the risk of interpersonal conflict, again leading to distress. A review of relevant empirical data suggests preliminary support for this conceptual model of entitlement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C
Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.
Full Text Available This study explored the role of time since diagnosis and whether the care recipient was a child, a parent, or a spouse, on caregiver’s perceptions of the caring role, with a group of 269 female cancer caregivers. Questionnaire measures were used to explore psychological and social resources and psychological distress. Analysis of variance and hierarchical multiple regression were used and identified significant effects of time since diagnosis and care recipient. This study concludes that a more tailored approach to understanding the needs of caregivers is required particularly in terms of time since diagnosis and care recipient, in order to provide more effective support.
Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung
Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.
Jones, Alun Charles; Cutcliffe, John R
This paper discusses the values of therapeutic listening and ways that emotional difficulties can impact palliative nurses' abilities to provide psychological care. Recent literature indicates that providing psychological care can burden some healthcare professionals including nurses; who may lack the necessary competencies or organizational resources to carry out their roles. References drawn from the databases: all EBM reviews, British Nursing INDEX, CINAHL, PSYCH INFO and MEDLINE and EMBASE are discussed. Psychological care is considered critical to providing holistic care. Yet the literature suggests engaging in such work makes emotional demands on the professionals attempting to carry it out and is associated with psychological difficulties including burnout. Clinical supervision can help reduce the distress caused by emotionally charged situations. Thoughtful clinical supervision can also contribute to safe and effective health care. Nursing would benefit from understanding more about the effects on healthcare professionals of repeated exposure to emotionally charged situations and benefits that clinical supervision can offer to health care.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.
Shenoi, Asha N; Kalyanaraman, Meena; Pillai, Aravind; Raghava, Preethi S; Day, Scottie
To estimate the prevalence of physician burnout, psychological distress, and its association with selected personal and practice characteristics among pediatric critical care physicians and to evaluate the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Cross-sectional, online survey. Pediatric critical care practices in the United States. Pediatric critical care physicians. None. A nonrandom sample of 253 physicians completed an online survey consisting of personal and practice characteristics, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (49%; 95% CI, 43-55%; n = 124) scored high burnout in at least one of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and 21% reported severe burnout. The risk of any burnout was about two times more in women physicians (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4). Association between other personal or practice characteristics and burnout was not evident in this study, while regular physical exercise appeared to be protective. One third of all participants (30.5%) and 69% of those who experienced severe burnout screened positive for psychological distress. About 90% of the physicians reporting severe burnout have considered leaving their practice. Burnout is high among pediatric critical care physicians in the United States. About two thirds of the physicians with severe burnout met the screening criteria for psychological distress that suggests possible common mental disorders. Significant percentages of physicians experiencing burnout and considering to leave the profession has major implications for the critical care workforce.
Lopes, Claudia S; Araya, Ricardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo
In developing countries, traditional sources of employment and work practices have changed rapidly and work environment has appeared as an important factor associated with an increased prevalence of mental disorders in these countries. To investigate the association between job strain and other work characteristics with psychological distress, and to estimate the contextual effects of different working environments on psychological distress, using cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort. The subjects were 3,574 non-faculty civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Work characteristics were measured by the modified version of the Karasek model and through questions about night shift work and occupational status. After adjusting for age, education, income and other work characteristics, low social support at work and high job strain were associated with psychological distress. For low social support, the association was stronger in men (Prevalence Ratio = 2.02; 95% Confidence Interval 1.6-2.6) than in women (PR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.2-1.4). High job strain was similarly significant in both women (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and men (PR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Men having a routine non-manual work presented 29% more psychological distress than those undertaking professional roles. Night shift work did not show significant association with psychological distress. In the multilevel analysis, the prevalence of psychological distress did not vary significantly across work units. Job strain and poor support at work seem important psychological stressors in the workplace in Brazil. Our findings are comparable to those found in more developed countries, providing additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and psychological distress, being thus useful for policymakers in planning and promoting
Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin
This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…
Lindner, M; Schröter, S; Friederich, H-C; Tagay, S
Although seldom diagnosed, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a high prevalence in primary and tertiary care. In a consecutive cross-sectional study, the prevalence of traumatic experiences and the severity of post-traumatic symptoms as well as specific characteristics of traumatized patients in the context of the dermatological treatment were examined. Standardized questionnaires for assessing general psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI), coping with dermatological diseases (Adjustment to Chronic Skin Diseases Questionnaire, MHF) and diagnosis of trauma (Essen Trauma-Inventory, ETI) were used in 221 patients with different skin diseases. In total, 85.1 % of the patients reported at least one potentially traumatic event in their lives, whereby psychometrically in 8.6 % of the cases the diagnostic criteria for a PTSD were met. Patients with suspected PTSD were more impacted by psychopathology, had more problems in coping with their skin diseases and attributed mental stress as having a greater influence on their skin disease than nontraumatized patients or traumatized patients without suspected PTSD. In addition, cumulative traumatization also leads to increased trauma symptomatology and greater difficulties in coping with skin diseases. The results emphasize the impact of a comorbid PTSD on a patient's ability to cope with skin diseases and underline the need for the inclusion of the differential diagnosis PTSD in dermatological treatment settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24% disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6, depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2% respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.
Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin
A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj
Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…
Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802
Sherman, K A; Woon, S; French, J; Elder, E
Women with breast cancer face threats to body image following surgery. Nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (NSM + IBR) may minimise body image disturbance as this preserves the woman's skin and areola complex. We assessed levels of body image disturbance and psychological distress in women undergoing NSM + IBR. To further understand the body image-distress relationship, we investigated the potential moderating effect of self-compassion and appearance investment on this relationship. Women diagnosed with breast cancer (N = 75) who had undergone NSM + IBR completed online questionnaires including the Body Image Scale, general (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales) and cancer-specific (Impact of Event Scale) psychological distress and Self-Compassion Scale and Appearance Schemas Inventory - Revised. Mean general and cancer-specific psychological distress scores were within normal ranges, and body image disturbance was moderately low. Body image was positively correlated with depression, stress, Impact of Event Scale scores and appearance investment and negatively correlated with self-compassion. MANCOVA analyses indicated a significant moderating effect of self-compassion and appearance investment on the body image disturbance-distress relationship (for depression, stress and intrusion), such that participants with high self-compassion and low appearance investment experienced lower distress than individuals with low self-compassion and high appearance investment. Moderately low levels of psychological distress and body image disturbance suggest NSM + IBR may minimise adverse psychological impacts of mastectomy. Increased body image disturbance was associated with psychological distress and moderated by self-compassion and appearance investment, suggesting a potential role for these characteristics as the focus of psychological interventions to minimise the negative impacts of mastectomy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley
Erdem, Özcan; Prins, Richard G; Voorham, Toon A J J; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex
Neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress are well reported, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The main purposes of this study were to investigate associations between structural neighbourhood conditions and psychological distress, and to explore the potential mediating role of neighbourhood social cohesion. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged ≥ 16 years (response 49%) from the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Structural environmental factors under study were neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood green, urbanity and home maintenance. Neighbourhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighbourhood level by using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations of neighbourhoods characteristics with psychological distress, adjusted for individual level characteristics. High neighbourhood SES and neighbourhood social cohesion were associated with decreased psychological distress. Adjusted for individual level characteristics and neighbourhood SES, only neighbourhood social cohesion remained significantly associated with psychological distress. Neighbourhood social cohesion accounted for 38% of the differences in the association between neighbourhood SES and psychological distress. High neighbourhood social cohesion is significantly associated with decreased psychological distress among residents of the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Reducing neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress may require increasing social interactions among neighbourhood residents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung; Paek, Minso; Daly, Barbara
This study aimed to examine the actor and partner effects of coping and resilience characteristics on psychological distress in cancer survivors and their spouses and to examine the mediating role of resilience characteristics in the relationship between coping and psychological distress. A total of 91 breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-spouse dyads were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. Standardized questionnaires that assessed psychological distress, reframing and acquiring social support coping, and resilience characteristics were used. The actor-partner interdependence mediation model demonstrated that the resilience of the survivors and spouses was a strong predictor of their personal psychological distress. Survivors' and spouses' own resilience mediated the association between their reframing coping and psychological distress. However, only the survivor model confirmed the mediating effect of resilience characteristics in the relationship between social support coping and psychological distress. In addition, spouse psychological distress was influenced by survivor resilience, indicating a spouse-partner effect in the relationship between resilience characteristics and psychological distress. Our findings provide insight into the relationships between coping, resilience characteristics, and psychological distress at the individual and dyadic levels. Enhancing cancer survivors' and their spouses' positive thoughts and available external resources can improve resilience and, in turn, reduce their psychological distress of couples coping with cancer.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Tuuliainen, Lauri; Sipilä, Kirsi; Mäki, Pirjo; Könönen, Mauno; Suominen, Anna Liisa
To evaluate the association between signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychological distress in a general population-based sample of Finnish adults. The Health 2000 Survey was conducted in 2000-2001 by the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. Of the sample of adults aged 30 or over (n=8,028), 79% participated in a clinical oral health examination, which included examination of TMD signs. The participants (n=6,155) also completed questionnaires, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which measured psychological distress. Associations between TMD signs and psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 were examined in both genders. Statistical measures included chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of the TMD signs (limited opening, clicking, crepitation, temporomandibular joint [TMJ] palpation pain, and muscle palpation pain) was 11.2%, 17.6%, 10.5%, 5.1%, and 18.9% in women, and 6.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, 2.4%, and 7.2% in men, respectively. High GHQ-12 scores, measured as continuous variables and in quartiles by distress level, were significantly associated with masticatory muscle pain on palpation in both genders (PTMJ pain on palpation in women (PTMJ crepitation in men (Pmuscle pain on palpation both in women (odds ratio [OR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.6-2.9) and men (OR=2.03; 95% CI=1.3-3.1). TMD signs and psychological distress appear to be associated. However, due to the limitations of the study, the findings can be regarded as preliminary.
Smith, Timothy W.; And Others
Indicated that cognitive distortion was associated with high scores on the Minnesota Multiophasic Personality Inventory (MMPH) Depression (D), Psychasthenia (Pt), and Schizophrenia (Sc) scales, but not the Hypochondriasis (Hs) and Hysteria (Hy) scales. Cognitive distortion is likely to be an important factor in general distress but not in…
Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A
The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p socio-demographic data, being an immigrant is the only protective factor reducing the social dysfunction in the last weeks of pregnancy (p stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.
Rakesh Kumar Soni
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.
Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne
, and hospitalization with depression (p-trend 2×10(-11) to 5×10(-95)). Furthermore, when different classes of antidepressant medication were examined, a stepwise increase in fibrinogen percentile categories was associated with a stepwise increase in risk of use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Tricyclic......OBJECTIVES: Low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of depression. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory marker fibrinogen are associated with psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication, and with hospitalization...... with depression in the general population. METHODS: We examined 73,367 20-100 year old men and women from two large population-based studies, the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We measured plasma fibrinogen and recorded symptoms of psychological distress, use...
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.
Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S
This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mindful walking program in patients with high levels of perceived psychological distress. Methods. Participants aged between 18 and 65 years with moderate to high levels of perceived psychological distress were randomized to 8 sessions of mindful walking in 4 weeks (each 40 minutes walking, 10 minutes mindful walking, 10 minutes discussion or to no study intervention (waiting group. Primary outcome parameter was the difference to baseline on Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS after 4 weeks between intervention and control. Results. Seventy-four participants were randomized in the study; 36 (32 female, 52.3 ± 8.6 years were allocated to the intervention and 38 (35 female, 49.5 ± 8.8 years to the control group. Adjusted CPSS differences after 4 weeks were −8.8 [95% CI: −10.8; −6.8] (mean 24.2 [22.2; 26.2] in the intervention group and −1.0 [−2.9; 0.9] (mean 32.0 [30.1; 33.9] in the control group, resulting in a highly significant group difference (. Conclusion. Patients participating in a mindful walking program showed reduced psychological stress symptoms and improved quality of life compared to no study intervention. Further studies should include an active treatment group and a long-term follow-up.
Teut, M; Roesner, E J; Ortiz, M; Reese, F; Binting, S; Roll, S; Fischer, H F; Michalsen, A; Willich, S N; Brinkhaus, B
Background. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mindful walking program in patients with high levels of perceived psychological distress. Methods. Participants aged between 18 and 65 years with moderate to high levels of perceived psychological distress were randomized to 8 sessions of mindful walking in 4 weeks (each 40 minutes walking, 10 minutes mindful walking, 10 minutes discussion) or to no study intervention (waiting group). Primary outcome parameter was the difference to baseline on Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) after 4 weeks between intervention and control. Results. Seventy-four participants were randomized in the study; 36 (32 female, 52.3 ± 8.6 years) were allocated to the intervention and 38 (35 female, 49.5 ± 8.8 years) to the control group. Adjusted CPSS differences after 4 weeks were -8.8 [95% CI: -10.8; -6.8] (mean 24.2 [22.2; 26.2]) in the intervention group and -1.0 [-2.9; 0.9] (mean 32.0 [30.1; 33.9]) in the control group, resulting in a highly significant group difference (P mindful walking program showed reduced psychological stress symptoms and improved quality of life compared to no study intervention. Further studies should include an active treatment group and a long-term follow-up.
Bhambhani, Yash; Cabral, Gail
Although increasing evidence shows that mindfulness is positively related to mental health, the nature and mechanisms of this relationship are not fully understood. Based on previous research findings and suggestions, the authors of the current study hypothesized that decentering and nonattachment are 2 variables that mediate the relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. A nonclinical, non-treatment-seeking sample of 308 students and employees from a middle-class, primarily Caucasian university filled out mindfulness, decentering, nonattachment, and mental distress measures online. Mediational analyses failed to support the hypothesis. Results suggest that mindfulness and nonattachment are independent predictors of nonclinical psychological distress and fully explain the effect of decentering on psychological distress. Results should be interpreted with caution and not generalized to clinical issues. A more comprehensive look into the mechanisms of mindfulness, especially with rigorous experimental, longitudinal studies, is warranted. The authors stress the importance of checking alternative, equivalent models in mediation studies. © The Author(s) 2015.
Morasso, Gabriella; Di Leo, Silvia; Caruso, Anita; Decensi, Andrea; Beccaro, Monica; Berretta, Laura; Bongiorno, Laura; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Finelli, Stefania; Rondanina, Gabriella; Santoni, Wissya; Stigliano, Vittoria; Costantini, Massimo
This study is aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a screening procedure for psychological distress in cancer survivors. Consecutive series of 339 cancer patients from three centres were requested to fill in two questionnaires measuring psychological distress (PDI) and social support (MOSS). Psychological intervention was offered to patients with significant degree of distress. Most patients accepted to be screened (72.0%; n = 244), and a subgroup (16.0%) showed high psychological distress. A higher ratio of distressed patients was observed among those with lower social support (P = 0.017). A significant (P psychological distress and social support was observed. A psychological intervention was offered to patients with high psychological distress, but only 15.6% completed it. Results from this study provide both some insights into the characteristics of psychological distress and some input on issues that may arise when implementing a screening procedure for psychological distress in cancer survivors. Further research is needed to assess both the clinical significance of distress and the most appropriate tools to carry out screening procedures within the target population.
Navrady, L.B.; Ritchie, S. J.; Chan, S.W.Y.; Kerr, D.; Adams, M J; Hawkins, E; Porteous, D; Deary, I.J.; Gale, C.R.; Batty, G.D.; McIntosh, A M
Background Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Methods Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on ...
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients...
Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with "Avoidance coping" (β = 0.39, p psychological distress (active: β = -0.25, p psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Sun, Kai Sing; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lo, Tak Lam; Chao, David Vai Kiong; Lam, Edmund Wing Wo
Most of the previous studies on help seeking for psychological distress were derived from Western countries. This study investigated the barriers to help-seeking for psychological distress among Chinese primary care attenders in Hong Kong. Nine focus groups and 6 individual interviews were conducted among Chinese primary care attenders with/without known distress, patients' significant others and the general public. The identified barriers were investigated in a questionnaire survey with data from 1626 primary care attenders recruited from 13 private clinics and 6 public clinics. Worries about side effects of drugs (79.9%, 95% CI:(77.9%, 81.8%)) and drug dependency (74.7%, 95% CI:(72.5%, 76.8%)) were rated as the top barriers in the survey. Qualitative interviews found both worries and actual experience of the side effects of drugs, which weakened patients' trust in the treatment. Factor analysis on all barrier items suggested three factors: 1) worries of treatment, 2) uncertainties on primary care physicians' capacity, 3) public's limited knowledge on distress and sources of help. Distress level, education level and age were associated with factor 1, whereas distress level and healthcare setting were associated with the other two factors. Qualitative interviews revealed that not having a regular primary care physician in the public setting discouraged disclosure of psychological problems. The findings were based on self-reported data from the respondents. Hong Kong is influenced by a mixed Chinese and Western culture. Relevant public education in a Chinese context should target at reducing patients' worries of drug treatment and strengthening the image of primary care physicians as a feasible source of help. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kaasen, A; Helbig, A; Malt, U F; Naes, T; Skari, H; Haugen, G
To predict acute psychological distress in pregnant women following detection of a fetal structural anomaly by ultrasonography, and to relate these findings to a comparison group. A prospective, observational study. Tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine. One hundred and eighty pregnant women with a fetal structural anomaly detected by ultrasound (study group) and 111 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included within a week following sonographic examination after gestational age 12 weeks (inclusion period: May 2006 to February 2009). Social dysfunction and health perception were assessed by the corresponding subscales of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Psychological distress was assessed using the Impact of Events Scale (IES-22), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the anxiety and depression subscales of the GHQ-28. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment. Social dysfunction, health perception and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, depression). The least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity induced the lowest levels of IES intrusive distress (P = 0.025). Women included after 22 weeks of gestation (24%) reported significantly higher GHQ distress than women included earlier in pregnancy (P = 0.003). The study group had significantly higher levels of psychosocial distress than the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints. Psychological distress was predicted by gestational age at the time of assessment, severity of the fetal anomaly, and ambiguity concerning diagnosis or prognosis.
