WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological distancing activities

  1. Distance from a distance: psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

    2013-08-01

    What is the difference between far and further? Investigations into such psychological distancing--removal from an egocentric reference point--have suggested similarities between geographical space, time, probability, and social distance. We draw on these similarities to propose that experiencing any kind of distance will reduce sensitivity to any other distance. Nine studies varied the initial distance of an event and assessed sensitivity to a second distance. Consistently, people were less responsive to a given span of distance when it was distal versus proximal. This effect held using each of the four distances as the initial instantiation of distance; it also held using each dimension to assess sensitivity to distance (i.e., as the second distance dimension). These findings suggest that the dimensions of psychological distance share a common, interchangeable meaning and that the cross-dimension difference between far and further is less than that between near and far. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  3. The psychological distance of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change is one of the most urgent social risk issues we face today and understanding related public perceptions is critical to engaging the public with the major societal transformations required to combat climate change. Analyses of public perceptions have indicated that climate change is perceived as distant on a number of different dimensions. However, to date there has been no in-depth exploration of the psychological distance of climate change. This study uses a nationally representative British sample in order to systematically explore and characterize each of the four theorized dimensions of psychological distance--temporal, social, and geographical distance, and uncertainty--in relation to climate change. We examine how each of these different aspects of psychological distance relate to each other as well as to concerns about climate change and sustainable behavior intentions. Results indicate that climate change is both psychologically distant and proximal in relation to different dimensions. Lower psychological distance was generally associated with higher levels of concern, although perceived impacts on developing countries, as an indicator of social distance, was also significantly related to preparedness to act on climate change. Our findings clearly point to the utility of risk communication techniques designed to reduce psychological distance. However, highlighting the potentially very serious distant impacts of climate change may also be useful in promoting sustainable behavior, even among those already concerned. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. A linguistic signature of psychological distancing in emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Schleider, Jessica L; Somerville, Leah H

    2017-03-01

    Effective emotion regulation is critical for mental health and well-being, rendering insight into underlying mechanisms that facilitate this crucial skill invaluable. We combined principles of cognitive linguistics and basic affective science to test whether shifting components of one's language might foster effective emotion regulation. In particular, we explored bidirectional relations between emotion regulation and linguistic signatures of psychological distancing. In Study 1, we assessed whether people spontaneously distance their language (i.e., shift their word use to be less socially and temporally proximate) when regulating emotions. Participants transcribed their thoughts while either passively viewing or actively regulating their emotional responses to negative images. Regulation increased linguistic markers of social and temporal distance, and participants who showed greater linguistic distancing were more successful regulators. Study 2 reversed this relation and investigated whether distancing one's language spontaneously regulated one's emotions. Participants wrote about negative images either using psychologically "close" or "distant" language in physical, social, and temporal domains. All 3 domains of linguistic distancing spontaneously reduced negative affect. Distancing language also "bled" across domains (e.g., temporal distancing spontaneously produced social distancing). This suggests that distancing one's language in 1 domain (e.g., reducing use of present-tense verbs) produces shifts in deep representations of psychological distance that are measurable across domains (e.g., reduced use of the word "I"). Results extend understanding of language-emotion interactions and reveal novel strategies for reducing negative affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Foreign Language Effect and Psychological Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong Im; Kim, Juyoung

    2017-01-01

    Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from…

  6. Spatial orientation shrinks and expands psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan

    2014-07-01

    Being objectively close to or far from a place changes how people perceive the location of that place in a subjective, psychological sense. In the six studies reported here, we investigated whether people's spatial orientation (defined as moving toward or away from a place) will produce similar effects-by specifically influencing psychological closeness in each of its forms (i.e., spatial, temporal, probabilistic, and social distance). Orientation influenced subjective spatial distance at various levels of objective distance (Study 1), regardless of the direction people were facing (Study 2). In addition, when spatially oriented toward, rather than away from, a particular place, participants felt that events there had occurred more recently (Studies 3a and 3b) and that events there would be more likely to occur (Study 4). Finally, participants felt more similarity to people who were spatially oriented toward them than to people who were spatially oriented away from them (Study 5). Our investigation broadens the study of psychological distance from static spatial locations to dynamically moving points in space. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Feeling close: emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; Kane, Joanne; McGraw, A Peter; Dale, Jeannette

    2010-06-01

    The results of 6 experiments indicate that emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance. People who described events emotionally rather than neutrally perceived those events as less psychologically distant, including embarrassing autobiographical events (Experiment 1), past and future dentist visits (Experiment 2), positive and negative events (Experiment 3), and a national tragedy (Experiment 6). People also perceived an event (dancing in front of an audience) as less psychologically distant when they were in a more emotionally arousing social role (of performer) than in a less emotionally arousing social role (of observer; Experiment 4). Two findings bolster the causal role of emotional intensity in reducing perceived psychological distance. First, reported emotional intensity was negatively correlated with perceived psychological distance and statistically mediated the effect of being in an emotionally arousing social role on perceived psychological distance (Experiment 4). Second, providing people with an alternative interpretation of their emotions (emotionally ambiguous whale songs) significantly reduced, even reversed, the negative correlation between self-reported emotional intensity and perceived psychological distance (Experiment 5). These findings about emotional intensity are consistent with the broader idea that perceived psychological distance is grounded in and influenced by the phenomenology of objective distance. Implications for theories of psychological distance, emotionality, and choice are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Job Satisfaction and Psychological Health of Long Distance Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...

  9. The effect of psychological distance on automatic goal contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Janet; Hansen, Jochim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated how psychological distance influences goal contagion (the extent to which people automatically adopt another person’s goals). On the basis of construal-level theory, we predicted people would be more prone to goal contagion when primed with psychological distance (vs. closeness) because they would construe the other person’s behavior in terms of its underlying goal. Alternatively, we predicted people primed with psychological closeness (vs. distance) would be more prone to goal contagion because closeness may increase the personal relevance of another’s goals – a process not mediated by construal level. In two preregistered studies, participants read about a student whose behavior implied either an academic or a social goal. We manipulated (a) participants’ level of mental construal with a mind-set task (Study 1) and (b) their social distance from another person who showed academic or social behaviors (Study 2). We measured performance on an anagram task as an indicator of academic goal contagion. For Study 1, we predicted that participants reading about academic (vs. social) behaviors would show a better anagram performance, especially when primed with an abstract mind-set. For Study 2, we predicted that construal level and relevance effects might cancel each other out, because distance triggers both high-level construal and less relevance. In contrast to the construal-level hypothesis, the mind-set manipulation did not affect goal contagion in Study 1. In accordance with the relevance hypothesis, psychological proximity increased goal contagion in Study 2. We discuss how the findings relate to previous findings on goal contagion and imitation. PMID:29098177

  10. Psychological influences on distance estimation in a virtual reality environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske eTakahashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Researches on embodied perception have revealed that social, psychological and physiological factors influence perception of space. While many of these influences were observed with real or highly realistic stimuli, the present work showed that even the orientation of abstract geometric objects with a non-realistic virtual environment could influence distance perception. Observers wore a head mounted display and watched virtual cones moving within an invisible cube for five seconds with their head movement recorded. Subsequently, observers estimated the distance to the cones or evaluated their friendliness. The cones either faced the observer, a target behind the cones, or random orientations. Average viewing distance to the cones varied between 1.2 and 2.0 m. At a viewing distance of 1.6 m, observers perceived cones facing them as closer than cones facing an opposite target or random orientations. Furthermore, irrespective of viewing distance, observers moved their head away from the cones more strongly and evaluated the cones as less friendly when the cones were facing observers. Similar results of distance estimation were obtained with a 3D projection onto a large screen, although the effective viewing distance was farther away. These results suggest that factors other than physical distance could influence distance perception even with non-realistic geometric objects within a virtual environment. Furthermore, the modulation of distance perception was also accompanied by changes in subjective impression and avoidance movement. We propose that cones facing an observer are perceived as socially discomforting or threatening and potentially violate an observer’s personal space, which might influence the perceived distance of cones.

  11. Concreteness and Psychological Distance in Natural Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Existing evidence shows that more abstract mental representations are formed and more abstract language is used to characterize phenomena that are more distant from the self. Yet the precise form of the functional relationship between distance and linguistic abstractness is unknown. In four studies, we tested whether more abstract language is used in textual references to more geographically distant cities (Study 1), time points further into the past or future (Study 2), references to more socially distant people (Study 3), and references to a specific topic (Study 4). Using millions of linguistic productions from thousands of social-media users, we determined that linguistic concreteness is a curvilinear function of the logarithm of distance, and we discuss psychological underpinnings of the mathematical properties of this relationship. We also demonstrated that gradient curvilinear effects of geographic and temporal distance on concreteness are nearly identical, which suggests uniformity in representation of abstractness along multiple dimensions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. (Psychological) Distance Makes the Heart Grow Fonder: Effects of Psychological Distance and Relative Intelligence on Men's Attraction to Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Young, Ariana F; Eastwick, Paul W

    2015-11-01

    Interpersonal attraction may be shaped by (a) one's psychological distance from a target (the subjective experience that a target is close to or far from the self) and (b) the perceived standing of a target on a trait relative to the self (as better or worse than the self). We propose that when evaluating a psychologically distant target, individuals may rely on abstract schemas (e.g., the desirability of a partner's traits) and prefer targets who possess more (vs. less) desirable qualities than themselves. However, when evaluating psychologically near targets, concrete contextual details of the environment (e.g., how a target's behavior affects self-evaluations in the moment) may determine individuals' attraction toward targets. Six studies revealed that when evaluating psychologically distant targets, men showed greater attraction toward women who displayed more (vs. less) intelligence than themselves. In contrast, when targets were psychologically near, men showed less attraction toward women who outsmarted them. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Effects of Psychological Distance and Need for Cognitive Closure on Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Ivan; Tonković, Mirjana; Ivanec, Dragutin

    2017-01-01

    Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC. Low NFC and psychological closeness reflect preference for situationally specific, contextually rich information, and therefore their joint effect resulted in reliance on all available information regardless of their position in a sequence. High NFC and psychological distance produced a preference for clear, schematic, stable knowledge, and therefore weighed first information more, which resulted in the primacy effect.

  14. Distance Psychology Help: Fantastic, Reality or Unavoidable addition to Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, M.; Dachev, T.; Vasileva, L.; Rasheva, M.

    The convergence of electronic equipment and therapeutic communication is termed tele-psychology Its applications have the potential to advance the fields of psychology in a multitude of ways as they are used when face-to-face contact with licensed psychologist is impossible Securing psychological consultations and help during long lasting flights such as human missions to Mars is unavoidable task The aim of our paper is to reveal the pros cons and overall effectiveness of tele-psychology as well as the potential expectations of those who are looking for and receive psychological help in virtual space The stress is on off-line psychological help that will be the only solution during long lasting flights The paper is based on ongoing project OHN 1514 2005 funded by National Science Fund Bulgaria The project has to illuminate the potential for virtual psychological work and to share our evolving understanding of what is truly possible despite the prevalent myths which shape our thinking

  15. Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, James

    2011-09-01

    Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

  16. Psychology Experiments on the Internet: An Evaluation of the Impact on Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Chris; Mackintosh, Bundy; Watt, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The internet offers considerable potential for open and distance learning in psychology. Research reveals an abundance of psychology demonstrations and experiments available online, directed both at students and potential research participants. Although expertise is being developed to overcome the technical problems associated with this medium,…

  17. Psychological Variables of Estimating Distance Learners' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ozlem; Karademir, Tugra; Erdogdu, Funda

    2018-01-01

    The correlation between distance education motivation levels of students and their online experiences and satisfaction is studied in this paper; and the reasons of their satisfaction and dissatisfaction according to their motivation levels are described. In this study, 183 students, who were taking English and Turkish courses at Ankara University…

  18. The social side of abstraction: psychological distance enhances conformity to group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Callahan, Shannon P

    2012-08-01

    Intuition suggests that a distanced or abstract thinker should be immune to social influence, and on its surface, the current literature could seem to support this view. The present research builds on recent theorizing to suggest a different possibility. Drawing on the notion that psychological distance regulates the extent to which evaluations incorporate context-specific or context-independent information, we suggest that psychological distance should actually increase susceptibility to sources of social influence that tend to be consistently encountered across contexts, such as group norms. Consistent with this hypothesis, two studies showed that psychological distance and abstraction increased conformity to group opinion and that this effect persisted in a novel voting-booth paradigm in which participants believed their voting behavior was both anonymous and consequential. We discuss implications of these findings for understanding the social side of abstraction as well as the conditions under which different types of social influence are likely to be most influential.

  19. Interpersonal distance modeling during fighting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Gilles; Bredin, Jonathan; Kerlirzin, Yves

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this article is to elaborate a general framework for modeling dual opposition activities, or more generally, dual interaction. The main hypothesis is that opposition behavior can be measured directly from a global variable and that the relative distance between the two subjects can be this parameter. Moreover, this parameter should be considered as multidimensional parameter depending not only on the dynamics of the subjects but also on the "internal" parameters of the subjects, such as sociological and/or emotional states. Standard and simple mechanical formalization will be used to model this multifactorial distance. To illustrate such a general modeling methodology, this model was compared with actual data from an opposition activity like Japanese fencing (kendo). This model captures not only coupled coordination, but more generally interaction in two-subject activities.

  20. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Jun; Ferguson, Melissa J; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-08-01

    Making a decision can be especially difficult when it is based upon a large amount of information. A number of demonstrations in the literature suggest that decision making under information overload leads to suboptimal outcomes. In this article, we draw on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) and fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1993) to suggest that psychologically distancing oneself from the information can be beneficial to decision making under information overload. Specifically, we propose that distancing prompts organization of information in terms of its gist. Across 4 studies, we demonstrated that increasing spatial distance, temporal distance, and abstraction lead to better decision outcomes when decision makers were overloaded with many pieces of information per decision. Furthermore, we showed that the relationship between psychological distance and decision outcome is mediated by gist memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Middle age male distance runners: physiological and psychological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, C M; Sheckley, B G; Allen, G J; Camaione, D N; Sinatra, S T

    1991-09-01

    This study investigated 4 research questions addressing exercise capabilities and psychological characteristics of middle-age (30 to 50 years) male runners. Subjects provided an extensive running history, completed the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and performed a treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion. Another aspect of the study compared anticipatory and posttest reactions to the treadmill test experience to actual test results. The findings suggest that these runners have common personality profiles, that long-term involvement in running and training is associated with a positive sense of self, and that lifelong aerobic exercise is associated with high cardiovascular fitness. Although the research design does not permit causal or predictive conclusions, the study provides valuable additional baseline information for physicians and fitness professionals who serve middle aged male runners.

  2. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Soyon; Uleman, James S; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-09-01

    Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others' behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors.

  4. Social distance in Lithuanian psychology and social work students and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Zardeckaite-Matulaitiene, Kristina; Marksaityte, Rasa; Endriulaitiene, Aukse; Tillman, Douglas R; Hof, David D

    2018-02-16

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare desire for social distance from people with mental illness in the disciplines of social work and psychology, and among students and professionals having different professional experience. 948 respondents (715 students and 233 professionals) from Lithuanian educational and mental health-care institutions participated in an anonymous survey. Social distance was measured using Lithuanian Social Distance Scale which was created for this study. Participants also answered questions about familiarity with mental illness. Bias of social desirability was measured using the balanced inventory of desirable responding. Series of ANCOVA analysis revealed that psychology and social work master's and PhD students reported less social distance from people with mental illness when compared with bachelor's students. Familiarity with mental illness was significantly related to less social distance in the student sample, but not in professionals' sample. The strongest desire for social distance in the professionals' sample was observed in social workers having less than 5 years of professional practice and most experienced psychologists with more than 10 years of professional practice. Social distance from people with mental illness decreases through the study years; however, results of professional psychologists and social workers illustrate different trajectories in social distance through the professional career. The results of this study support the need for anti-stigma programmes and initiatives orientated towards mental health professionals.

  5. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk

  6. A Citation Analysis of Psychology Students' Use of Sources in Online Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nancy Evans; Barnard, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Reference lists from two assignments of psychology students in university-level online distance learning (ODL) were analyzed for number and type of sources and mark achieved. Most referenced were resources relevant to the assignment and provided by instructors. Use changed across assignments: Instructor sources were used more on the first…

  7. The Development and Evaluation of a Psychology Course for Adult Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Welko

    An introductory course was developed for the Dutch Open University. Because the course was intended for adult distance learners, it was designed to be suitable for self-instruction in 200 hours or less. No suitable Dutch-language psychology text could be found; consequently, the course was based on the translation of a recent American book,…

  8. Considering Roads Taken and Not Taken: How Psychological Distance Influences the Framing of Choice Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Greta; Libby, Lisa K

    2017-09-01

    After people make choices, they can frame the choice event in terms of what they chose, or in terms of what they did not choose. The current research proposes psychological distance as one factor influencing this framing and suggests implications. Three experiments manipulated dimensions of distance to demonstrate people's greater tendency to frame choice events in terms of chosen options at greater psychological distances. Additional findings demonstrate that these effects occur regardless of whether the decision turned out well or poorly. In a final experiment, framing a decision in terms of choosing (versus not choosing) a task made people more likely to believe their choice reflected their liking for the chosen task, which led to more favorable expectations for it. The discussion focuses on possible implications of these findings for understanding prior work on self-other differences in decision making, motivations for past decisions, reactions to decision outcomes, and counterfactual thinking.

  9. Leader Humility and Team Creativity: The Role of Team Information Sharing, Psychological Safety, and Power Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Jiang, Kaifeng; Bauer, Talya N; Liu, Songbo

    2017-11-02

    In this study, we identify leader humility, characterized by being open to admitting one's limitations, shortcomings, and mistakes, and showing appreciation and giving credit to followers, as a critical leader characteristic relevant for team creativity. Integrating the literatures on creativity and leadership, we explore the relationship between leader humility and team creativity, treating team psychological safety and team information sharing as mediators. Further, we hypothesize and examine team power distance as a moderator of the relationship. We tested our hypotheses using data gathered from 72 work teams and 354 individual members from 11 information and technology firms in China using a multiple-source, time-lagged research design. We found that the positive relationship between leader humility and team information sharing was significant and positive only within teams with a low power distance value. In addition, leader humility was negatively related to team psychological safety in teams with a high power distance value, whereas the relationship was positive yet nonsignificant in teams with low power distance. Furthermore, team information sharing and psychological safety were both significantly related to team creativity. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for leadership and work teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. THE APPLICATION'S WAYS OF PROBLEM-ORIENTED TASKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS IN THE DISTANCE COURSE "EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salyuk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some principles on which it is expedient to lean in the process of the development of materials of distant educational courses are considered: support on multiplicity of form of representation of information in consciousness; an account of conformity to law of maintenance of information in semantic memory of man; integration of educational information in the personal experience; orientation on the future real professional activity at the design of base of executive knowledge. Application of principles is illustrated by the examples of tasks in the distance educational course «Experimental psychology».

  11. Measuring the Psychological Distance between an Organization and Its Members—The Construction and Validation of a New Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a lack of specific research methods to estimate the relationship between an organization and its employees, which has long challenged research in the field of organizational management. Therefore, this article introduces psychological distance concept into the research of organizational behavior, which can define the concept of psychological distance between employees and an organization and describe a level of perceived correspondence or interaction between subjects and objects. We developed an employee-organization psychological distance (EOPD scale through both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. As indicated by the research results based on grounded theory (10 employee in-depth interview records and 277 opening questionnaires and formal investigation (544 questionnaires, this scale consists of six dimensions: experiential distance, behavioral distance, emotional distance, cognitive distance, spatial-temporal distance, and objective social distance based on 44 items. Finally, we determined that the EOPD scale exhibited acceptable reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis. This research may establish a foundation for future research on the measurement of psychological relationships between employees and organizations.

  12. Activity theories and the ontology of psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mammen, Jens Skaun; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key...... in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human...... psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain....

  13. Emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of chronological age and subjective distance-to-death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.

  14. Psychological determinants of information searching activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorunova, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of the activity theory in describing psychological determinants of the information searching activity. The notions of information behavior, information retrieval, information competence, information retrieval activity given in Russian and English scientific literature are compared. The research approach to the information retrieval activity based on the principles developed in the Russian theory of activity is described; and the fundamentals of G. Sukhodolsky's generalized conception of activity are presented for the first time. Analysis of empirical researches showed that specific features of information search depend on how the user evaluates information resources, information, conditions and results of search. Psychological determiners of information search may be detected as the system of evaluative alternatives, which is generated by the user during the process of his experience growth. We discovered that user's evaluation system is also related to his individual typological and personal regulative features and determines the choice of the search strategy.

  15. TECHNOLOGIES OF INITIATING STUDENTS INTO INDEPENDENT (SELF-GUIDED ACTIVITY IN SUPPLEMENTARY DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Abakumova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research in question investigates the technologies of initiating independent activity within the framework of distance learning and their psychological aspects. The authors’ classification of educational technologies of initiating students into independent cognitive activity is presented. Such technologies utilize various psychological mechanisms of exciting students’ cognitive interest, intensifying cognitive processes, developing independent activity skills, and, as a result, increase motivation for independent activity and learning on the whole. These include such types of technologies as developmental technologies, interactive technologies, technologies of information transfer, technologies of meaning-making initiation. The research of the attitude of distance learning educators to independent activity of students and the content of the academic courses were done at Moodle-based education programs. The findings show the differences in retention rate among distance learning educators whose competence in terms of initiating students into independent (self-guided activity varies. It’s emphasized that interactive lectures, videoconferences, audio-visual aids, interactive seminars, glossaries, interactive tests are considered the most efficient technologies in initiating students into independent (self-guided activity. The obtained results have made it possible to stress the developmental effect of distance learning technologies and the technologies of initiating students into independent (self-guided activity in various psychic spheres of students: cognitive, individual, emotional. We mention the changes in motivational sphere of students and their meaning-making activity. In the course of correct development of distance learning we notice the development of voluntary and nonvoluntary cognitive activity. A student starts actively participating in educational process, he becomes the creator of his own world.

  16. Psychology of a leader’s managerial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Romanovskyi, O. G.; Gren', L. M.; Knysh, A. Ye.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial aid deals with the subject, functions and principles, psychological laws of a leader’s managerial activity, leadership and management, a leader’s role in managerial activity, methods of psychological influence in management systems, individual-and-psychological peculiarities of leader’s personality and his/her role in improving a collective’s social-and-psychological and moral-and psychological climate. For students of all specialities studying psychology course of a leader’s ma...

  17. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hockey players perceived themselves as having more positive relations with others and sport competence than either health club members or runners. The relevance of these findings and further implications for health and sport psychological research and interventions were discussed. Keywords: physical activity ...