Enticott, Joanne C; Lin, Elizabeth; Shawyer, Frances; Russell, Grant; Inder, Brett; Patten, Scott; Meadows, Graham
To compare equivalent population-level mental health indicators in Canada and Australia, and articulate recommendations to support equitable mental health services. These are two somewhat similar resource-rich countries characterized by extensive non-metropolitan and rural regions as well as significant areas of socioeconomic deprivation. A cross-national epidemiology and equity study: primary outcome was Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in recent national surveys. A secondary outcome was mental disorders rate since these surveys were 5-years apart. Elevated distress, defined by K10 scores (0-40 range) of 12 and over, affected 11.1% Australians and 12.0% Canadians. Elevated distress in both countries affected more people in the lowest income quintile (21-27%) compared to the richest (6%). In the lowest income quintile, 1-in-4 Australians and 1-in-5 Canadians reported elevated distress - twice the national average in both countries. Australians in the lowest income quintile (over 5 million people) have a significantly higher risk by over a 5% for elevated distress compared to their low-income Canadian counterparts. After adjusting for effects of age and gender, the relative odds in the lowest quintile compared to richest was 6.4 for Australians and 3.5 for Canadians, which remained significantly different thus confirming greater inequity in Australia. Mental disorders affected approximately 1-in-10 people in both countries. This adds to the mental health prevalence monitoring in these two countries by supporting an overall prevalence of elevated distress in approximately 1-in-10 people. It supports large-scale public health interventions that target elevated distress in people with low incomes to order to achieve the biggest impact, and, to reduce the greater inequity in mental health indicators in Australians, policy-makers should consider eliminating gap-fees as they are illegal in Canada. As encouraged by World Health Organization, we highlight the
Ichikura, Kanako; Yamashita, Aya; Sugimoto, Taro; Kishimoto, Seiji; Matsushima, Eisuke
Many patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) suffer from psychological distress associated with dysfunction and/or disfigurement. Our aim was to evaluate the ratio of patients with persistence of psychological distress during hospitalization and identify the predictors of persistence or change in psychological distress among HNC patients. We conducted a single-center longitudinal study with self-completed questionnaires. We evaluated psychological distress (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and functional level (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Scale; FACT-H&N) among patients during hospitalization at the Medical Hospital of Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Of 160 patients, 117 (73.1%) completed the questionnaire at both admission and discharge. Some 42 (52.5%) patients reported persistent psychological distress. The physical well-being of patients with continued distress was significantly lower than that of other patients (21.7 ± 4.7, 19.4 ± 6.1, 19.5 ± 5.4; p < 0.01), and the emotional well-being of patients with continued distress was significantly lower than that in patients with no distress and reduced distress (22.3 ± 3.5, 20.5 ± 2.5; p < 0.01). Significant of results: Impaired physical and emotional function appears to be associated with persistent psychological distress among HNC patients. Psychological interventions focused on relaxation, cognition, or behavior may be efficacious in preventing such persistent distress.
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, Raphael; Zijlstra, Wobbe P
BACKGROUND: Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels...... of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. METHODS: A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version...... was used to assess general psychological distress, diabetes was measured by means of self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident diabetes during 18 years follow up, comparing participants with low versus high...
Jansen, Jens E.; Haahr, Ulrik H.; Lyse, Hanne Grethe
involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioural therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aims: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver...... user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress. Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within...
Cooke, Sam; Smith, Ian; Turl, Emma; Arnold, Emma; Msetfi, Rachel M
Around 20 to 30% of parents experience mental health difficulties within their child's first year, but only a small proportion go on to access specialist services. This is despite growing evidence around the positive benefits of psychosocial interventions for both parents and children. Previous research highlights facilitators and barriers to generic healthcare services for mothers with postnatal depression. The current study adopted a qualitative methodology to explore parents' own perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to clinical psychology specifically. Seven women took part in the study, most of whom had no previous involvement with specialist mental health services. A thematic analysis of interview data suggested six key themes in relation to the research question: 'The importance of connecting', 'Pressing the danger button', 'I'm not mad', 'More round care', 'Psychological distress as barrier' and 'Making space, making sense'. These are presented alongside a consideration of the clinical implications for community-based practitioners, including clinical psychologists.
Wang, Zi-Yue; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie
Hematological cancer patients experience high levels of psychological distress during diagnoses and intensive treatments. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of positive psychological resources on depressive and anxiety symptoms in hematological cancer patients. This survey was conducted in a hospital during the period from July 2013 to April 2014. A total of 300 inpatients were recruited and finally 227 of them completed the questionnaires. Questionnaires included demographic and clinical variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Resilience Scale-14. Results showed that the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 66.1 and 45.8%, respectively. Both optimism (β = -.479, p optimism (β = -.393, p .05) was not significantly associated with anxiety symptoms, and self-efficacy was not significantly associated with depressive (β = -.032, p > .05) or anxiety symptoms (β = -.055, p > .05). The results suggest that hematological cancer patients who possess high levels of positive psychological resources may have fewer symptoms of psychological distress. The findings indicate that enhancing positive psychological resources can be considered in developing intervention strategies for decreasing depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Gudmundsdottir, Eyglo; Schirren, Maria; Boman, Krister K
Studies of parental reactions to a child's cancer have traditionally been carried out within the framework of psychiatry and psychopathology. We studied the significance of individual resource factors strengthening parents' resilience to long-term cancer-related distress, a focus that has rarely been used. The two-nation Nordic sample included 398 parents; 190 of whom had experienced a child's cancer, and 208 reference parents. We studied the sense of coherence (SOC) using the SOC-13 questionnaire. For assessing distress reactions we used a primarily illness-specific 11-dimensional Parental Psychosocial Distress in Cancer (PPD-C) self-report questionnaire developed for use with parents of childhood cancer patients, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Resilience was defined as absence of/less severe distress. Low SOC was significantly associated with more severe distress in all dimensions of the PPD-C and GHQ. The protective effect of SOC was indicated by it being most negatively related to general psychiatric symptoms, physical and psychological stress symptoms, anxiety and depression. The influence of SOC varied with parents' gender, showing a stronger modifying influence among mothers. Mothers and fathers also differed in their utilisation of professional psychosocial support when confronted with the child's cancer. Parental resilience to cancer-related distress varies with identifiable strength factors. A strengths-oriented approach helps in understanding parental adjustment to childhood cancer. In order to counteract psychological vulnerability, addressing resilience instead of pathology helps to identify parents at risk and in need of professional support when faced with a child's cancer.
Sivadon, Angela; Matthews, Alicia K; David, Kevin M
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have smoking rates twice that of their heterosexual counterparts. To design effective outreach, prevention, and treatments for these individuals, a comprehensive understanding of associated factors is needed. To increase understanding of how social integration and psychological distress are related to smoking behaviors among LGBT populations. A cross-sectional, descriptive study of 135 LGBT adults using an online data collection strategy. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine factors associated with current smoking status. Social integration was not significantly related to smoking behaviors in this LGBT population, although psychological distress was higher among smokers than nonsmokers. Although social support has been reported to have an impact on health behaviors in the general population, the present findings suggest that the benefits of social support may not apply to the smoking activities of LGBT individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.
Trevino, K. M.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Fasciano, K.; Greer, J.; Partridge, A.; Kacel, E. L.; Block, S.; Prigerson, H.G.
Little is known about how young adults (YAs) cope with cancer or the relationship between coping and psychological distress in YAs with advanced cancer. Structured clinical interviews with 53 YAs (20–40 years) with advanced cancer assessed coping methods, depression, anxiety, and grief. A principal components factor analysis identified underlying coping factors. Regression analyses examined the relationship between these coping factors and depression, anxiety, and grief. Six coping factors emerged and were labeled as: Proactive, Distancing, Negative Expression, Support-seeking, Respite-seeking, and Acceptance coping. Acceptance and Support-seeking coping styles were used most frequently. Coping by Negative Expression was positively associated with severity of grief after controlling for depression, anxiety, and confounding variables. Support-seeking coping was positively associated with anxiety after controlling for depression and grief. This study was limited by cross-sectional design, small sample size, and focus on YAs with advanced cancer. YAs with advanced cancer utilize a range of coping responses that are uniquely related to psychological distress. PMID:22285777
Wade, Dorothy F; Moon, Zoe; Windgassen, Sula S; Harrison, Anthony M; Morris, Lucy; Weinman, John A
Patients frequently suffer stress in intensive care units (ICUs) and many develop serious psychological morbidity after discharge. Little is known about the nature and efficacy of interventions to reduce ICU-related distress. There is growing evidence that administering sedative drugs can be harmful. Therefore we carried out a systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce ICU-related distress. A systematic search was conducted using Medline, Embase, Psychinfo, Cinahl and the Web of Science. Included studies evaluated the effect of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce ICU stress. Study populations were adults in mixed or general ICUs. Outcomes were stress or psychological distress in or after the ICU, using self-report or physiological measures. No meta-analysis was possible due to heterogeneity, therefore studies were arranged according to intervention type, and outcomes examined together with risk of bias criteria. Twenty-three studies were eligible, including 15 randomized controlled trials. Non-pharmacological interventions included music therapy (11 studies), mind-body practices (5) and psychological interventions (7). 12 studies showed a beneficial effect. However only three of the 12 had a low risk of bias, and many studies in the review were under-powered to detect an effect. Only 5 studies measured a medium/long term psychological outcome such as PTSD or depression at 2-12 months. Evidence indicates that non-pharmacological approaches to reducing ICU distress, in particular psychological interventions, may be beneficial. The evidence base would be strengthened by the implementation of fully-powered studies using robust designs, that measure longer-term outcomes.
Tenorio, Kimberly A; Lo, Celia C
In the United States, social stratification has generally led individuals occupying lower social locations to have more health problems than other individuals, even acknowledging that social groups are distinguished by their particular manifestations of health problems. This study examined whether two social integration factors, marriage and religiosity, mediate the relationship between social location and co-occurrence of substance abuse and psychological distress and the nature of this relationship. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted on data from a national sample of 34,650 adults mostly between the ages of 18 to 35, collected through the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. White males who were lesser educated and living in poverty were more likely to exhibit co-occuring substance abuse and psychological distress than their demographically similar counterparts. Additionally, being married and religious appeared to be protective factors within the overall study cohort with fewer co-occurring behaviors reported. The data generally confirm the hypothesis concerning mediating roles for religiosity and marriage. Confirmation that marriage and religiosity can protect adults against co-occurring substance abuse and psychological distress potentially provides the information necessary to better target health policy and interventions that serve to further enhance the population?s mental health.
Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; García-Blanco, Susanna; Portell, Mariona; Pujol, Jesús; Poca-Dias, Violant; García-Fructuoso, Ferran; López-Ruiz, Marina; Gutiérrez-Rosado, Teresa; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Deus, Joan
Personality can play an important role in the clinical symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of this study is to identify personality profiles in FM patients and the possible presence of personality disorder (PD) from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and to assess whether personality dimensions are related to psychological distress in FM. The sample consisted of 42 patients with FM and 38 healthy controls. The TCI-R, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Short-Form-36 Health Survey, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and McGill Pain Questionnaire were administered. The personality profile of the FM group based on the TCI-R is defined by high Harm Avoidance (HA), low Novelty Seeking (NS), and low Self-Directedness (SD). Only one-third of patients with FM present a possible psychometric PD, principally from Cluster C. In the FM group, HA and SD are associated positively and negatively, respectively, with indicators of emotional distress. Patients with higher HA present higher perceived pain intensity rated via a verbal-numerical scale while Determination (SD2) reduced the perceived level of pain induced by the stimulus. NS is negatively related to the number of work absences caused by FM. The study suggests that HA and SD play an important role in psychological distress in FM. The fact that SD is prone to modification and has a regulatory effect on emotional impulses is a key aspect to consider from the psychotherapeutic point of view. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Background Psychological disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM patients, and the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine the influence factors associated with psychological distress among DM patients in the Jilin province of China. Methods and Materials Multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was used to assess psychological status with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for psychological distress. Results A total of 1,956 subjects with DM were included in the study. Out of this total diabetic participants, 524 (26.8% had psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, being aware of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are positively associated with psychological distress (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed a high rate of psychological distress among DM population in Jilin province. Low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, awareness of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are all associated with psychological distress among our study subjects. Interventions to control these factors are needed to address the psychological problems among diabetics in Jilin Province.
Adebayo Rasheed Erinfolami
Full Text Available We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls, was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12 and 36 (±13 years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22 of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003. Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38 had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001. In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls.
Full Text Available Hui Chien Ong,¹ Norhayati Ibrahim,² Suzaily Wahab³ ¹Biomedical Science Programme, ²Health Psychology Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, ³Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. Keywords: family caregivers, social stigma, coping skills, psychological stress, schizophrenia
Karthik Laksham Balajee
Full Text Available Context: There is paucity of data on the comparison of psychological distress among chronic noncommunicable disease (NCD and healthy subjects in developing countries such as India. Objective: To assess and compare psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural field practice area attached to a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected from the chronic disease subjects which included those with diabetes and or hypertension registered in the rural health center. Healthy subjects residing nearest to the corresponding case from the respective village were taken as controls. Psychological distress was assessed by General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12. Results: There were 260 subjects with 130 in each group. Subjects with chronic disease had significantly higher proportion of psychological distress (50.8% compared to healthy subjects (35.4%. The mean ± standard deviation GHQ 12 score of those with chronic disease is also significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (13.35 ± 4.89 vs. 11.15 ± 4.43, P< 0.001. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension had higher psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.5 compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion: Subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension have higher proportion of psychological distress compared to healthy subjects. Screening subjects with chronic NCD for psychological distress may help to take appropriate measures.
Button, Susan; Thornton, Alexandra; Lee, Suzanne; Shakespeare, Judy; Ayers, Susan
Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Morimoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hironori; Tanaka, Hideki
...., engagement versus disengagement) and appraisal of coping acceptability ( ACA ) on psychological distress, taking into account the individuals' job specificity and the psychological climate in their work environment. A cross...
L. Ringoir (Lianne); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J.W. Widdershoven (Jos); V.J.M. Pop (Victor)
textabstractBackground Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused
Ringoir, E.J.M.; Pedersen, S.S.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Pop, V.J.M.
Background Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused on selected
Ringoir, L; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, J W M G
Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused on selected populatio...
Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients.
Airi Oksanen; Katri Laimi; Katja Björklund; Eliisa Löyttyniemi; Kristina Kunttu
The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012...
Rousseau, Vincent; Salek, Salwa; Aubé, Caroline; Morin, Estelle M
Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of injustice at work may increase psychological health-related problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy on the relationships between both distributive and procedural justice and psychological distress. Results, on the basis of responses to questionnaires given to 248 prison employees, show that coworker support moderates the relationships between both forms of justice and psychological distress. Specifically, these relationships are weakened when employees benefit from a high level of coworker support. Furthermore, work autonomy moderates the relationship between procedural justice and psychological distress but not the relationship between distributive justice and psychological distress. Thus, procedural injustice is less likely to increase psychological distress when the level of work autonomy is high. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood trauma has been reported as a possible cause of future substance abuse in some countries. This study reports the prevalence of childhood trauma and examines its association with psychological distress among injecting drug users from mainland China.The study was conducted in three government-operated drug rehabilitation facilities in Shanghai, China in 2007. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF was used to evaluate 4 types (general, emotional, physical and sexual and severity of childhood trauma, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R to evaluate psychological distress.Among 341 injecting drug users who completed the study, about 80% reported one or more types of childhood trauma, specifically 53% general trauma, 56% physical abuse, 36% emotional abuse and 26% sexual abuse. Compared to female injecting drug users, males reported significantly higher scores of general trauma and physical abuse, but lower sexual abuse scores. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that greater physical and emotional abuse in childhood predict greater current psychopathological distress among these injecting drug users in China.The results reveal a high prevalence of childhood trauma among injecting drug users in China, and it is comparable to other similar studies in Western countries. It is important to consider the role of childhood trauma in the prevention and treatment of substance abuse.
Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Thomas, Matthew R; Shanafelt, Tait D
To systematically review articles reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Medline and PubMed were searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published between January 1980 and May 2005 reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Searches used combinations of the Medical Subject Heading terms medical student and depression, depressive disorder major, depressive disorder, professional burnout, mental health, depersonalization, distress, anxiety, or emotional exhaustion. Reference lists of retrieved articles were inspected to identify relevant additional articles. Demographic information, instruments used, prevalence data on student distress, and statistically significant associations were abstracted. The search identified 40 articles on medical student psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, burnout, and related mental health problems) that met the authors' criteria. No studies of burnout among medical students were identified. The studies suggest a high prevalence of depression and anxiety among medical students, with levels of overall psychological distress consistently higher than in the general population and age-matched peers by the later years of training. Overall, the studies suggest psychological distress may be higher among female students. Limited data were available regarding the causes of student distress and its impact on academic performance, dropout rates, and professional development. Medical school is a time of significant psychological distress for physicians-in-training. Currently available information is insufficient to draw firm conclusions on the causes and consequences of student distress. Large, prospective, multicenter studies are needed to identify personal and training-related features that influence depression, anxiety, and burnout among students and explore relationships between distress and competency.
Isomaa, Rasmus; Backholm, Klas; Birgegård, Andreas
Exposure to traumatic events may be a risk factor for subsequent development of an eating disorder (ED). In a previous study, we showed that trauma exposure impacted symptom load in ED patients. We also saw an effect of trauma on general psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ED severity, to focus on the mediating role of psychological distress for the association, and to assess the role of timing of trauma in relation to emergence of ED. Participants were Swedish adult ED patients with a history of traumatic exposure (N=843, Mean age 27.2, 97.3% female). One fourth (24.1%) of the participants had a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. PTSD had an impact on ED severity, but the impact was mediated by psychological distress. When stratifying the sample based on timing of trauma a significant effect was present only in those with trauma within a year of emergence of ED. The results suggest emotion regulation as a possible underlying factor of interest in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scant information exists on the complex interaction between resources and stressors and their subsequent influence on the psychological distress of older adults in India. Within the framework of resource theory, the present study examined the various pathways through which resources and stressors influence psychological distress by testing four models - the independence model, the stress-suppression model, the counteractive model and the resource-deterioration model. The independence model posits that resources and stressors have a direct relationship with psychological distress. The stress-suppression model hypothesizes that stressors mediate the influence of resources on psychological distress. The counteractive model postulates that stressors mobilize resources, which in turn influence psychological distress. The resource-deterioration model states that stressors deplete resources and subsequently exacerbate distress. In the present study, resources include social support, religiosity and mastery; stressors include life events, abuse and health problems. Psychological distress was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Interviews were conducted among 400 adults aged 65 years and above, randomly selected from the electoral list of urban Chennai, India. The battery of instruments was translated into Tamil (local language) by back-translation. Structural Equation Modeling was conducted to test the three models. The results supported the stress-suppressor model. Resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress. As such there is a need to identify and strengthen the resources available to older adults in India.