  18. Flexibility now, consistency later: psychological distance and construal shape evaluative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Trope, Yaacov; Chaiken, Shelly

    2010-07-01

    Researchers have long been interested in understanding the conditions under which evaluations will be more or less consistent or context-dependent. The current research explores this issue by asking when stability or flexibility in evaluative responding would be most useful. Integrating construal level theory with research suggesting that variability in the mental representation of an attitude object can produce fluctuations in evaluative responding, we propose a functional relationship between distance and evaluative flexibility. Because individuals construe psychologically proximal objects more concretely, evaluations of proximal objects will tend to incorporate unique information from the current social context, promoting context-specific responses. Conversely, because more distal objects are construed more abstractly, evaluations of distal objects will be less context-dependent. Consistent with this reasoning, the results of 4 studies suggest that when individuals mentally construe an attitude object concretely, either because it is psychologically close or because they have been led to adopt a concrete mindset, their evaluations flexibly incorporate the views of an incidental stranger. However, when individuals think about the same issue more abstractly, their evaluations are less susceptible to incidental social influence and instead reflect their previously reported ideological values. These findings suggest that there are ways of thinking that will tend to produce more or less variability in mental representation across contexts, which in turn shapes evaluative consistency. Connections to shared reality, conformity, and attitude function are discussed.

  19. IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STABILITY ON MANAGERS’ ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Мihailova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The latest research performed in European countries shows that the psychosocial risks and the job related stress will become more and more important in the years to come due to their increasing spread. These trends will have even greater influence on healthcare managers' activities due to the specific nature of their jobs, which, in turn, increases the needs of efficient leadership. The purpose of the questionnaire held is to study the impact of healthcare managers’ psychological stability on the activities they perform in the course of their jobs. The analysis made shows that an individual’s performance depends on their motivation, abilities and organizational conditions and skills. What is also found out is that people with different types of behavioral control work in healthcare operative management. People with different types of psychological stability will be needed for the different management levels.

  20. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  1. SUPPORT AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES IN INTERNET-BASED DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    igen KILIC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to propose practical suggestions through determining the state of support activities and social activities among internet-based educational programs in distance education. In line with this aim, students’ and instructors’ views related with support activities and social activities practiced in the programs within internet-based distance education models applied in Mersin University Mersin Vocational Schools were gathered. 502 students and 30 instructors participated in the study. The quantitative data was collected through surveys, and the qualitative data was gathered through interviews. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the categorical data. Moreover, the qualitative data was analyzed via content analysis. According to the findings of the study, students needed to get support about education directives, career guidance, technical equipment, and personal problems. The most frequently visited sources to get support by students are teachers, secretariat, and administrative units. However, students did not consider the supports they got from these units as sufficient. According to most of the students and instructors participated in the study, being involved in social activities was so prominent specifically to provide motivation for students. However, it seems impossible to be engaged in social activities in distance education due to the nature of distance education. Students generally regarded themselves as unsocial, and they considered provided social interaction environment as insufficient. Students and instructors expressed that they mostly interacted through social networking sites. Further, they stated that the social environments they mostly faced with each other were final exams and graduation ceremony.

  2. The Use of Inflight Online Distance Education for Mission Support and Psychological Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine

    Time, too much of and the resulting boredom is a major psychological barrier to multi year inner solar system space missions. Cross training which could be facilitated by online in flight educational programs might serve mission purposes and distract astronauts from the natural multiyear boredom to and from Mars. The personnel selected will be motivated well educated and likely very intelligent. They might have even experience some educational online and computer based education during their educational history. Distance learning is become more and more common in the educational landscape in the world. The mission doctor might learn geology. The geologist might learn ship systems. The pilot might learn basic medical treatment. The advantage of having planned out learning schemes might have major morale boosting factors by giving the self motivated high achieving crew something to direct their energies toward. The time lag could be compensated for by AI spacecraft educational software. Also for recreational purposes archeology or cultural studies could be taught to give greater breadth of interest. Online educational institutions might even do curriculum for free if they could be used afterward and before. Many high achievers have diverse interests and this might boost morale by allowing them to learn about a field of study that they had always had an interest in but their career took them in a different direction

  3. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  4. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  5. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION TO PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the factors of successful adaptation of employees to professional work in the new environment. Under the new conditions of professional development and employee having professional experience and young professional may encounter, with the presentation not only new professional requirements and tasks, but also new working conditions, the system of building relationships in the team, discovering with some discrepancies between obtained them in the learning process theoretical knowledge and skills available to the real practice of professional activities. At the level of interpersonal relations of the process of social cognition, is account of the special knowledge of the process of social facilities and construction of social reality, such an important parameter defi nes as "emotional intelligence" – construct is proposed for study in 1990 by American psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer. Initially, the concept of "emotional intelligence" was linked to the notion of social intelligence. The effectiveness of social and psychological adaptation to the professional activity can be enhanced through the development of emotional intelligence. Implementation of the basic functions of emotional intelligence improves communication efficiency, optimization of interpersonal relationships, social and psychological adaptation of personality.

  6. Luminosity-Distances of IUE observed Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddamani, Vijayakumar H.; Vedavathi, P.

    2014-07-01

    Active galaxies are the most luminous objects observed in the Universe and are believed to be powered by mass accretion processes taking place in the vicinity of the central Super massive black hole (M BH >= 108M sun ). However, the details of the power generation mechanisms are not understood well yet. In this paper, we are presenting a comparative study of luminosity-distance estimations for the complete sample of active galaxies observed by IUE satellite by different methods. IUE has made UV spectroscopic observations of nearly 400 active galaxies comprising mostly Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars. We have chosen all the active galaxies observed by IUE satellite for the study of luminosity-distance with redshift. The luminosity-distances (D L ) have been calculated using the Hubbles law under non-relativistic and relativistic limits with H0 = 73 Km/sec/Mpc and Terrell (1979) also. We have found that all D L estimations are consistent with each other for z = 1. The results of cosmological calulator I and II are found to consistent with each other and higher by several factors over cosmological calculator IV and the predictions of the Hubble's law under relativistic case. We observe a kind bimodal distributions in D L for z <= 3.5.

  7. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  8. Biomechanical and Psychological Analysis of High School, Intercollegiate, and Elite Long-Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorio, Claribel; Hickey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is undeniable that efficiency and mentality are crucial to achieving optimal athletic performance during competition. However, development of psychological skills is often neglected, particularly in lower levels of competition. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the biomechanical efficiency and psychological skills use among…

  9. The use of visual and verbal means of communication across psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Wakslak, Cheryl; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of distance on medium preferences in interpersonal communication. Five experiments showed that people's preference for using pictures (vs. words) is increasingly higher when communicating with temporally, socially, or geographically proximal (vs. distal) others. In contrast, preference for words is increasingly higher when communicating with those who were distal. A sixth experiment showed that communication's medium influences distance preferences, such that people's preference for communicating a message to a distant (vs. proximal) target is greater for verbal compared with pictorial communications. A seventh experiment showed that recipients are more likely to heed a sender's suggestions when the medium and distance are congruent. These findings reflect the suitability of pictures for communication with proximal others and words with distal others. Implications of these findings for construal-level theory, perspective taking, embodied cognition, the development of language, and social skills with children are discussed.

  10. KNOWING AND SENSEMANKING: EVIDENCES IN DISTANCE LEARNING TEACHING ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Varella Rübenich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and its acquisition, creation and development have awakened the attention of researchers and organizations once there is a knowledge dependence of the individuals that act in the organization. On the other side, organizations are increasingly dependent on the knowledge of the individuals within the organization. In this context this article aims to examine how  ‘knowing’ and ‘sensemaking’ can be found back in teacher’s work when writing course curricula and create lesson plans, as part of the learning content and activities at higher education institutions - HEI - and  in distance learning courses. The study was conducted with newly hired teachers working in the Centre of Distance Education – CEAD – of a HEI that is part of a nationwide Brazilian educational network. In the development of the case study involved participant observation to elaborate field diaries.  Were analyzed institutional documents, and after then was conducted open questionnaires with the teachers involved. The results served as an indication as to what degree the knowing and sensemaking are present in the environment that transforms knowledge into action. The renewal occurs when actions are permeated by senses where knowledge has meanings and is intensively used contributing a profound value added element.

  11. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  12. Physical activity and psychological health in breast cancer survivors: an application of basic psychological needs theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-11-01

    The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Social and Psychological Factors Associated With Adolescent Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.

  14. Distance-delivered physical activity interventions for childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, David; Wakefield, Claire E; Fardell, Joanna E; Quinn, Veronica F; Lim, Qishan; Clifford, Briana K; Simar, David; Ness, Kirsten K; Cohn, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    This review aimed to determine the feasibility of distance-delivered physical activity (PA) interventions in childhood cancer survivors (CCS), and assess the effect on PA levels, and physical, physiological and psychological outcomes. We searched electronic databases until May 2016, including studies following intensive treatment. Meta-analyses were conducted on randomized controlled trials. We calculated the effect of interventions on PA levels and physical, physiological and psychological health outcomes. Thirteen studies (n=270 participants) were included in the systematic review and four (n=102 participants) in the meta-analysis. Most studies used telephone to deliver interventions with contact (1/day-1/month), duration (2 weeks-1year) and timing (maintenance therapy->20years following intensive treatment) varying between interventions. Interventions yielded a mean recruitment rate=64%, retention rate=85% and adherence rate=88%. Interventions did not increase PA levels (p=0.092), but had a positive effect on physical function (p=0.008) and psychological outcomes (p=0.006). Distance-delivered PA interventions are feasible in CCS. Despite not increasing PA levels, participation may improve physical and psychological health; however, larger randomized controlled trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE ORGANIZATION OF TUTOR'S ACTIVITY IN THE SYSTEM OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AT HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Voronkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the results of the online tutor’s activity components. The review of the interaction between the learners (content interaction and interpersonal interaction in the distance course has shown that all of these elements should be taken into account in the course designing and should be later moderated by the tutor in the process of learning. It has been determined that effective learning occurs only in case of the possibility to sattisfy each student’s learning style. The complete learning circle should include different learning styles to follow the abovementioned requirements. According to the analysis of the online tutoring models the following structural components of tutor’s professional competence were defined: informative, organizational, psychological and pedagogical, technical, professional, personal, competence of online communication. Thus, in addition to the subject matter the tutor has to know psychological and pedagogical, organizational, methodological and technical bases of learning organization. The ability to plan (project the expected final result of tutor’s activity and the readiness to learn new technologies appear particularly important. Different criteria and methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of tutor’s activity have been studied. It is shown that the estimation of the activity effectiveness should be based on the goals and the content of tutor’s activity, and it can be performed by quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method permits collecting the data which can be analyzed statistically. The qualitative method is more subjective, flexible and dynamic. The paper states the currency of the requirement of online tutors training programs on the state level.

  16. Distance to green space and physical activity: a danish national representative survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, Mette; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.......This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated....

  17. Psychological Peculiarities of Judge Professional Activity and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspanov, Zholdybai T.; Turabayeva, Dana S.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the psychological peculiarities of judge professional activity and decision-making, judge's mental set and requirements to ethical and moral requirements and quality. Moreover, this work offers original job analysis and competency model of judge professional activity. The authors have studied the problems concerning the…

  18. Psychological impact of sports activity in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, M C; Cerasa, A; Di Lucente, L; Brunelli, S; Castellano, V; Traballesi, M

    2006-12-01

    To investigate whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form X2 (STAI-X2), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and the questionnaire for depression (QD) were administered in a cross-sectional study of 137 males with spinal cord injury including 52 tetraplegics and 85 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sports activity participation (high frequency vs no sports participation). Moreover, multiple regression analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of demographic variables, such as age, educational level, occupational status and marital status, on psychological variables. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the groups for anxiety (STAI-X2), extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and depression (QD). In particular, SCI patients who did not practice sports showed higher anxiety and depression scores and lower extraversion scores than sports participants. In addition, with respect to the paraplegics, the tetraplegic group showed the lowest depression scores. Following multiple regression analysis, only the sports activity factor remained as an independent factor of anxiety scores. These findings demonstrate that sports activity is associated with better psychological status in SCI patients, irrespective of tetraplegia and paraplegia, and that psychological benefits are not emphasized by demographic factors.

  19. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  20. Indicators of competitive activity of the oarswomen on kayaks at the Olympic distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chychkan O.A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The frame of competitive activity of sportsmen on kayaks different sports qualification on a distance of 500 meters is construed. 20 sportsmen of different sports qualification have been inspected. During competitions were fixed: number paddle boat and a road clearance time of a distance. It is exhibited variances in a level of competitive activity. Competitive activity expediently to value on parameters of a road clearance time of a distance, an amount paddle boat on a distance, roads of a boat for 1 paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat, average rate, average duration paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat in a cycle paddle boat, to factor mechanics.

  1. Leisure-time physical activity and some psychological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is vital to ensure adequate physical work capacity for the demands of daily living and job performance. Due to work demand, most top and middle level (executive) managerial employees become physically inactive and experience psychological and other health problems ...

  2. The Politics and Possibilities of Activism in Contemporary Feminist Psychologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Rachel; Leve, Michelle; Hui, Amber

    2011-01-01

    The authors facilitated a structured discussion on transgenerational activism at the 2011 meeting of the Association of Women in Psychology (AWP). Their discussion there had been sparked by an essay recently published by "Harpers" magazine in which Susan Faludi (2010) characterized a generational strife among the feminist "waves." Still catalyzed…

  3. Incorporating Multiculturalism into Undergraduate Psychology Courses: Three Simple Active Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cortney S.

    2006-01-01

    Many scholars agree that educators must incorporate multiculturalism into the curriculum of all undergraduate psychology students. I designed 3 easy-to-use activities that reinforce why multicultural factors are critical to consider in psychology. Using intelligence testing as a platform, these activities highlight issues of language, cultural…

  4. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Haese Sara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696 were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y. Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3% of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school

  5. Differential effects of physical and psychological stressors on electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, A S; Joy, Jose; Preejith, S P; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2017-07-01

    Stress being labelled by WHO as "the health epidemic of 21st century" need to be treated as a clarion call for devising strategies that aim at its early detection, for the reason that stress is the cause as well as the catalyst for several chronic human health disorders. The work reported here in is a progression towards the development of a stress detection system based on the electrodermal activity (EDA) in humans, which can further be incorporated into a wearable vital signs monitor. The utility of EDA as a potential physiological measure for classifying physical and psychological stressors is analyzed in this paper. A group of 12 subjects (8 males and 4 females, age: 25.4 ± 3.1 years, mean ± SD) volunteered to participate in a laboratory stress task that included a psychological stressor close to real life work stress scenario and a physical stressor. The capability of stressors to elicit persistent stress response was validated by assessing variations in salivary cortisol levels. EDA was monitored throughout the experiment sessions as a measure of sympathetic activation in subjects. Six classification models were investigated concerning their usability to distinguish physical and psychological stressors based on EDA. A maximum accuracy of 95.1% was achieved using linear discriminat analysis (LDA) based classifier which imply that EDA is indeed a potential discriminate measure to classify physical and psychological stress responses. Furthermore, the best feature combination for maximum classification accuracy was also determined.

  6. Mobile-Assisted Seamless Learning Activities in Higher Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amhag, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Among online learning factors stated in the research literature, it is argued that online activities is the strongest factor which contributes to online learning. This article illuminates mobile-assisted seamless learning activities by using laptops, tablets, or smart phones. Two conditions are compared, a) face-to-face (F2F) online webinars…

  7. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  8. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  9. Active coping strategies. From self-help to psychological counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A G; Nevin, R S; Christen, J A

    1986-10-01

    Everyone must accept a certain measure of responsibility for dealing with personal stresses. This article suggests various active, constructive, self-help strategies. It specifically focuses on the advantages of adopting positive attitudes, maintaining a sense of humor, engaging in a variety of activities, identifying and relabeling stresses, and using multiple, active coping techniques. Demonstrating how professional psychologic counseling may help the individual in effectively dealing with personal problems, the article also defines and delineates counseling. It explains why one should seek professional help, tells how to select a counselor, describes the types of counseling available, advises ways to best utilize the counseling process, and discusses the length and costs of treatments.

  10. Sensitivity analyses of stopping distance for connected vehicles at active highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Jen; Jones, Elizabeth G

    2017-02-01

    This paper performs sensitivity analyses of stopping distance for connected vehicles (CVs) at active highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs). Stopping distance is the major safety factor at active HRGCs. A sensitivity analysis is performed for each variable in the function of stopping distance. The formulation of stopping distance treats each variable as a probability density function for implementing Monte Carlo simulations. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the initial speed is the most sensitive factor to stopping distances of CVs and non-CVs. The safety of CVs can be further improved by the early provision of onboard train information and warnings to reduce the initial speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information-Psychological Security and Near-Scientific Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Afonin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the new version of the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (adopted in December 2016, in information security agenda its information-psychological component was selected for further study. Attention is drawn to the need to ensure the information-psychological security of certain categories of citizens, social groups and society in general, taking into account a differentiated approach to assessing threats that arise in the course of their life. The article briefly considers the science rank among the forms of the human activities and notes that when involving in science-based and science-applied activities the near-scientific activity, which is often briefly referred to as pseudoscience, shows up as one of the threats.The article presents main forms to show of the near-scientific (pseudoscientific activity, namely parascience, quasi-science, pseudoscience, and monetary scientism.Drawing on the example of one of the near-scientific activity products, called "psychotronic weapon", the article clearly shows the emergence and evolution of this pseudoscientific product, the attempts of its implementation in practice, and the subsequent negative consequences of these attempts for society.Taking into account the survivability of the near-scientific activity, it is proposed to include lectures in the curricula of technical universities to introduce threats from pseudoscience to graduates of higher educational institutions who may face them both in their employment activity and in everyday life.

  12. Customary physical activity and psychological wellbeing: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K; Bath, P A

    1998-12-01

    to assess longitudinal relationships between habitual levels of physical activity and indices of psychological wellbeing in older people. baseline assessment with 4- and 8-year follow-ups. 1042 people originally aged 65 and over randomly sampled from general practitioner lists in Nottingham, UK. logistic regression analysis of selected T1 (1985) and T2 (1989) variables, with depression at T2 as dependent; multiple regression analyses of selected T1, T2 and T3 (1993) variables, with life satisfaction at T2 (model 1) or T3 (model 2) as dependent. questionnaire-assessed levels of physical activity; 14-item Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression scale; 13-item Life Satisfaction Index; health, demographic and social activity variables. in the logistic regression model, depression at T2 was most strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 7.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.25-15.64; P physical health status (OR = 1.26 per unit change in score; 95% CI = 1.17-1.42; P activities at T1 were also associated with some increased risk of depression 4 years later (OR = 0.92 per hour of activity; 95% CI = 0.85-0.99; P physical activity (as walking and housework) did contribute significantly, although modestly, to longitudinal changes in morale. while the results provide some support for the conclusion that physical activity contributes independently to the promotion and maintenance of psychological wellbeing in later life, this contribution is, at best, extremely modest.

  13. How a Mandatory Activation Program Reduces Unemployment Durations : The Effects of Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graversen, B.K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In an experimental setting some Danish unemployed workers were assigned to an activation program while others were not. Unemployed who were assigned to the activation program found a job more quickly. We show that the activation effect increases with the distance between the place of residence of

  14. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, John

    2009-02-01

    Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and

  15. Impact of Distance on Mode of Active Commuting in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting could contribute to increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to characterise patterns of active commuting to and from schools in children and adolescents in Chile. A total of 453 Chilean children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years were included in this study. Data regarding modes of commuting and commuting distance was collected using a validated questionnaire. Commuting mode was classified as active commuting (walking and/or cycling or non-active commuting (car, motorcycle and/or bus. Commuting distance expressed in kilometres was categorised into six subgroups (0 to 0.5, 0.6 to 1, 1.1 to 2, 2.1 to 3, 3.1 to 5 and >5 km. Car commuting was the main mode for children (to school 64.9%; from school 51.2% and adolescents (to school 50.2%; from school 24.7%. Whereas public bus commuting was the main transport used by adolescents to return from school. Only 11.0% and 24.8% of children and adolescents, respectively, walk to school. The proportion of children and adolescents who engage in active commuting was lower in those covering longer distances compared to a short distance. Adolescents walked to and from school more frequently than children. These findings show that non-active commuting was the most common mode of transport and that journey distances may influence commuting modes in children and adolescents.

  16. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Biological and psychological factors associated with learning performance in adult distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF CREATIVITY MANIFESTATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Akimova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic, political and cultural situation in Russia calls for a new generation of managers, creative in their activities. In this regard we need to develop in them the personal qualities and characteristics which will enable them to achieve personal and professional success in various spheres of life. The article is devoted to studying features of ingenuity manifestation in managers as a systemic property of the personality. The features of creative activity, strategies for achieving goals, planning and time management in managers were analyzed in the article. The correlations of motivational, productive, dynamic and emotional sides of the personality traits of ingenuity, individual strategies of achieving goals and signs of time pressure in solving professional tasks for managers were considered. The practical recommendations developed in the study can significantly optimize the psychological support for managers, concerning the conditions of effective strategies for achieving goals, planning and time management, as the most important factors for their successful professional activity.

  18. Distance to green space and physical activity: a Danish national representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftager, Mette; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper; Stigsdotter, Ulrika; Bentsen, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Randrup, Thomas B; Kamper-Jørgensen, Finn

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated. Data derived from the Danish National Health Interview Survey 2005, a cross-sectional survey based on a region-stratified random nationally representative sample of 21,832 Danish adults. All data are self-reported. Respondents living more than 1 km from green space had lower odds of using green space to exercise and keep in shape compared with persons living closer than 300 m to green space (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.60-0.83). A relationship between moderate/vigorous physical activity during leisure time and distance to green space can also be found. Persons living more than 1 km from green space had higher odds of being obese (BMI ≥ 30) than those living less than 300 m from green space (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.08-1.71). Self-reported distance to green space is related to self-reported physical activity and obesity. To exercise and keep in shape is an important reason for visiting green space, and distance to green space is associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity in leisure time.

  19. Effects of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on distance relay protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Ren, L.; Song, M.; Cheng, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-11-01

    On the basis of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) proposed in previous work, the effects of this type SFCL on distance relay protection are studied in this paper. Under the condition that the active SFCL is placed behind the relay element, its current-limiting impedance will be added into the measured impedance between the relay and the fault points. As a result, in order to prevent the refused operation of the relay, the measured impedance should be revised. According to the three different operation modes of the active SFCL, we present the corresponding three modified formulas. Furthermore, using MATLAB, the model of the dual-source power system with the active SFCL is built, and the impacts of the active SFCL on the distance relay protection are studied in detail under the different current-limiting modes and fault distances. The simulation results show that: without using the modified formulas, the introduction of the active SFCL will reduce the protection distance of the relay, and in the case that the modified formulas are adopted, the three modes of the active SFCL will not affect the measured impedance of the relay, and further the validities of the proposed modified formulas can be testified.

  20. Psychological features of displaying attitude in the process of human mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Вікторівна Каряка

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the main approaches to the study of human mental activity and the main features of displaying attitudes during this process. Relationship between attitudes and psychological human readiness to mental activity is revealed based on a systematic analysis of the literature. The conclusion of the feasibility of establishing psychological human readiness to mental activity by updating mechanisms of psychological attitude for this activity

  1. The association between distance to school, physical activity and sedentary behaviors in adolescents: project STIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorely, Trish; Biddle, Stuart; Marshall, Simon; Cameron, Noel; Cassey, Louise

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between distance to school and levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in UK adolescents. Participants were 1385 adolescents (boys n = 531; mean age 14.7 years). Boys living within two miles of school and girls living within 5 miles of school were more likely to report high levels (> or = 60 min per day) of weekday leisure time physical activity. Differences in weekday leisure time physical activity were accounted for by active travel time. There were no differences in sedentary behavior time by distance to school. Journeys, whether active or motorized, most often took place with friends. Further research should investigate wider physical and social environmental influences on active travel.

  2. Kurt Lewin, psychological constructs and sources of brain cognitive activity

    OpenAIRE

    Duch, Włodzisław

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mind-brain-environment relations is one of the key topics in psychology. Kurt Lewin, inspired by theoretical physics, tried to establish topological and vector psychology analyzing patterns of interaction between the individual and her/his environment. The time is ripe to reformulate his ambitious goals, searching for ways to interpret objectively measured brain processes in terms of suitable psychological constructs. Connecting cognitive and social psychology constructs to neur...

  3. From Monty Python to Total Recall: A Feature Film Activity for the Cognitive Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a college psychology course activity designed to help students define the parameters of cognitive psychology. Students selected a feature film and a journal article that represented some aspect of cognitive psychology. They then wrote a paper discussing the theoretical and empirical connections between the sources and the topic. (MJP)

  4. Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners. Paper presentation at the ICO [Interuniversity Center for Educational Research] National Fall School,

  5. Psychological features of the professional activities of Tuvan musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D.-B. Sandyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the study of psychological peculiarities of professional activities of Tuvan musicians. It reviews the effect of psychological characteristics on growth of value aspects of professionalism. Author analyzes the factors that retard the development of performance and improvisation skills and level of education, discerns the openness of Tuvan musicians for innovation. In 2016 musicians of the Center for Development of Traditional Tuvan Culture and Crafts, National Orchestra of the Republic of Tuva and amateur khoomei performers were interviewed. Total number of those surveyed was 31 aged from 16 to 54, all – male. Method of acmeological research was employed. Survey also relied on methods of testing, conversation, surveillance, interview, polling. Analysis revealed that performing activities of Tuvan musicians have some peculiarities. They consist of the complex of different characteristics, conditions, factors. The most important among them are the traits of national character of Tuvans, traditions of Tuvan musical culture. Professionalism of Tuvan musicians shapes by no means only through the special musical education. Self-education that one receives by traditional ways of passing the performance practices can have no less important value. Author has already conducted such a research in relation to another professional group of Tuvan ethnos – in 2015 with pedagogues, so this time she has a chance to compare the data. Author distinguishes the elements of mentality, traits of national character that characterize the either group by virtue of ethnic identification and, in some degree, affect the professionalism of both. Dampers for professional growth are inertia, low sociability, meditativeness, self- depreciation and reluctance to innovations. Nonetheless, strong traditionalism conceived as uniqueness is perceives as a factor that promotes professionalism.

  6. Passive and active muscle stiffness in plantar flexors of long distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Yamada, Kenji; Yata, Hideaki; Shimoju, Shozo; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2015-07-16

    The aim of the present study was to compare passive and active muscle stiffness and tendon stiffness between long distance runners and untrained men. Twenty long distance runners and 24 untrained men participated in this study. Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions. Passive muscle stiffness was also calculated from estimated passive muscle force and fascicle length during slow passive stretching. Tendon stiffness was determined during isometric plantar flexion by ultrasonography. Passive muscle stiffness of long distance runners was significantly higher than that of untrained men (prunners was also significantly higher than that of untrained men (prunners and untrained men (p=0.869). These results suggested that passive and active muscle stiffness were higher in long distance runners than in untrained men, whereas no significant difference was observed in tendon stiffness between the two groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immediate Effect of Active Abdominal Contraction on Inter-recti Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Cynthia M; McAuley, J Adrienne; Hartigan, Erin H

    2016-03-01

    Controlled laboratory study. Inter-recti distance (IRD) is the measurement of the linear distance between the medial aspects of the rectus abdominis muscle. Inter-recti distance has been reported to decrease in postpartum women during a curl-up maneuver. To determine if IRD decreases with active abdominal contraction in men and in nulliparous and parous women. Fifty-six subjects (male, 11; nulliparous female, 22; parous female, 23) participated. Inter-recti distance was measured with the abdominal muscles at rest and during active contraction (curl-up), at 2 locations (above and below the umbilicus), using ultrasound imaging. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used for each of the 2 locations, to determine whether IRD differed between contraction states among the 3 groups, with age and umbilicus circumference as covariates. When significant differences were found, planned t test comparisons were made. The parous group's IRD significantly decreased from rest to contraction at both locations, whereas the nulliparous and male groups' IRD did not significantly change from rest to contraction. The nulliparous group's IRD was significantly narrower than the other groups at rest at both locations, and narrower than the parous group during active contraction. Parous women had a narrower IRD in the curl-up condition than at rest, as hypothesized. However, an unexpected finding of a lack of significant within-group change in IRD in nulliparous women and men occurred. Findings suggest that the IRD in men may only differ from that of nulliparous women.

  8. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L

    2009-12-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.

  10. The Joint Action Effect on Memory as a Social Phenomenon: The Role of Cued Attention and Psychological Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich Wagner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to individual tasks, a specific social setting is created when two partners work together on a task. How does such a social setting affect memory for task-related information? We addressed this issue in a distributed joint-action paradigm, where two team partners respond to different types of information within the same task. Previous work has shown that joint action in such a task enhances memory for items that are relevant to the partner’s task but not to the own task. By removing critical, non-social confounds, we wanted to pinpoint the social nature of this selective memory advantage. Specifically, we created joint task conditions in which participants were aware of the shared nature of the concurrent task but could not perceive sensory cues to the other’s responses. For a differentiated analysis of the social parameters, we also varied the distance between partners. We found that the joint action effect emerged even without sensory cues from the partner, and it declined with increasing distance between partners. These results support the notion that the joint-action effect on memory is in its core driven by the experience of social co-presence, and does not simply emerge as a by-product of partner-generated sensory cues.

  11. Psychology of Physical Activity: What Should Students Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Penny; Wilson, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The assignment for the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education was to define the psychology subdiscipline of kinesiology. Ten undergraduate sport and exercise psychology textbooks, 27 undergraduate course syllabi, and three articles which examined the most popular contents of prominent journals were…

  12. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  13. Utilisation of optimisation solutions to control active suspension for decreased braking distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrén, Johannes; Jonasson, Mats; Jerrelind, Jenny; Stensson Trigell, Annika; Drugge, Lars

    2015-02-01

    This work deals with how to utilise active suspension on individual vehicle wheels in order to improve the vehicle performance during straight-line braking. Through numerical optimisation, solutions have been found as regards how active suspension should be controlled and coordinated with friction brakes to shorten the braking distance. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the braking distance can be shortened by more than 1 m when braking from 100 km/h. The applicability of these results is studied by investigating the approach for different vehicle speeds and actuator stroke limitations. It is shown that substantial improvements in the braking distance can also be found for lower velocities, and that the actuator strokes are an important parameter. To investigate the potential of implementing these findings in a real vehicle, a validated detailed vehicle model equipped with active struts is analysed. Simplified control laws, appropriate for on-board implementation and based on knowledge of the optimised solution, are proposed and evaluated. The results show that substantial improvements of the braking ability, and thus safety, can be made using this simplified approach. Particle model simulations have been made to explain the underlying physical mechanisms and limitations of the approach. These results provide valuable guidance on how active suspension can be used to achieve significant improvements in vehicle performance with reasonable complexity and energy consumption.

  14. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion

  15. Distance learning in english teacher's training: Reflexion activities in discussion forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Costa Ribas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we problematize the issues related to teacher’s training in the English language amidst the emersion of new literacies, especially those mediated by digital technologies, based in my experience both as a teacher and a researcher in Degree Courses in Languages, both classroom based and distance learning. Based in referential about teachers’ beliefs, reflexive practices, new literacies, and teachers’ training for the use of technologies, we focus our experience in the development of institutional material for a distance learning teaching degree course, describing some of the activities developed as discussion forums. With that, our aim is to discuss ways to promote the reflection of future teachers about their beliefs and experiences, and the interaction of these with teaching concepts and theories, allowing them to establish connections between theory and practice during practice - in other words, through their engagement in online activities of a subject in a Supervised Internship in English.

  16. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  17. Can strenuous leisure time physical activity prevent psychological complaints in a working population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Jans, M.P.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Hendriksen, I.J.; Houtman, I.L.; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between strenuous leisure time physical activity and psychological complaints (depression and emotional exhaustion) in a Dutch working population in order to find evidence For the preventive role of physical activity in the development of psychological

  18. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne S.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life…

  19. Obedience, Conformity, and Social Roles: Active Learning in a Large Introductory Psychology Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleske-Rechek, April L.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on an activity used in an introductory psychology course that enabled students (n=65) to comprehend the concepts of obedience, conformity, and social roles in the area of social psychology. Explains that the students found the activity to be helpful in understanding the role of social influence. (CMK)

  20. Psychological and physical activity training for older persons : Who does not attend?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Hochstenbach, J.BH; Brouwer, W.H.; de Greef, M.H.G.; Scherder, E

    2006-01-01

    Background: Interventions to promote successful aging include psychological and physical activity programs. Identification of determinants of attendance of older persons may be useful to develop strategies to improve attendance. For physical activity programs determinants of attendance have been

  1. Teaching Statistics Using Classic Psychology Research: An Activities-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Karen Y.; Dodd, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a collection of active learning activities derived from classic psychology studies that illustrate the appropriate use of descriptive and inferential statistics. (Contains 2 tables.)

  2. Psychological factors unrelated to activity level in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmus, M.; Preuper, H.R.S.; Hof, A.L.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Reneman, M.F.

    Background: Enhancement of physical activities is an important goal in rehabilitation programmes for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). A relationship between activity level and psychological factors is suggested but studied scarcely. Aim: To explore the relationship between the

  3. Physical activity and mental health: relationships between depressiveness, psychological disorders and physical activity level in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kull

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with an objective to study relationships between physical activity and emotional wellbeing of women. The study involved 659 women aged 18–45. The following questionnaires were used: General Health Questionnaire, Health Questionnaire for Adults, Beck Depression Inventory. Physically active women experienced less stress disorders (P<0.05 and less depressiveness (P<0.05. Results showed that even a low level of physical activity (1-2 times per week can account for positive impact on women’s mental health (depressive feelings and psychological disorders.

  4. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  5. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE SEMANTIC READING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE WITH A DIFFERENT OF SUCCESS OF THE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vitalevna Atrokhova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The paper regards the problem of the psychological structure of the semantic reading with different of success of the activity during elementary school study. Reading is activity. Activity has got of the psychological structure. The psychological structure of the semantic reading during elementary school study  develops in accordance with the laws of development activities.Methodology The research is based constitute the fundamental principles of the national psychology, psychological theory of activity, basic approaches and principles of system organization activities, the theoretical principles and methodology approach of the sistemoges,  i activities of research on the psychology of reading. Results The components of the psychological structure are identified. Some of the components are associated with successful execution of the semantic reading activities.Practical implicationsPsychologist can adjust development of the components are associated with successful execution of the psychological structure activities.

  6. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...

  7. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE ACTIVITY BETWEEN GENDERS DURING UNILATERAL WEIGHT‐BEARING TASKS USING ADJUSTED DISTANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jacqueline; Eisel, Patricia; Wiesner, Jessica; Rachow, Megan; Hatteberg, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Researchers have observed differences in muscle activity patterns between males and females during functional exercises. The research methods employed have used various step heights and lunge distances to assess functional exercise making gender comparisons difficult. The purpose of this study was to examine core and lower extremity muscle activity between genders during single‐limb exercises using adjusted distances and step heights based on a percentage of the participant's height. Methods: Twenty men and 20 women who were recreationally active and healthy participated in the study. Two‐dimensional video and surface electromyography (SEMG) were used to assess performance during three exercise maneuvers (step down, forward lunge, and side‐step lunge). Eight muscles were assessed using SEMG (rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, rectus femoris, tensor fascia latae, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were used for each muscle and expressed as %MVIC to normalize SEMG to account for body mass differences. Exercises were randomized and distances were normalized to the participant's lower limb length. Descriptive statistics, mixed‐model ANOVA, and ICCs with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Males were taller, heavier, and had longer leg length when compared to the females. No differences in %MVIC activity were found between genders by task across the eight muscles. For both males and females, the step down task resulted in higher %MVIC for gluteus maximus compared to lunge, (p=0.002). Step down exercise produced higher %MVIC for gluteus medius than lunge (p=0.002) and side step (p=0.006). ICC3,3 ranged from moderate to high (0.74 to 0.97) for the three tasks. Conclusions: Muscle activation among the eight muscles was similar between females and males during the lunge, side‐step, and step down tasks, with distances adjusted to leg length. Both males

  8. Electromyographic assessment of muscle activity between genders during unilateral weight-bearing tasks using adjusted distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Lucinda E; Wilhelm, Jacqueline; Eisel, Patricia; Wiesner, Jessica; Rachow, Megan; Hatteberg, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Researchers have observed differences in muscle activity patterns between males and females during functional exercises. The research methods employed have used various step heights and lunge distances to assess functional exercise making gender comparisons difficult. The purpose of this study was to examine core and lower extremity muscle activity between genders during single-limb exercises using adjusted distances and step heights based on a percentage of the participant's height. Twenty men and 20 women who were recreationally active and healthy participated in the study. Two-dimensional video and surface electromyography (SEMG) were used to assess performance during three exercise maneuvers (step down, forward lunge, and side-step lunge). Eight muscles were assessed using SEMG (rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, rectus femoris, tensor fascia latae, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were used for each muscle and expressed as %MVIC to normalize SEMG to account for body mass differences. Exercises were randomized and distances were normalized to the participant's lower limb length. Descriptive statistics, mixed-model ANOVA, and ICCs with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Males were taller, heavier, and had longer leg length when compared to the females. No differences in %MVIC activity were found between genders by task across the eight muscles. For both males and females, the step down task resulted in higher %MVIC for gluteus maximus compared to lunge, (p=0.002). Step down exercise produced higher %MVIC for gluteus medius than lunge (p=0.002) and side step (p=0.006). ICC(3,3) ranged from moderate to high (0.74 to 0.97) for the three tasks. Muscle activation among the eight muscles was similar between females and males during the lunge, side-step, and step down tasks, with distances adjusted to leg length. Both males and females elicited higher muscle activity for gluteus

  9. Relationships between meaningful activity, basic psychological needs, and meaning in life: test of the meaningful activity and life meaning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    The author of this study proposed and examined a theoretical model in which meaningful activity fulfills basic psychological needs and contributes to meaning in life. Hypotheses derived from the Meaningful Activity and Life Meaning model and tested within this study included: (1) meaningful activity will be associated with meaning in life, (2) meaningful activity will be associated with basic psychological needs, and (3) basic psychological needs will partially mediate the relationship between meaningful activity and meaning in life. Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to test the study hypotheses. A total of 591 undergraduate and graduate students completed the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and the Presence subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Results from the study were in full support of each hypothesis and indicate the important role meaningful activity may serve in fostering meaning in life. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Psychological and Pedagogical Support for Students' Adaptation to Learning Activity in High Science School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…

  11. Characterizing Magmatic Activity at Mount Baker, Washington With Inversion of Slope Distance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, B. E.; Crider, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Surface deformation studies at active volcanoes are used to detect changes to magmatic source regions beneath the volcano. At Mount Baker, Washington, continued elevated gas (CO2 and H2S) and heat flux from fumaroles in Sherman Crater indicate the presence of a degassing magma reservoir. We assess if surface deformation has occurred on Mount Baker during the last quarter century by collecting a modern geodetic data set to compare with previous slope distance measurements acquired in 1981 and 1983 with EDM. Campaign GPS surveys in 2006 and 2007 provide slope distance measurements of all 19 trilateration lines on Mount Baker. These surveys determined that slope distances have predominantly shortened around the edifice at rates of less than 2 mm/yr. The greatest slope length change detected (HDLY-RSVT) is -17 ± 4 ppm on the northern flank of the volcano. We fit a strain model to the weighted slope change data using a nonlinear least-squares regression to characterize a two dimensional surface strain tensor. These results indicate contractional strain centered near the crater with and aerial dilation rate of less than 0.5 microstrain/yr. We also use these data to invert source parameters for a spherical magma source at depth to provide estimates of net volume and mass change of the magma reservoir. The inversion results are analyzed in conjunction with microgravity and gas flux data to better understand the current magmatic quiescence at Mount Baker.

  12. The relationship between exercise intensity, muscle pain and fatigue, and serum CPK activity in long distance runners.

    OpenAIRE

    新畑, 茂充; 宮原, 満男; 上田, 一博

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and exercise intensity, muscle soreness and fatigue in 28 elite high school long distance runners. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Serum CPK activity significantly increased after 3 days of concentrated training (long distance easy pace running, 20-30 km day). At the same time, serum GOT, GPT and LDH activities showed similar tendencies, but they were not as remarkable a...

  13. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  14. The psychology of the heart: Implications for health, physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the centuries, the heart has been recognized as a centre for spiritual, intellectual and emotional life in diverse cultures. This paper introduces a psychology of the heart with specific reference to the time honoured, transcultural applications of a local, African, Zulu, breath based, heart focussed, psychotherapeutic ...

  15. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males. Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63. The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender. This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.

  16. Effect of workstation height and distance on upper extremity muscle activity during repetitive below-the-knee assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Je; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    To determine the activity of the upper trapezius, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, biceps brachii. and lower trapezius muscles in healthy adults during below-the-knee assembly work. Fifteen right-handed male subjects participated in this study. The electrical activities, measured by EMG, of the right upper trapezius, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, biceps brachii. and lower trapezius were measured during below-the-knee assembly work at four workstations of varying height and distance from the participant (workstation 1, below-the-knee assembly work with a height of 15 cm above the floor and a reach distance of 30 cm; workstation 2, height of 15 cm and distance of 45 cm; workstation 3, height of 30 cm and distance of 30 cm; workstation 4, height of 30 cm and distance of 45 cm). Muscle activity at the four workstations was represented as a percentage of the reference voluntary isometric contraction (RVIC). Height: Upper and lower trapezius activity increased significantly during below the knee assembly work as height above the floor increased. The activities of the serratus anterior and biceps brachii muscles increased significantly during low-height below-the-knee assembly work. Distance: The activities of the upper trapezius, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid and biceps brachii increased significantly during below-the-knee assembly work at a far distance (45 cm). The lower trapezius muscle activity increased significantly during below-the-knee assembly work at a close distance (30 cm). Below-knee workers should engage in work close to themselves, since distance appears to be a stronger risk factor for injury than height above the floor.

  17. Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents' life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne Grete; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure act...

  18. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure act...

  19. Medical and psychological support and psycho-physiological examination of extreme activities specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Starkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of medical and psychological support is a continuous monitoring of functional and mental state of specialists and the system of mental health interventions aimed at maintaining the optimal level of occupational performance. The scientific basis of this direction is the idea of an integrated system of professional psychological and physiological adaptation in normal conditions, in condition of pre-pathology and pathology. Psychophysiological (professional and psychological examination of specialists is an integral part of medical and psychological support, and presents a set of measures aimed at in-depth study of individual psychological characteristics of personality and evaluation of the specialists' organism functional reserves in the process of their occupational duties implementation to determine the conformity of their professionally important qualities to the requirements of specific occupational activity.

  20. Optimization of effectiveness of competition activity of sportsmen on the basis of increase of level of their psychological stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntian V.S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article is chosen particularities to psychological preparedness athletes in single combat, is determined their role in optimization scholastic-burn-in process and competition to activity. Psychology test athlete is realized on Spilberger questionnaire is revealed level larval and situational state of anxiety. The motivated influence to psychological stability on increasing level athletics competitive result, and applied activity fighter.

  1. Expression of an Activated Integrin Promotes Long-Distance Sensory Axon Regeneration in the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Menghon; Andrews, Melissa R; Chew, Daniel J; Moloney, Elizabeth B; Verhaagen, Joost; Fässler, Reinhard; Fawcett, James W

    2016-07-06

    After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally, integrins can be inactivated by CSPGs, and this inhibition can be overcome by the presence of a β1-binding integrin activator, kindlin-1. We examined the synergistic effect of α9 integrin and kindlin-1 on sensory axon regeneration in adult rat spinal cord after dorsal root crush and adeno-associated virus transgene expression in dorsal root ganglia. After 12 weeks, axons from C6-C7 dorsal root ganglia regenerated through the tenascin-C-rich dorsal root entry zone into the dorsal column up to C1 level and above (>25 mm axon length) through a normal pathway. Animals also showed anatomical and electrophysiological evidence of reconnection to the dorsal horn and behavioral recovery in mechanical pressure, thermal pain, and ladder-walking tasks. Expression of α9 integrin or kindlin-1 alone promoted much less regeneration and recovery. The study demonstrates that long-distance sensory axon regeneration over a normal pathway and with sensory and sensory-motor recovery can be achieved. This was achieved by expressing an integrin that recognizes tenascin-C, one of the components of glial scar tissue, and an integrin activator. This enabled extensive long-distance (>25 mm) regeneration of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons with topographically correct connections in the spinal cord. The extent of growth and recovery we have seen would probably be clinically significant. Restoration of sensation to hands, perineum, and genitalia would be a significant improvement for a spinal cord-injured patient. Copyright © 2016 CHEAH et al.

  2. Psychological resilience and active social participation among older adults with incontinence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kyo; Sase, Eriko; Kato, Atsushi; Igari, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-11-01

    Incontinence restricts participation in social activities among older adults. However, some older adults participate in social activities despite this condition. This study aimed to describe how older adults with incontinence could be resilient and actively participate in social activities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 socially active older adults with incontinence (age 70-90; nine women and two men) at their homes or in private areas of day-service centres in Chiba, Japan. We coded salient narratives by using thematic analysis and extracted themes. Finally, we developed a conceptual model and illustrated the interactions among themes. We identified seven themes that affected active social participation; five of these pertained to psychological characteristics ('motivation to be socially active', 'psychological stress of incontinence', 'desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') and the remaining two pertained to supporting environmental factors ('assistive devices' and 'accessible toilet'). Three psychological themes ('desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') were intertwined with supporting environmental factors and increased the participants' 'motivation to be socially active'. Older adults with incontinence can actively participate in the society when they have desire to interact with others, willingness to perform physical exercise, and confidence in managing incontinence. These psychological characteristics are important for being resilient in the face of incontinence and for active social participation.

  3. Use of loaded conditioning activities to potentiate middle- and long-distance performance: a narrative review and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Richard C; Howatson, Glyn; Hayes, Philip R

    2018-01-29

    The warm-up is an integral component of a middle- and long-distance athlete's pre-performance routine. The use of a loaded conditioning activity (LCA), which elicits a post-activation potentiation (PAP) response to acutely enhance explosive power performance, is well-researched. A similar approach incorporated into the warm-up of a middle- or long-distance athlete potentially provides a novel strategy to augment performance. Mechanisms that underpin a PAP response, relating to acute adjustments within the neuromuscular system, should theoretically improve middle- and long-distance performance via improvements in sub-maximal force-generating ability. Attempts to enhance middle- and long-distance related outcomes using a LCA have been used in several recent studies. Results suggest benefits to performance may exist in well-trained middle- and long-distance athletes by including high-intensity resistance training (1-5 repetition maximum) or adding load to the sport skill itself during the latter part of warm-ups. Early stages of performance appear to benefit most, and it is likely that recovery (5-10 min) also plays an important role following a LCA. Future research should consider how priming activity, designed to enhance the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetic response, and a LCA may interact to affect performance, and how different LCA's might benefit various modes and durations of middle- and long-distance exercise.