Jaradat, Yousef; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Stigum, Hein; Bast-Pettersen, Rita
Nurses can be exposed to aggressive behavior from patients, patient's relatives, colleagues and visitors. To determine the prevalence of workplace aggression among Palestinian nurses in the Hebron district and to examine cross-sectional associations between exposure to workplace aggression and the occurrence of psychological distress and job satisfaction. Of 372 nurses eligible for the study, 343 were included (response rate of 92.2%). The sample comprised 62% females and 38% males. The participants responded to questions about their socio-demographic status, workplace aggression (WHO questionnaires), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-30), and job satisfaction (Generic Job Satisfaction Scale). Ninety-three (27.1%) of the respondents reported exposure to workplace aggression of any kind. Seventeen (5%) reported exposure to physical aggression, 83 (24.2%) reported exposure to verbal aggression, and 25 (7.3%) reported exposure to bullying. The patients and the patients' relatives were the main sources of physical and verbal aggression, whereas colleagues were the main source of bullying. Males reported a higher prevalence of bullying than females. Younger nurses reported a higher prevalence of exposure to physical aggression, verbal aggression and bullying. Verbal aggression was associated with more psychological distress. Bullying was associated with lower job satisfaction. More than a quarter of the nurses reported that they had been subject to some sort of aggression at the workplace. Verbal aggression was associated with higher psychological distress. Workplace bullying was associated with lower job satisfaction. Increased awareness and preventive measures to address this problem among health care workers are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sewell, Abigail A; Jefferson, Kevin A; Lee, Hedwig
A growing body of research highlights the collateral consequences of mass incarceration, including stop-and-frisk policing tactics. Living in a neighborhood with aggressive policing may affect one's mental health, especially for men who are the primary targets of police stops. We examine whether there is an association between psychological distress and neighborhood-level aggressive policing (i.e., frisking and use of force by police) and whether that association varies by gender. The 2009-2011 New York City (NYC) Stop, Question, and Frisk Database is aggregated to the neighborhood-level (N = 34) and merged with individual data from the 2012 NYC Community Health Survey (N = 8066) via the United Hospital Fund neighborhood of respondents' residence. Weighted multilevel generalized linear models are used to assess main and gendered associations of neighborhood exposures to aggressive police stops on psychological distress (Kessler-6 items). While the neighborhood stop rate exhibits inconsistent associations with psychological distress, neighborhood-level frisk and use of force proportions are linked to higher levels of non-specific psychological distress among men, but not women. Specifically, men exhibit more non-specific psychological distress and more severe feelings of nervousness, effort, and worthlessness in aggressively surveilled neighborhoods than do women. Male residents are affected by the escalation of stop-and-frisk policing in a neighborhood. Living in a context of aggressive policing is an important risk factor for men's mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allen, Michael T; Bocek, Christine M; Burch, Ashley E
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of perceived background stress and self-reported psychological distress on cardiovascular reactivity during acute laboratory stressors. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used as the measure of perceived background stress, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used as the measure of psychological distress. A secondary aim was to examine whether background stress and psychological distress affected the susceptibility to induction of a negative mood using music. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured in 149 female and male college students at rest and during a stressful mental arithmetic (MA) task and a mood induction procedure. Higher scores on the GHQ were associated with lower systolic BP reactivity during the MA task by all participants. Higher scores on the PSS and GHQ were also associated with lower diastolic BP and HR reactivity, but only in females. Thus, higher self-reports of background stress and psychological distress tended to result in blunted reactivity to an acute laboratory challenge. Higher levels of background stress and psychological distress were not associated with greater susceptibility to a negative mood induction. This study adds to the growing literature indicating that potentially negative health outcomes may be associated with diminished cardiovascular reactivity under certain conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borders, Ashley; Guillén, Luis A; Meyer, Ilan
This study examined associations between uncertainty about sexual orientation, rumination, and psychological distress in university students. We hypothesized that increased rumination would mediate associations between higher sexual orientation uncertainty and greater psychological distress. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these associations might differ for self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) versus heterosexual emerging adults. A sample of 207 university students completed qu...
Chan, David W.
The relationships among emotional intelligence, social coping, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 624 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that emotional intelligence had an effect on psychological distress mediated by social coping was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
Bradford, Evan; Lyddon, William J.
Examined relationship of current parental attachment to symptoms of psychological distress and satisfaction in romantic relationships among 157 undergraduate students. Current parental attachment was found to be significantly associated with psychological distress. No such association was found between parental attachment and relationship…
Chan, David W.
The relationships among adjustment problems, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 207 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that adjustment problems had an effect on psychological distress mediated by self-efficacy was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…
A.D. Boenink; O Visser; P.C. Huijgens; J Dekker; A.T.F. Beekman; E.H. Collette; H Bomhof-Roordink; prof Berno van Meijel; A.M. Braamse; F.J. Snoek; M.H.M. van der Linden; H.M. Verheul
Screening for psychological distress in patients with cancer is currently being debated in the British Journal of Cancer. Screening has been recommended, as elevated levels of distress have been consistently observed and clinicians tend to overlook the need of psychological support (Carlson et al,
Wong, Y. Joel; Owen, Jesse; Shea, Munyi
How are specific dimensions of masculinity related to psychological distress in specific groups of men? To address this question, the authors used latent class regression to assess the optimal number of latent classes that explained differential relationships between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress in a racially diverse…
Watson, Roger; Gardiner, Eric; Hogston, Richard; Gibson, Helen; Stimpson, Anne; Wrate, Robert; Deary, Ian
The aim of this study was to investigate how differences in life events and stress contribute to psychological distress in nurses and nursing students. Stress is an issue for nursing students and qualified nurses leading to psychological distress and attrition. A longitudinal study using four time waves was conducted between 1994-1997. Measures were taken of stress, life events and psychological distress in addition to a range of demographic data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, linear modelling and mixed-effects modelling. The study was set in Scotland, UK and used newly qualified nurses and nursing students from four university departments of nursing over four years. The study was initiated with 359 participants (147 nurses and 212 nursing students) and complete data were obtained for 192 participants. Stress levels, psychological distress and life events are all associated within time and across time. At baseline, life events and stress contributed significantly to psychological distress. The pattern of psychological distress differed between the nursing students and the newly qualified nurses with a high level in the nurses after qualifying and starting their career. Stress, individual traits, adverse life events and psychological distress are all interrelated. Future lines of enquiry should focus on the transition between being a nursing student and becoming a nurse. Stress and psychological distress may have negative outcomes for the retention of nursing students in programmes of study and newly qualified nurses in the nursing workforce.
Scholz, Hanna; Benes, Heike; Happe, Svenja; Bengel, Juergen; Kohnen, Ralf; Hornyak, Magdolna
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic disorder with substantial impact on quality of life similar to that seen in diabetes mellitus or osteoarthritis. Little is known about the psychological characteristics of RLS patients although psychological factors may contribute to unfavourable treatment outcome. In an observational cross-sectional design, we evaluated the psychological features of 166 consecutive RLS patients from three outpatient clinics, by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) questionnaire. Additionally, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the International RLS Severity Scale (IRLS) were measured. Both treated and untreated patients were included, all patients sought treatment. Untreated patients (n = 69) had elevated but normal scores on the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI; p = 0.002) and on the sub-scales somatisation (p < 0.001), compulsivity (p = 0.003), depression (p = 0.02), and anxiety (p = 0.004) compared with a German representative sample. In the treated group, particularly in those patients who were dissatisfied with their actual treatment (n = 62), psychological distress was higher than in the untreated group with elevated scores for the GSI (p = 0.03) and the sub-scales compulsivity (p = 0.006), depression (p = 0.012), anxiety (p = 0.031), hostility (p = 0.013), phobic anxiety (p = 0.024), and paranoid ideation (p = 0.012). Augmentation, the most serious side effect of dopaminergic, i.e. first-line treatment of RLS, and loss of efficacy were accompanied with the highest psychological distress, as seen particularly in the normative values of the sub-scales compulsivity and anxiety. Generally, higher RLS severity was correlated with higher psychological impairment (p < 0.001). Severely affected RLS patients show psychological impairment in multiple psychological domains which has to be taken into account in the treatment regimen.
Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan
In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.
Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Lacerda, Shirley Silva
To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.
Leung, Janni; Gartner, Coral; Dobson, Annette; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne
To investigate the association between levels of psychological distress and smoking and quitting behaviours. Data were from two large Australian national household surveys of individuals over 20 years of age. Level of psychological distress was measured by the Kessler 10 scale. Tobacco smoking measures included current smoking status (never, former, current); ex-smokers' time since quitting; current smokers' abstinent period in the last 12 months, cigarettes smoked per day, reasons for smoking, and self-report of factors that would motivate quitting; and self-report of factors that motivated smokers to quit in the last 12 months. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between smoking behaviours and psychological distress, while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Current smokers, especially those who smoke more cigarettes per day and those who report less success at quitting or reducing smoking, had higher levels of psychological distress. Ex-smokers were also more likely to experience psychological distress than those who never smoked, but the association weakened with more years since quitting. Current smokers with psychological distress were just as, or more likely, to report planning to quit as those without psychological distress. Smokers who did not plan to quit due to addiction, past failure at quitting, and using smoking for relaxation or to deal with stress were more likely to report psychological distress than those who did not report these reasons. Current smoking and unsuccessful quit attempts in the Australian community were strongly associated with symptoms of psychological distress. Quitting aspirations and influence from general public health interventions were not associated with the smokers' level of psychological distress.
van der Wal, Raymond A B; Bucx, Martin J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Prins, Judith B
The practice of anaesthesia comes with stress. If the demands of a stressful job exceed the resources of an individual, that person may develop burnout. Burnout poses a threat to the mental and physical health of the anaesthesiologist and therefore also to patient safety. Individual differences in stress appraisal (perceived demands) are an important factor in the risk of developing burnout. To explore this possible relationship, we assessed the prevalence of psychological distress and burnout in the Dutch anaesthesiologist population and investigated the influence of personality traits. Survey study. Data were collected in the Netherlands from July 2012 until December 2012. We sent electronic surveys to all 1955 practising resident and consultant members of the Dutch Anaesthesia Society. Of these, 655 (33.5%) were returned and could be used for analysis. Psychological distress, burnout and general personality traits were assessed using validated Dutch versions of the General Health Questionnaire (cut-off point ≥2), the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Big Five Inventory. Sociodemographic variables and personality traits were entered into regression models as predictors for burnout and psychological distress. Respectively, psychological distress and burnout were prevalent in 39.4 and 18% of all respondents. The prevalence of burnout was significantly different in resident and consultant anaesthesiologists: 11.3% vs. 19.8% (χ 5.4; P burnout was neuroticism: adjusted odds ratio 6.22 (95% confidence interval 4.35 to 8.90) and 6.40 (95% confidence interval 3.98 to 10.3), respectively. The results of this study show that psychological distress and burnout have a high prevalence in residents and consultant anaesthesiologists and that both are strongly related to personality traits, especially the trait of neuroticism. This suggests that strategies to address the problem of burnout would do well to focus on competence in coping skills and staying resilient
Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C
Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.
Da Silva, Nicole; Dillon, Frank R; Rose Verdejo, Toni; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario
Religion is a source of strength in Latina/o culture during challenging life transitions, such as the immigration process. Guided by a sociological stress-process model, this study examines relations between dimensions of religious coping, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 530 young Latina women (ages 18-23 years) who recently immigrated to the United States (i.e., approximately 12 months prior to assessment). Higher levels of acculturative stress were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Negative religious coping (i.e., the tendency to struggle with faith) moderated the relation between acculturative stress and psychological distress. Participants experiencing higher levels of acculturative stress reported greater psychological distress when they indicated more negative religious coping. Positive religious coping (i.e., the tendency to relate to faith with comfort and certainty) was not linked with acculturative stress or psychological distress. Implications for culturally tailored counseling interventions for this underserved and understudied population are discussed.
Scott, David; Paterson, Jessica L; Happell, Brenda
A population-based questionnaire study of 1,818 Australian adults investigated associations of sleep quality with psychological distress and comorbid physical health disorders. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System assessed psychological distress and physical health. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index assessed sleep quality. Participants with physical illness or psychological distress had increased odds for reporting poor sleep quality, compared to those with no illness (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.22, for both; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 1.53-3.23 and 3.54-10.36, respectively), but those with comorbid illness had markedly higher odds for poor sleep quality (OR = 11.99, 95% CI = 7.90-18.20). Adults with comorbid psychological distress and physical health disorders are at substantially increased risk of poor sleep quality.
Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad
We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.
Lian, Yulong; Gu, Yiyang; Han, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Guan, Suzhen; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen
We examined whether or not changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of psychological distress. A baseline evaluation of work stressors and coping resources and mental health was assessed for 4362 petroleum industry workers after 12 years. Increased task and organizational stressors were associated with an elevated risk of psychological distress. Decreased task stressors, increased job control, and increased coping resources were associated with a reduced risk of psychological distress. Increased coping also had a buffering effect on increased work stressors and psychological distress. Gender-specific differences were observed in the factors influencing mental health. The findings indicated that reducing gender-specific task and organizational stressors, and promoting coping resources at work may help prevent the onset of psychological distress.
Winham, Katherine M; Engstrom, Malitta; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K
The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data fit the models properly. Psychological distress was significantly predicted by childhood victimization, and adult attachment partially mediated this relationship. Childhood victimization did not significantly predict substance use; however, attachment did. The findings suggest that attachment may be an important factor to further understand and address in relation to psychological distress and substance use among women with histories of victimization who are involved in the criminal justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley
Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) is prevalent, especially when the person sustains an associated physical injury. Psychological distress can exhibit as elevated anxiety and depressive mood, as well as presenting as mental disorders such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). If unmanaged, psychological distress can contribute to, or exacerbate negative outcomes such as social disengagement (e.g., loss of employment) and poor health-related quality of life, as well as contribute to higher costs to insurers. This systematic review summarises current research concerning early psychological intervention strategies aimed at preventing elevated psychological distress occurring following a MVC. A systematic review of psychological preventative intervention studies was performed. Searches of Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were used to locate relevant studies published between 1985 and September 2015. Included studies were those investigating MVC survivors who had received an early psychological intervention aimed at preventing psychological distress, and which had employed pre- and post- measures of constructs such as depression, anxiety and disorders such as PTSD. Searches resulted in 2608 records. Only six studies investigated a psychological preventative intervention post-MVC. Interventions such as injury health education, physical activity and health promotion, and therapist-assisted problem solving did not result in significant treatment effects. Another six studies investigated psychological interventions given to MVC survivors who were assessed as sub-clinically psychologically distressed prior to their randomisation. Efficacy was varied, however three studies employing cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) found significant reductions in psychological distress compared to wait-list controls. Psychological interventions aimed at preventing psychological distress post
Roh, Young Hak; Noh, Jung Ho; Oh, Joo Han; Baek, Goo Hyun; Gong, Hyun Sik
Psychologic distress contributes to symptom severity in patients with several musculoskeletal disorders. While numerous shoulder outcome instruments are used it is unclear whether and to what degree psychologic distress contributes to the scores. We asked (1) to what degree shoulder outcome instruments reflect patients' psychologic distress, and (2) whether patients who are strongly affected by psychologic distress can be identified. We prospectively evaluated 119 patients with chronic shoulder pain caused by degenerative or inflammatory disorders using the Constant-Murley scale, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. To evaluate psychologic distress, we measured depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale and pain anxiety using the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS). Demographic and clinical parameters, such as pain scores, ROM, and abduction strength, also were measured. We then assessed the relative contributions made by psychologic distress and other clinical parameters to the quantitative ratings of the three shoulder outcome instruments. Quantitative ratings of shoulder outcome instruments correlated differently with psychologic distress. Constant-Murley scores did not correlate with psychologic measures, whereas SST scores correlated with PASS (r = 0.32) and DASH scores correlated with PASS and CES-D (r = 0.36 and r = 0.32). Psychologic distress contributed to worsening SST and DASH scores but not to Constant-Murley scores. DASH scores were more strongly influenced by pain anxiety and depression than the other two outcome instruments. Shoulder outcome measures reflected different psychologic aspects of illness behavior, and the contributions made by psychologic distress to different shoulder outcome instruments apparently differed. Physicians should select and interpret the findings of shoulder outcome instruments properly by considering their psychologic
Menon, Vikas; Shanmuganathan, Balasubramanian; Thamizh, Jaiganesh Selvapandian; Arun, Anand Babu; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Sarkar, Siddharth
People with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) may have psychological co-morbidities. Our objectives were to assess the rates and identify correlates of psychological distress in MUS. A total of 171 subjects with MUS seeking treatment at a tertiary care facility were assessed over a 3-year period. Psychological distress was assessed using the Tamil version of General Health Questionnaire-12. Apart from socio-demographic factors, personality, coping, perceived social support and subjective disability were assessed using standard instruments. Ninety subjects (52.6%) endorsed symptoms of psychological distress. MUS subjects with psychological distress reported higher levels of neuroticism (p disability (p disability (odds ratio 1.302, 95% CI 1.147 to 1.478) emerged as independent predictors of psychological distress in MUS. More than half of subjects with MUS have associated psychological distress. High levels of neuroticism and disability are potential markers of psychological distress in MUS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elwér, Sofia; Johansson, Klara; Hammarström, Anne
Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N=795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants' workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be explained by differences in the perception of the
den Heijer, M.; de Vos, J.; Seynaeve, C.; Vanheusden, K.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Tibben, A.
Objective: The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate whether social and personal resources were independently related to psychological distress and (2) examine the interrelationships of social and personal resources in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Methods: General and
Heijer, M. den; Vos, J.; Seynaeve, C.; Vanheusden, K.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.; Tibben, A.
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate whether social and personal resources were independently related to psychological distress and (2) examine the interrelationships of social and personal resources in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. METHODS: General and
Schulz, Torben; Niesing, Jan; Stewart, Roy E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.