  4. 2008 C. H. McCloy Lecture: Social Psychology and Physical Activity--Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity." Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower bio-psycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather…

  5. Outside the Classroom and beyond Psychology: A Citation Analysis of the Scientific Influence of Teaching Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob; Walter, Mark I.; Yerkes, Kyle; Brady, Brittany; Erdman, Molly; Dantoni, Lindsay; Venables, Megan; Manry, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A primary objective for researchers who publish teaching activities and methods in the "Teaching of Psychology" (ToP) is to inform best practices in classroom teaching. Beyond the learning effect in the classroom, these ToP teaching activity and method articles may also have a "scientific" effect that heretofore researchers…

  6. Language Learning Activities of Distance EFL Learners in the Turkish Open Education System as the Indicator of Their Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in…

  7. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802

  8. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, HP; Stone, JA; Churchill, SM; Wheat, JS; Brymer, E; Davids, K

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activ...

  9. Psychological and pedagogical support of the information and computer activities of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина Львовна Сунгурова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical foundations of psychological researches of the process of informatization in education, is denoted the problem information and computer activity of students. Information-computer activity of students means a qualitatively special kind of activity. In the interaction of with the modern technologies there are changes and development the indicative and operational and technical components of the activity, the spatial and temporal boundaries are transformed, the motivation of applications is formed. Information-computer environment as the context activity of the subject becomes the new source of the psychic neoplasms. The article discusses the psychological effects of using of information technologies, the conditions for ensuring the success of information and computer activity of students are allocated. The author offers a program of psycho-pedagogical support of training of students in the information and educational environment. The technology includes the following areas: the diagnostic, consultative work of the teacher and students' own activity. The organization of student support enhances knowledge about the socio-psychological aspects of the of information technology, social valuable motivation is formed, skills of the avoidance negative consequences of informatization are developed. In the process of work monitoring is conducted, individual-typological features of personality of students in interaction with technology are studied, correction of deviations is held, the psychological readiness of the subject to a productive application of information and computer technology is formed, information competence develops.

  10. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael H; Owen, Christopher G; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship between physical activity levels and broad-based measures of psychological wellbeing in adolescents have been limited by not controlling for potentially confounding variables. The present study examined the relationship between adolescents' self-reported physical activity level, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing; while controlling for a broad range of sociodemographic, health and developmental factors. The study entailed a cross-sectional school-based survey in ten British towns. Two thousand six hundred and twenty three adolescents (aged 13-16 years) reported physical activity levels, patterns of sedentary behaviour (TV/computer/video usage) and completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Lower levels of self-reported physical activity and higher levels of sedentary behaviour showed graded associations with higher SDQ total difficulties scores, both for boys (P physical activity are independently associated with diminished psychological wellbeing among adolescents. Longitudinal studies may provide further insights into the relationship between wellbeing and activity levels in this population. Ultimately, randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effects of increasing physical activity on psychological wellbeing among adolescents.

  11. The Psychological and Social Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)

  12. Spatially Periodic Activation Patterns of Retrosplenial Cortex Encode Route Sub-spaces and Distance Traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Andrew S; Nitz, Douglas A

    2017-06-05

    Traversal of a complicated route is often facilitated by considering it as a set of related sub-spaces. Such compartmentalization processes could occur within retrosplenial cortex, a structure whose neurons simultaneously encode position within routes and other spatial coordinate systems. Here, retrosplenial cortex neurons were recorded as rats traversed a track having recurrent structure at multiple scales. Consistent with a major role in compartmentalization of complex routes, individual retrosplenial cortex (RSC) neurons exhibited periodic activation patterns that repeated across route segments having the same shape. Concurrently, a larger population of RSC neurons exhibited single-cycle periodicity over the full route, effectively defining a framework for encoding of sub-route positions relative to the whole. The same population simultaneously provides a novel metric for distance from each route position to all others. Together, the findings implicate retrosplenial cortex in the extraction of path sub-spaces, the encoding of their spatial relationships to each other, and path integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activities aimed at encouraging children to suicidal behavior: judicial-psychological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Federal law of June 7, 2017 g. № 120-FZ "On amendments to the criminal code of the Russian Federation and article 151 of the Criminal procedure code of the Russian Federation in the part of establishing additional mechanisms to counter activities aimed at encouraging children to suicidal behavior" establishes criminal liability for inducement to commit suicide or assist in its Commission (article 110.1 of the criminal code, as well as for the organization of activities aimed at encouraging citizens to commit suicide (article 110.2 of the criminal code. Two additions to the criminal code include using a publicly performed work, the media or information and telecommunications networks (including network "Internet". There are new legal consequences relevant to forensic psychological assessment related to suicide. The article analyzes the legal situation (pre-investigation check of materials and incitement to suicide that define the subject of judicial-psychological or psychological and psychiatric examinations as the mental state of the subject in the period preceding the suicide (death. Legislative innovations require expertise in psychology and linguistics. One of the subjects of psychological-linguistic expertise is the focus of the information material (text, graphic, together verbal and non-verbal information or the communicative activity of the subject to encourage the addressee to co-concluding suicide. Formulate possible questions for the ex-experts and psychologists.

  14. LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES OF DISTANCE EFL LEARNERS IN THE TURKISH OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEM AS THE INDICATOR OF THEIR LEARNER AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTUNAY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in general learners do not demonstrate autonomous language learning behaviour. They prefer learning English in a relaxed environment particularly by engaging in entertaining activities, and through note-taking. However, they do not have sufficient interaction with their facilitator, other learners or speakers. Although the participants are distance learners, they do not prefer Internet-based activities. Conditions stemming from adulthood, lack of skills necessary to perform an activity, lack of awareness of some activities and learners’ experiences in their previous years of education are some of the reasons for their unautonomous behaviour. The article also includes suggestions for teaching and future research.

  15. Psychological Factors Involved in Sexual Desire, Sexual Activity, and Sexual Satisfaction: A Multi-factorial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Alessandra; Rochat, Lucien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the role of psychological trait factors in sexual desire and sexual activity. In particular, it investigated how these factors may contribute to maintaining a balance between motivational aspects and self-control abilities, as both have been considered important in relation to adaptive sexuality. Moreover, the study explored the relationship between sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction. Participants completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual activity (with a partner, alone), sexual satisfaction, approach and avoidance motivation, attachment, self-control, sensation seeking, and mindfulness. Cluster analyses, based on participants' level of sexual desire and sexual activity, highlighted three distinct profiles for each gender related to different types of psychological functioning: (a) participants with high dyadic sexual desire and activity were the most sexually satisfied, showed optimal psychological functioning, and were characterized by a balance between motivational tendencies to seek positive rewards and self-control abilities (high approach motivation, secure attachment, high self-control, high mindfulness); (b) participants with high dyadic and solitary sexual desire and activity were moderately satisfied and showed a type of psychological functioning predominantly characterized by impulsivity (an overly high motivation to obtain rewards in women, and low self-control in men); (c) participants with low dyadic sexual desire and activity were the least sexually satisfied and were characterized by high motivation to avoid negative consequences and low self-control (high avoidance motivation, insecure attachment, and poor mindfulness). These results shed further light on how fundamental psychological factors contribute to explain the individual variability in sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction.

  16. Effectiveness of technology-based distance interventions promoting physical activity: Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Sanna; Rintala, Aki; Immonen, Jaakko; Karvanen, Juha; Heinonen, Ari; Sjögren, Tuulikki

    2017-01-31

    To determine the effectiveness of technology-based distance interventions for promoting physical activity, using systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search of studies published between 2000 and 2015 was conducted in the following databases: CENTRAL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OTseeker, WOS and PEDro. Studies were selected according to the PICOS framework, as follows: P (population): adults; I (intervention): technology-based distance intervention for promoting physical activity; C (comparison) similar distance intervention without technology, O (outcomes) physical activity; S (study design) randomized controlled trial. Physical activity outcomes were extracted and quality was assessed by 2 independent authors. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The mean (standard deviation; range) me thodological quality score of the studies was 6 (1.3; 4-8). Technology-based distance interventions were not more or less effective than conventional treatment whether measured as steps/day (mean difference 1,657; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1,861 to 5,176, p = 0.18), physical activity min/week (mean difference 0.34; 95% CI -146.3 to 146.9, p = 0.92), or as overall physical activity (response ratio 1.1; 95% CI 0.8-1.4, p = 0.65). No associations between the intervention duration or study quality and physical activity outcomes were found. Data were statistically and clinically heterogeneous. The effectiveness of technology-based distance interventions for promoting physical activity is similar to that of conventional treatment.

  17. [Influence of active commuting on happiness, well-being, psychological distress and body shape in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; de la Torre-Cruz, Manuel J; Redecillas-Peiró, María T; Martínez-López, Emilio J

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the association between active commuting to secondary school and indicators of psychological health in a sample of 1012 adolescents. Active commuting was assessed through a questionnaire, subjective happiness with the Subjective Happiness Scale, well-being and psychological distress with the General Well-Being Scale, and body shape was assessed using the short version of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Adolescents who spent more than 15 minutes per day actively commuting to secondary school had higher levels of subjective happiness (p=0.032) and psychological well-being (p=0.021) and lower levels of psychological distress (p=0.021) than adolescents who spent 15 minutes or less per day. There were no differences in body shape between less and more active adolescents (p >0.05). Active commuting to secondary school for more of 15 minutes per day is recommended because it is associated with higher levels of happiness and well-being in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  19. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  20. Psychological distress and adherence to highly active anti-retroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health related risk factors for non-adherence to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have not been investigated in Uganda and yet adherence is critical to the success of the current scale up in the provision of HAART to HIV positive individuals in rural areas of Uganda. Objective: To determine ...

  1. Active Aging in Very Old Age and the Relevance of Psychological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Paúl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundActive aging encompasses a socially and individually designed mix of different domains that range from personal and familial, to social and professional. In being a key policy concept often focused on the young-old individuals, efforts in studying its dimensions in advanced ages have seldom been made. Nevertheless, there is a recognized need to promote adequate responses to the growing number of individuals reaching advanced ages and to recognize their specific dependability on health-related aspects, services attendance, social interactions, or on psychological characteristics for what it means to “age actively.”Objective and methodsThis study provides a secondary analysis of data and follows the preceding work on the operationalization of the World Health Organization’s (WHO active aging model by means of an assessment protocol to measure which variables, within the model’s determinants, contribute the most for an active aging process (1. Authors used the achieved model (composed by six factors: health, psychological component, cognitive performance, social relationships, biological component, and personality and performed multi-group analysis of structural invariance to examine hypothetical differences between age groups (<75 years vs. ≥75 years and to contrast obtained findings with the originally achieved model for the total sample (1,322 individuals aged 55 +.ResultsThe structural covariances for the two age groups were statistically different. The comparison of components between age groups revealed a major relevance of the psychological component for the older age group.ConclusionThese findings reinforce the importance of psychological functioning in active aging in oldest old, and the need for further research on specific psychological features underlying the subjective meaning of active aging in more advanced ages.

  2. Daily Variation in Adolescents' Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…

  3. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  4. [Activity involvement and extraversion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between extraversion and wellbeing has been discussed in the literature, however, the impact that this trait has on the wellbeing of older people has been studied to a lesser extent. The relationship between extraversion, participation in activities and psychological wellbeing in older people is analysed in this study. The sample comprised 139 individuals over 55 years from rural and urban areas of the province of Granada who completed the extraversion subscale of the NEO-FFI and the Ryff Scales of the Psychological Wellbeing, as well as responding to questions that evaluated their social participation. A greater social participation was found in rural areas and among women. The activities more frequently performed by the participants were educational and religious activities, walking, everyday chores, crafts, and home improvements. A low positive correlation between extraversion and wellbeing was observed. The multiple regression analysis revealed that extraversion explained 19.9% of the variance in psychological wellbeing, which increased to 25.3% when social participation, gender, and the origin of the sample were considered. Psychological wellbeing appears to be associated with personality traits, such as extraversion. In addition this personality trait is linked to the number and type of activities the elderly perform which also contributes to wellbeing in old age. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; La Marca, Roberto; Erni, Katja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aim Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies. Methods In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies. Results Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest. Conclusions Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals. PMID:26110636

  6. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  7. Certain aspects of the psychological analysis of programmer activity. [selection of computer programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarovskaya, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological analysis of programmer activity showed that one of its basic characteristics is the need to employ formal languages. In determining ways of effectively mastering the capacity to write algorithms in the algorithmic language, it is expedient to proceed from its similarity to the living languages and the language of mathematical formulas, and to choose certain psychological principles of mastering foreign languages and mathematical symbols in teaching the algorithmic language. General models of the input language significantly increase the effectiveness of its mastery and permit the development of thinking on the part of the students.

  8. School travel and children’s physical activity: a cross-sectional study examining the influence of distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school travel mode and physical activity using a sampling frame that purposefully locates schools in varying neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 785 children (10.57 ± 0.7 years) in Toronto, Canada. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and travel mode was self-reported by parents. Linear regression models accounting for school clustering effects examined the associations between mode choice, BMI, and physical activity and were estimated adjusting for age, types of neighbourhoods and travel distance to school. Results Significant associations between walking to school and moderate activity during weekdays were found. Interactions between walking to school and travel distance to school were found only in boys with significant associations between walking to school and higher physical activity levels in those living within 1000–1600 meters from school. Boys walking to school and living in this range accumulated 7.6 more minutes of daily MVPA than boys who were driven. Conclusions Walking to school can make a modest but significant contribution to overall physical activity. This contribution was modified by travel distance and not school neighbourhood socioeconomic status or the built environment. PMID:24330459

  9. Music and physical activity in psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macone, Damiano; Baldari, Carlo; Zelli, Arnaldo; Guidetti, Laura

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of listening to music during exercise of moderate intensity on mood, state anxiety, and time to exhaustion as well as to evaluate sex differences in 27 physically active (14 men, 13 women) subjects between the ages of 20 and 30 years. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory before and after treadmill running in Music and No music conditions. Music and No Music conditions were randomly assigned, and participants exercised at 75% of their Heart Rate Reserve until voluntary exhaustion. Analysis indicated participants reported statistically significant mean changes on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, Confusion, and State Anxiety. However, the findings for emotions yielded no significant effect of music, except findings suggested that women, but not men, reported greater mean Fatigue after exercising in the presence of music than in its absence. Also, there was a statistically significant finding suggesting that women exercised longer with music than without.

  10. John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  11. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  12. Substrate Proton to Heme Distances in CYP2C9 Allelic Variants and Alterations by the Heterotropic Activator, Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthew A.; Gannett, Peter M.; Aguilar, Jarrett; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    CYP2C9 polymorphisms result in reduced enzyme catalytic activity and greater activation by effector molecules as compared to wild type protein, with the mechanism(s) for these changes in activity not fully elucidated. Through T1 NMR and spectral binding analyses, mechanism(s) for these differences in behavior of the variant proteins (CYP2C9.2, CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.5) as compared to CYP2C9.1 were assessed. Neither altered binding affinity nor substrate (flurbiprofen) proton to heme-iron distances differed substantially among the four enzymes. Co-incubation with dapsone resulted in reduced substrate proton to heme-iron distances for all enzymes, providing at least a partial mechanism for the activation of CYP2C9 variants by dapsone. In summary, neither altered binding affinity nor substrate orientation appear to be major factors in the reduced catalytic activity noted in the CYP2C9 variants, but dapsone co-incubation caused similar changes in substrate proton to heme-iron distances suggesting at least partial common mechanisms in the activation of the CYP2C9 forms. PMID:18485885

  13. Distance From Public Transportation and Physical Activity in Japanese Older Adults: The Moderating Role of Driving Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Anan, Yuya; Harada, Kenji; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-25

    Although previous studies have shown that good access to public transportation is positively related with physical activity, the moderators of this relationship have not been explored sufficiently in older adults. It is possible that driving status could moderate this relationship. The present study examined whether the objectively measured distance between public transportation and the home was associated with physical activity levels, and whether this association was moderated by driving status among Japanese older adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants (n = 2,878) completed questionnaires and wore accelerometers for at least 7 days, to measure their average daily step counts and minutes spent engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Road network distances between the home and the nearest bus stop or train station were measured using geographic information systems. Driving status was assessed using questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses stratified by driving status revealed that, among nondrivers, living further away from public transportation was associated with higher step counts (β = 0.08, p public transportation was significantly associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (β = -0.05, p = .042). Despite the small effect sizes, the direction of the association between distance from public transportation and physical activity was different for current drivers and nondrivers. These findings imply that good access to public transportation does not positively relate with greater engagement in physical activity among nondriving older adults. Shorter distances to public transportation might reduce opportunities for engaging in physical activity for them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  15. DIRECTIONS OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS TO THE USE OF DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY (PRAXIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE ACTIVITY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Boronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to demonstrate the need of preparing future teachers to use distance learning technologies in the professional activities. Introduction in educational process of distance learning technologies contributes to improving the quality of education. Methods. The authors’ technique of preparation of students of pedagogical specialities to work in the information-educational environment is designed on the basis of the analysis and generalisation of numerous scientific publications. Results. The system of training to implementation of the distance learning technologies in the teaching activity is developed and described, consisting of the following directions: realisation within the program of the principal educational program of specialised training courses in variable-based curriculum parts; the organisation of educational and research activity of students with the use of distance learning technologies; classroom-based and extracurricular independent work of students directed to designing of teaching and learning aids and materials on the basis of distance learning technologies; application of elements of distance learning technologies for students’ teaching; attraction of students to formation of corpus of multimedia educational resources of university. The purposes, the content and expected results of each direction are specified. Scientific novelty. The authors point out that concrete scientifically wellfounded methodical recommendations for the future teachers on implementation of distance learning technologies haven’t been presented in the Russian literature till now; despite an abundance of scientifically-information sources of distance learning technologies and sufficiently high-leveled degree knowledge of the issues of its efficiency in educational activity, conditions of introduction of such technologies in high school, construction of models of distance training. Authors of article have tried to close this

  16. A Case Study of Using Groupware To Support Collaborative Activities in a Distance Learning Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkehans, Lara M.

    This case study examined the ways a groupware tool, TWISTER (Talking - Writing - Information access - Solving problems with Technology for Education and Research), was used to create a learner-centered distance learning environment in a telecommunications in education class. Data were collected using learner participant surveys, observation field…

  17. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  18. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (Pvideo games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.

  20. Self-distancing improves interpersonal perceptions and behavior by decreasing medial prefrontal cortex activity during the provision of criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Ayduk, Ozlem; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Magerman, Adam; Amey, Rachel; Kross, Ethan; Forbes, Chad E

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that people show increased self-referential processing when they provide criticism to others, and that this self-referential processing can have negative effects on interpersonal perceptions and behavior. The current research hypothesized that adopting a self-distanced perspective (i.e. thinking about a situation from a non-first person point of view), as compared with a typical self-immersed perspective (i.e. thinking about a situation from a first-person point of view), would reduce self-referential processing during the provision of criticism, and in turn improve interpersonal perceptions and behavior. We tested this hypothesis in an interracial context since research suggests that self-referential processing plays a role in damaging interracial relations. White participants prepared for mentorship from a self-immersed or self-distanced perspective. They then conveyed negative and positive evaluations to a Black mentee while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Source analysis revealed that priming a self-distanced (vs self-immersed) perspective predicted decreased activity in regions linked to self-referential processing (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC) when providing negative evaluations. This decreased MPFC activity during negative evaluations, in turn, predicted verbal feedback that was perceived to be more positive, warm and helpful. Results suggest that self-distancing can improve interpersonal perceptions and behavior by decreasing self-referential processing during the provision of criticism. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  2. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Lawton; Eric Brymer; Peter Clough; Andrew Denovan

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (...

  3. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  4. Classroom Activities Contributing to Increased Motivation for Learning : Three Psychological Needs to Be Taken Into Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    岩中, 貴裕; Takahiro, IWANAKA; 香川大学

    2011-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory posits 3 basic psychological needs which should be fulfilled for integrated and vital human functioning: the need for competence, relatedness and autonomy. It is assumed that classroom environment which allows satisfaction of the 3 basic needs increases learners' motivation for learning. Nineteen students took part in the course which consisted of activities intended to satisfy the 3 basic needs. After taking the course, they increased their motivation for learning E...

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY CRITERIA OF CREATIVE EDUCATION: SELF-DEPENDENCY, ACTIVE THINKING ACTIVITY, CONFIDENTIAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Chernyshov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: а detailed investigation has been conducted within the frames of an integrated project and on the basis of a number of schools in 3 regional centers of Russian Federation, its goal presuming the search for psychological ways of refining the innovative education system. The set of the project’s objectives included analysis of the approaches to organization, implementation of innovative education as well as analysis of possible techniques of constructing pedagogical discourse. Маterials and Methods: this investigation presumed either open or hidden observation of the process of structuring and implementation of the education process, as well as observation of the pedagogical discourse, conducting the questioning of the schoolchildren, teachers, school administration and parents. Technical aids of video- and audio-registration were used in course of observations and questioning. The materials obtained were studies, and the conclusions drawn w ere generalized. Results: рithy material was obtained. Its analysis allows one to state that there are systemic problems in education and upbringing, and that there is the need to apply didactic approaches to the end of forming mind, consciousness, feeling-sense sphere of mind and morality in schoolchildren. Discussion and Conclusions: definite approaches to solving these problems are discussed. It is exclusively important that refining the system of innovative education would follow the way of goal-oriented and systemic constructing confidential, correct and only under this circumstance truly innovative pedagogical discourse in class and outside the classroom. Such a discourse shall stimulate not only initiation of thinking activity of schoolchildren (as L. S. Vygotsky presupposed but, first of all, formation of the feeling-sense sphere of mind, which is the basis for forming personally-valuable feelings, senses and moral orientations of schoolchildren. Formation of consciousness, self

  6. Meaningful activities for improving the wellbeing of people with dementia: Beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, S.R.; Szymczynska, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Dementia is being increasingly recognised as a major public health issue for our ageing populations. A critical aspect of supporting people with dementia is facilitating their participation in meaningful activities. However, research to date has not drawn on theories of ageing from developmental psychology that would help undergird the importance of such meaningful activity. For the first time, we connect existing activity provision for people with dementia with developmental psychology...

  7. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Dobashi-Okuyama, Kaori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Ohno, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg) cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a "neuropsychiatry phenotype" in asthma. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity promotion by health practitioners: a distance-learning training component to improve knowledge and counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex A; Andrade, Douglas R; Guerra, Paulo H; Mota, Jorge; Crone, Diane; Mafra, Ana C C N; Bracco, Mario M

    2017-11-10

    Aim To report an evaluation of health professionals' participation in a distance-learning physical activity training course developed in a low socio-economic region of São Paulo city, Brazil. In countries with public universal health systems, physical activity promotion in primary health care settings can reap results, particularly given that such interventions have the potential to reach a large percentage of the population. However, few studies proposed physical activity training for health professionals in low- and middle-income countries. Brazil is a continental country and has the Unified Health System which incorporates family health teams in over 85% of Brazilian cities. The physical activity training was part of the fifth module of an educational intervention throughout a distance-learning course focusing on health professionals at M'Boi Mirim district in São Paulo city. The training totaled 3 h and had five themes of physical activity: (1) concepts, definitions benefits; (2) evaluation; (3) recommendation; (4) interventions; (5) physical activity counseling. The opinion of health professionals was evaluated after training by two open questions. Findings Out of 106 professionals who took part of the course, only 22.6% (n=24) had accessed the fifth module. These professionals were predominantly female (79.2%), nurses (66.7%) and aged 30 years or older. Responses highlighted the course approach focused on physical activity for improving patient's quality of life and well-being, disease prevention and health improvements. Regarding the themes for improvement, the health professionals identified that there was a need to experience physical activity classes first-hand, and the need to link physical activity counseling to the local venues that provide structured physical activity programs. We recommend that further training courses can be conducted based on this model for health professionals to promote physical activity to the community in Brazil.

  9. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  10. Psychological distress, television viewing, and physical activity in children aged 4 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mishra, Gita

    2009-05-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological distress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Participants were 1486 boys and girls (mean age: 8.5 +/- 2.3 years). Parents answered on behalf of children who were required to be present. The parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and information on television and screen entertainment time, physical activity, and dietary intake of their children. An abnormally high Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score (20-40) was found in 4.2% of the sample. Approximately 25% of the children were exposed to television and screen entertainment at least 3 hours/day. In general linear models, television and screen entertainment time per week and physical activity levels were independently associated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score after adjustment for age, gender, area deprivation level, single-parent status, medical conditions, and various dietary intake indicators. There was also an additive interaction effect showing that the combination of high television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity was associated with the highest Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score. Higher television and screen entertainment exposure (>2.7 hours/day) alone resulted in a 24% increase in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score in comparison with lower television and screen entertainment exposure (television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.

  11. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and Life Satisfaction were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences.

  12. The psychological distance of memories: Examining causal relations with mood and self-esteem in young, middle-aged and older adults.

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    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    Three studies examined the self-enhancement function of autobiographical memory (measured with subjective temporal distance of memories). Participants recalled a memory of an attained and a failed goal and rated the subjective distance between each memory and the present. Study 1 showed that young adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to memories of attained goals and farther from failure memories than those with lower self-esteem. In Study 2, young, middle-aged and older adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to success memories, whereas self-esteem was unrelated to the temporal distance of failure memories. In both studies, feeling closer to success memories (and far from failure) led to enhanced mood. In Study 3, state self-esteem was experimentally manipulated. The manipulation had no effect on young and older adults, but middle-aged adults whose self-esteem was decreased, felt closer to success memories than failure memories. Results are discussed in relation to the temporal self-appraisal theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Activity Counseling Promotes Physical and Psychological Resilience in Older Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine S; Gregg, Jeffrey; Bosworth, Hayden B; Beckham, Jean C; Hoerster, Katherine D; Sloane, Richard; Morey, Miriam C

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have elevated rates of morbidity, and a sedentary lifestyle can cause and aggravate the physical health needs of adults with PTSD. The primary aim of this paper was to explore the impact of physical activity (PA) counseling (vs. usual care) on physical and psychological outcomes among individuals with PTSD. A secondary aim was to compare these arm effects between those with and without PTSD. Older (>60 years) overweight veterans with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to an intervention or a usual care control arm. Of the 302 participants who underwent randomization, 67 (22%) had PTSD. Participants in the intervention arm received one in-person activity counseling session followed by regular PA telephone counseling over 12 months. Physical and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Primary Aim (intervention vs. usual care among those with PTSD): PA increased on average from 80 minutes/week to 161 minutes/week among participants in the intervention arm (p=0.01). Large, clinically meaningful improvements in six-minute walk test and psychological health were observed over the course of the intervention (p<0.01). Secondary Aim (PTSD/No PTSD, intervention/usual care): participants with PTSD responded equally well to the intervention compared to participants without PTSD, though we observed significantly greater improvements in vitality and six-minute walk compared to participants without PTSD (p<0.05). Given the epidemic of comorbid psychological illness and lifestyle-related disease among persons with PTSD, our findings support development and implementation of targeted PA interventions in this high-risk population.

  14. Physical activity and cognitive function of long-distance walkers: Studying Four Days Marches participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.J.P.; Aalbers, T.; Maessen, M.F.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Eijsvogels, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of

  15. Physical activity and cognitive function of long distance walkers: Studying Four Days Marches participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.J.P.; Aalbers, T.; Maessen, M.F.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in

  16. Physical Activity and Cognitive Function of Long-Distance Walkers : Studying Four Days Marches Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Aalbers, Teun; Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of

  17. Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672

  18. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

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    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  19. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  20. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza

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    Kelly Heath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social distancing interventions such as school closure and prohibition of public gatherings are present in pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies in a pandemic is difficult. In the absence of other evidence, computer simulation can be used to help policy makers plan for a potential future influenza pandemic. We conducted simulations of a small community to determine the magnitude and timing of activation that would be necessary for social distancing interventions to arrest a future pandemic. Methods We used a detailed, individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000. We simulated the effect of four social distancing interventions: school closure, increased isolation of symptomatic individuals in their household, workplace nonattendance, and reduction of contact in the wider community. We simulated each of the intervention measures in isolation and in several combinations; and examined the effect of delays in the activation of interventions on the final and daily attack rates. Results For an epidemic with an R0 value of 1.5, a combination of all four social distancing measures could reduce the final attack rate from 33% to below 10% if introduced within 6 weeks from the introduction of the first case. In contrast, for an R0 of 2.5 these measures must be introduced within 2 weeks of the first case to achieve a similar reduction; delays of 2, 3 and 4 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 7%, 21% and 45% respectively. For an R0 of 3.5 the combination of all four measures could reduce the final attack rate from 73% to 16%, but only if introduced without delay; delays of 1, 2 or 3 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 19%, 35% or 63% respectively. For the higher R0 values no single measure has a significant impact on attack rates. Conclusion Our results suggest a critical role of social distancing in the potential control of a future

  1. Application of stages of change model to adolescents' physical activity in relation to psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca-Sos, A; Bois, J E; Generelo, E; Julián, J A; Zaragoza, J

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the stages of change in physical activity in relation to psychological variables: self-efficacy, physical self-concept and barriers to physical activity, as well as gender. Furthermore, cluster profiles were created based on psychological variables to be compared with stages of change groups. Data were obtained from a representative sample of adolescents (N.=1618, 14.46±1.28 years) from Aragon region (Spain). The different strata were selected according to the geographical region, environment, type of school, age and gender Males (75.5%) and very active adolescents (96.9% participant boys and 93.5% participants girls) were more prevalent in the action and maintenance groups. We found significant differences in psychosocial variables by stages of change and gender, showing higher scores in active groups for physical self-concept (effects of gender and stages of change: F(1, 1618)=313.82 Pstages of change groups (χ²(1)=162,76, Pchange behaviour, not only stage of change model variables. Furthermore, the study can be relevant to designing more effective health promotion programmes in the adolescent population.

  2. Safety culture in activities involving ionizing radiation long-distance courses for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.M.; Ghobril, C.N. [ATOMO - Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanches, M.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Levy, P.J.; Levy, D.S. [Omiccron Programacao Grafica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A.T.O.M.O. is a firm with long experience in the layout and coordination of Radiological Protection courses and, for this reason, has developed long-distance courses, both in Portuguese and in English, using multi-media resources already available for the areas of Gamma-graphy, Nuclear Gauges, Accelerators and Large Irradiators. On developing this project, we focused companies and their personnel to be trained, aiming avoiding their relocation and providing the comfortable of studying at their more convenient time. O.m.i.c.r.o.m., a multimedia firm, our partner in this project, has been responsible for the course program and design. This work consisted in the adaptation of the traditional material for electronic language, through links, hot words and icons especially developed for additional information. Besides images and graphics from the original handouts, animations were developed at O.m.i.c.r.o.m. studios, explaining the procedures with more details and simplifying the comprehension of more complex subjects. For enhancing the Cd Rom, slides were produced, where the pictures move automatically as the explanations are narrated. The Cd also comprises some videos, where the students may visualize practically the complex procedures, which are extremely important. At the end of each topic, the students evaluate their knowledge through multiple choice tests, which deal with the subject studied in the related chapter. This and other highly updated resources are utilized for assuring a better learning. The Cd is not only an electronic handout, but a long-distance course providing weekly support for the students, through Internet, direct access to the instructors by e-mails or chat, previously arranged, access to a data bank constantly updated for more frequent questions, plus link addresses and pages of interest for radiological protection. The tests are taken at the end of each module, before starting the following one. Each module comprises several chapters, totaling

  3. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Parra, Diana C; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Changes in urban mobility play a major role in transforming metropolitan areas into healthier places. This study quantified the impact of changes in travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation of working age adult population of São Paulo. Through different scenarios, we estimated the daily time spent in transportation per inhabitant (divided in active and non-active transportation time) and the proportion of inhabitants accumulating 30 min or more of daily active transportation. The replacement of individual for collective motorized modes in long distance trips (> 1000 m) in combination with the substitution of long for short trips positively impacted all outcomes. Compared to the current situation, there was an increase in the active transportation time (from 19.4 to 26.7 min/inhabitant), which also increased the proportion of adults active for transportation (from 27.6% to 35.4%). Additionally, the non-active transportation time decreased (from 67.0 to 26.2 min/inhabitant), which helped to reduce the total time spent in transportation (from 86.4 to 52.9 min/inhabitant). Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  4. Chronic Psychological Distress as an Inducer of Microglial Activation and Leukocyte Recruitment into the Area Postrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological distress can cause neuroinflammation, but the involvement of leukocytes in this inflammatory response remains unclear. The area postrema (AP) is considered a neural-immune interface because it lacks a blood-brain barrier and a site for leukocyte recruitment in neuroinflammatory conditions induced by immunological insults, but its role in chronic psychological distress has not been explored. To determine leukocyte recruitment to the AP after chronic psychological distress. Rats were exposed to cat odor for 5 consecutive days to induce distress, and, on the 6th day, their brains were dissected to perform immunohistofluorescence studies of the AP. Immune cells were identified and quantified with CD45 and CD11b markers. The distribution of neurons and immune cells was determined using TrkA and CD45 markers, respectively. Distress induced a significant increase in CD45(+) and CD11b(+) cells in the AP. Three immunophenotypes were determined in the control and distress groups: CD45(+)/CD11b(-), CD45(+)/CD11b(+) and CD45(-)/CD11b(+). CD expression, morphology and fluorescence intensity enabled the identification of different immune cell types: starting from longitudinal ramified microglia (mainly in the control group) to amoeboid microglia, monocytes and lymphocytes (mostly in the distressed group). TrkA and CD45 expression in the AP revealed the proximity between soma neurons and leukocytes. Interestingly, some CD45(+) cells expressed TrkA, with increased expression in the distressed group. The identification of microglial activation, leukocyte recruitment and the close proximity between neurons and leukocytes in the AP after chronic psychological distress exposure suggests the AP as a site for distress-induced immune responses and engraftment of leukocytes infiltrating the CNS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  6. Are children's psychological self-concepts predictive of their self reported activity preferences and leisure participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Hana; Brown, Ted

    2014-06-01

    Participation in leisure and play activities is recognised as an important outcome in occupational therapy for children. To investigate whether children's psychological self-concept are predictive of their activity preferences and leisure participation. A group of 38 healthy children aged 10-14 years from Victoria, Australia completed the Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale (Piers Harris-2) and the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment/Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC). Correlation and regression analyses were completed to investigate the predictive relationships between the Pier Harris-2 and the CAPE/PAC. The Piers Harris-2 Intellectual and School Status subscale was found to be predictive of children's Overall Enjoyment of Participation as measured on the CAPE, explaining 21.9% of the total variance (β = 0.566, P activities as measured by the PAC, explaining 18.9% of the total variance (β = -.435, P Activities subscale (β = -.476, P ≤ 0.01) and 14.6% of the PAC Preferences for Skill-Based Activities subscale (β = 0.382, P ≤ 0.05) while age made unique contributions to the PAC Social Activities subscale (β = -0.418, P ≤ 0.01) explaining 17.5% of its total variance. This study provides evidence that children's psychological self-concept, age and gender are predictive of components of children's activity preferences and leisure participation. In particular, participation enjoyment is influenced by their perceived self-esteem and how well they do at school. Further investigation of this topic is recommended. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Psychological status in Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis and its relation to disease activity and quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeian, Mahshid; Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feizi, Awat; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Naji, Fateme; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%), 48 (40.0%), and 46 (38.3%) had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01). Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01). Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01). In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049). Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001). For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard. PMID:26600833

  8. Psychological status in Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis and its relation to disease activity and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Tabatabaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%, 48 (40.0%, and 46 (38.3% had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01. Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01. In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049. Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001. For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard.

  9. DISTANCE EDUCATION AND THE INCORPORATION OF AN ONLINE LEARNING ACTIVITY INTO THE HUMAN RIGHTS LAW COURSE TO PROMOTE DEEP LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alperhan BABACAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a brief overview of the current teaching and learning aims and assessment in the Human Rights Law course offered at RMIT University. Although this course has been taught on a face to face basis, in future, it will also be offered to on line students. This calls for new teaching and learning and assessment practices which promote deep learning for those enrolled in distance education. After a brief discussion of the theoretical literature relating to assessment, the paper discusses the perceived benefits of introducing an online learning activity relevant to the aims of the course. The paper then outlines the proposed on line activities and the relevant online tools. How the student will engage with the activity is addressed as is student demonstration of discipline based learning. It will be demonstrated that the overhauling of the existing format of the teaching and learning component relating to the memorandum of advice with online tools and exercises will strengthen and enrich the learning process for students enrolled in distance education and will lead to higher order thinking and deep learning.

  10. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  11. Impact of Psychological Factors on Subjective Disease Activity Assessments in Patients With Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Lis; Prajapati, Rita; Plant, Darren; Maskell, Deborah; Morgan, Catharine; Ali, Faisal R; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Isaacs, John D; Barton, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), used to assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is a composite score comprising clinical, biochemical, and patient self-report measures. We hypothesized that psychological factors (cognitions and mood) would be more strongly associated with patient-reported components of the DAS28 than clinical or biochemical components. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study of 322 RA patients with active disease (mean DAS28 6.0) awaiting therapy with a biologic agent was undertaken. Patients' illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, and mood were measured using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. Relationships between psychological factors and 1) total DAS28 and 2) individual components of the DAS28 were analyzed using linear regression. Results Total DAS28 produced significant but weak associations with 2 of the Brief IPQ items, but no associations with BMQ or HADS scores. There were larger significant associations between the patient-reported visual analog scale (VAS) with 5 items of the Brief IPQ and with HADS depression. Low illness coherence was associated with higher tender joint count. Three Brief IPQ items and HADS anxiety scores were significantly associated with C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No psychological factors were associated with the swollen joint count. Conclusion One of the subjective components of the DAS28, patient VAS, was highly correlated with cognitive factors and depression in those with severe RA. By reporting individual DAS28 components, clinicians may be better able to assess the impact of therapies on each component, adjusting approaches according to patients' needs. PMID:24339425

  12. Impact of active concealment of stigmatized identities on physical and psychological quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M; Weisz, Bradley M; Lawner, Elizabeth K

    2017-11-01

    Despite theoretical support for the relationship between disclosure (or "outness") and positive health outcomes for people with concealable stigmatized identities, research using outness to predict health elicits weak to inconsistent relationships. In the current research we argue that it is the need to frequently conceal that predicts negative health consequences, rather than outness. A sample of adults recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on mental illness, chronic physical illness, or minority sexual orientation (N = 288) concealment. Participants were surveyed on their levels of outness (in general and to specific others), their frequency of active concealment of the identity, and their physical and psychological quality of life (as measured by the WHOQOL-BREF). All surveys were completed from IP addresses in the United States in 2014. Results showed that the extent of active concealment predicted self-reported psychological (β = -0.32, p < 0.001) and physical QOL (β = -0.28, p < 0.001) over and above general levels of outness and outness to specific others, neither of which were significant predictors with concealment in the model. By examining the need for active concealment, researchers may be better positioned to predict and intervene to improve health outcomes for people with concealable stigmatized identities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  14. Concerning at distance: digital activism and social media empowerment between Latin-American migrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David RAMIREZ PLASCENCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on developing some important points about the use of social platforms in the life of Latin-Americans in Spain, particularly Mexican, Colombian and Venezuelan migrants. It shows the outcomes of data collected on closed groups in Facebook. The main topic centers on how social networks catalyze the spread of political engagement and public activism in between migrants concerning public matters in their homelands. Final outcomes will show that there is a clear inclination in using social platforms to discuss, organize and participate in public activism focused on resolving homeland problems. In this context, these virtual spaces serve as a link to stay in touch with their communities in Latin-America. Migrants are not only using social networks to make new relations in their new context but to ensure not to lose the connection with their friends and relatives, and of course, participate in social and political activism.

  15. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emma; Brymer, Eric; Clough, Peter; Denovan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262) aged 18-71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1) who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp). Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  16. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  17. Why the fundamental plane of black hole activity is not simply a distance driven artifact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merloni, A.; Körding, E.; Heinz, S.; Markoff, S.; Matteo, T. di; Falcke, H.D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental plane of black hole activity is a non-linear correlation among radio core luminosity, X-ray luminosity and mass of all accreting black holes, both of stellar mass and supermassive, found by Merloni et al. [Merloni, A., Heinz, S., di Matteo, T. 2003. MNRAS 345, 1057 (MHD03)] and,

  18. Governing Indigenous Recreation at a Distance: A Critical Analysis of an After School Active Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Moss E.; Petherick, LeAnne; Garcia, Eric; Giesbrecht, Gordon; Duhamel, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Within the Canadian context, the physical activity levels of children and youth in the after school time period has become a source of public health concern. We argue that this concern is informed by broader public health crises, in particular the "global obesity epidemic" and the closely related "global pandemic of physical…

  19. Walking, cycling and the urban form: A Heckman selection model of active travel mode and distance by young adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity of children and adolescents is a major public health challenge of the modern era but, when adequately promoted and nurtured, active travel offers immediate health benefits and forms future sustainable and healthy travel habits. This study explores jointly the choice...... and the extent of active travel of young adolescents while considering walking and cycling as distinct travel forms, controlling for objective urban form measures, and taking both a "street-buffer" looking at the immediate home surroundings and a "transport-zone" looking at wider neighborhoods. A Heckman...... selection model represents the distance covered while cycling (walking) given the mode choice being bicycle (walk) for a representative sample of 10-15 year-olds from the Capital Region of Denmark extracted from the Danish national travel survey. Results illustrate the necessity of different urban...

  20. Misuse of Psychologically Active Substances of Convicts being in Prisons and their Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuadan Plojovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the data of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia, over 70% of persons being in prisons and serving their sentences are drug addicts, and 50% of them are drug users. In the European prisons, the percentage of persons using drugs in the entire prison population is 20-70%, and in the USA 70-80%, in the Australian prisons between 50 and 80% of the convicts in prisons are addicts of psychologically active substances. The results of our survey are pursuant to official statistics data for Serbia, the European countries, USA and Australia, since 80% of our convicts in prisons have misused psychologically active substances during the period of 30 days, the previous period before coming to these institutions. More than a half of our examinees (60%, misuses narcotics and alcohol occasionally or permanently, the alcohol users only 12.7%, and only narcotics 7.3% of the ones, meaning that a treatment of addiction disease should have a significant role in prevention of recidivism.

  1. Active ocular vergence improves postural control in elderly as close viewing distance with or without a single cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Eric; Yang, Qing; Delpit-Baraut, Vincent; Dailly, Olivier; Kapoula, Zoï

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems decreases with age, reducing the capacity of postural control, and increasing the risk of falling. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of vision, active vergence eye movements, viewing distance/vergence angle and a simple cognitive task on postural control during an upright stance, in completely autonomous elderly individuals. Participated in the study, 23 elderly subjects (73.4 ± 6.8 years) who were enrolled in a center dedicated to the prevention of falling. Their body oscillations were measured with the DynaPort(®) device, with three accelerometers, placed at the lumbosacral level, near the center of mass. The conditions were the following: eyes open fixating on LED at 20 cm or 150 cm (vergence angle 17.0° and 2.3° respectively) with or without additional cognitive tasks (counting down from one hundred), performing active vergence by alternating the fixation between the far and the near LED (convergence and divergence), eyes closed after having fixated the far LED. The results showed that the postural stability significantly decreased when fixating on the LED at a far distance (weak convergence angle) with or without cognitive tasks; active convergence-divergence between the LEDs improved the postural stability while eye closure decreased it. The privilege of proximity (with increased convergence at near), previously established with foot posturography, is shown here to be valid for accelerometry with the center of mass in elderly. Another major result is the beneficial contribution of active vergence eye movements to better postural stability. The results bring new perspectives for the role of eye movement training to preserve postural control and autonomy in elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infiltrative microgliosis: activation and long-distance migration of subependymal microglia following periventricular insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horwitz Alan F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subventricular microglia (SVMs are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia. Methods We have developed and characterized a novel model for the investigation of subventricular microglial reactions in mice using intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of high-dose rhodamine dyes. Dynamic studies using timelapse confocal microscopy in situ complemented the histopathological analysis. Results We demonstrate that high-dose ICV rhodamine dye injection resulted in selective uptake by the ependyma and ependymal death within hours. Phagocytosis of ependymal debris by activated SVMs was evident by 1d as demonstrated by the appearance of rhodamine-positive SVMs. In the absence of further manipulation, labelled SVMs remained in the subventricular space. However, these cells exhibited the ability to migrate several hundred microns into the parenchyma towards a deafferentation injury of the hippocampus. This "infiltrative microgliosis" was verified in situ using timelapse confocal microscopy. Finally, supporting the disease relevance of this event, the triad of ependymal cell death, SVM activation, and infiltrative microgliosis was recapitulated by a single ICV injection of HIV-1 tat protein. Conclusions Subependymal microglia exhibit robust activation and migration in periventricular inflammatory responses. Further study of this population of microglia may provide insight into neurological diseases with tendencies to involve the ventricular system and periventricular tissues.