Although kidney transplantation improves overall quality of life and physical functioning, improvements of psychological distress are often modest. However, apparent stressors such as comorbidity are only weakly associated with psychological distress and their impact differs considerably between
Cientanni, Fabia; Power, Kevin; Sani, Fabio; Wright, Christopher; Baty, Frances; Hustings, Kerry; Morgan, David; Tanner, Gary
Social group identification and socioeconomic deprivation have both been linked to self-reported depressive symptoms in general population samples; however, no study to date has explored the strength of the joint predictive value of these factors within a mental health population. The current study explored the impact of social group identifications and socioeconomic deprivation, together with important clinical and demographic variables, on psychological distress in a Scottish mental health sample. Participants (N = 976) were recruited from referrals to a computerized cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) programme in Scotland, 'Beating the Blues' (BtB) over a 25-month period. Participants completed the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) as a measure of psychological distress and three versions of the group identifications scale (GIS), one for each of three groups: family, community, and a social group of choice. Demographic information and clinical information were collected on commencing BtB. Higher numbers of group identifications were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Additionally, increased socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with more severe psychological distress; however, interestingly, the association was not as strong as that of group identifications. Identifying with fewer social groups predicts more severe psychological symptom presentations, even more so than living in a greater state of socioeconomic deprivation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
The growth among older prisoner populations, including in Australia, necessitates an understanding of this group in order to generate effective management strategies. One particular concern is the mental well-being of older prisoners. This study aimed to determine the level of psychological distress among sentenced prisoners aged 50 years and older, to compare this level to that seen among younger prisoners and older people in the community, and to investigate which mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice characteristics were associated with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey of 173 older (M = 63 years) and 60 younger prisoners (M = 34 years) in two Australian jurisdictions was conducted. The Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) scale was administered with prisoners and additional data were collected from interviews and participant health and corrections files. K10 scores were compared to community norms using data from the Australian Health Survey. Average K10 scores of the older prisoners were significantly lower than the younger prisoners' (p = 0.04), though the effect size was small (r = 0.1). Significantly, higher distress levels were observed in comparison to the general population (p < 0.001), with older prisoners being three times more likely to display very high levels of distress (12.3% vs. 3.7%). Higher psychological distress scores among older prisoners were significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.002) and a history of mental health issues (p = 0.002). While the levels of distress seen among older prisoners were significantly lower than that of younger prisoners, their higher levels of distress in comparison to community norms demonstrate a need for correctional services to be attuned to the mental health of the expanding older prisoner population.
den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Timman, Reinier; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad
Some women at risk for hereditary breast cancer are at increased risk of psychological distress. In order to tailor support for individual women, the availability of a tool enabling the identification of psychologically vulnerable women at an early stage is warranted. The objectives of this study were (1) to explore long-term psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer adhering to regular surveillance, and (2) to identify women being vulnerable for long-term psychological distress, defined in terms of a multifactorial risk profile. General distress and cancer-related distress were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 5-8 years (T1) in 197 high-risk women adhering to breast cancer surveillance. Coping styles, occurrence of breast cancer in the family of origin, breast cancer risk perception, and frequency of breast self-examination, as assessed at T0, were examined as predictor variables for long-term distress (T1). Across time, women reported a significant reduction in intrusion and avoidance. Intrusion levels were increased among women who had lost a first-degree relative to breast cancer. Predictors of increased long-term distress were passive and palliative coping styles, excessive breast self-examination, and overestimation of breast cancer risk. On the other hand, coping through fostering reassuring thoughts was predictive for decreased long-term distress. On the basis of the identified risk profile, it is possible to identify vulnerable women at an early stage, who then may be offered additional and individually tailored support. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; de la Torre-Cruz, Manuel J; Redecillas-Peiró, María T; Martínez-López, Emilio J
To analyse the association between active commuting to secondary school and indicators of psychological health in a sample of 1012 adolescents. Active commuting was assessed through a questionnaire, subjective happiness with the Subjective Happiness Scale, well-being and psychological distress with the General Well-Being Scale, and body shape was assessed using the short version of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Adolescents who spent more than 15 minutes per day actively commuting to secondary school had higher levels of subjective happiness (p=0.032) and psychological well-being (p=0.021) and lower levels of psychological distress (p=0.021) than adolescents who spent 15 minutes or less per day. There were no differences in body shape between less and more active adolescents (p >0.05). Active commuting to secondary school for more of 15 minutes per day is recommended because it is associated with higher levels of happiness and well-being in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Corcoran, Mark; McNulty, Muireann
Childhood adversity is associated with a wide range of detrimental psychological consequences. This study examined the mediating role of relationship-specific attachment (avoidance and anxiety) in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being. University students (N=190) across the Republic of Ireland completed self-report measures including the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale, Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress scales and measures of subjective well-being. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (67.4%) reported experiencing at least one adverse childhood experience. Childhood adversity was associated with symptoms of psychological distress and subjective well-being. All such associations were mediated by certain relationship-specific attachment dimensions. Of these, attachment anxiety in general relationships was the most prominent mediator for both psychological distress and subjective well-being. Attachment to one's father and to one's romantic partner did not mediate any association. These findings indicate that attachment, in particular relationships, is an important factor in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being as an adult. One's attachment anxiety in general relationships is particularly important in these associations. Therapeutic interventions addressing these attachment domains may offset the detrimental effects of childhood adversity. Future research is required using a longitudinal design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available EnglishThe effect of employment on women's psychological well being has become animportant issue in the sociology of mental health. Although work-for-pay is thought to have an overallpostiive impact on women's psychological well being, not all women equally experience this positiveeffect. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of transitions in employment status onchanges in psychological distress among women in two types of family setting: lone parent families andmarried couple families (including common-law unions. Using a framework which combines a longitudinaldesign with a structural equation modelling multigroup analysis, the current study indicates clearlythat the employment transitions and employment stability have no uniform effect on the mental healthof all mothers. Specifically, transition into employment offers a significant reduction in feelings ofdistress only among married mothers. Single mothers, in contrast are found to experience a significantincrease in the level of distress when they move out of employment. The results of this study point tosome advantages of longitudinal research designs over cross-section designs.FrenchL'effet de l'emploi sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes est devenu unequestion importante en sociologie de santé mentale. Bien que le travail payé aitun impact positif global sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes, pas toutesles femmes éprouvent également cet effet positif. L'objectif de cette étude estd'évaluer l'effet des transitions dans le statut d'emploi sur des changements de ladétresse psychologique parmi des femmes dans deux types de famille: famillesà un seul parent et familles à couple mariés (y compris les mariages de fait. Enutilisant un cadre qui combine une analyse longitudinale avec une équationstructurale modelant plusieurs groupes, l'étude actuelle indique clairement queles transitions d'emploi et la stabilité d'emploi n'ont pas un effet uniforme sur lasant
F Moradi Manesh
Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.
Kozlov, Elissa; Eghan, Claude; Moran, Sheila; Herr, Keela; Reid, M Carrington
To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities. A total of N = 236 respondents were included in the final analyses. Providers reported that they encounter psychological distress regularly in their practice and that they screen for distress using multiple methods. When psychological distress is detected, providers reported referring patients to an average of 3 different providers (standard deviation = 1.46), most frequently a social worker (69.6%) or chaplain (65.3%) on the palliative care team. A total of 84.6% of physicians and 54.5% of nurse practitioners reported that they prescribe anxiolytics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to patients experiencing psychological distress. This study revealed significant variability and redundancy in how palliative care teams currently manage psychological distress. The lack of consistency potentially stems from the variability in the composition of palliative care teams across care settings and the lack of scientific evidence for best practices in psychological care in palliative care. Future research is needed to establish best practices in the screening and treatment of psychological distress for patients receiving palliative care.
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Viktor Guruzhapov - Doctor of Psychology, Head of Department at Moscow City University of Psychology and Pedagogy. Address: Sretenka str, 29, Moscow, 107045. Email: is an analysis of general psychological education for future teachers in the context of the need to implement the second generation Federal State Learning Standard of General Education. The author believes that delivering the theory of general psychology plays little role in building psychological competence o...
Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G.
Despite ample precedent in theology and social theory, few studies have systematically examined the role of religion in mitigating the harmful effects of socioeconomic deprivation on mental health. The present study outlines several arguments linking objective and subjective measures of financial hardship, as well as multiple aspects of religious life, with psychological distress. Relevant hypotheses are then tested using data on adults aged 18–59 from the 1998 US NORC General Social Survey. Findings confirm that both types of financial hardship are positively associated with distress, and that several different aspects of religious life buffer against these deleterious influences. Specifically, religious attendance and the belief in an afterlife moderate the deleterious effects of financial hardship on both objective and subjective financial hardship, while meditation serves this function only for objective hardship. No interactive relationships were found between frequency of prayer and financial hardship. A number of implications, study limitations, and directions for future research are identified. PMID:20556889
Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J
Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) items are frequently used to assess psychological distress but no study to date has investigated the GHQ-30's potential for adaptive administration. In computerized adaptive testing (CAT) items are matched optimally to the targeted distress level of respondents instead of relying on fixed-length versions of instruments. We therefore calibrate GHQ-30 items and report a simulation study exploring the potential of this instrument for adaptive administration in a longitudinal setting. GHQ-30 responses of 3445 participants with 2 completed assessments (baseline, 7-year follow-up) in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey were calibrated using item response theory. Our simulation study evaluated the efficiency of CAT administration of the items, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with different estimators, item selection methods, and measurement precision criteria. To yield accurate distress measurements (marginal reliability at least 0.90) nearly all GHQ-30 items need to be administered to most survey respondents in general population samples. When lower accuracy is permissible (marginal reliability of 0.80), adaptive administration saves approximately 2/3 of the items. For longitudinal applications, change scores based on the complete set of GHQ-30 items correlate highly with change scores from adaptive administrations. The rationale for CAT-GHQ-30 is only supported when the required marginal reliability is lower than 0.9, which is most likely to be the case in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing mean changes in populations. Precise measurement of psychological distress at the individual level can be achieved, but requires the deployment of all 30 items.
Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja
To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed
We assessed the mediating role of education in the association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood using longitudinal data collected in three waves, from 1994 to 2008, in the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a cohort that is representative of men and women from Tromsø. Education was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Ordinary least square regression analysis was used to assess the associations between childhood disadvantage, education, and psychological distress in adulthood. The indirect effects and the proportion (%) of indirect effects of childhood disadvantage (via education) on psychological distress in adulthood were assessed by mediation analysis. Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower education and higher psychological distress in adulthood (p childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood was mediated by education. Childhood disadvantages were measured retrospectively. The association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood is primarily independent of education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan
Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.
Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Prins, Rick G; Voorham, Toon A J J; Burdorf, Alex
Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10-50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health.
Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Tomata, Yasutake; Tsuji, Ichiro
The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association of psychological distress with a partner's disability in an older Japanese population, as well as the effect modification of social support on this association. The baseline survey was carried out between 1 December and 15 December 2006, and included 6809 participants from whom we collected data regarding functional disability and psychological distress. We defined functional disability as certification for long-term care insurance in Japan, and psychological distress as a Kessler 6 score of ≥10 out of 24. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increased psychological distress according to the categories of functional disability among partners. Stratified analyses were also carried out to investigate whether social support significantly affected the association between a partner's functional disability and psychological distress. The multiple-adjusted OR for psychological distress was 1.48 (95% CI 1.06-2.04) among participants whose partners had functional disabilities (vs those whose partners did not have functional disabilities). In the social support-stratified analysis, a significant association with psychological distress was observed among participants lacking social support for help with their daily housework (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.23-4.83), but not among those with social support (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.79-1.72); P for interaction = 0.03). A partner with functional disability conferred a significantly higher risk of psychological distress on older Japanese individuals, and this association was modified by social support. We conclude that social support might buffer psychological distress in this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M
Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental
Inge van Dijk
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support
Krebber, Anne-Marie H; Jansen, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
The purpose of the study is to investigate screening in follow-up care to identify head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with untreated psychological distress. From November 2009 until December 2012, we investigated the use of OncoQuest (a touch screen computer system to monitor psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) and quality of life (HRQOL; EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 module) in routine follow-up care. Patients who screened positive for psychological distress (HADS-T >14, HADS-A >7, or HADS-D >7) were asked whether they received psychological or psychiatric treatment. During the study period of 37 months, OncoQuest was used by 720 individual HNC patients, of whom 714 had complete HADS data. Psychological distress was present in 206 patients (29 %). Of those patients who fulfilled in- and exclusion criteria (n = 137), 25 received psychological treatment (18 %). Receipt of psychological treatment was significantly related to a higher score on the HADS total scale (19.6 vs. 16.9; p = 0.019), a lower (worse) score on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale emotional functioning (46.0 vs. 58.6; p = 0.023), a higher (worse) score on fatigue (58.2 vs. 46.4; p = 0.032), problems with sexuality (44.1 vs. 34.4; p = 0.043), oral pain (43.8 vs. 28.8; p = 0.011) and speech problems (37.0 vs. 25.3; p = 0.042). Screening for psychological distress via OncoQuest is beneficial because 82 % of HNC patients identified with an increased level of distress who do not yet receive mental treatment were identified. Patients who did receive treatment reported more distress and worse quality of life, which may be explained because patients with more severe problems maybe more inclined to seek help or might be detected easier by caregivers and referred to supportive care more often.
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond
The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.
Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Bos, Arjan E R; Hoogendijk, Robert; Muris, Peter; Schaalma, Herman P
Recent research has shown that experiences of stigmatization have an adverse impact on the psychological well being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Most studies investigating this relationship employ an aggregate measure of stigma. Although this approach provides useful information about the psychological implications of HIV-related stigma in general, it neglects to acknowledge the possibility that some manifestations in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 667 PLWHA in the Netherlands. We examined participants' experiences of 11 manifestations of HIV-related stigma in six social settings. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine which setting-specific manifestations best predict psychological distress after controlling for marital status, education and health status. Three manifestations in family settings, namely receiving advice to conceal one's status, being avoided and being treated with exaggerated kindness, and one manifestation in healthcare settings, namely awkward social interaction, best predicted psychological distress in PLWHA. Manifestations of HIV-related stigma vary according to setting. Certain manifestations in specific social settings impact the psychological well being of PLWHA more than others. In this study, certain experiences of stigmatization with PLWHA's families and in healthcare settings were more strongly related to psychological distress than experiences occurring in other social settings. These findings suggest that stigma reduction interventions focusing on these influential settings may benefit the psychological well being of PLWHA.
Full Text Available The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.
den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Vos, Joël; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad
Clarification of the role of several aspects of self-concept regarding psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer will help to target counselling and psychosocial interventions more appropriately. In this study, we aimed (1) to examine the role of general self-esteem and specific aspects of self-concept (i.e. stigma, vulnerability, and mastery) in psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer and (2) to compare the relative importance of these self-concept aspects in psychological distress in women with low versus high self-esteem. General and breast-cancer-specific distress, self-esteem, self-concept, and demographics were assessed in 246 women being at risk of hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. In the total study group, self-esteem was negatively associated with general distress. Furthermore, feeling stigmatized was strongly associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, and to a lesser degree with general distress. In women with low-self esteem, feelings of stigmatization were strongly associated with higher levels of both breast-cancer-specific and general distress, while a sense of mastery was associated with less general distress. For women with high self-esteem, feelings of both stigmatization and vulnerability were associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, whereas there were no significant associations with general distress. Psychosocial interventions or support groups for women at risk of hereditary breast cancer should focus on self-esteem and feelings of stigmatization and isolation, and consequently tailor the interventions on specific items for respective women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chang, Grace; Ratichek, Sara J; Recklitis, Christopher; Syrjala, Karen; Patel, Sunita K; Harris, Lynnette; Rodday, Angie Mae; Tighiouart, Hocine; Parsons, Susan K
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be challenging to pediatric recipients and their families. Little is known about the recipients' psychological status as they initiate treatment and in the year afterwards. The purpose of this study is to describe the psychological status of 107 pediatric HSCT recipients from their parents' perspective, and to compare reports from parents and children in a subset of 55 children. We hypothesized that there would be discrepancies between parent and child report of child distress. Multi-site, prospective study of eligible child participants and their parents who completed selected modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Childhood Version (KID-SCID) the month before and one year after HSCT. Diagnoses were threshold or subthreshold. According to parents, nearly 30% of children had anxiety disorder both before and after HSCT; approximately half of these met threshold criteria. Agreement between parents and children for anxiety disorders was poor at baseline (κ = -0.18, 95%CI = -0.33, -0.02) and fair at 12 months (κ = 0.31, 95%CI = -0.04, 0.66). Agreement about mood disorders was fair at baseline (10% prevalence, κ = 0.39, 95%CI = -0.02, 0.79) and moderate at 12 months (14% prevalence, κ = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.80). Anxiety (30%) and mood (10-14%) symptoms are common in children both before and after HSCT; parent and child reports of these symptoms do not agree. Input from parents and children is recommended to identify more accurately children who may need additional intervention during and following HSCT. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Eva Mazzotti,1 Claudia Sebastiani,1 Paolo Marchetti1,21Division of Oncology and Dermatological Oncology, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 2Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Saint Andrew Hospital, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, ItalyBackground: Risk perception and efficacy beliefs affect health behavior. The aim of this study was to measure cancer severity and curability (as proxy for risk perception and efficacy beliefs, respectively and their association with clinical and psychosocial variables. Methods: A consecutive sample of cancer patients were recruited and assessed for sociodemographic and medical data, patient perception of cancer severity and curability, and quality of life. The main outcome measures were the depression and anxiety components as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Subjective and objective measures of severity and curability were found to be associated. The perception of one’s own disease as severe and difficult to cure, as opposed to severe but curable, was strongly associated with depression (OR = 6.93; P = 0.048 when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Factors independently associated with anxiety were the perception of difficulty to cure (OR = 15.73; P = 0.018, having religious beliefs (OR = 49.74; P = 0.013, and metastasis (OR = 18.42; P = 0.015, when adjusted for sex, marital status, site of cancer, and time from diagnosis. Differences in curability beliefs did not affect any quality of life domain.Conclusion: Patients and clinicians may have different perceptions of disease and treatment. The perception of control and curability must be taken into account to identify cancer patients who are suffering most and require special medical care, as these factors have an effect on depression and anxiety.Keywords: cancer, curability, patient perception, perceived control, psychological distress
Liao, Yu-Chien; Liao, Wei-Yu; Sun, Jia-Ling; Ko, Jen-Chung; Yu, Chong-Jen
Limited research has focused on women with lung cancer (LC) although they are recognized as the most vulnerable to psychological distress. This study explored in-depth the psychological distress experienced by women with incurable LC and analyzed the coping strategies with which they manage that distress. A qualitative methodology with in-depth interviews was employed for 34 women with advanced or recurrent LC. An inductive data-driven thematic analysis was applied to analyze transcripts. Psychological distress was an iterative process for the women. Four themes were identified: shock regarding the diagnosis, distress regarding cancer treatment and its side effects, the facing of a recurrent or progressive disease, and persistent struggle with the life-limiting disease. Various coping strategies applied by the women to manage psychological distress were grouped into four themes: relying upon social support, focusing on positive thoughts, avoidance-based strategies, and religious faith and acceptance. Women with incurable LC experienced substantial iterative psychological distress throughout the illness, regardless of length of illness at time of interview. They applied multiple forms of coping. The findings enrich the limited existing literature on this understudied population and provide direction for the future development of interventions to improve their psychological well-being.
Carter, Kristie N; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony
There is evidence that smoking is associated with poorer mental health. However, the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. We used longitudinal data to assess whether smoking uptake, or failed quit attempts, are associated with increased psychological distress. Data were used from Waves 3 (2004/05), 5 (2006/07) and 7 (2008/09) of the longitudinal New Zealand Survey of Family, Income and Employment. Fixed-effects linear regression analyses were performed to model the impact of changes in smoking status and quit status (exposure variables) on changes in psychological distress (Kessler 10 (K10)). After adjusting for time-varying demographic and socioeconomic covariates, smoking uptake was associated with an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.22, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.43). The associations around quitting and distress were in the expected directions, but were not statistically significant. That is, smokers who successfully quit between waves had no meaningful change in psychological distress (K10: -0.05, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.23), whereas those who tried but failed to quit, experienced an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.18, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.40). The findings provide some support for a modest association between smoking uptake and a subsequent increase in psychological distress, but more research is needed before such information is considered for inclusion in public health messages.