  3. Successful “in-flight” activation of natural killer cells during long-distance shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Scott A.; Kadidlo, Diane M.; Fautsch, Susan; McCullough, Jeffrey; Klingemann, Hans; Wagner, John E.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; McKenna, David H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Natural killer (NK) cells have shown promise in the treatment of malignancy. However, the widespread use of these cells may be limited by both the lack of resources and the expertise needed to manufacture them and the apparent need to use only fresh cells. The NHLBI-sponsored Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies group was established to provide the resources and expertise to carry out cell therapy research, including support of clinical trials. Here we describe the qualification of in transit activation of an NK-cell therapy product in preparation for a Phase I clinical trial at a distant medical center. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Nonmobilized apheresis mononuclear cell collections were CD3+ cell depleted, placed into culture bags with interleukin (IL)-2, and shipped from Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, to Columbus, Ohio, and back to Minneapolis/Saint Paul, under warm, monitored temperatures. Products underwent quality control (QC) testing including cell count, immunophenotyping, viability, endotoxin, sterility culture, and cytotoxicity assays. One product tested the relative importance of IL-2 and controlled incubation. RESULTS The length of shipment ranged from 14 to 16 hours, and temperatures were well controlled. QC testing was acceptable based upon previous in-house experience. Controlled incubation was not necessary for successful activation of NK cells, but IL-2 appeared essential. CONCLUSION The need for novel cell therapies to be infused as fresh products may be a limitation for various cell types. However, we have shown that NK cells can be successfully shipped in the fresh state (allowing 48 hr from apheresis to product infusion) for use at clinical centers. Although IL-2 is critical for NK-cell activation, a 37°C, 5% CO2 incubator is not. PMID:22574659

  4. Physical sports activity, physical self-concept and psychological wellbeing in adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez Ruiz de Mier, Rocío

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between experience in physical sports activity in adolescence and various self-evaluations such as physical self-concept, perceptions of health and life satisfaction. Participants are 1504 adolescents from the city of Malaga (Spain, aged between 14 and 16 years. The instruments used to assess the constructs are the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (CAF, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS. The study has a cross-sectional, correlational design, in which surveys are used to collect data. The statistical analyses show that physical activity is associated with significant differences in the study variables, favouring those who do physical activity. The frequency of the activity, however, has a significant difference between the groups only in the case of physical self-concept. On the other hand, years of experience in physical activity affects the outcomes, with better results for those who have been doing exercise for a longer period of time. This study contributes to the literature that emphasises the importance of creating an active lifestyle to boost psychological wellbeing

  5. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  6. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, Marion E T; Argo, Ishbel; Crombie, Iain K; Feng, Zhiqiang; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Cross sectional survey. 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. 547 older people (mean (SD) age 79(8) years, 54% female) were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2) = 0.32). In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  7. Telomerase activity and its association with psychological stress, mental disorders, lifestyle factors and interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W; Cheung, S T; Tsao, S W; Wang, X M; Tiwari, A F Y

    2016-02-01

    To summarise and discuss the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. A systematic review was carried out to identify prospective or retrospective studies and interventions published up to June 2015 that reported associations between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Electronic data bases of PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched. Twenty six studies on humans measured telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or leukocytes and examined its association with psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Of those studies, three reported significantly decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic psychological stress. Interestingly, one of the three studies found that acute laboratory psychological stress significantly increased telomerase activity. Nine studies reported mixed results on association between mental disorders and telomerase activity. Of the nine studies, five reported that major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with significantly increased telomerase activity. In thirteen out of fourteen studies on lifestyle factors, it was reported that physical exercise, diet micronutrient supplementation, mindfulness meditation, Qigong practice or yoga mediation resulted in increase in telomerase activity. In addition, two studies on animal models showed that depression-like behaviour was associated with decreased hippocampus telomerase activity. Five animal studies showed that physical exercise increased telomerase activity by cell-type-specific and genotype-specific manners. Although multi-facet results were reported on the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors, there were some consistent findings in humans such as (1) decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic stress, (2) increased

  8. Impact of distance-based metric learning on classification and visualization model performance and structure-activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia V; Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Kuznetsov, Sergey L; Kazennov, Andrey M; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu

    2014-02-01

    This study concerns large margin nearest neighbors classifier and its multi-metric extension as the efficient approaches for metric learning which aimed to learn an appropriate distance/similarity function for considered case studies. In recent years, many studies in data mining and pattern recognition have demonstrated that a learned metric can significantly improve the performance in classification, clustering and retrieval tasks. The paper describes application of the metric learning approach to in silico assessment of chemical liabilities. Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in drug discovery process, in silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, a distance-based metric learning procedures have been applied for in silico assessment of chemical liabilities, the impact of metric learning on structure-activity landscapes and predictive performance of developed models has been analyzed, the learned metric was used in support vector machines. The metric learning results have been illustrated using linear and non-linear data visualization techniques in order to indicate how the change of metrics affected nearest neighbors relations and descriptor space.

  9. Psychological theory in an interdisciplinary context: psychological, demographic, health-related, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in a representative cohort of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniehotta, Falko F; Gellert, Paul; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T; Crombie, Iain K; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2013-09-08

    Physical activity (PA) in older adults is influenced by a range of environmental, demographic, health-related, social, and psychological variables. Social cognitive psychological models assume that all influences on behaviour operate indirectly through the models constructs, i.e., via intention and self-efficacy. We evaluated direct, indirect, and moderating relationships of a broad range of external variables with physical activity levels alongside intention and self-efficacy. We performed a cross-sectional survey of a representative and stratified (65-80 and 80+ years; deprived and affluent) sample of 584 community-dwelling people, resident in Scotland. Objectively measured physical activity and questionnaire data were collected. Self-efficacy showed unique relationships with physical activity, controlling for demographic, mental health, social, environmental, and weather variables separately, but the relationship was not significant when controlling for physical health. Overall, results indicating support for a mediation hypothesis, intention and self-efficacy statistically mediate the relationship of most domain variables with physical activity. Moderation analyses show that the relationship between social cognitions and physical activity was stronger for individuals with better physical health and lower levels of socio-economic deprivation. Social cognitive variables reflect a range of known environmental, demographic, health-related and social correlates of physical activity, they mediate the relationships of those correlates with physical activity and account for additional variance in physical activity when external correlates are controlled for, except for the physical health domain. The finding that the social cognition-physical activity relationship is higher for participants with better health and higher levels of affluence raises issues for the applicability of social cognitive models to the most disadvantaged older people.

  10. Relation between waking sport activities, reading, and dream content in sport students and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The continuity hypothesis in its general form states that dreams reflect waking life: concerns, thoughts, and experiences (G. W. Domhoff, 1996; M. Schredl, 1999; I. Strauch & B. Meier, 1996). For example, athletes and sport students dream about sports more often than do psychology students, presumably reflecting their engagement in sport activities and sport theory (D. Erlacher & M. Schredl, 2004). In the present study, the authors tested the previously unexamined hypothesis that differences in dream content would directly reflect individuals' differing amounts of waking sport activities. As expected, the amount of time that individuals spent engaged in an activity (sports or reading) was directly related to their percentage of corresponding dreams. Also, individuals reported reading dreams less frequently than they did sport dreams, although reading was more prominent in their waking lives than were sport activities. The findings also indicated that other factors such as emotional involvement and associated worries might be of importance in explaining the relation between waking activities and dream events. Future studies using longitudinal designs would shed more light on this relation and would help derive a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.

  11. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  12. The impact of psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activities after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Österberg, Annika; Tagesson, Sofi; Gauffin, Håkan; Webster, Kate E; Kvist, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether appraisal of knee function, psychological and demographic factors were related to returning to the preinjury sport and recreational activity following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. 164 participants completed a questionnaire battery at 1-7 years after primary ACL reconstruction. The battery included questionnaires evaluating knee self-efficacy, health locus of control, psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activity, and fear of reinjury; and self-reported knee function in sport-specific tasks, knee-related quality of life and satisfaction with knee function. The primary outcome was returning to the preinjury sport or recreational activity. At follow-up, 40% (66/164) had returned to their preinjury activity. Those who returned had more positive psychological responses, reported better knee function in sport and recreational activities, perceived a higher knee-related quality of life and were more satisfied with their current knee function. The main reasons for not returning were not trusting the knee (28%), fear of a new injury (24%) and poor knee function (22%). Psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activity, measured with the ACL-Return to Sport after Injury scale (was most strongly associated with returning to the preinjury activity). Age, sex and preinjury activity level were not related. Less than 50% returned to their preinjury sport or recreational activity after ACL reconstruction. Psychological readiness to return to sport and recreation was the factor most strongly associated with returning to the preinjury activity. Including interventions aimed at improving this in postoperative rehabilitation programmes could be warranted to improve the rate of return to sport and recreational activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Activity as Reality in Defining People and Activity as a Cognitive Construct. Activity and the Activity Approach to Understanding People: The Historical Meaning of the Crisis of Cultural-Activity Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmolov, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the past, present, and future of the cultural activity approach as a methodology for integrating the humanities and natural sciences as well as psychotechnical and theoretical knowledge. It is suggested that the meaning of historical crisis of cultural activity-psychology consists in reflecting on the future prospects of…

  14. A prospective longitudinal study testing relationships between meaningful activities, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether change in meaningful activity over an 11-month period could help explain change in meaning in life in a sample of 174 undergraduate and graduate students. The Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as indicators of the constructs of meaningful activity, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning and purpose in life. The findings were in support of the study hypotheses and indicated that change in meaningful activity explained both change in basic psychological needs fulfillment (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness) and change in meaning in life. Further, this study reports findings consistent with results from cross-sectional studies in support of the hypothesis that change in meaningful activity may influence change in meaning in life through two pathways: a direct path of influence from meaningful activity to meaning in life and an indirect path through change in basic psychological needs fulfillment. The current study contributes to a growing literature implicating subjective evaluations of day-to-day action (or meaningful activity) as a fruitful means for exploring relationships between occupation and well-being. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Commentary for Health Psychology special issue: theoretical advances in diet and physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Health Psychology includes original contributions for advancing research on theoretical issues such as mediation and moderation effects in promoting healthy diet and physical activity behavior change. This special issue was developed to highlight some of the fundamental issues from a biological, cognitive, social, and environmental perspective for understanding the impact of intervention effects on behavior change processes and ultimate health. Given the increasing prevalence of health-related problems, such as the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States, the perspective presented in this issue should be very useful to researchers, scientists, scholars, and a wide range of health professionals who hope to curb these critical public health problems. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  16. Does active commuting improve psychological wellbeing? Longitudinal evidence from eighteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between active travel and psychological wellbeing. This study used data on 17,985 adult commuters in eighteen waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1991/2-2008/9). Fixed effects regression models were used to investigate how (i.) travel mode choice, (ii.) commuting time, and (iii.) switching to active travel impacted on overall psychological wellbeing and how (iv.) travel mode choice impacted on specific psychological symptoms included in the General Health Questionnaire. After accounting for changes in individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and potential confounding variables relating to work, residence and health, significant associations were observed between overall psychological wellbeing (on a 36-point Likert scale) and (i.) active travel (0.185, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.321) and public transport (0.195, 95% CI: 0.035 to 0.355) when compared to car travel, (ii.) time spent (per 10minute change) walking (0.083, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.163) and driving (-0.033, 95% CI: -0.064 to -0.001), and (iii.) switching from car travel to active travel (0.479, 95% CI: 0.199 to 0.758). Active travel was also associated with reductions in the odds of experiencing two specific psychological symptoms when compared to car travel. The positive psychological wellbeing effects identified in this study should be considered in cost-benefit assessments of interventions seeking to promote active travel. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Psychological functioning and adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity in later life: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Dunsky, Ayelet; Zach, Sima; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Shimony, Tal; Goldbourt, Uri; Zeev, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.

  18. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  19. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  20. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  1. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Zagenczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  2. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J.; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L.; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation. PMID:28713315

  3. Psychological changes among Muslim students participating in a faith-based school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-12-01

    Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.

  4. Psychological wellbeing and physical activity in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-12-12

    Children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report impairments in daily activities, social interactions and coping. Findings regarding psychological functioning are inconsistent, while limited information is available on objectively assessed physical activity (PA). The aims of the present study were therefore to compare anthropometric dimensions, blood values, psychological functioning and PA of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls. Forty-seven children and adolescents took part in the study. Of these, 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% females). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (n = 14; IBD-RE) and a group with an "active state" of disease (n = 8; IBD-AD). Healthy controls (n = 24; HC) were age- and gender-matched. Participants' anthropometric data, blood values and objective PA were assessed. Further, participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data and psychological functioning. Participants with IBD-AD showed higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) values, haemoglobin, and leukocyte values. IBD-AD had poorer psychological functioning and lower PA (average steps per day) compared to IBD-RE and HC. No mean differences were found between IBD-RE and HC. The pattern of results suggests that effective medical treatment of IBD in children and adolescents is associated with favorable physiological parameters, psychological dimensions and PA. Psychological counselling of children and adolescents in an active state of IBD seem to be advised in addition to standard treatment schedules. NCT NCT02264275 ; Registered 8 October 2014.

  5. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  6. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  8. Influence of psychological symptoms on home-recorded sleep-time masticatory muscle activity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Fabbri, A.; Peretta, R.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation attempts to describe the correlation between sleep-time masticatory muscle activity (MMA) and psychological symptoms by the use of a four-channel electromyography (EMG) home-recording device in a group of 15 healthy volunteers completing a battery of psychometric

  9. Labour Market Interventions as Predictors of Re-employment, Job Seeking Activity and Psychological Distress among the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Vesalainen, Janne

    1999-01-01

    Finnish job seekers (n=559) were followed up after 1 year (n=401) after 84.3% participated in guidance courses, subsidized employment, vocational training, or some combination. Guidance courses enhanced reemployment. None of the interventions increased job-seeking activity. Training temporarily decreased psychological distress. Deteriorating…

  10. Design thinking in positive psychology : The development of a product-service combination that stimulates happiness-enhancing activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, H.P.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of how knowledge drawn from the positive psychology domain can be used to design products and services that contribute to the happiness of the users. Two distinctions are proposed to structure initiatives in well-being driven design: activity- versus product-focus,

  11. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  12. Meaningful activities for improving the wellbeing of people with dementia: beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Szymczynska, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is being increasingly recognised as a major public health issue for our ageing populations. A critical aspect of supporting people with dementia is facilitating their participation in meaningful activities. However, research to date has not drawn on theories of ageing from developmental psychology that would help undergird the importance of such meaningful activity. For the first time, we connect existing activity provision for people with dementia with developmental psychology theories of ageing. We reviewed the literature in two stages: first, we narratively searched the literature to demonstrate the relevance of psychological theories of ageing for provision of meaningful activities for people with dementia, and in particular focused on stage-based theories of adult development (Carl Jung and Erik Erikson), gerotranscendence (Tornstam), selective optimisation with compensation (Baltes and Baltes), and optimisation in primary and secondary control (Heckhausen and Schulz). Second, we systematically searched PubMed and PsycINFO for studies with people with dementia that made use of the aforementioned theories. The narrative review highlights that activity provision for people with dementia goes beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs. More specifically, that life review therapy and life story work address the need for life review; spiritual/religious activities address the need for death preparation; intergenerational activities address the need for intergenerational relationships; re-acquaintance with previously conducted leisure activities addresses the need for a sense of control and to achieve life goals; and pursuit of new leisure activities addresses the need to be creative. The systematic searches identified two studies that demonstrated the utility of applying Erikson's theory of psychosocial development to dementia care. We argue for the importance of activity provision for people with dementia to help promote wellbeing

  13. Mahalanobis Distance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and G 2 might represent girls and boys, respectively or, in a medical diagnosis ... Representation of. Mahalanobis distance for the univariate case. GENERAL I ARTICLE. If the variables in X were uncorrelated in each group and were scaled so that they had ... have been proposed, and about thirty are known in the literature.

  14. DISTANCE EDUCATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    take a longer period to get a degree and a greater number of learners can be reached than is possi- ble through .... distance learners and available funds, in short, a collection development policy. Infrastructure. In the long ..... gional centres could double as administrators. journal of science and technology, volume 25, no.

  15. Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Charles E.

    The magnitude, diversity, and impact of distance education are discussed in this international review of its implementation in economically diverse countries. Uses of the following media are described: (1) print--correspondence study, programmed instruction, modularized instruction, newspaper; (2) audio media--telephone, radio, subsidiary…

  16. [Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; Weatherman, Dick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue on distance education serving individuals with disabilities considers historical developments, technology, staff training strategies, and staff training materials. It is noted that improving access to training for staff members can improve the quality of services for individuals with disabilities. The following articles…

  17. Resources and Deficits of Psychological Readiness for Research Activities in the Prediction of its Success in Early Stage Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan T.G.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the results of studies of the psychological readiness for scientific activities at the practical level for novice researchers (undergraduate students, master students and PhD students. We identified five options for the practical level of psychological readiness for novice researchers, each of which is represented by resource qualities for the establishment of research activities and by those deficiencies that hinder the success. As resources requiring its actualization in terms of high school education, we consider: self-control, providing emotional stability; self-control and perseverance in self-organizing scientific activities; openness and sensitivity to the new; willingness to cooperate; leadership social activity. In case of good self-control and perseverance in research, the deficit is creativity: curiosity, imagination, risk tolerance and orientation to solve complex problems

  18. A Test of Basic Psychological Needs Theory in a Physical-Activity-Based Program for Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Blankenship, Bonnie T; LeBreton, James M

    2017-02-01

    This study used a randomized controlled design to test the pathways in basic psychological needs theory, where social relationships characterized by autonomy support, involvement, and structure foster psychological need satisfaction and well-being. Participants were recruited from a physical-activity-based youth program. A new staff training was implemented to manipulate the use of each interpersonal characteristic by program staff (N = 24 observed) and perceptions of each interpersonal characteristic, psychological needs, hope, and self-worth in youth (N = 379 surveyed pre- and postprogram). Staff in the intervention condition used greater overall observed autonomy support, involvement, and structure. Condition assignment did not lead to differences in youth perceptions, but observed staff behaviors positively predicted youth perceptions of staff and perceptions of staff positively predicted change in well-being. Findings indicate that the training manipulated how staff engaged youth, and autonomy support, involvement, and structure are useful strategies to foster well-being in youth.

  19. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF PERSONALITY AND THE INCLINATION TO RISK OF SPORTSMEN IN THE CONDITIONS OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Иван Викторович Малышев

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problem of the social-psychological adaptation of the personality of sportsmen in the conditions of the riskiness of their activity is considered. In the theoretical part of the paper the actuality of the problem of the adaptation of the personality in the conditions of the uncertainty and risk and the necessity of study of the phenomenon of the social-psychological adaptation andthe socialization from the point of view of systematic-diachronic approach are proved. The main definitions are uncovered: the social-psychological adaptation of the personality, the risk in psychology, systematic-diachronic approach.Purpose. The study of the characteristics of the social-psychological adaptation and the inclination (readiness to the risk, the relationship between the present phenomenons among young people who are actively realizing themselves in the sport activity.The methods of the diagnostic research. Inquirer of the social-psychological adaptation by C.Rogers and R.Dymond, the test by R.Kettel, inquirer MMPI (the adapted version, the methods of the diagnostics of the readiness to the risk by Schubert, the inquirer of the study of the readiness to the risk by A.G.Shmelev.Statistical processing the dates: the correlational analysis (Pearson.Results. The characteristic of the social-psychological adaptation of the personality of  sportsmen  in the form of its integral components is represented. Among the young people the stage of the adaptation possibilities according to the most of the indices is defined as the high one. This way, among the properties of the personality of sportsmen, which reflect their adaptation possibilities, a positive emotional background, capacity for work, the permanency of the interests, the emotional steadiness, the prevalence of the assurance of success, the tendency to the self-assertion, the social activity of the personality are detected. The correlation between some indices of the social-psychological

  20. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Assessment tools in obesity - psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechy, Laura; Galpern, Jennie; Petrone, Andrew; Das, Sai Krupa

    2012-08-20

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology all pose tremendous challenges to the assessment of an obese person. There is little published research regarding what tools can be used with confidence. This review is designed to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to the current and emerging measurement tools specifically associated with obesity research and practice. Section 1 addresses psychological measures of well being. Sections 2, 3, and 4 focus on the assessment of food intake, activity, and body composition. All sections address basic challenges involved in the study and management of obesity, and highlight methodological issues associated with the use of common assessment tools. The best available methods for use in the obese both in research and clinical practice are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nicola W; Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F; Turrell, Gavin

    2007-02-01

    Many of the self-administered scales for measuring physical activity (PA) influences were originally developed for vigorous-intensity exercise, focus on only one domain of influence, and have not been evaluated for both reliability and validity using population-based samples. This study describes the factorial validity and internal reliability of scales for measuring individual-level psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time PA among adults in the general population. Constructs were identified from a literature review and formative research with a socio-economically diverse sample. Items were generated using previously developed scales and interview data. New items were pre-tested using reliability and principal components analyses, with data collected from a mail survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample. Qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample and expert panel. A second mail survey provided data for principal components and reliability analyses. Twenty-eight scales were factorially derived and 24 had acceptable or marginally acceptable levels of internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.65 to 0.91. The 24 scales are suitable for researchers and practitioners interested in measuring individual-level influences on PA that are consistent with Social Cognitive Theory. More research is required to assess predictive validity, sensitivity to change and test/re-test reliability.

  3. The Future of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Farhad

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors that will influence how distance education is practiced in the first few decades of this new century. Discusses developments in digital technology; the exponential growth of knowledge about the brain, as well as physiology, chemistry, and psychology of learning; the system relationship between individual learners and instructors;…

  4. Psychological determinants of physical activity across the life course: A "DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Carlin, Angela; Simon, Chantal; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; D’Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; O’Donoghue, Grainne; Perchoux, Camille; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; Castellani, Loriana

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR) was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The search was limited to studies published in English from January 2004 to April 2016. SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies investigating the association of psychological variables and PA were considered eligible. Extracted data were evaluated based on importance of determinants, strength of evidence, and methodological quality. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (Record ID: CRD42015010616). Twenty reviews (14 SLRs and 6 MAs), mostly of moderate methodological quality, were found eligible. Convincing evidence was found for self-efficacy (positive association with PA) in children and adolescents, and stress (negative association with PA) regardless of age. Most of the evidence revealing an association between psychological determinants and PA is probable and limited, mainly due to differences in the definition of PA and of psychological determinants across reviews. Thus, scholars are urged to reach a consensus on clear definitions of relevant psychological determinants of PA, subsuming cultural biases and allowing the possibility to obtain clear interpretations and generalizability of findings. Finally, most psychological determinants should be considered within a larger framework of other multi-level determinants that may interact or mediate some of the effects. PMID:28817676

  5. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  6. Effects of exposure time and exposure distance on the degree of cure in light-activated pit and fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Maria; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-12-01

    The study aims to measure and compare the effect of different exposure times and exposure distances on the degree of cure (DC) of light hardening resin based pit and fissure sealants. A representative selection of 13 commercial sealants brands was chosen. DC of each material (n=6) was measured in real-time by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at three clinically relevant exposure times (10, 20, 40s) and two fixed exposure distances (4mm and 7 mm) between sample and light source. Data were analyzed by a multi-variant analysis and partial eta-squared statistic. Factors "material", "exposure time" and "exposure distance" had a significant influence on the DC across all materials (ηp(2)=0.927,0.774 and 0.266 respectively) with "material" and "exposure time" showing the strongest effect (significance level α ≤ 0.05). In general, an increased exposure time and reduced exposure distance between sample and light source led to increased DC for all the materials. Degree of cure is influenced significantly by the brand of sealant and by exposure time. In some cases it is found that DC is also affected significantly by the exposure distance. On the basis of this study, an exposure time of at least 20s and a maximum exposure distance of 4mm between curing unit and material surface is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  8. Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style during active avoidance as a window onto psychological vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Adam X; LaBar, Kevin S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-05-01

    Individual differences in coping styles are associated with psychological vulnerability to stress. Recent animal research suggests that coping styles reflect trade-offs between proactive and reactive threat responses during active avoidance paradigms, with proactive responses associated with better stress tolerance. Based on these preclinical findings, we developed a novel instructed active avoidance paradigm to characterize patterns of proactive and reactive responses using behavioral, motoric, and autonomic measures in humans. Analyses revealed significant inter-individual variability not only in the magnitude of general emotional responsiveness but also the likelihood to specifically express proactive or reactive responses. In men but not women, individual differences in general emotional responsiveness were linked to increased trait anxiety while proactive coping style was linked to increased trait aggression. These patterns are consistent with preclinical findings and suggest that instructed active avoidance paradigms may be useful in assessing psychological vulnerability to stress using objective behavioral measures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress

  10. The Impact of Students' Choice of Time of Day for Class Activity and Their Sleep Quality on Academic Performance in Multidisciplinary Distance Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the impact of students' choice of time of day for class activity and their sleep quality on academic performance in multidisciplinary distance education courses at a southeastern U.S. state college. The research addressed the relationship of other individual student characteristics (i.e., age, gender,…

  11. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    likely contribute positively to violation resolution, we found that this also depends on the type of problem-focused coping strategy used. That is, more threatening forms of problem-focused coping (i.e., threatening resignation as a way to trigger one's manager/organization to resolve the violation) mainly contributed to dysfunctional and deserted PC end states. Yet, in some instances the use of these types of active coping strategies also contributed to functional violation resolution. These findings have important implications for the literature on upward dissent strategies and psychological contract violation repair.

  13. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schalk

    2018-02-01

    -focused coping will most likely contribute positively to violation resolution, we found that this also depends on the type of problem-focused coping strategy used. That is, more threatening forms of problem-focused coping (i.e., threatening resignation as a way to trigger one’s manager/organization to resolve the violation mainly contributed to dysfunctional and deserted PC end states. Yet, in some instances the use of these types of active coping strategies also contributed to functional violation resolution. These findings have important implications for the literature on upward dissent strategies and psychological contract violation repair.

  14. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  15. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro; Julian Borba

    2016-01-01

    Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various att...

  16. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define and analyze a fourth main type of attack on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to this type of attack, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. We further show that verifying distance bounding protocols using exist...

  17. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define a fourth main type of attacks on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking attacks. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. Additionally, we generalize Distance Hijacking to Location Hijacking, to which ...

  18. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  19. Active Processing via Write-to-Learn Assignments: Learning and Retention Benefits in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Karla J.; Bugg, Julie M.; Doe, Sue R.; Rowland, Christopher A.; Richards, Tracy L.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated brief, in-class write-to-learn assignments as a tool for promoting learning and retention in large, introductory psychology courses. A within-subjects (student) design was used with assignment of concepts to write-to-learn and copy (control) conditions counterbalanced across sections for each instructor. Students performed…

  20. Promoting Student Engagement. Volume 2: Activities, Exercises and Demonstrations for Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard L., Ed.; Balcetis, Emily, Ed.; Burns, Susan R., Ed.; Daniel, David B., Ed.; Saville, Bryan K., Ed.; Woody, William Douglas, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the book is to provide teachers of psychology access to teaching techniques that epitomize "happy tact and ingenuity." The principle influence that teachers have on student behavior occurs in the classroom since, as noted by Erickson and Strommer, (1991), today's students spend relatively little time studying outside of class. When…

  1. Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim; Thurston, Miranda; Hartz, Ingeborg; Hagquist, Curt

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15-16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  2. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  3. Turo (Qi Dance Training Attenuates Psychological Symptoms and Sympathetic Activation Induced by Mental Stress in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jin Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagal withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity accompany various types of stress. Qi training is reported to reduce sympathetic hyper-reactivity in a stressful situation. Turo, which is a type of dance that uses the Meridian Qi System, may reduce the psychological symptoms induced by an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We observed whether Turo training alters psychopathological and psychological symptoms using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R and examined whether it attenuates the stress response to mental stress in healthy adolescent females using the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability (HRV. Twenty-one subjects received Turo training and 27 subjects were trained with mimicking movements. The SCL-90-R was measured before and after the 2-month training period. Heart rate (HR, total power (TP and the LF/HF ratio of HRV were compared between the Turo and control groups during and after mental stress. The somatization and hostility subscales of the SCL-90-R of the Turo group were significantly lower than those of the control group after 2 months. The increases in HR and the LF/HF ratio of HRV induced by the stress test were significantly lower in the Turo group than in the control group. The TP of the Turo group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The psychological symptoms and sympathetic activation induced by the artificial stress were significantly reduced by the Turo training. These findings suggest that Turo training can play a critical role in attenuating psychological symptoms and stress-induced sympathetic activation.

  4. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  5. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls' psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the US. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers' reports of girls' development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self-worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls' enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self-worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls' experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in body shape

  6. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Joo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU. Despite KNOU’s quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the institution’s top-down, bureaucratic pedagogical system collided with individual expectations and needs. In particular, the participants’ critical viewpoints demonstrate the incompatible social roles that the open and distance higher education institution plays in Korean society. For example, while KNOU contributes to extending higher education opportunities for those who have unmet educational needs, the value of the KNOU degree has not been socially acknowledged since there is little, if any, competition in the entrance process. This study also documents how these contradictions were culturally and historically embedded in the participants’ distance higher education activities. Given the persistent contradictions, the research findings illuminate that KNOU’s efficiency-oriented model has not effectively facilitated the students’ learning as its distance higher education system is inevitably based on a compromise between a competitive, quality curriculum and the efficient extension of audiences.

  7. Effectiveness of physical activity promoting technology-based distance interventions compared to usual care. Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Sanna; Rintala, Aki; Immonen, Jaakko; Karvanen, Juha; Heinonen, Ari; Sjögren, Tuulikki

    2017-05-02

    Technology has been thought to have strong potential for promoting physical activity, but the evidence has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether a technology-based distance intervention promoting physical activity is more effective than a physical activity intervention without the use of technology. This systematic review is registered in Prospero (CRD42016035831). A systematic literature search of studies published between January 2000 to December 2015 was conducted in CENTRAL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OT-Seeker, WOS and PEDro. Studies were selected by two independent authors applying the following PICOS criteria P) adults, I) technology-based distance intervention promoting physical activity, C) distance intervention promoting physical activity without technology, O) physical activity, S) RCT. Quality was assessed following the guidelines of Cochrane Back Review Group. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using R. From 3 031 studies, 23 randomized controlled trials with a total of 4 645 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The quality of the studies was moderate (mean 6 out of the maximum 12, with range of 4-9). Technology-based interventions were 12 % more effective than similar or minimal control interventions in increasing physical activity (RR: 1.12; 95 % CI: 1.01 to 1.25, p = .03). Compared to minimal control interventions, technology-based interventions were 19 % more effective (RR: 1.19; 95 % CI 1.05 to 1.35, p = .0096). In the interventions targeting patients, use of technology was 25 % more effective than non-use (p = 0.027). No differences were observed in physical activity between the effectiveness of interactive, non-interactive and self-monitoring technologies. Study quality, intervention duration and whether the measures used were subjective or objective were not significantly related to the amount of physical activity engaged in. Technology-based delivery of interventions seems to be

  8. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing......, and is being seen as an important activity for 'social life conducted at-a-distance' (Larsen et al, 2007: 244), and holidaying away from home has become an integral part of contemporary life (cf: Krippendorf, 1987; Hall, 2008; Urry, 1995; 2002a). Distances to other places are obviously a fundamental part...... by tourists in an increasingly mobile contemporary society. The research questions guiding this inquiry into distance's status in contemporary leisure mobility reflects the aims of the research: • How is distance being represented in the literature? (guiding the literature review) • How is distance being...

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the PainCAS Interference with Daily Activities, Psychological/Emotional Distress, and Pain scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Stacey A; Black, Ryan A; Butler, Stephen F

    2017-12-22

    The PainCAS is a web-based clinical tool for assessing and tracking pain and opioid risk in chronic pain patients. Despite evidence for its utility within the clinical setting, the PainCAS scales have never been subject to psychometric evaluation. The current study is the first to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PainCAS Interference with Daily Activities, Psychological/Emotional Distress, and Pain scales. Patients (N = 4797) from treatment centers and hospitals in 16 different states completed the PainCAS as part of routine clinical assessment. A subsample (n = 73) from two hospital-based treatment centers also completed comparator measures. Rasch Rating Scale Models were employed to evaluate the Interference with Daily Activities and Psychological/Emotional Distress scales, and empirical evaluation included assessment of dimensionality, discrimination, item fit, reliability, information, and person-to-item targeting. Additionally, convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated through classical test theory approaches. Convergent validity of the Pain scales was evaluated through correlations with corresponding comparator items. One Interference with Daily Activities item was removed due to poor functioning and discrimination. The retained items from the Interference with Daily Activities and Psychological/Emotional Distress scales conformed to unidimensional Rasch measurement models, yielding satisfactory item fit, reliability, precision, and coverage. Further, results provided support for the convergent and discriminant validity of these two scales. Convergent validity between the PainCAS Pain and BPI Pain items was also strong. Taken together, results provide strong psychometric support for these PainCAS Pain scales. Strengths and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  10. Intentional activity and free will as core concepts in criminal law and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Whether or not intentional actions initiated and formed by free will exist, it can be shown that lack of belief in such behavior makes people behave less ethically and less law-abidingly (they cheat more). Therefore, this phenomenon—often called a necessary illusion—is crucial to moral as well...... model within the domain of criminal law and psychology explaining human intentional actions based on a scientific notion of free will as a real-world phenomenon....

  11. The Prefrontal Cortex Activity and Psychological Effects of Viewing Forest Landscapes in Autumn Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawou Joung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported research indicate that forest environments have physiological and psychological relaxing effects compared to urban environments. However, some researchers claim that the stress of the subjects from being watched by others during measurements can affect the measurement result in urban experiments conducted in the center of a street. The present study was conducted to determine whether forest environments have physiological and psychological relaxing effects, using comparison of viewing a forest area with viewing an urban area from the roof of an urban building without being watched by others. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurement was performed on subjects while they viewed scenery for 15 min at each experimental site (urban and forest areas. Subjective assessments were performed after the NIRS measurement was complete. Total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations were significantly lower in the forest area than in the urban area. For semantic differential in subjective assessments, feelings of “comfortable”, “natural”, and “soothed” were significantly higher in the forest area than in the urban area, and for profile of mood states, negative emotions were significantly lower in the forest area than in the urban area. The results of physiological and psychological measurements show that viewing the forest enabled effective relaxation.

  12. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  13. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  14. "Just Dance": The Effects of Exergame Feedback and Controller Use on Physical Activity and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-06-01

    In Asia, dance games are among the most popular types of exergames. Whereas traditional dance-based games emphasize step movements on a dance pad, more recent dance games emphasize intuitive dance movements using simple controllers or players' own bodies to "just dance." However, because of limited space and access, young adults in Taiwan often do not use these games. Popular dance videos on YouTube are more readily available to students because these videos can be accessed on a computer. Therefore, the current study examines the effects of interactivity (the role of feedback) and controller use on participants' physiological and psychological outcomes during exergames. The dance game "Just Dance 3" (Ubisoft, Montreuil, France) was chosen as the stimulus for this study. Participants danced through one song for rehearsal and warm-up, followed by three songs for the experiment, which lasted approximately 12 minutes. One hundred twenty-nine college students participated in a 2×2×2 (interactivity, feedback versus no feedback; controller, with versus without; sex, male versus female) between-subject factorial design. A series of 2×2×2 (interactivity, controller, and sex) analyses of variance showed no significant differences in interaction effects on participants' heart rates, blood pressures, body movements, step counts, or perceived psychological outcomes. Dance game videos without feedback are also effective tools for achieving moderate-level exercise intensity. These videos can supplement the limited access to games in Asian countries, such as Taiwan.

  15. Criterion-Validity of Commercially Available Physical Activity Tracker to Estimate Step Count, Covered Distance and Energy Expenditure during Sports Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Wahl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past years, there was an increasing development of physical activity tracker (Wearables. For recreational people, testing of these devices under walking or light jogging conditions might be sufficient. For (elite athletes, however, scientific trustworthiness needs to be given for a broad spectrum of velocities or even fast changes in velocities reflecting the demands of the sport. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the validity of eleven Wearables for monitoring step count, covered distance and energy expenditure (EE under laboratory conditions with different constant and varying velocities.Methods: Twenty healthy sport students (10 men, 10 women performed a running protocol consisting of four 5 min stages of different constant velocities (4.3; 7.2; 10.1; 13.0 km·h−1, a 5 min period of intermittent velocity, and a 2.4 km outdoor run (10.1 km·h−1 while wearing eleven different Wearables (Bodymedia Sensewear, Beurer AS 80, Polar Loop, Garmin Vivofit, Garmin Vivosmart, Garmin Vivoactive, Garmin Forerunner 920XT, Fitbit Charge, Fitbit Charge HR, Xaomi MiBand, Withings Pulse Ox. Step count, covered distance, and EE were evaluated by comparing each Wearable with a criterion method (Optogait system and manual counting for step count, treadmill for covered distance and indirect calorimetry for EE.Results: All Wearables, except Bodymedia Sensewear, Polar Loop, and Beurer AS80, revealed good validity (small MAPE, good ICC for all constant and varying velocities for monitoring step count. For covered distance, all Wearables showed a very low ICC (<0.1 and high MAPE (up to 50%, revealing no good validity. The measurement of EE was acceptable for the Garmin, Fitbit and Withings Wearables (small to moderate MAPE, while Bodymedia Sensewear, Polar Loop, and Beurer AS80 showed a high MAPE up to 56% for all test conditions.Conclusion: In our study, most Wearables provide an acceptable level of validity for step counts at different

  16. Criterion-Validity of Commercially Available Physical Activity Tracker to Estimate Step Count, Covered Distance and Energy Expenditure during Sports Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Yvonne; Düking, Peter; Droszez, Anna; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the past years, there was an increasing development of physical activity tracker (Wearables). For recreational people, testing of these devices under walking or light jogging conditions might be sufficient. For (elite) athletes, however, scientific trustworthiness needs to be given for a broad spectrum of velocities or even fast changes in velocities reflecting the demands of the sport. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the validity of eleven Wearables for monitoring step count, covered distance and energy expenditure (EE) under laboratory conditions with different constant and varying velocities. Methods: Twenty healthy sport students (10 men, 10 women) performed a running protocol consisting of four 5 min stages of different constant velocities (4.3; 7.2; 10.1; 13.0 km·h-1), a 5 min period of intermittent velocity, and a 2.4 km outdoor run (10.1 km·h-1) while wearing eleven different Wearables (Bodymedia Sensewear, Beurer AS 80, Polar Loop, Garmin Vivofit, Garmin Vivosmart, Garmin Vivoactive, Garmin Forerunner 920XT, Fitbit Charge, Fitbit Charge HR, Xaomi MiBand, Withings Pulse Ox). Step count, covered distance, and EE were evaluated by comparing each Wearable with a criterion method (Optogait system and manual counting for step count, treadmill for covered distance and indirect calorimetry for EE). Results: All Wearables, except Bodymedia Sensewear, Polar Loop, and Beurer AS80, revealed good validity (small MAPE, good ICC) for all constant and varying velocities for monitoring step count. For covered distance, all Wearables showed a very low ICC (Garmin, Fitbit and Withings Wearables (small to moderate MAPE), while Bodymedia Sensewear, Polar Loop, and Beurer AS80 showed a high MAPE up to 56% for all test conditions. Conclusion: In our study, most Wearables provide an acceptable level of validity for step counts at different constant and intermittent running velocities reflecting sports conditions. However, the covered distance, as well as the

  17. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  18. School travel and children?s physical activity: a cross-sectional study examining the influence of distance

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle; Buliung, Ron; Wong, Bonny; Mitra, Raktim

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school travel mode and physical activity using a sampling frame that purposefully locates schools in varying neighbourhoods. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 785 children (10.57???0.7?years) in Toronto, Canada. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and travel mode was self-reported by parents. Linear regression models accounting for s...

  19. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  20. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  1. The effects of psychological treatments for adult depression on physical activity: A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; de Wit, L.M.; Taylor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity and depression have been consistently shown to be inversely associated in epidemiological surveys. It is not clear, however, whether successful treatment of depression results in increases in physical activity. Method Systematic review of randomized trials examining

  2. Training the Research Master Students to be Ready to Use the Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach for the Analysis of the Pre-school Educational Practice Psychological Science and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakova I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of testing the variable module of educational program of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” regarding the establishment of research competencies to solve the problems of pre-school education and readiness to apply the theoretical principles of culturalhistorical psychology and activity approach for the analysis of educational practices. The structure of the module, the tasks of each component and feature of their realization are described. The aims and objectives of each sub-module are named. Special attention is paid to the submodule dedicated to the development and organization of gaming activities, the development of a preschooler during the game. The author has analyzed and proposed solutions to problems of development of the theoretical contents and solving practical problems encountered in the implementation of this sub-module

  3. Changes in physical activity and screen time related to psychological well-being in early adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S. Straatmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological well-being influences health behaviours differently in adolescent boys and girls. We evaluated the role of psychological well-being in early adolescence in the onset and persistence of insufficient physical activity and exceeding recommended screen time, depending on gender. Methods This work derives from a cohort study called Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Nutritional Assessment conducted among elementary school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 2010–2013. We analysed data from 2010 and 2012 from 526 adolescents. Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Those who performed less than 60 min per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA were classified as insufficiently active. Screen time was evaluated based on daily time spent in front of television, video games, and computers. Those who had 4 h or more screen time per day were classified as exceeding the recommended time. Psychological well-being was assessed using the psychological domain of the KIDSCREEN 27 questionnaire. Linear regression was used to estimate coefficient (β and r2 values for continuous variables. Relative risks (RR and confidence intervals (95 % CI for onset and persistence of insufficient activity and exceeding recommended screen time were estimated with Poisson regression models. Results Among girls, linear regression analyses showed a significant inverse association between psychological well-being and screen minutes per day at T2 (r2 = 0.049/β = −3.81 (95 % CI −7.0, −0.9, as well as an association between poor psychological well-being and onset of exceeding recommended screen time in categorical analyses (RR crude: 1.3; CI 95 % 1.1, 1.7; RR adjusted: 1.3; CI 95 % 1.0, 1.6. For boys, an association was found between psychological well-being and onset of insufficient activity 2 years later (RR crude: 1.3; CI 95

  4. Factors of collective psychological empowerment of active users in the online health community med.over.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovčič Andraž

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.

  5. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Lane

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...

  6. Sulla carnosa modulates root invertase activity in response to the inhibition of long-distance sucrose transport under magnesium deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N; Smaoui, A; Maurousset, L; Porcheron, B; Lemoine, R; Abdelly, C; Rabhi, M

    2016-11-01

    Being the principal product of photosynthesis, sucrose is involved in many metabolic processes in plants. As magnesium (Mg) is phloem mobile, an inverse relationship between Mg shortage and sugar accumulation in leaves is often observed. Mg deficiency effects on carbohydrate contents and invertase activities were determined in Sulla carnosa Desf. Plants were grown hydroponically at different Mg concentrations (0.00, 0.01, 0.05 and 1.50 mM Mg) for one month. Mineral analysis showed that Mg contents were drastically diminished in shoots and roots mainly at 0.01 and 0.00 mM Mg. This decline was adversely associated with a significant increase of sucrose, fructose and mainly glucose in shoots of plants exposed to severe deficiency. By contrast, sugar contents were severely reduced in roots of these plants indicating an alteration of carbohydrate partitioning between shoots and roots of Mg-deficient plants. Cell wall invertase activity was highly enhanced in roots of Mg-deficient plants, while the vacuolar invertase activity was reduced at 0.00 mM Mg. This decrease of vacuolar invertase activity may indicate the sensibility of roots to Mg starvation resulting from sucrose transport inhibition. (14) CO2 labeling experiments were in accordance with these findings showing an inhibition of sucrose transport from source leaves to sink tissues (roots) under Mg depletion. The obtained results confirm previous findings about Mg involvement in photosynthate loading into phloem and add new insights into mechanisms evolved by S. carnosa to cope with Mg shortage in particular the increase of the activity of cell wall invertase. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Distance Education Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ellen D.

    1995-01-01

    Anticipating and supporting the needs of users of technologies, programs, and services are critical to the success of distance education programs. Principal stakeholders are instructors who teach at a distance, learners pursuing distance education courses, site facilitators, and administrators. (JOW)

  8. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.

  9. Relative Influence of Socioeconomic, Psychological and Sensory Characteristics, Physical Activity and Diet on 5-Year Weight Gain in French Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Lampuré

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individual characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity influence weight status; however, the contribution of each factor to weight change has not been studied. The objective was to confirm a conceptual framework by simultaneously assessing the relative influence of socioeconomic, psychological and sensory characteristics, physical activity, and dietary intake on five-year weight gain in French adults. Individual characteristics, physical activity, and dietary data were assessed at baseline in 8014 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected at baseline and five years later. Structural equation models, stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI, were used to perform analyses. Dietary restraint was a direct predictor of weight gain, with a stronger effect than age or intake of energy-dense foods, both in non-overweight and overweight participants. In non-overweight individuals only, intake of nutrient-dense foods and physical activity were inversely associated with weight gain. Regarding dietary intake, fat liking was the most important predictor of nutrient-dense food intake and was also related to energy-dense food intake. In these models, dietary restraint appears to be a direct predictor of weight gain and fat liking is a strong determinant of dietary intake. The influence of dietary restraint on weight gain, not explained by diet, warrants further investigation.

  10. Animal-Assisted Activity: Effects of a Complementary Intervention Program on Psychological and Physiological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepps, Peggy; Stewart, Charles N; Bruckno, Stephen R

    2014-07-01

    Animal-assisted activity is the use of trained animals for the therapeutic, motivational, or educational benefit of patients. Subjects of this study were 218 patients hospitalized on the mental health unit of a community hospital with an existing, complementary animal-assisted activity program. Half of the patients participated in a 1-hour session of animal-assisted activity. The other half, who served as a comparison group, participated in a 1-hour stress management program. It was hypothesized that an animal-assisted activity program would improve ratings of depression, anxiety, and pain and the associated physiological measures of stress and discomfort. Self-report ratings of depression, anxiety, and pain were collected before and after treatment sessions, and blood pressure, pulse, and salivary cortisol were measured. There were significant decreases in depression (P animal-assisted activity program, comparable to those in the more traditional stress management group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) and P/2011 S1 (Gibbs): comet-like activity at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Rousselot, P.; Afanasiev, V.; Ivanova, O.

    2016-06-01

    Based on spectroscopic and photometric observations we analyzed the dust environment of two minor distant objects, P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) and P/2011 S1 (Gibbs). Both targets demonstrated the comet-like activity beyond the "zone of water-ice sublimation". Meanwhile the spectrum of P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) did not reveal molecular emission features above reflected continuum in a spectral region of 4100-6800Å. Reddening of the continuum is linear along the dispersion with the mean normalized reflectivity gradient equals to 2.0% ± 0.4%. The normalized reflectivity of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) derived from the V-R and R-I color indices equals 11% ± 9% and 26% ± 6% respectively. Both objects have likely small nuclei (about 2 and 4 km in the radii for P/2008 CL94 and P/2011 S1 respectively), which are consistent with nucleus sizes of 'Jupiter-family' comets. The level of physical activity of P/2008 CL94 and S/2011 S1 is characterized by R-Afρ quantity of 106 ± 3 cm and 76 ± 8 cm respectively. The Afρ values are resulted in dust production rates of about 1-2 kg/s, assuming the average geometric albedo of grains of 0.1 and the dust outflow velocities between 1 and 10 m/s.