Saskia de Leede-Smith
Full Text Available Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS, a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis. Cluster analysis formed schizotypy groups statistically across the dimensions captured by the SPQ. It was hypothesized that schizotypy and AVH predisposition would interact, resulting in significantly greater NSS. Psychological distress and handedness were hypothesized to be significant covariates, accounting for some variance in the expression of NSS between the groups. A sample of University students (n = 327 completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, General Health Questionnaire and the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES. Cluster Analysis revealed four schizotypy groups. Distress was not a significant covariate in any analysis. As expected, those with high overall schizotypy and high AVH predisposition expressed significantly greater Motor-Coordination NSS compared to those with high schizotypy and low AVH predisposition. Within the Mixed Interpersonal and Cognitive-Perceptual Schizotypy cluster, those with low AVH predisposition expressed significantly more Motor-Coordination NSS than those with high AVH predisposition. These findings suggest motor coordination NSS are detectable in schizotypy, and AVH predisposition appears to interact with these traits. This study highlights the importance of considering both trait and subclinical state risk factors when investigating risk for psychosis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns that pre-operative psychological distress might be associated with reduced patient satisfaction after total hip replacement (THR. Methods We investigated this in a multi-centre prospective study between January 1999 and January 2002. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (MHS ≤ 56 and the not mentally distressed (MHS > 56 groups based on their pre-operative Mental Health Score (MHS of SF36. Results 448 patients (340 not distressed and 108 distressed completed the patient satisfaction survey. Patient satisfaction rate at five year was 96.66% (415/448. There was no difference in patient satisfaction or willingness to have the surgery between the two groups. None of pre-operative variables predicted five year patient satisfaction in logistic regression. Conclusions Patient satisfaction after surgery may not be adversely affected by pre-operative psychological distress.
Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.
Lebares, Carter C; Guvva, Ekaterina V; Ascher, Nancy L; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Harris, Hobart W; Epel, Elissa S
Burnout among physicians affects mental health, performance, and patient outcomes. Surgery residency is a high-risk time for burnout. We examined burnout and the psychological characteristics that can contribute to burnout vulnerability and resilience in a group of surgical trainees. An online survey was distributed in September 2016 to all ACGME-accredited general surgery programs. Burnout was assessed with an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Stress, anxiety, depression, resilience, mindfulness, and alcohol use were assessed and analyzed for prevalence. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the magnitude of presumed risk and resilience factors. Among 566 surgical residents who participated in the survey, prevalence of burnout was 69%, equally driven by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Perceived stress and distress symptoms (depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety) were notably high across training levels, but improved during lab years. Higher burnout was associated with high stress (OR 7.8; p burnout (OR 0.24; p stress (OR 0.15; p burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms are experienced throughout general surgery training, with some improvement during lab years. In this cross-sectional study, trainees with burnout and high stress were at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation. Higher dispositional mindfulness was associated with lower risk of burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms, supporting the potential of mindfulness training to promote resilience during surgery residency. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.
van Os, Sandra; Norton, Sam; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Chilcot, Joseph
Psychological distress in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, and appears highly related to patients' illness perceptions. This study aimed to investigate the association between illness perceptions, psychological distress, positive outlook and physical outcomes in RA. Two hundred and thirty patients aged >18 years and prescribed at least one disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) were recruited from outpatient clinics across Hertfordshire (England). Patients completed a questionnaire that assessed psychological distress and positive outlook (depression, anxiety and positive outlook scale), illness perceptions (IPQ-R) and functional disability (health assessment questionnaire). Information regarding prescribed medication and disease activity [disease activity score (DAS28)] was collected from medical notes. Psychological distress, but not positive outlook, was associated with functional disability and DAS28. After controlling for sex, age and DAS28, perceptions of greater symptomatology (identity) and lesser understanding of RA (coherence) were significantly associated with increased psychological distress. Perceptions of greater treatment control were associated with greater positive outlook, but only for those with low DAS28. Coherence was also associated with positive outlook. These findings indicate that illness perceptions may influence psychological distress and positive outlook in RA patients, and may therefore be a useful basis for future psychological interventions.
Masood, Afsheen; Masud, Yusra; Mazahir, Shama
This research explored the gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. In Pakistan, psychological states of patients with burns have not been widely studied, women making up as the neglected section of society lag far behind in availing the needful health facilities. It was hypothesized that there would be significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The sample of the study consisted of 50 patients with burns, obtained from four different hospitals of Lahore. In order to investigate resilience and psychological distress, the State Trait Resilience Scales (Hiew, 2007) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2001) were used. In addition to these, self-constructed demographic questionnaire was administered. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Independent sample t-test was conducted to find gender differences in resilience and psychological distress. The findings from the current research revealed that there were significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The insightful findings from the current research carry strong implications for the clinicians, psychologists and policy makers who can help to develop and implement the rehabilitation programs for the affected population and can launch resilience promoting programs that would help them in coping with burns in effective manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta
Studies have shown that some sociodemographic factors, such as marital status, employment status or social class, can affect mental health in different ways for each gender. However, up until now, few research projects have tried to ascertain if the role that reproductive work or psychosocial factors play in mental health is different for men and women. The aim of this study is to assess the differences between men and women in terms of how reproductive work, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors are linked to psychological distress in Spain. A cross-sectional study of 29,478 male and female adults using data gathered for the Spanish National Health Survey 2006 was carried out. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12. The independent variables analyzed were: sociodemographic, psychosocial (family functionality and functional social support) and those related to reproductive work (living with or being in charge of different types of people needing care and number of hours devoted to caregiver tasks). Different independent logistic regression models were developed for men and women. In general, with the exception of men who were more prone to psychological distress if they were signed off work for 3 months or more, no major differences were observed regarding the effect of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics on psychological distress. With regard to reproductive work, the likelihood of psychological distress doubles in both sexes when the person lives with someone who needs care. In women, a greater number of hours devoted to caring for another person is associated with an increase in distress. Men play a less frequent role in caregiving, but the impact on psychological distress is similar to that in women. Women experienced more psychological distress when they had to live with or be in charge of a disabled person or different types of persons needing care, while men were not affected by this. Major differences have been identified in
Carolan, Clare M; Smith, Annetta; Forbat, Liz
Adult palliative care patients and their family members experience significant psychological distress and morbidity. Psychosocial interventions adopting a systemic approach may provide a cogent model to improve the psychosocial care of families in palliative care. To facilitate design of these interventions, the construct of psychological distress in families in palliative care should be empirically derived. To ascertain how psychological distress is conceptualised in families receiving palliative care. A systematic review of the literature; this was followed by a thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. Using pre-defined search terms, four electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Behavioural Sciences collections) were searched with no date restrictions imposed. Pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied. A total of 32 papers were included in the review. Two findings emerged from data synthesis. First, distress is conceptualised as a multi-dimensional construct but little consensus exists as to how to capture and measure distress. Second, distress in the families within these studies can be conceptualised using a tiered approach, moving from individual non-interactive depictions of distress through gradations of interaction to convey a systemic account of distress within the family system. Thus, distress shifts from a unitary to a systemic construct. Currently, there is a paucity of research examining distress informed by family systems theories. This review proposes that distress in families in palliative care can be conceptualised and illustrated within a tiered model of distress. Further research is merited to advance current explanatory frameworks and theoretical models of distress. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mishra, Gita
Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological distress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Participants were 1486 boys and girls (mean age: 8.5 +/- 2.3 years). Parents answered on behalf of children who were required to be present. The parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and information on television and screen entertainment time, physical activity, and dietary intake of their children. An abnormally high Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score (20-40) was found in 4.2% of the sample. Approximately 25% of the children were exposed to television and screen entertainment at least 3 hours/day. In general linear models, television and screen entertainment time per week and physical activity levels were independently associated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score after adjustment for age, gender, area deprivation level, single-parent status, medical conditions, and various dietary intake indicators. There was also an additive interaction effect showing that the combination of high television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity was associated with the highest Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score. Higher television and screen entertainment exposure (>2.7 hours/day) alone resulted in a 24% increase in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score in comparison with lower television and screen entertainment exposure (television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.
Molloy, Gerard John; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Randall, Gemma; Hamer, Mark
The intermediate processes through which the various unmarried states can increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease mortality are incompletely understood. An understanding of these processes and how they may vary by gender is important for understanding why marital status is strongly and robustly associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease. In a prospective study of 13,889 Scottish men and women (mean age 52.3, Standard Deviation: 11.8 yrs, range 35-95, 56.1% female) without a history of clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, we examined the extent to which health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12 item) and metabolic dysregulation (obesity levels, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes) account for the association between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. There were 258 cardiovascular deaths over an average follow up of 7.1 (Standard Deviation=3.3) years. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was greatest in single, never married men and separated/divorced women compared with those that were married in gender stratified models that were adjusted for age and socio-economic group. In models that were separately adjusted, behavioural factors explained up to 33%, psychological distress explained up to 10% and metabolic dysregulation up to 16% of the relative change in the hazard ratios in the observed significant associations between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. Behavioural factors were particularly important in accounting for the relationship between being separated/divorced and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women (33% and 21% of the relative change in the hazard ratios, respectively). The findings suggest that health behaviour, psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation data have varying explanatory power for understanding the observed relationship between cardiovascular disease mortality and unmarried states.
El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M
Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hutchison Sandy D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to one-third of people affected by cancer experience ongoing psychological distress and would benefit from screening followed by an appropriate level of psychological intervention. This rarely occurs in routine clinical practice due to barriers such as lack of time and experience. This study investigated the feasibility of community-based telephone helpline operators screening callers affected by cancer for their level of distress using a brief screening tool (Distress Thermometer, and triaging to the appropriate level of care using a tiered model. Methods Consecutive cancer patients and carers who contacted the helpline from September-December 2006 (n = 341 were invited to participate. Routine screening and triage was conducted by helpline operators at this time. Additional socio-demographic and psychosocial adjustment data were collected by telephone interview by research staff following the initial call. Results The Distress Thermometer had good overall accuracy in detecting general psychosocial morbidity (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale cut-off score ≥ 15 for cancer patients (AUC = 0.73 and carers (AUC = 0.70. We found 73% of participants met the Distress Thermometer cut-off for distress caseness according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (a score ≥ 4, and optimal sensitivity (83%, 77% and specificity (51%, 48% were obtained with cut-offs of ≥ 4 and ≥ 6 in the patient and carer groups respectively. Distress was significantly associated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores (total, as well as anxiety and depression subscales and level of care in cancer patients, as well as with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale for carers. There was a trend for more highly distressed callers to be triaged to more intensive care, with patients with distress scores ≥ 4 more likely to receive extended or specialist care. Conclusions Our data suggest that it was feasible
Lau, Michelle W; Li, Wenlong E; Llewellyn, Anthony; Cyna, Allan M
To determine the prevalence of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers (JMO) and investigate the determinants associated with psychological distress over a 3-year (2014-2016) period. JMO were surveyed using the 2014-2016 JMO Census (n = 220, 399 and 466 each year; response rate approximately 15%). Levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A K10 ≥ 25 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress, and this determinant was compared to various demographic and work-related factors. Australian JMO experience a high level of psychological distress (mean: 18.1, median 16.0). There were no differences in demographical variables, such as age, gender, marital status, dependants and between postgraduate years 1 and 2. Increasing hours worked per week was associated with a higher K10, with every hour worked increasing odds by 3%. Attitudinal items, including feeling unwilling to study medicine again, feeling poorly trained and experiences of bullying, were related to high psychological distress. Coping strategies like exercise and spending time with friends correlated positively with lower distress, while time off work, frequent alcohol use, smoking and drug use were associated with increased distress levels. Of those with a high K10, 54.5% indicated that they did not use any form of professional support; 17.83% expressed that given their time again, they would not choose to study medicine. A focused approach to JMO support and education regarding significant risk factors identified is likely to assist health policies that aim to improve the mental well-being of Australian JMO. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Dawson, F; Shanahan, S; Fitzsimons, E; O'Malley, G; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J
Given that carers of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and carers of individuals with psychiatric disorders experience elevated levels of stress and psychological distress, carers of individuals with both ID and a comorbid psychiatric disorder are potentially at even greater risk for psychological difficulties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological well-being of carers of adults with a dual diagnosis compared with carers of adults with intellectual disability alone. Four-hundred and forty-two questionnaires were sent to four community services and seventy-five family carers of adults with intellectual disability responded. Psychological well-being of carers was assessed using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Friedrich edition (QRS-F) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Comorbid psychopathology for their family member with ID was assessed using the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behaviour (RSMB). Twenty-four percent of the individuals with ID were reported to have comorbid psychopathology. Between-group analyses compared carers of people with ID and comorbid psychopathology to carers of people with ID alone. Regression analyses examined the relationship between psychopathology and other care-related variables to carer stress and psychological distress. Carers of people with ID and comorbid psychopathology were found to have significantly higher levels of stress and psychological distress than carers of people with ID alone. Autism was found to be the only significant predictor of both stress and psychological distress among measures of psychopathology. Additional comorbid psychopathology in individuals with intellectual disability has a significant impact on their carers' psychological well-being. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Foulds, James; Wells, J Elisabeth; Mulder, Roger
People with a low material living standard experience more psychological distress than those with a high living standard, but previous studies suggest the size of this difference is modest. To measure the association between living standard and psychological distress using a multidimensional measure of living standard, the Economic Living Standard Index (ELSI). Adults aged 25-64 years (n = 8,465) were selected from a New Zealand community survey. Logistic regression models were used to compare household income and ELSI scores as risk factors for high psychological distress, defined as a K10 score of 12 or over. In the population, the prevalence of high psychological distress was 5.8%. The prevalence of high distress increased steeply with decreasing living standard. In the most deprived decile according to ELSI score, 24.3% had high distress, compared to 0.8% in the least deprived decile. For household income, high distress was present in 15.9% of people in the lowest decile and 2.2% of the highest decile. In fully adjusted models, ELSI score remained significantly associated with high distress but household income was not. The mental health disparity between those at opposite ends of the social spectrum is very large. Comprehensive measures such as the ELSI give a more accurate estimate of this disparity than household income. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
David Eisenman; Sarah McCaffrey; Ian Donatello; Grant Marshal
We studied the relationship between psychological distress and relative resource and risk predictors, including loss of solace from the landscape (solastalgia), one year after the Wallow Fire, in Arizona, United States. Solastalgia refers to the distress caused by damage to the surrounding natural environment and it has not been examined for its relationship to...
Skov-Ettrup, Lise S.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Petersen, Christina B.
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. Results: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress......, homozygotes and heterozygotes for the CHRNA3 genotype had higher tobacco consumption than noncarriers. Nevertheless, the CHRNA3 genotype was not associated with psychological distress neither in current nor in former or never-smokers. For instance among current smokers, the OR for stress was 1.02 (95% CI 0...
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia
.... An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students...
Lin, Szu-Hsuan; Adepoju, Omolola E; Kash, Bita A; DeSalvo, Bethany; McMaughan, Darcy K
In this study, we explored whether psychological distress plays a role in the use of recommended clinical preventive services among community-dwelling older adults. The sample is drawn from respondents 65 years and older who participated in the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Logistic regressions with selected covariates were entered in the model to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the independent effect of psychological distress on the utilization of each of five preventive services. With the exception of breast cancer screening where the uptake of preventive services was significantly lower for older adults with psychological distress (OR = 0.57, p < .001), uptake of other key preventive measures revealed no significant utilization differences between older adults with and without psychological distress. The results suggest that adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines may be increased by improving recognition and treatment of emotional health problems in older women.
Sofia Elwér; Lisa Harryson; Malin Bolin; Anne Hammarström
... that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress...
Gorgievski, M.J.; Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Veen, van der H.B.; Giesen, C.W.M.
Building on conservation of resources theory and the dynamic equilibrium model, this three-wave longitudinal study among 260 Dutch agricultural business owners (1-year time intervals) investigated reciprocal relationships between the financial situation of the business and psychological distress.
Bezerra, Cláudia de Magalhães; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Constantino, Patricia
This article presents a review of literature based on a survey of national and international journals on psychological distress and stress in the work of correctional officers between 2000 and 2014...
Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie
To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
Lewis Brown, Robyn; Richman, Judith A
Given the recent downturn in the U.S. economy, we considered in this study the processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Data were drawn from a mail survey of a national sample of 663 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether psychological distress mediates the associations between economic stressors and the alcohol-related outcomes considered and whether these associations varied by gender. Controlling for correlations among the outcomes and the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, psychological distress was found to partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The mediating effects on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. The findings demonstrate the utility of considering interrelationships among alcohol-related outcomes and, in this context, reveal the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding the associations among economy-related stressors, psychological distress, and drinking.
Versteeg, Henneke; Baumert, Jens; Kolb, Christof
The present study examined whether female patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report more psychological distress than male patients, and whether somatosensory amplification mediates this relationship. Design: Consecutive ICD patients (N = 241; 33% women) participating in...
Stefanic, N; Iverson, D C; Caputi, P; Lane, L
The present study investigated the relationship between two goal-related appraisals - perceived cancer-related interference and perceived attainability of important personal goals - and psychological distress among non-metastatic breast cancer patients across the short-term treatment and recovery period. Forty-five women completed self-report questionnaires at approximately 1 and 6 months following surgery. A mixed idiographic-nomothetic goal methodology assessed perceived cancer-related interference and attainability of self-generated important personal goals. Psychological distress symptoms were assessed with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales short form. Correlation analyses and general linear modelling were used to evaluate the hypothesised relationships over time. Average cancer-related interference and attainability of important personal goals were significantly associated with concurrent depression, anxiety and stress symptoms at 6 months following surgery. Perceived attainability of highly important goals at 6 months post-surgery uniquely predicted change in psychological distress symptoms over time. The findings suggest that low perceived attainability of important personal goals may be an important predictor of elevated distress symptoms across the short-term following surgery. Further insight into the relationship between these negative goal appraisals and psychological functioning among different groups of cancer patients could inform the provision of targeted psychosocial support across the cancer continuum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
ROMITO, PATRIZIA; POMICINO, LAURA; LUCCHETTA, CHIARA; SCRIMIN, FEDERICA; TURAN, JANET MOLZAN
Objective To analyse the relationship between violence in the post-partum period and mothers’ psychological distress. Method Three hundred and fifty two women responded to a questionnaire after the birth, at the Trieste Hospital (Italy), and 292 of them responded to a telephone interview 8 months later. Psychological distress was evaluated with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); partner and family violence were evaluated with a 28-item scale. Results Eight months post-partum, 10% of women were experiencing violence either from the partner or from another family member; 5% showed high psychological distress. Multivariate analyses show that, after adjustment for covariates, the OR for depressive symptoms was 19.17 for women experiencing partner or family violence. Being dissatisfied with their working situation, hospitalisation of the baby and pre-pregnancy mental health were also significantly associated with high GHQ scores Conclusion These results stress the relationship between violence in post-partum and maternal psychological distress. Measures aimed to identify and end violence against women around pregnancy could contribute to the improvement of women’s mental health post-partum. PMID:19533491
Brännlund, Annica; Hammarström, Anne
Research identifies a positive link between education and a reduction of psychological distress, but few studies have analysed the long-term impact of education on psychological distress. This study followed the same cohort for 27 years, investigating the association between education and adult psychological distress. Further, it discuss whether the link can be understood through the mediating mechanisms of social and labour-market resources, furthermore, if the mechanisms operate differently for men and women. A 27-year prospective cohort study was performed at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 43. The cohort consisted of all students (n = 1083, of which 1001 are included in this study) in their final year of compulsory school in Sweden. Data were collected through comprehensive questionnaires (response rate 96.4%), and analysed with OLS regression, with psychological distress at age 21, 30 and 43 as dependent variable. Baseline psychological distress, measures of social and labour-market resources, and possible educational selection factors were used as independent variables. To compare the overall magnitude of educational differences, a kappa index was calculated. A positive relation between higher education and less psychological distress was found. When becoming older this relation weakens and a link between social and labour-market resources and psychological distress is observed, indicating that education in a long-term perspective operates through the suggested mechanisms. Additionally, the mechanisms work somewhat differently for men than for women: labour-market resources were significant for men and social resources were important for women. higher education is positively linked to less psychological distress, and the link can somewhat be understood through the mechanisms of social and labour-market resources.
Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee
Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKenzie, Suzanne H; Harris, Mark F
The process of initiating and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours is complex, includes a number of distinct phases and is not static. Theoretical models of behaviour change consider psychological constructs such as intention and self efficacy but do not clearly consider the role of stress or psychological distress. General practice based interventions addressing lifestyle behaviours have been demonstrated to be feasible and effective however it is not clear whether general practitioners (GPs) take psychological health into consideration when discussing lifestyle behaviours. This qualitative study explores GPs' and patients' perspectives about the relationship between external stressors, psychological distress and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 16 patients and 5 GPs. Transcripts from the interviews were thematically analysed and a conceptual model developed to explain the relationship between external stressors, psychological distress and healthly lifestyle behaviours. Participants were motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle however they described a range of external factors that impacted on behaviour in both positive and negative ways, either directly or via their impact on psychological distress. The impact of external factors was moderated by coping strategies, beliefs, habits and social support. In some cases the process of changing or maintaining healthy behaviour also caused distress. The concept of a threshold level of distress was evident in the data with patients and GPs describing a certain level of distress required before it negatively influenced behaviour. Maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours is complex and constantly under challenge from external stressors. Practitioners can assist patients with maintaining healthy behaviour by providing targeted support to moderate the impact of external stressors.
Elena Villalobos Martínez
Full Text Available Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain. Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.99 Kg/m2, Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 Kg/m2 and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2. Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R. We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001 for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.
Martínez, Elena Villalobos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mariscal, Alberto; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Navajas, Joaquín Fernández-Crehuet
Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain). Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI 30 Kg/m2). Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R). We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.
Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Caughlin, John P
Avoiding communication about cancer is common and is likely to have negative psychological health consequences for patients, yet the connection between topic avoidance and psychological well-being is not well understood. This study of women with breast cancer examined coping behaviors as mediating mechanisms through which their cancer-related topic avoidance might affect their psychological distress. Consistent with predictions, greater levels of patient topic avoidance were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Results indicated that topic avoidance may decrease patients' use of emotional support and increase patients' self-blame, each of which may lead to higher levels of psychological distress.
Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
Singh, Aditi; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Prasad, Sudha; Jamatia, Elvia; Masroor, Mirza; Singh, Vijay Kumar
Psychological factor alters fertility hormones and contributes to male infertility. Anxiety and depression are common manifestations of psychological distress. Cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes xenobiotics and fertility hormones that influence male fertility. The effect of CYP1A1 polymorphism on male fertility has remained controversial. The present study was designed to assess the effect of psychological distress and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and their interactions on parameters of seminal analysis. Eighty male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of distress using Hospital anxiety and depression score (HADS) questionnaire. As per WHO guidelines (2010), sperm count, motility and morphology were assessed and subjects were classified as (a) subjects having normal sperm characteristics and (b) subjects having abnormal sperm characteristics. CYP1A1 polymorphisms were detected by ASO-PCR. The significant odd's ratio indicates that psychological distress (OR:10.54; CI:3.72-29.84; P psychological distress, CYP1A1*4 and CYP1A1*2C polymorphisms significantly affect but do not interact among them to influence sperm parameters. It is concluded that CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and psychological distress act independently but do not interact with each other in pathogenesis of male infertility.
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay
This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.
Pond, Emily; Fowler, Ken; Hesson, Jacqueline
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in individuals self-reporting a diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD. This correlational study encompasses cross-sectional data from 488 male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported that they have been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Adults with ADD/ADHD and high incomes have significantly lower K10 scores than Canadians with ADD/ADHD and low incomes. Income, but not education, was significant in predicting psychological distress among the sample. Canadian adults with ADD/ADHD have an increased risk for developing psychological distress and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest that negative outcomes associated with ADD/ADHD are not necessarily pervasive. High income may serve as a protective factor for psychological distress among adults with ADD/ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella
The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine.
Castelli, Lorys; Tesio, Valentina; Colonna, Fabrizio; Molinaro, Stefania; Leombruni, Paolo; Bruzzone, Maria; Fusaro, Enrico; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Torta, Riccardo
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain associated with other symptoms like fatigue, stiffness, non-restorative sleep and psychological distress that strongly affects the quality of life in FM patients. While the psychological distress has been widely explored in FM, only a few studies investigated alexithymia, an emotional dysregulation trait. Evaluate the prevalence of alexithymia and psychological distress and their impact on patients quality of life. A battery of tests assessing alexithymia, depression, anxiety, emotional distress symptoms and the health related quality of life (HRQoL) was filled out by 55 female FM patients. After having analysed their prevalence, two regression analyses were performed in order to evaluate the role that alexithymia, depression, anxiety, emotional distress and pain characteristics have on quality of life of FM patients. Results showed that a clinically relevant level of psychological distress was present in more than half of our sample, whereas alexithymic traits were present in 20% of the patients. Regression analyses showed that pain intensity, depression and current pain were the variables that best contribute to explain the physical component of the HRQoL while anxiety, depression and pain intensity were the variables that mainly contributed to explain the mental component of quality of life. These results underline the high prevalence of alexithymia in FM patients and the great impact of psychological symptoms on FM patients HRQoL. Wholistic care of FM patients which addresses both physical and psychological symptoms is needed.
Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi
To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Out of the 180,604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59,807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32-1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94-2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.
Tamara A. Baker
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.
Easton, Scott D; Safadi, Najwa S; Wang, Yihan; Hasson, Robert G
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale has been widely used in assessing psychological distress among general and clinical populations from different cultural backgrounds. To our knowledge, however, researchers have not yet validated any translated versions in Arabic. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of Arabic translations of the ten item (K10) and six item (K6) versions among public sector employees in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. As part of a larger research project on life satisfaction, researchers collected data from 234 Palestinian social workers in June and July of 2016. The survey included several mental health measures, including the K10, which were translated from English to Arabic by an experienced language expert. In the current study, we tested reliability by measuring internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Next, we assessed factor structure using variance-covariance matrix with maximum likelihood estimation. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine three competing models: unidimensional K10 model, unidimensional K6 model and two-factor K6 model. Fit indices and parameter estimates were reported. Last, convergent validity was examined by assessing correlations with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and Somatic Symptoms Scale (SSS-8). The mean scores for the K6 and K10 were, respectively, 12.87 (SD = 4.02) and 21.8 (SD = 6.7), indicative of mild to moderate levels of distress. Scale reliability analysis showed satisfactory results on both K6 and K10 versions (Cronbach's α = .81 (K6) and .88 (K10)). Among three competing models, the two-factor K6 scale demonstrated the best model fit with high factorial correlations (r = .60, p Arabic-speaking populations.
Søyseth, Torunn S; Lund, May-Brit; Bjørtuft, Øystein; Heldal, Aasta; Søyseth, Vidar; Dew, Mary Amanda; Haugstad, Gro Killi; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik
We sought to investigate type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychological distress in patients being evaluated for lung transplantation. One hundred eighteen patients were assessed [74% with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)] with the MINI Neuropsychiatric Interview, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Spirometry and the 6-min walk test (6MWT) assessed lung function with data subject to multivariate regression analyses. Current and lifetime prevalence for mental disorders were 41.5% and 61.0% respectively, with anxiety (39.8% of patients), mood disorders (11.8%), and subsyndromal disorders (8.7%) identified. 15% of patients reported feelings of panic during the last week, 9% reported hopelessness, and 3% felt that life was not worth living. Statistically significant correlates were derived for HADS-depression with lung function (P=.0012) and 6MWT (P=.030) for the entire group (P=.012), and with lung function (P=.030) for COPD patients (P=.045), for whom higher chronic GHQ-scores correlated with poorer lung function (P=.009). In multivariate regression analysis, history of mental disorder was strongest predictor of current distress. Our findings underline the importance of assessing past, current, and sub-syndromal psychiatric disorders in addition to levels of distress in transplant candidates, with prospective studies needed to investigate impact on long-term outcome after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexton, Minden B; Byrd, Michelle R; O'Donohue, William T; Jacobs, Negar Nicole
Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support, and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and may be of significant lower cost. This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based approach to providing a cognitive behavioral intervention with 31 infertile women seeking medical reproductive technologies. Following randomized assignment, participants using the web-based intervention were compared with those in a wait-list control condition on general and infertility-related psychological stress measures. Results were mixed regarding intervention efficacy. Significant declines in general stress were evidenced in the experimental group compared with a wait-list control group. However, website access did not result in statistically significant improvements on a measure of infertility-specific stress. These findings add to the literature on psychological interventions for women experiencing fertility problems. Moreover, despite the widespread use of the Internet by this population, the present study is one of the first to investigate the usefulness of the Internet to attenuate stress in this population. Preliminary results suggest general stress may be significantly reduced in infertile women using an online cognitive behavioral approach.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses' aides (assistant nurses, the main providers of practical patient care in many countries, are doing both emotional and heavy physical work, and are exposed to frequent social encounters in their job. There is scarce knowledge, though, of how working conditions are related to psychological distress in this occupational group. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict the level of psychological distress in nurses' aides. Methods The sample of this prospective study comprised 5076 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4076 (80.3 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, and organisational work factors were measured at baseline. Psychological distress (anxiety and depression was assessed at baseline and follow-up by the SCL-5, a short version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results In a linear regression model of the level of psychological distress at follow-up, with baseline level of psychological distress, work factors, and background factors as independent variables, work factors explained 2 % and baseline psychological distress explained 34 % of the variance. Exposures to role conflicts, exposures to threats and violence, working in apartment units for the aged, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that were reported to result in less support and encouragement were positively associated with the level of psychological distress. Working in psychiatric departments, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that gave lower work pace were negatively associated with psychological distress. Conclusion The study suggests that work factors explain only a modest part of the psychological distress in nurses' aides. Exposures to role conflicts and threats and violence at work may contribute to psychological distress in nurses' aides
Meng, X; D'Arcy, C
Little is understood about of the role of coping strategies in psychological well-being (PWB) and distress for the general population and different physical and psychiatric disease groups. A thorough examination of these relationships may provide evidence for the implementation of public mental health promotion and psychiatric disease prevention strategies aimed at improving the use of positive coping approaches or addressing the causes and maintainers of distress. The present study using a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach and nationally representative data on the Canadian population investigates the relationships among PWB, distress and coping strategies and identifies major factors related to PWB for both the general population and diverse-specific disease groups. Data examined were from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2), a large national survey (n = 36 984). We applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis and SEM to build structural relationships among PWB, distress and coping strategies in the general population. Both SEM measurement and structure models provided a good fit. Distress was positively related to negative coping and negatively related to positive coping. Positive coping indicated a higher level of PWB, whereas negative coping was associated with a lower level of PWB. PWB was negatively related to distress. These same relationships were also found in the population subgroups. For the population with diseases (both physical and psychiatric diseases, except agoraphobia), distress was the more important factor determining subjective PWB than the person's coping strategies, whereas, negative coping had a major impact on distress in the general population. Strengths and limitations were also discussed. Our findings have practical implications for public psychiatric disease intervention and mental health promotion. As previously noted positive/adaptive coping increased
Divaris, Kimon; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sánchez-Molina, Marisol; Gallego-Gómez, Clara Liliana; Vélez-Jaramillo, Luis Fernando; Tamayo-Cardona, Julián Andrés; Pérez-Cepeda, David; Vergara-Mercado, Martha Ligia; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Ángel; Polychronopoulou, Argy
Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students' personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. The Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants' socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school's characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Levels of psychological distress correlated with students' socio-economic and study-level characteristics. Above and beyond the influence of person
Kim, Sunah; Lee, Hyangkyu; Kim, Hyunlye; Noh, Dabok; Lee, Hyunhwa
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an integrated stress management program (ISMP) on college life stress, stress coping, psychological distress, and cortisol among male college students. Out of 137 initially enrolled students, 99 participants were identified as distressed subjects and randomly assigned to either the ISMP or control group. Ultimately, 84 participants (43: experimental, 41: control) completed pretest-posttest. The experimental group received eight 2-hr sessions over 4 weeks. Stress and psychological distress decreased significantly, whereas stress coping and cortisol did not improve significantly. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and physiological interventions are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.
Morelli, Mara; Bianchi, Dora; Baiocco, Roberto; Pezzuti, Lina; Chirumbolo, Antonio
Sexting is the exchange of sexually explicit or provocative content (text messages, photos, and videos) via smartphone, Internet, or social networks. Recent evidence enlightened its relationships with several risk and aggressive behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the amount of sexting, psychological distress, and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. The study involved 1,334 participants (68% females; mean age = 20.8) who completed a survey containing Kinsey Scale, Sexting Behavior Questionnaire, Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory, and General Health Questionnaire. Results showed gender and sexual orientation differences: Males (vs. females) did more sexting, while non-heterosexuals (vs. heterosexuals) were more involved in sexting. Moreover, high/moderate users of sexting committed more offline and online dating violence. Regarding psychological distress, no differences were found between high and low/moderate users of sexting. Results suggested that moderate and high use of sexting could be a risk factor for some problematic behaviors such as dating violence, even if there is not a relationship with anxiety and depression symptoms.
Lopes, Claudia S; Moraes, Claudia L; Junger, Washington L; Werneck, Guilherme L; Ponce de Leon, Antonio C; Faerstein, Eduardo
Important social and economic changes accompanying the recent fast rate of urbanization have been considered a major factor in triggering and sustaining urban violence in Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of exposure to direct, indirect, and contextual violence on the risk of psychological distress. Prospective longitudinal study carried out among 3,058 civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro. Psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire, and exposure to individual violence was assessed as direct (DV), indirect (IV), and both direct and indirect (DIV). Contextual violence was assessed through the geocoding of residential addresses of study participants and the rates of homicides in 2005 at the corresponding weighting area. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of psychological distress. Exposure to DIV increased more than six times (95% CI 2.7-16.0) the odds of psychological distress occurrence at the six-year follow-up. Regarding persistence of psychological distress, the association with violence exposure was 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.4) for DV and 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.3) for IV. Contextual violence was not associated with psychological distress, and no interaction effect was found between exposure to individual and contextual violence in the occurrence/persistence of psychological distress. Results of this study highlight the importance of assessing multiple forms of violence in research on the social determinants of mental disorders and support the view that individual exposure to different forms of violence increases the risk of psychological distress.
Numerous studies suggest 'social gradient' in health, but it is less clear whether every step up the socio-economic ladder improves health by the same degree. Based on 4326 households, the present study examines the relationship between household income and psychological distress while identifying specific risk factor in different income groups. Overall, 26.5% of sampled households were reported for being distressed. Work pressure (OR 2.0, p water (OR 2.27, p care (OR 2.58, p < 0.001), and indoor noise pollution (OR 1.6, p < 0.001) in medium income group were significant predictors of psychological distress. People in lower income group are at greater risk of becoming distressed, but the higher income is not always the guarantor of psychological well-being.
Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro
Chronic psychological distress can cause neuroinflammation, but the involvement of leukocytes in this inflammatory response remains unclear. The area postrema (AP) is considered a neural-immune interface because it lacks a blood-brain barrier and a site for leukocyte recruitment in neuroinflammatory conditions induced by immunological insults, but its role in chronic psychological distress has not been explored. To determine leukocyte recruitment to the AP after chronic psychological distress. Rats were exposed to cat odor for 5 consecutive days to induce distress, and, on the 6th day, their brains were dissected to perform immunohistofluorescence studies of the AP. Immune cells were identified and quantified with CD45 and CD11b markers. The distribution of neurons and immune cells was determined using TrkA and CD45 markers, respectively. Distress induced a significant increase in CD45(+) and CD11b(+) cells in the AP. Three immunophenotypes were determined in the control and distress groups: CD45(+)/CD11b(-), CD45(+)/CD11b(+) and CD45(-)/CD11b(+). CD expression, morphology and fluorescence intensity enabled the identification of different immune cell types: starting from longitudinal ramified microglia (mainly in the control group) to amoeboid microglia, monocytes and lymphocytes (mostly in the distressed group). TrkA and CD45 expression in the AP revealed the proximity between soma neurons and leukocytes. Interestingly, some CD45(+) cells expressed TrkA, with increased expression in the distressed group. The identification of microglial activation, leukocyte recruitment and the close proximity between neurons and leukocytes in the AP after chronic psychological distress exposure suggests the AP as a site for distress-induced immune responses and engraftment of leukocytes infiltrating the CNS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ozturk, Yagmur; Vivanti, Giacomo; Uljarevic, Mirko; Dissanayake, Cheryl
Parents of children with autism have been found to have reduced psychological well-being that has usually been linked to the stress related to managing their child's symptoms. As children's behavior and cognitive functioning are subject to change when suitable early intervention programs are put in place, it is plausible that positive treatment-related changes in the child will have a positive impact on parental distress. We undertook an individual differences study to investigate whether maternal psychological distress is affected by the outcomes of children receiving intervention. The participants comprised 43 mothers of preschool children with ASD enrolled in an early intervention program for 12 months. Child and family factors were linked to maternal psychological distress. However treatment-related changes in children's communication, as assessed on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II, and parenting satisfaction uniquely contributed to psychological distress above and beyond other factors. A mediation analysis indicated that mothers whose children make treatment gains in communication skills experience lower levels of psychological distress as a consequence of higher levels of parenting satisfaction. The findings highlight improvements in everyday adaptive communication skills in children with ASD impact on mothers' satisfaction and distress. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bleiker, E M; Pouwer, F; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
on two occasions. Two months after surgery, patients completed questionnaires measuring psychosocial variables (e.g., stressful life-events, health complaints, sleep problems, social support, subjective distress, personality factors), demographic and biomedical variables (e.g., TNM status, type...
Giesbrecht, G.F.; Campbell, T.; Letourneau, N.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.
Background Despite little evidence to suggest that HPA axis responses to psychological provocation are attenuated during pregnancy, it is widely held that dampening of the HPA axis response to psychological distress serves a protective function for the mother and fetus. The current study was
Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao
Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Li, Wang On
The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.
Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A
The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.
Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal
Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Caroline S. Duchaine
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Hilton Michael F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.
Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B
Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying preval...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62. Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015 and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54 were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of
Cuevas, Carlos A.; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A.
Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to…
Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J
Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label.
Mutambudzi, M; Javed, Z; Kaul, S; Prochaska, J; Peek, M K
Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress.
Pittenger, Samantha L; Schreier, Alayna; Meidlinger, Katie; Pogue, Jessica K; Theimer, Kate; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J
Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization-risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress-that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.
Doyle, F; Watson, R; Morgan, K; McBride, O
Invariant item ordering (IIO) is defined as the extent to which items have the same ordering (in terms of item difficulty/severity - i.e. demonstrating whether items are difficult [rare] or less difficult [common]) for each respondent who completes a scale. IIO is therefore crucial for establishing a scale hierarchy that is replicable across samples, but no research has demonstrated IIO in scales of psychological distress. We aimed to determine if a hierarchy of distress with IIO exists in a large general population sample who completed a scale measuring distress. Data from 4107 participants who completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) from the Northern Ireland Health and Social Wellbeing Survey 2005-6 were analysed. Mokken scaling was used to determine the dimensionality and hierarchy of the GHQ-12, and items were investigated for IIO. All items of the GHQ-12 formed a single, strong unidimensional scale (H=0.58). IIO was found for six of the 12 items (H-trans=0.55), and these symptoms reflected the following hierarchy: anhedonia, concentration, participation, coping, decision-making and worthlessness. The cross-sectional analysis needs replication. The GHQ-12 showed a hierarchy of distress, but IIO is only demonstrated for six of the items, and the scale could therefore be shortened. Adopting brief, hierarchical scales with IIO may be beneficial in both clinical and research contexts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Álvarez, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Maria José
The objective of this study is to compare psychological distress (body image disturbance,self-esteem, depression, and anxiety) in women with breast or gynecological cancer treated by radical surgery. Additionally, another objective is to analyze the association between psychological distress and sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and social support to produce a prediction model for the outcome measures. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 100 women who had undergone radical surgery for breast or gynecological cancer. Both groups were divided into the following: younger than 50 years old and 50 years old or older. Body Image Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. Age had a significant main effect on psychological distress but the type of cancer did not.Younger women showed significantly greater distress than older women (p-valuestherapy side effects. For lower self-esteem, the variables were: being younger, post-adjuvant therapy side effects,and dissatisfaction with social support. And for higher anxiety, the sole variable included was post-adjuvant therapy side effects. Both mastectomy and hysterectomy/oophorectomy cause similar psychological distress in younger women, but mastectomy causes greater distress in older women than hysterectomy/oophorectomy.
Jens E. Jansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes.Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress.Method: Within a cross-sectional design, 101 caregivers of 38 persons with first-episode psychosis in a clinical epidemiological sample completed a series of self-report measures.Results: A linear mixed model analysis found that, after controlling for caregiver socio-demographic factors, service user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress.Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within a broad range of emotional disorders. There may be important clinical implications in terms of facilitating the process of acceptance through interventions from the ‘third-wave’ or contextual cognitive behavioral therapies.
Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne
Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.
Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B
Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.
Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate
This study examined the relative influence of early sexual debut (ESD) and pubertal timing on psychological distress from adolescence to young adulthood in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context. Data were from a cohort sample of 15-year-olds (N = 2595) first interviewed in 2000, with four follow-ups during a 7-year period. Psychological distress was assessed by a reduced form of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. ESD was defined by first intercourse at age 15 or younger. Multivariate analyses via growth curve modeling found a greater increase in psychological distress over time in adolescents with ESD (β = .28, p adolescents were at greater risk for the onset of psychological distress (β = .46, p adolescents with an ESD appeared to be especially likely to be distressed (β = 3.39, p adolescents became young adults (β = -.03, p influence of both ESD and pubertal timing on distress trajectories, independent of parental and family characteristics.
Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M
Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.
Gottschalk-Fleischer, Antje; Köhler, Norbert; Brähler, Elmar; Mehnert, Anja; Götze, Heide
Aim of the study The aim of the study was to assess the level of psychosocial distress and satisfaction with care in family caregivers after the death of a close relative. Method Anxiety and depression (HADS) of family caregivers were evaluated in both bereaved family caregivers and a comparable group from the general population. Furthermore, satisfaction with care (ZUF-8) and social support (HOPE-Module, ESSI) were assessed after the patients had died. Regression models were employed to analyze associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and care-related variables. Results We conducted an online survey with 200 bereaved family caregivers (93% female, time since death of the relative: M=306 days). Of these, 31% were the primary caregiver. The bereaved caregivers were highly psychologically distressed (high anxiety: 41%/high depression: 35%). From the survivors' point of view, care at the end of life was partially insufficient: about one in three of the dying patients had suffered from pain and 20% had not been treated with dignity. After the relative had passed away, 44% of the bereaved caregivers did not get information about support offers; one in three missed emotional assistance. Dissatisfaction with care and support was associated with increased psychological distress, higher age and a shorter period of care. Conclusion The high level of psychological distress in bereaved family caregivers suggests high supportive care needs, which are often not met in practice. Family caregivers need to be prepared for the time after their relative's death and should be offered psychosocial support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress wa...
Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike
Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watkins, Daphne C; Johnson, Natasha C
Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites). Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14) and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97) experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05) and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95). Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Asakura, Rie; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Kurato, Risa; Kuwana, Susumu
We investigated the link between proteinuria and psychological distress among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 130 patients with T2DM aged 69.1±10.3 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Urine and blood parameters, age, height, body weight, and medications were analyzed, and each patient's psychological distress was measured using the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). We compared the K6 scores between the patients with and without proteinuria. Forty-two patients (32.3%) had proteinuria (≥±) and the level of HbA1c was 7.5±1.3%. The K6 scores of the patients with proteinuria were significantly higher than those of the patients without proteinuria even after adjusting for age and sex. The clinical impact of proteinuria rather than age, sex and HbA1c was demonstrated by a multiple regression analysis. Proteinuria was closely associated with higher psychological distress. Preventing and improving proteinuria may reduce psychological distress in patients with T2DM.
People are rarely passive, and battered women are no exception. This study investigated the types of coping strategies women of Japanese descent (both Japan-born and U.S.-born) chose and their perceived effectiveness in dealing with their partners' violence. Japan-born respondents were significantly less likely to use "active" strategies and perceived them to be less effective than did U.S.-born respondents For the Japan-born, the more effective they perceived "active" strategies, the higher their psychological distress, whereas the more effective they perceived "passive" strategies, the lower their psychological distress. In contrast, for the U.S.-born, the higher the perceived effectiveness of "active" strategies, the lower their psychological distress, and the perceived effectiveness of "passive" strategies had little effect on their psychological distress. The complex relationship between individuals' country of birth, the choice and perceived effectiveness of coping strategies, and psychological distress calls for increased attention to the role of culture in studies of coping and domestic violence.
Katayama, Akihiko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Hiroo; Uzike, Kazuhiro; Sakano, Noriko; Tanaka, Keiko; Koumoto, Kiichi
The aim of this study was to evaluate psychological distress in patients on chronic hemodialysis. A total of 72 patients on chronic hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. We evaluated psychological distress by using the K6 questionnaire, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by using the EQ-5D questionnaire, and clinical parameters. Among the 72 patients, we also evaluated changes in K6 scores in 58 patients at 1-year follow-up. The mean K6 score was 3.7 ± 3.7 and 2 subjects (2.8%) were defined as having psychological distress. K6 scores were significantly correlated with body fat percentage, albumin level, and EQ-5D scores in total subjects. K6 scores were also significantly and negatively correlated with EQ-5D scores in men and women. In the 1-year follow-up group, changes in K6 scores were weakly and negatively correlated with changes in EQ-5D scores. Psychological distress was closely associated with HRQOL in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Coping strategies for psychological distress might be useful in improving HRQOL in patients on hemodialysis.
Oddo, Vanessa M; Mabli, James
We assessed whether households' participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was associated with improvements in well-being, as indicated by lower rates of psychological distress. We used longitudinal data for 3146 households in 30 states, collected between October 2011 and September 2012 for the SNAP Food Security survey, the largest longitudinal national survey of SNAP participants to date. Analyses compared households within days of program entry to the same households approximately 6 months later. We measured psychological distress in the past 30 days on a 6-item Kessler screening scale and used multivariable regression to estimate associations between SNAP participation and psychological distress. A smaller percentage of household heads exhibited psychological distress after 6 months of participation in SNAP than at baseline (15.3% vs 23.2%; difference = -7.9%). In adjusted models, SNAP participation was associated with a decrease in psychological distress (adjusted relative risk = 0.72; 95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.78). Continuing support for federal nutrition programs, such as SNAP, may reduce the public health burden of mental illness, thus improving well-being among vulnerable populations.
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.
Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J
To identify whether psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of falling into poverty, giving a more complete picture of how psychological distress affects living standards. Longitudinal analysis of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian (HILDA) survey using Poisson regression models to estimate relative risk of falling into income poverty and multidimensional poverty between 2007 and 2012. The sample was limited to those who were not already in income poverty in 2007. Psychological distress was identified using the Kessler-10 (K10) scale. After adjusting for confounding factors, having moderate psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 1.62 (95% CI 1.31-2.01, p poverty by 1.85 (95% CI 1.37-2.48, p poverty by 2.40 (95% CI 1.80-3.20, p poverty by 3.68 (95% CI 2.63-5.15, p poverty (RR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61, p = 0.0210) and those who experienced multidimensional poverty (RR: 1.69, 95% CI 1.32-2.17, p poverty. To date, the increased risk of falling into poverty that is associated with elevated levels of psychological distress has been an overlooked burden of the condition.
Salas, Maria Luisa; Quezada, Steve; Basagoitia, Armando; Fernandez, Tamara; Herrera, Ronald; Parra, Manuel; Muñoz, Daniel Moraga; Weigl, Matthias; Radon, Katja
Psychosocial working conditions are well-known determinants of poor mental health. However, studies in mining populations where employment and working conditions are frequently precarious have, to our knowledge, only focused on occupational accidents and diseases. The aim of this study was to assess psychosocial working conditions and psychological distress in Andean underground miners. The study population consisted of 153 Bolivian miners working in a silver mining cooperative, 137 Chilean informal gold miners, and 200 formal Peruvian silver miners employed in a remote setting. High work demands, minimal work control, minimal social support at work, and workplace exposure to violence and bullying were assessed using the Spanish short form of the European Working Condition Survey. A general health questionnaire score >4 was used as cutoff for psychological distress. Associations between psychosocial work environment and psychological distress were tested using logistic regression models controlling for potential confounding and effect modification by country. Prevalence of psychological distress was 82% in the Bolivian cooperative miners, 29% in the Peruvian formal miners, and 22% in the Chilean informal miners (pχ(2) violence during the 12-months before the survey. Workplace demands were high (median 12.5 on a scale from 7-14), as was social support (median 5.5 on a scale from 3-6). After adjustment for country and other relevant exposure variables and considering interactions between country and job strain, miners in active (odds ratio [OR], 6.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-22.7) and high strain jobs (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.7-29.9) were at increased odds of distress compared with those in low strain jobs. Violence at work also contributed to increased odds of distress (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1). Psychological distress is associated with the psychosocial work environment in Andean underground miners. Interventions in mining populations should take the
Lakkis, Najla A; Osman, Mona H; Musharrafieh, Umayya M; Issa, Ghassan M
No published data exists on the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among the Lebanese working population, and its association with job stressors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003 among Lebanese employees in a private administrative company. All employees (n = 200) received an anonymous questionnaire by mail. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to estimate the prevalence of PD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between GHQ-28 Likert score (0-84) and job stressors and other covariates. The participation rate was 79.3%. PD was identified in 30.0% of the studied population. A significant association was found between PD and lack of moral support, a recent disturbing event, feeling of job insecurity, and inability to be proactive. The results showed a high prevalence of PD in the studied population with significant association with job stressors.
Vuotto, Stefanie C; Ojha, Rohit P; Li, Chenghong; Kimberg, Cara; Klosky, James L; Krull, Kevin R; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M
To examine the potential mediating role of body image dissatisfaction on the association between treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Participants included 1714 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean [SD] age at evaluation = 32.4 [8.0] years, time since diagnosis = 24.1 [8.1] years) enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Survivors completed measures of body image, emotional distress, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Body image dissatisfaction (BID) was categorized into 2 groups (cancer-related and general) based on factor analysis. Using causal mediation analysis, we estimated the proportion of psychological distress associated with treatment-related scarring/disfigurement that could be eliminated by resolving BID through a hypothetical intervention. Among survivors with scarring/disfigurement of the head, a sizable proportion of the relative excess of psychological distress could be eliminated if BID was successfully treated (males: [cancer-related BID: depression: 63%; anxiety: 100%; PTSS: 52%]; [general BID: depression: 70%; anxiety: 100%; PTSS: 42%]; females: [cancer-related BID: depression: 20%; anxiety; 36%; PTSS: 23%]; [general BID: depression: 32%; anxiety: 87%; PTSS: 38%]). The mediating effect of BID was less pronounced for the association between scarring/disfigurement of the body and psychological distress for both males and females. Body image dissatisfaction mediates the association treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer, particularly among survivors with scarring/disfigurement of the head and male survivors. Successful treatment of body image dissatisfaction has the potential to eliminate a substantial proportion of psychological distress related to scarring/disfigurement among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.
Xiao, Yunbei; Wang, Jinguo; Chen, Si; Wu, Zhigang; Cai, Jian; Weng, Zhiliang; Li, Chengdi; Zhang, Xiaowei
Chinese physicians are not only facing heavy work overloads, but also abuse and injury because of patient mistrust of physicians. The primary objective of the present study was to measure psychological distress, burnout levels and job satisfaction among Chinese emergency physicians. All the physicians from the EDs of three large general hospitals were recruited to undertake a questionnaire-based survey from March to April 2012. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used. Correlations between job satisfaction and psychological distress and burnout were calculated using the Pearson correlation. An outcome was considered statistically significant if P burnout. All aspects of job satisfaction were significantly lower in the ED physicians compared with a previous report (P Burnout was significantly negatively correlated with intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction in the sampled population. Psychological distress is prevalent in this group of ED physicians, and it deserves attention from the whole society. Burnout and job satisfaction among ED physicians are at a 'moderate' level. Burnout is negatively associated with higher job satisfaction. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O
By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing. We determined the Prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychological distress among survivors and contacts of EVD and their relatives. In a descriptive cross sectional study, we used General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress and Oslo Social Support Scale to assess social support among 117 participants who survived EVD, listed as EVD contacts or their relatives at Ebola Emergency Operation Center in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors associated with psychological distress were determined using chi square/odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. The mean age and standard deviation of participants was 34 +/ - 9.6 years. Of 117 participants, 78 (66.7%) were females, 77 (65.8%) had a tertiary education and 45 (38.5%) were health workers. Most frequently occurring psychological distress were inability to concentrate (37.6%) and loss of sleep over worry (33.3%). Losing a relation to EVD outbreak (OR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.2-32.9) was significantly associated with feeling unhappy or depressed while being a health worker was protective (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) showed losing a relation (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.2-28.0) was a predictor of "feeling unhappy or depressed", loss of a relation (AOR = 10.1, 95% CI, 1.7-60.7) was a predictor of inability to concentrate. Survivors and contacts of EVD and their relations develop psychological distress. Development of psychological distress could be
Apr 20, 1991 ... distress, depression and limitation of daily activities were ... useful in assessing the prevalence and severity of dementia and depression. Several items, which screened specifically for other psychiatric entities, were added, including psychotic mani- ..... Great difficulties were encountered, since a con-.
Jimenez-Fonseca, Paula; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere Joan; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Beato, Carmen; García, Teresa; Muñoz, María Del Mar; Ramchandani, Avinash; Ghanem, Ismael; Rodríguez-Capote, Alejandra; Jara, Carlos; Calderon, Caterina
The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the psychometric properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) scale and (b) to provide that FACIT scores behave one-dimensional to establish the mediating role of spiritual well-being in psychological distress and mental adjustment in a sample of patients with non-metastatic, resected cancer. A total of 504 consecutive patients completed the FACIT-Sp, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scales. The dimensionality and structure of the scale were assessed by semi-confirmatory factor analysis; the reliability of the derived scale scores was evaluated using the omega coefficient, and regression analysis appraised the FACIT-Sp's mediating role between psychological distress and mental adjustment. A clear and theoretically interpretable solution in two factors that agreed generally with solutions reported in other languages was obtained for the FACIT item scores and omega reliabilities of the derived Meaning/Peace (0.85) and Faith (0.86) scales were acceptable. The oblique solution in two factors was compatible with an essentially unidimensional solution of general well-being and associated strongly with psychological distress and mental adjustment. Spiritual well-being acted as a partial mediator between psychological distress and mental adjustment strategies, such as fighting spirit, hope, and cognitive avoidance. The Spanish version of the FACIT-Sp scale is a reliable and valid clinical evaluation tool, and further highlights the potential clinical implications of spirituality for improving quality of life and adjustment to cancer.
Rahtz, Emmylou; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Hutchison, Iain; Korszun, Ania
Facial injuries are widely assumed to lead to stigma and significant psychosocial burden. Experimental studies of face perception support this idea, but there is very little empirical evidence to guide treatment. This study sought to address the gap. Data were collected from 193 patients admitted to hospital following facial or other trauma. Ninety (90) participants were successfully followed up 8 months later. Participants completed measures of appearance concern and psychological distress (post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms). Participants were classified by site of injury (facial or non-facial injury). The overall levels of appearance concern were comparable to those of the general population, and there was no evidence of more appearance concern among people with facial injuries. Women and younger people were significantly more likely to experience appearance concern at baseline. Baseline and 8-month psychological distress, although common in the sample, did not differ according to the site of injury. Changes in appearance concern were, however, strongly associated with psychological distress at follow-up. We conclude that although appearance concern is severe among some people with facial injury, it is not especially different to those with non-facial injuries or the general public; changes in appearance concern, however, appear to correlate with psychological distress. We therefore suggest that interventions might focus on those with heightened appearance concern and should target cognitive bias and psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buttar, Aliya; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Haas, Joseph; Reese, Fritz
The prevalence of mental illness and suicide among female adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system is alarmingly high and there is a need to identify risk factors that may be amenable to intervention. This study examined the independent association between dating violence and poor mental health (psychological distress and attempted suicide) among 305 female adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system in Nevada. Overall, 28% of the sample met the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress and 18% had attempted suicide with intent to die. After controlling for well-established risk factors such as sexual orientation, childhood abuse, and substance abuse, dating violence remained independently associated with psychological distress and attempted suicide. These findings suggest that mental health programming for this population may be more effective if it includes a focus on dating violence.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...
McIntosh, Roger C.; Hurwitz, Barry E.; Antoni, Michael; Gonzalez, Alex; Seay, Julia; Schneiderman, Neil
Background Trait anger consists of affective, behavioral, and cognitive (ABC) dimensions and may increase vulnerability for interpersonal conflict, diminished social support, and greater psychological distress. The concurrent influence anger and psychosocial dysfunction on HIV disease severity is unknown. Purpose Examine plausible psychosocial avenues (e.g. coping, social support, psychological distress) whereby trait anger may indirectly influence HIV disease status. Methods 377 HIV seropositive adults, aged 18–55 years (58% AIDS-defined) completed a battery of psychosocial surveys and provided a fasting blood sample for HIV-1 viral load and T-lymphocyte count assay. Results A second-order factor model confirmed higher levels of the multidimensional anger trait was directly associated with elevated psychological distress and avoidant coping (pmechanisms; however longitudinal study is needed to elucidate these effects. PMID:25385204
Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede
In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice....... In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....
Nielsen, Morten B; Knardahl, Stein
The aims of this article are: (1) to explore patterns (clusters) of coping strategies; (2) to examine the stability of individual coping strategies and patterns of coping over time; and (3) to establish long term associations between coping and psychological distress. Coping strategies were assessed with the Brief Cope questionnaire, whereas psychological distress was measured with the ten-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, in a two-year prospective sample comprising 3,738 employees. Based on TwoStep cluster analysis of the Brief Cope, three different coping patterns were identified: low coping, engagement coping, and disengagement coping. Analyses of long-term stability indicated malleable properties for the individual coping strategies as well as the three clusters. Disengagement coping strategies in the form of self-blame and self-distraction were most strongly associated with distress at follow-up, whereas baseline distress was related to increased use of these strategies two years later. Coping patterns at baseline had no main effects on later levels of distress, but levels of distress at baseline predicted subsequent use of engagement and disengagement coping patterns. The finding that specific coping strategies are malleable suggests that it is possible to modify and develop dysfunctional strategies. The associations between disengagement coping strategies and distress indicate that this kind of coping is especially problematic with regard to mental health problems. A main contribution of this study is that it establishes cluster analytic techniques as beneficial in the assessment of coping.
Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping
Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman
Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen time ≥ 2 h/day, and 20% slept correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance.
Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko
In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. Results In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9. Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22. Conclusions Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be
Donker, Tara; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cuijpers, Pim; Christensen, Helen
Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons) for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9). Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22). Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be important.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study.
Tsuchiya, Naho; Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Narita, Akira; Kogure, Mana; Aida, Jun; Tsuji, Ichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tomita, Hiroaki
Social capital has been considered an important factor affecting mental-health outcomes, such as psychological distress in post-disaster settings. Although disaster-related house condition and displacement could affect both social capital and psychological distress, limited studies have investigated interactions. This study aimed to examine the association between social capital and psychological distress, taking into consideration the interaction of disaster-related house condition after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using data from 3793 adults living in Shichigahama, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, we examined the association between social capital measured by generalized trust and psychological distress measured by the Kessler 6 scale. We conducted stratified analysis to investigate an interaction of house destruction and displacement. Multivariate analyses taking into consideration the interaction were performed. In the crude analysis, low social capital (odds ratio [OR] 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.27-6.07) and large-scale house destruction (OR 1.96; 95%CI, 1.47-2.62) were significantly associated with psychological distress. Stratified analyses detected an interaction with house destruction and displacement (P for interaction = 0.04). Multivariate analysis with interaction term revealed that individuals with low social capital, large-scale house damage, and displacement were at greater risk of psychological distress, corresponding to adjusted OR of 5.78 (95%CI, 3.48-9.60). In the post-disaster setting, low social capital increased the risk of psychological distress, especially among individuals who had large-scale house destruction. Among the participants with severe disaster damage, high social capital would play an important role in protecting mental health. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Finch, Amy; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Chiang, Jaclyn; Elit, Lorraine; McLaughlin, John; Springate, Caitlin; Esplen, Mary Jane; Demsky, Rochelle; Murphy, Joan; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A
The objective of this study was to measure the impact of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy on health-related quality of life and psychological distress in women. Women who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy between August 20, 2003 and June 26, 2008 because of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were invited to participate. Participants completed three questionnaires (SF-12(®) Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory and the Impact of Events Scale) before prophylactic surgery and again 1 year after surgery. Measures of health-related quality of life, of general psychological distress and of ovarian cancer worry before and after surgery were compared. Few women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy experienced a worsening in physical or mental health functioning after salpingo-oophorectomy. On average, women experienced less ovarian cancer-specific worry after surgery; 34.3% experienced moderate to severe ovarian cancer-specific distress before surgery, compared with 18.6% after surgery. For most women, physical and mental health-related quality of life did not deteriorate after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, and they were less worried about ovarian cancer. A subset of women continued to experience moderate to severe cancer-specific distress. Identification of these women is important in order to provide continued counseling and support. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jackson, H; MacLeod, A K
There is growing recognition in psychology that wellness is more than the absence of disease and distress. Well-being has been defined in numerous ways. Two dominant models include Diener, Eunkook, Suh, Lucas and Smith's (1999) model of subjective well-being (SWB) and Ryff's (1989) model of psychological well-being (PWB). In contrast to the abundance of research investigating negative constructs and psychopathology in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), there has been a paucity of positive psychology studies. This study had two aims: to examine PWB and SWB and their relationship to symptoms in CFS and to compare PWB scores in a subgroup of the CFS sample to a matched control group. Chronic fatigue syndrome participants (n = 60) completed self-report scales of PWB, SWB, fatigue, anxiety and depression. PWB scores in a subgroup of the CFS sample (n = 42) were compared with those of a matched nonclinical control group (n = 42). Correlations between scales of symptoms and well-being were complex. Well-being dimensions were largely independent of physical components of fatigue but strongly related to psychological components of fatigue and psychological distress. Multiple regression indicated that five dimensions of well-being uniquely predicted symptomatology. Compared with the control group, the CFS group scored significantly lower on five of Ryff's six PWB dimensions, with particularly marked deficits in personal growth, environmental mastery and self-acceptance. This multidimensional assessment of well-being advances our understanding of CFS and offers new treatment targets. Future research must investigate whether interventions targeting theses well-being deficits can boost the efficacy of symptom-focused treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Previous psychological research into CFS has largely focused on the identification of negative constructs and CBT, a treatment that targets evidenced-based negative constructs, has demonstrated efficacy
Stutterheim, S; Pryor, J.B; Bos, A.E.R; Hoogendijk, R; Muris, P; Schaalma, H.P
... in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings...
Brouwers, Corline; van den Broek, Krista C; Denollet, Johan
A subset of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) reports psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Gender is one of the factors that has been proposed to explain individual differences in these outcomes. In this viewpoint, we (1) review the evidence for gender....../depression and QoL in ICD patients (mean prevalence of women = 21%; mean age = 62 years). Our review shows that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that gender per se is a major autonomous predictor for disparities in psychological distress and QoL in ICD patients. Women had a higher prevalence of anxiety...
Flett, Ross A; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Long, Nigel R; MacDonald, Carol; Millar, Michelle; Clark, Bronwyn; Edwards, Howard; Petrik, Alexandra M
In order to better understand the long-term impact of child sex abuse, this study examined the association between women's experience of abuse, health symptoms, and psychological distress in adulthood. There is limited information about child abuse outside the United States. Nine hundred sixty-one women participated in a structured interview. Participants who had experienced abuse (13%) were significantly more vulnerable to psychological distress in adulthood if they were younger, less satisfied with their standard of living, and resided in urban areas. Dissemination and evaluation of therapies for the treatment of sex abuse in the New Zealand context is warranted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brouwers, Corline; Denollet, Johan; Caliskan, Kadir
Background:Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure, and may have a significant psychological impact on both patients and their partners. Hence, we examined the distress levels of LVAD patients and their partners.Methods:Anxiety, d......Background:Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure, and may have a significant psychological impact on both patients and their partners. Hence, we examined the distress levels of LVAD patients and their partners...
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.
The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…
DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M; Crosby, R A; Sionean, C; Brown, L K; Rothbaum, B; Zimand, E; Cobb, B K; Harrington, K; Davies, S
The purpose of the study was to examine the association between adolescents' psychological distress and their sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus (STD/HIV)-associated sexual behaviors and attitudes. Sexually active black adolescent females (N = 522) completed, at baseline and again 6 months later, a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sexual health attitudes and emotional distress symptoms (using standardized measures, alpha =.84), a structured interview that assessed STD/HIV-associated sexual risk behaviors, and a urine screen for pregnancy. In multivariate analyses, controlling for observed covariates, adolescents with significant distress at baseline were more likely than their peers, after 6 months, to be pregnant (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: = 2.0), have had unprotected vaginal sex (AOR = 2.1), have nonmonogamous sex partners (AOR = 1.7), and not use any form of contraception (AOR = 1.5). Additionally, they were also more likely to: perceive barriers to condom use (AOR = 2.2), be fearful of the adverse consequences of negotiating condom use (AOR = 2.0), perceive less control in their relationship (AOR = 2.0), have experienced dating violence (AOR = 2.4), feel less efficacious in negotiating condom use with a new sex partner (AOR = 1.6), and have norms nonsupportive of a healthy sexual relationship (AOR = 1.7). The findings suggest that psychological distress is predictive over a 6-month period of a spectrum of STD/HIV-associated sexual behaviors and high-risk attitudes. Brief screening to detect distress or depressive symptoms among adolescent females can alert the clinician to the need to conduct a sexual health history, initiate STD/HIV-preventive counseling, and refer for comprehensive psychological assessment and appropriate treatment. Among adolescents receiving STD treatment, those with even moderate emotional distress may be at heightened risk for further unhealthy outcomes. STD/HIV interventions should also consider
Full Text Available Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001 in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.
Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio
Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual's physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study's findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same
Lößner, Maria; Salz, Anna-Lena; Tafelski, Sascha; Balzer, Felix; Weiß-Gerlach, Edith; Neumann, Tim; Lau, Alexandra; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Krampe, Henning
Objectives This prospective observational study investigated whether self-reported psychological distress and alcohol use problems of surgical patients change between preoperative baseline assessment and postoperative 6-month follow-up examination. Patients with preoperative interest in psychotherapy were compared with patients without interest in psychotherapy. Methods A total of 1,157 consecutive patients from various surgical fields completed a set of psychiatric questionnaires preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, including Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), World Health Organization 5-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Additionally, patients were asked for their interest in psychotherapy. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used for primary data analysis. Results 16.7% of the patients were interested in psychotherapy. Compared to uninterested patients, they showed consistently higher distress at both baseline and month 6 regarding all of the assessed psychological measures (p’s between psychotherapy, there is a remarkable persistence of elevated self-reported general psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder symptoms over 6 months. This suggests high and chronic psychiatric comorbidity and a clear need for psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment rather than transient worries posed by facing surgery. PMID:23227250
Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C
To examine the resettlement experiences and provide data of well being and psychological distress for Afghan and Kurdish refugees settled between eight and 20 years in New Zealand and Australia. Participants completed the Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and Personal Well Being Index (PWI) for subjective well being. A mixed methods approach was used, with participants also discussing during interview resettlement difficulties, quality of life (QOL) and sources of stress. Data from 81 Muslim participants is reported; all spoke English, were generally well educated with 88% having secondary or tertiary level education, and the majority of those resettled before 2001 lived in Perth. Although psychological distress levels were mostly within the low-moderate risk range, significant differences were observed by gender and employment status. Participants identified a range of ongoing stressors with unemployment of particular concern. Social isolation and a sense that they would never really 'fit in' was also reported by some. Participants particularly valued the safety and improved quality of life in their host communities. Despite their appreciation of the overall resettlement experience, too much time to introspect, separation from family, status dissonance and still occasionally feeling overwhelmed by resettlement challenges is a long-term ongoing reality for some former refugees. Former refugees continue to struggle with unemployment, possible discrimination and loss of status long-term. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Yewande Olufunmilayo Oshodi
Full Text Available Background: Arrival of a child with cleft lip or palate is characterized by mixed feelings in the parents. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of psychological distress, attributional beliefs on causation, perceived stress symptoms in mothers of infants with cleft lip and palate. Subjects and Methods: Questionnaires about causal beliefs (MCA, the General health questionnaire-version 12 and Perceived stress Scale (PSS were administered to mothers of babies with cleft lip and palate. Results: Psychological distress was noted in 12 (23.1% of the cases. On the PSS scale, 9 (17.9% of the mothers had the perception of more than average stress. A higher proportion of mothers with more than average perceived stress had combined cleft lip and palate (66.7%. Many mothers (n = 43, 82.7% had no understanding of the cause of their childs deformity. There was a significant relationship between the presence of Psychological distress and the mothers perception of stress (P < 0.005. Thirty-eight (73% of mothers who had cleft babies admitted to subjective feelings of misery and depression in relation to coping with the deformity and this was significantly associated with the experience of psychological distress (P = 0.016 with 9 (75% of them having suggestive scores on the GHQ. Also among these mothers those who reported more perceptions of stress also seemed to endorse more subjective feelings of depression (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Mothers of babies with cleft lip and palate can go through difficult emotions that make them perceive their role as being stressful. This has implications on their overall emotional wellbeing. Early maternal mental health screening, health education explaining causation are useful strategies that can be embedded in protocols to help promote both maternal and child mental health in this special population group.
Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Emam-Alizadeh, Mahsa; Hamedi, Fatemeh; Jahangiry, Leila
There are limiting studies evaluating the weight self-stigma and its association with eating disorders and health concerns. However, no study is available evaluating weight self-stigma and its determinants among reproductive age women in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate weight self-stigma and its association with quality of life and psychological distress among overweight and obese Iranian women. The current cross-sectional study was performed among 170 women aged 17-45 years referring to health centers of Tabriz-Iran. Anthropometric assessments were performed. Weight self-stigma was assessed by weight self-stigma questionnaire (WSSQ). Evaluation of quality of life and psychological distress was performed using SF-12 and general health questionnaires (GHQ-12), respectively. Analysis of data was performed by multivariate hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 18 software. In this study, the multivariate hierarchical regression analysis revealed that being married and having low total weight self-stigma and fear of enacted stigma (FES) scores were associated with better physical component summary scores (p < 0.05). Whereas, younger ages and lower total weight self-stigma scores were associated with better mental component summary scores. In addition, lower weight self-stigma total scores and lower self-devaluation scores were predictors of lower psychological distress. Our results indicated the negative impacts of weight self-stigma on quality of life and psychological distress among overweight and obese women. Since weight stigma might be a potent barrier of obese individuals to engage in health promoting behaviors, therefore, the results of the current study further warrants the need for developing interventional strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of weight stigma on quality of life via including the reduction of weight self-stigma as a key therapeutic goal in obesity treatment programs.
Habteyes Hailu Tola
Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330 diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation and end point (6 months after treatment initiation using the 10-item Kessler (K-10 scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results: The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65, being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53, having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99, and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97 were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patient (AOR: 3
Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Tol, Azar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kebede, Abebaw; Karimi, Mehrdad; Kassa, Desta
Background Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation) and end point (6 months after treatment initiation) using the 10-item Kessler (K-10) scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65), being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53), having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99), and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97) were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient (AOR: 3.02; 95% CI
Bales, M; Pambrun, E; Melchior, M; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N M-C; Charles, M-A; Verdoux, H; Sutter-Dallay, A-L
Pregnant women are vulnerable to the deleterious impact of environmental stressors. The aims were to identify the environmental and pregnancy characteristics independently associated with prenatal psychological distress and access to mental health care. We used data from the French cohort Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE), a nationally representative cohort of children followed-up from birth to adulthood. Information about prenatal psychological status and access to mental health care was collected during the maternity stay. Maternal/pregnancy characteristics independently associated with psychological distress and access to mental health care were explored using multivariate analyses. Of the 15,143 mothers included, 12.6% reported prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal distress was more frequent in women with very low economical status, alcohol/tobacco use, unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, late pregnancy declaration, multiparity and complicated pregnancy (high number of prenatal visits, prenatal diagnosis examination, obstetrical complications). Of the women reporting prenatal distress, 25% had a prenatal consultation with a mental health specialist and 11% used psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. Decreased likelihood to consult a mental health specialist was found in young women, with intermediate educational level and born abroad. Causal inferences should be made cautiously as the questionnaire did not collect information on the temporal sequence between psychological distress and associated characteristics. Women with social and obstetrical vulnerabilities are at increased risk of poor mental health during pregnancy. Improving mental health care access during pregnancy is a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J
Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This
Mthembu, J C; Mabaso, M L H; Khan, G; Simbayi, L C
In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa. The survey is based on a multistage stratified cross-sectional design. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Out of a total 25860 participants, 23.9% reported psychological distress. Higher likelihood of reporting psychological distress was significantly associated with being female [OR = 1.68 (95% CI: 1.34-2.10), p psychological distress was significantly associated with being married [OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.62-0.98), p = 0.031), employed [OR = 0.71 (95% CI: 0.57-0.88), p = 0.002], and living in a rural formal area [OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.97), p = 0.033]. There is a need to develop strategies to alleviate psychological distress in the general population, with a particular focus on those who may be more vulnerable to distress such as females, the aged, excessive alcohol users, the unemployed, people living with HIV and those residing in urban areas as identified in the current findings.
Aarstad, Anne K. H; Beisland, Elisabeth; Osthus, Arild André; Aarstad, Hans J
... more in psychological rather than medical research. Distress is defined as "an unpleasant emotional experience of a psychological, social, or spiritual nature. Distress extends along a continuum, ranging from common normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness, and fear to problems that can become disabling, such as depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation, and ...
Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.
OBJECTIVE: Psychological distress is a key risk factor for long-term complaints in fibromyalgia (FM). Prognostic factors for psychological distress might facilitate an early identification of patients at risk to help prevent long-term dysfunction, especially for the relatively well-functioning
Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.
Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by
Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…
Bamford, Jade; Wirz, Lucy
Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.
Full Text Available Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.
Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John
Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17-41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.
Full Text Available Background: Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods: The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207 aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62 across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results: Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions: The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.
Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John
Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354
Lacey, Rebecca E; Bartley, Mel; Pikhart, Hynek; Stafford, Mai; Cable, Noriko
An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent-child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0-16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter's Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect=33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.
Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n = 10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect = 33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926
Jakimovska, V M; Kostovski, E; Biering-Sørensen, F
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To gain more insight into the long-term health status in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), especially perceived psychological distress as well as self-reports of utilization of healthcare services. SETTING......: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway. METHODS: In total, 147 persons with SCI were examined for more than 20 years and interviewed (in 2004/2005) using a self-administrated questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20). Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression analysis were conducted...... to identify variables associated with psychological distress. RESULTS: Most participants had received SCI follow-up health services at least once after initial rehabilitation; 34% were satisfied, 51% neutral and 18% unsatisfied with the health services provided. Concerning psychological distress, 34 persons...