  12. Activities aimed at encouraging children to suicidal behavior: judicial-psychological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Safuanov F.S.; Sekerazh T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Federal law of June 7, 2017 g. № 120-FZ "On amendments to the criminal code of the Russian Federation and article 151 of the Criminal procedure code of the Russian Federation in the part of establishing additional mechanisms to counter activities aimed at encouraging children to suicidal behavior" establishes criminal liability for inducement to commit suicide or assist in its Commission (article 110.1 of the criminal code), as well as for the organization of activities aimed at encouraging c...

  13. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  14. Body composition, muscle strength and quality of active elderly women according to the distance covered in the 6-minute walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla H. C. Vilaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes arising from the aging process, particularly changes in body composition, contribute to the functional decline of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To compare the body composition and muscle strength, mobility and quality in active elderly women according to the distance walked during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. METHOD: The study included 77 active elderly women aged 65 to 80 years, who were divided into tertiles (A, B and C according to the distance covered in the 6MWT. We performed anthropometric and clinical evaluations. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Handgrip strength (HGS was measured with a portable dynamometer (Saehan, and knee extension strength (KES was measured with the one repetition maximum test (1-RM. Functional mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG test, and body balance was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Muscle quality was defined by the ratio between muscle strength (kgf and muscle mass (kg. RESULTS: The group that walked the shortest distance in the 6MWT had a higher BMI (A=30.8±7.0, B=27.2±4.2 and C=25.9±3.5 kg/m2, greater amount of fat mass (A=31.3±10.7, B=25.9±6.7 and C=23.81±6.46 kg lower HGS (A=21.8±5.1, B=22.1±3.5 and C=25.5±5.1 kgf, lower knee extension strength (A=30.6±10.9, B=40.4±12.5 and C=47.2±10.1 kgf, lower arm muscle quality (A=10.1±3.7, B=11.6±2 and C=12.7±2.2 kg and lower leg muscle quality (A=1.78±1, B=2.84±0.98 and C=3.31±0.77 kg. There was no significant difference between muscle mass (p=0.25 and lean mass (p=0.26. CONCLUSION: Body fat has a negative influence on functional performance, even among active elderly women.

  15. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    and increasing income, emphasised a travel type segment with significant impact on the total level of travelling. International travel has increased its market shares considerably, and the strong relation with income changes suggests a travel type segment of significant importance regarding future travel.......g. socio-economic variables. The analysis of Danish travel activities described in the three different travel surveys has outlined detailed information on Danish travel behaviour at an aggregated level during the past two decades. It has above all revealed the significant role of leisure travel. Private...... in part II. The first paper outlines and exemplifies the presence and magnitude of different survey biases in the Danish National Travel Survey (TU). The study finds that response biases are heterogeneously distributed across the population and that the bias leads to significant overestimation of car...

  16. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  17. Actively coping with violation: Exploring upward dissent patterns in functional, dysfunctional and deserted psychological contract end states

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the...

  18. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    OpenAIRE

    René Schalk; René Schalk; René Schalk; Melanie De Ruiter; Joost Van Loon; Evy Kuijpers; Tine Van Regenmortel; Tine Van Regenmortel

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the...

  19. The impact of tourist and travel activities on facets of psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourism is a fast growing industry based on the facilitating of unique, positive experiences for tourists. A fundamental perception, which is that going on holiday will enable people to satisfy their needs to rest and relax, exists. In a literature analysis it was determined that there is a definite link between leisure activities and ...

  20. Newcomer Psychological Contracts and Employee Socialization Activities: Does Perceived Balance in Obligations Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie C.; Culbertson, Satoris S.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Barger, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which one's beliefs about the relationship between an employee and an organization at the start of employment influence subsequent socialization activities. The balance of employee exchange relationships, employee perceptions of both their own obligations and the employers' obligations, were collected from 120…

  1. Features of the regulation of the activity among interrogators (clinical and psychological, neuropsychological and gender aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscovskaya M.S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the features of the regulation of the activity of interrogators with different levels of professional stress, taking into account the duration of professional activity and gender. Neuropsychological correlates of dysregulation of activity among interrogators are described. It was assumed that the interrogators with a high level of professional stress would have the reduced ability of control over the activity. The material of the empirical study of 45 interrogators (28 men and 17 women at the age from 19 to 38 years, the average age is 28 years with an experience of work from one year to 15 years is presented. The diagnostic complex included: «The scale of professional stress» Azarnyh T.D. and Tyrtyshnikov I.M., Symptom Check List-90-Revised and a number of neuropsychological techniques (graphical test, Nikitina pattern cubes, Taylor and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, test of Ozereckiy (Fist-Rib-palm, test for the study of working memory. It was revealed that men had lower control over the activity. People with moderate levels of occupational stress had the presence of symptoms of dysphoria. People with a low level occupational stress marked discomfort in the process of interpersonal communication. People with experience of more than 5 years have a pronounced sense of fear, a decrease in interest in life, which indicates signs of professional deformity. Employees with less than 5 years of experience showed the prevalence of somatic symptoms. The obtained results supplement the empirical data of researches aimed to study the stress response among law enforcement officers.

  2. UV–vis spectroscopy study of plasma-activated water: Dependence of the chemical composition on plasma exposure time and treatment distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Szili, Endre J.; Ogawa, Kotaro; Short, Robert D.; Ito, Masafumi; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-activated water (PAW) is receiving much attention in biomedical applications because of its reported potent bactericidal properties. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) that are generated in water upon plasma exposure are thought to be the key components in PAW that destroy bacterial and cancer cells. In addition to developing applications for PAW, it is also necessary to better understand the RONS chemistry in PAW in order to tailor PAW to achieve a specific biological response. With this in mind, we previously developed a UV–vis spectroscopy method using an automated curve fitting routine to quantify the changes in H2O2, NO2 ‑, NO3 ‑ (the major long-lived RONS in PAW), and O2 concentrations. A major advantage of UV–vis is that it can take multiple measurements during plasma activation. We used the UV–vis procedure to accurately quantify the changes in the concentrations of these RONS and O2 in PAW. However, we have not yet provided an in-depth commentary of how we perform the curve fitting procedure or its implications. Therefore, in this study, we provide greater detail of how we use the curve fitting routine to derive the RONS and O2 concentrations in PAW. PAW was generated by treatment with a helium plasma jet. In addition, we employ UV–vis to study how the plasma jet exposure time and treatment distance affect the RONS chemistry and amount of O2 dissolved in PAW. We show that the plasma jet exposure time principally affects the total RONS concentration, but not the relative ratios of RONS, whereas the treatment distance affects both the total RONS concentration and the relative RONS concentrations.

  3. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  4. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Leonov; Veraksa, Aleksander N.; Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  5. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Leonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  6. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523

  7. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Sani SH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

  8. Organizational Change in Distance Higher Education: the Re-negotiation of Employee's Psychological Contract Cambio Organizacional en la Educación Superior a Distancia: la Re-negociación del Contrato Psicológico de los Empleados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Topa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore empirical relationships of employees' attitudes towards organizational change, the perceived breach of the psychological contract and outcomes such as burnout, job satisfaction and OCB. The proposed model suggests that organizational identification will be a mediator variable in these relationships. Results of an empirical study conducted among university staff (N =150 showed that the model was an adequate fit to the data. Organizational identification mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and outcomes while attitudes towards organizational change had a direct impact on outcomes. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es explorar las relaciones empíricas entre las actitudes ante el cambio organizacional, la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados tales como burnout, satisfacción laboral y conductas de ciudadanía organizacional. El modelo propuesto sugería que la identificación organizacional sería una variable mediadora en estas relaciones. Los resultados de un estudio empírico llevado a cabo con personal universitario (N=150 mostraron que el modelo ajustaba adecuadamente a los datos. La identificación organizacional mediaba la relación entre la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados, mientras que las actitudes ante el cambio tenían un impacto directo en los resultados.

  9. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma, E-mail: jperez@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, USP (Brazil); Antolini, Ermete [Scuola di Scienza dei Materiali (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x{sub i}), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x{sub i}/d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y < 30 wt%, the optimum values of both d and x{sub i}/d can be always obtained. For y {>=} 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y < 30 wt% is concomitant to a decrease of the effective catalyst surface area due to an increase of d and/or a decrease of x{sub i}/d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x{sub i}/d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x{sub i}/d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  10. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  12. Neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting among women: the effect of distance between the place of residence and the place of work/study (an ACTI-Cités study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Salze, Paul; Feuillet, Thierry; Hercberg, Serge; Hess, Franck; Menai, Mehdi; Weber, Christiane; Charreire, Hélène; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal

    2017-06-12

    Active transportation has been associated with favorable health outcomes. Previous research highlighted the influence of neighborhood educational level on active transportation. However, little is known regarding the effect of commuting distance on social disparities in active commuting. In this regard, women have been poorly studied. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood educational level and active commuting, and to assess whether the commuting distance modifies this relationship in adult women. This cross-sectional study is based on a subsample of women from the Nutrinet-Santé web-cohort (N = 1169). Binomial, log-binomial and negative binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between neighborhood education level and (i) the likelihood of reporting any active commuting time, and (ii) the share of commuting time made by active transportation modes. Potential effect measure modification of distance to work on the previous associations was assessed both on the additive and the multiplicative scales. Neighborhood education level was positively associated with the probability of reporting any active commuting time (relative risk = 1.774; p work for both outcomes. Our results suggest that neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting tend to increase with commuting distance among women. Further research is needed to provide geographically driven guidance for health promotion intervention aiming at reducing disparities in active transportation among socioeconomic groups.

  13. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Organization of Practical Training of Research Master Students Enrolled in the Program of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education”: Testing Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maximov L. K.,; Maximova L. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the testing experience of the practical training of research master students in the integrative module of basic professional educational program of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education”, training direction of “Psycho-pedagogical education”. We reviewed the organization of the practical training, its object and purpose, formed competence and educational outcomes, the content and form of organization of activity of students that achieve these r...

  15. Interactive role of physical activity and body mass indices levels on cognitive function and psychological well-being of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsipour Dehkordi P; Mootabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: The elderly tend to perform daily physical activity and exercise has reduced and this leads to an increase in obesity in this stratum of society. This study aimed to investigate interactive role of physical activity and body mass indices levels on cognitive function and psychological well-being of the elderly. Methods: The study is causal-comparative method. The subjects were 200 elderly women aged 60 years and above and the inclusion criteria were selected. The subjec...

  16. Psychometrics and Assessment of an Empathy Distance Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Research has indicated declining empathy within specific professions and social structures. Few psychometric instruments have addressed empathy within the context of psychological distance/relatedness to other individuals and even to other species, relationships that can be important contributors to psychological well-being and health. We…

  17. Functional and psychological impact of nasal bone fractures sustained during sports activities: A survey of 87 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Paul; Jaber, Sam; Fenton, John E

    2016-08-01

    Nasal bone fractures that require reduction are a common sequela of sports injuries. We conducted a survey to ascertain the outcomes of patients who had experienced a nasal bone fracture and who subsequently underwent manipulation under anesthesia. We reviewed data on 217 nasal bone fractures that had been seen at our institution over a 3-year period. Of these, 133 (61.3%) had occurred as a result of a sports activity. Thirty of the 133 patients (22.6%) had been managed conservatively, while the other 103 (77.4%) had undergone manipulation under anesthesia. We were able to contact 87 of the 103 patients (84.5%) by telephone, who served as the study population. The most common sports associated with these 87 injuries were hurling (n = 26; 29.9%), rugby (n = 22; 25.3%), Gaelic football (n = 20; 23.0%), and soccer (n = 13; 14.9%). Patients who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks were significantly more satisfied with their outcome than were those who had been treated later (p fracture of the nasal bones may have a notable psychological impact on an athlete and that it can lead to diminished performance or a complete withdrawal from contact sports.

  18. PEDAGOGIA A DISTÂNCIA ANÁLISE DE ATIVIDADES PROPOSTAS NA DISCIPLINA DE MATEMÁTICA. PEDAGOGY IN DISTANCE EDUCATON ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED ACTIVITIES IN MATHEMATICS CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane dos Santos Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma investigação realizada sobre o ensino de Matemática em um curso de Pedagogia, na modalidade a distância (EaD, no estado de Alagoas, Brasil, com o objetivo de analisar as atividades propostas para a disciplina Saberes e Metodologias do Ensino da Matemática I, disponibilizadas no ambiente virtual de aprendizagem (AVA. De acordo com o material coletado online, as análises indicaram que há pouca diversidade de atividades que favoreçam a aprendizagem dos conteúdos matemáticos trabalhados na disciplina e também que os recursos disponíveis, como os fóruns de discussão, não foram adequadamente utilizados para fomentar questionamentos ou discussões para favorecer a aprendizagem dos alunos. A disciplina que tratou do ensino da Matemática na formação do pedagogo deixa lacunas em relação à metodologia e aos conteúdos utilizados no curso, ao conteúdo trabalhado, e a não utilização das referências indicadas na ementa. Há a necessidade de melhorias no tratamento dado à Matemática na formação do pedagogo, na modalidade a distância, no tocante à metodologia utilizada e ao planejamento, fazendo jus às ferramentas que o AVA pode proporcionar. This paper reports an investigation involving Mathematics teaching in a distance education course for primary school teachers in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze the proposed activities in the discipline Knowledge and Methodologies for Teaching Mathematics I, available in a virtual learning environment (VLE. According to the online collected material, the analysis indicated that there is little variety of activities favoring the knowledge of mathematics content worked in the discipline; also, the sources available, such as discussion forums, were not properly used to stimulate questioning and discussions to improve students’ knowledge. The discipline that included teaching mathematics in the preparation of primary school

  19. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  20. Neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting among women: the effect of distance between the place of residence and the place of work/study (an ACTI-Cités study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation has been associated with favorable health outcomes. Previous research highlighted the influence of neighborhood educational level on active transportation. However, little is known regarding the effect of commuting distance on social disparities in active commuting. In this regard, women have been poorly studied. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood educational level and active commuting, and to assess whether the commuting distance modifies this relationship in adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study is based on a subsample of women from the Nutrinet-Santé web-cohort (N = 1169. Binomial, log-binomial and negative binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between neighborhood education level and (i the likelihood of reporting any active commuting time, and (ii the share of commuting time made by active transportation modes. Potential effect measure modification of distance to work on the previous associations was assessed both on the additive and the multiplicative scales. Results Neighborhood education level was positively associated with the probability of reporting any active commuting time (relative risk = 1.774; p < 0.05 and the share of commuting time spent active (relative risk = 1.423; p < 0.05. The impact of neighborhood education was greater at long distances to work for both outcomes. Conclusions Our results suggest that neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting tend to increase with commuting distance among women. Further research is needed to provide geographically driven guidance for health promotion intervention aiming at reducing disparities in active transportation among socioeconomic groups.

  1. Priming of Spatial Distance Enhances Children's Creative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Polack, Orli; Hameiri, Boaz; Blumenfeld, Maayan

    2012-01-01

    According to construal level theory, psychological distance promotes more abstract thought. Theories of creativity, in turn, suggest that abstract thought promotes creativity. Based on these lines of theorizing, we predicted that spatial distancing would enhance creative performance in elementary school children. To test this prediction, we primed…

  2. Psychological Adaptation of Foreign University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmi GÖKYER

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the psychological adaptation problems of foreign students, who have come to Turkey to receive higher education at a state university, in terms of the variables of cultural distance perceptions, social support perceptions, acculturation attitudes, general state of health, self-efficacy beliefs and life satisfaction. Psychological adaptations of foreign students were examined within the framework of Berry’s (1997 theory of acculturation. The relational study model, one of the general study types, was used in the study. The population of the study consisted of foreign students who are studying at a state university. Since the study aims to reach the whole population, no sample was chosen for the study. The total number of foreign students was 146 in the 2014-2015 academic year. Psychological adaptations of the students were examined with the variables of age, acculturation attitudes, perceived social support, cultural distance, self-efficacy and duration of stay in Turkey. The quantitative data were analyzed via the SPSS 21 package software. The findings of the study showed that the answers that foreign students have given to the life satisfaction scale are at the level of “slightly agree” in both genders. The answers that they have given to the general health scale about how their health is now and has been recently in general are at the level of “less than usual”. The most important variable that predicts the psychological adaptations of students is acculturation attitudes. Among the acculturation attitudes, the students preferred the integration attitude. According to the results of the classification by geographical region, there are similarities in the categories of religious beliefs, family life, customs, world-views, social activities and standards of living of the foreign students. However, there are differences in the categories of clothing, mode of communication, values, and

  3. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  4. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  5. DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF FUTURE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Gnedkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global informatization of society and the process of involving information and communication technologies (ICT in all areas of human activity, including the educational process of high school raise the problem of new model construction of process of future highly qualified and competitive professionals training. In conditions of Ukraine integration into the European educational space, the significant changes in professional training of teachers in higher education institutions are taken place. ICT and distance learning technologies are implemented in learning process. However, this process causes many difficulties in students and teachers, for example, the lack of guidance on the implementation of ICT and distance learning technologies in the learning process and not enough formed skills and abilities of teachers and students to use ICT and distance learning technologies in professional activity. These problems negatively affect on the quality of future specialists training, including teachers of foreign language (English. To increase the quality of English teachers training there is a need to introduce distance learning technologies in language learning process, at study the discipline “Practical English Course”. On the base of analysis of psychological and educational literature in future English teachers training, the results of international studies and methodological literature of distance learning the practical implementation of distance learning technologies in educational process of training of English teachers of Kherson State University was presented

  6. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  8. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  9. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  10. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  11. Distance Learning: A Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Previous research identified a variety of special populations which may be serviced through online learning activities. These have included the military, Native Americans, prisoners, remote occupations, and others. This paper focuses the growing role of distance learning opportunities for student and professional athletes. Special attention is…

  12. The role of physical activity and psychological coping strategies in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy--A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben; Cramp, Fiona; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy; Wynick, David; McCabe, Candida S

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes is rising in prevalence; painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one complication of diabetes. PDN is primarily managed with medication but analgesic failure is common and people remain in pain and distress. It is unclear whether pain management strategies are appropriate for PDN. To establish the effectiveness of physical activity and psychological coping strategies for PDN. Systematic literature review. Ten online databases. Controlled trials reporting specific results for PDN, investigating, (a) physical activity or (b) psychological coping strategies and measuring pain as an outcome. The search was restricted to published research with no restriction on language or date of publication. Methodological quality and risk of bias assessed with Cochrane collaboration and NICE checklist for randomised controlled trials. Of 1306 titles identified, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Two trials investigated physical activity and two investigated psychological coping interventions. Studies showed pain measures improved or did not worsen compared to controls, but methodological quality was moderate and results need cautious interpretation. The studies were of small sample size and used a diverse range of outcome measures. There is high risk of bias from lack of blinding and attrition at follow up. The research literature in this area is sparse and inconsistent, despite the pressing clinical challenge of PDN. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from the studies included. Further high quality research is required to match treatment provision to patient requirements. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  14. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...

  15. Physical and psychological functioning of daily living in relation to physical activity. A longitudinal study among former elite male athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckmand, Heli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Sarna, Seppo; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2006-02-01

    Physical exercise plays an important role in the prevention and reduction of disabilities in elderly people. The aim of this study was to determine the role of physical activity in the physical and psychological functioning of daily living in a cohort of former elite male athletes representing different sports, and controls of middle and old age. Subjects were 664 former elite male athletes (mean age 64.4 years) and 500 controls (62.0 years) in middle and old age. Subjects were mailed "Physical activity and health survey" questionnaires in 1985 and 1995. The primary outcomes the physical and psychological functioning of daily living--were assessed in 1995 using items from the Mini-Finland Health Survey. Logistic regression was used for longitudinal as well as cross-sectional analyses to estimate odds ratios (OR) for poor physical and psychological functioning of daily living in relation to recreational physical activity adjusted for age, sport group, life-style, BMI, mood, chronic diseases, personality characteristics, life-events and socio-economic status. In the longitudinal analysis, low levels of physical activity (lowest MET quintile vs highest quintile) in 1985 (OR 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-11.9), older age (> or =70 yrs vs under 60 yrs OR 9.93, 95% CI 4.90-20.2), depression (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.01-4.09) and anxiety in 1995 (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.34-5.32) increased the risk of poor physical functioning of daily living in 1995, whereas an increase in a physical activity between 1985-1995 (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95) protected against poor physical functioning of daily living. A history of participating in specific types of sports, especially among certain power sports (weight-lifting and track & field throwers) (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.60) and team sports (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.81) did reveal a significant protective effect against poor psychological functioning of daily living in the longitudinal analysis. This study suggests that an increase in

  16. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  17. DISTANCE NURSE EDUCATION (UZAKTAN HEMSIRELIK EGITIMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsun KURUBACAK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Distance Nurse Education is the first book in the Turkish literature. The main purpose of this book is to introduce and discuss the dimensions, components and characteristics of Distance Nurse Education. The unique approach of this publication brings together 1 Distance Education, 2 Nurse Education, and 3 ALINE (Active Learning in Nursing Education Model (Fay, Selz, and Johnson, 2005 together at the same time. This book focuses on the learning activities, learner-centered approach, interactions, nursing competency oriented skills and feedback of distance nurse education and its applications. Besides, this book considers on how planning, designing, delivering and managing distance resources to bring about the successful completion of the goals and objectives of distance nurse education; and also discusses the design and its models from a progressive and transformative viewpoint in the area. Thus, the publication attempts to build a better understanding on how distance educators, designers, tutors and learners in nurse education can talk about the methodical approaches to planning and guiding processes to design distance nurse education from start to finish. This is also important to scrutinize the distance nurse education model how to bring a global and multicultural partnership of faculty, administrators, professionals, teachers, community activists and researchers in distance education as well as nurse education.

  18. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  19. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  20. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  1. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  2. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  3. Duty and Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Binder (C.); C. Heilmann (Conrad)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractEver since the publication of Peter Singer’s article ‘‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’’ has the question of whether the (geographical) distance to people in need affects our moral duties towards them been a hotly debated issue. Does geographical distance affect our moral

  4. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  5. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  6. It isn't all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  8. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. INDIVIDUAL STYLE OF ACTIVITY: THE HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT AND ITS PLACE IN THE MODERN PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhmutova, Marina; Bakhtina, Svetlana; Andreeva, Svetlana; Golovanova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    The article examines severalapproaches to studying the phenomenon of "style", that exist inmodern psychology. Some researchers associate the concept of "style"with the adaptive mechanisms of the human psyche (A. Adler, R. Stagner), othersconsider "style" as part of the system of interaction of the subjectwith the environment (V. Tolochek, B. Vyatkin).The article describes thedevelopment of the semantics of the concept of "style" inpsychological research...

  10. Improving physical self-perception in adolescent boys from disadvantaged schools: psychological outcomes from the Physical Activity Leaders randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P J; Saunders, K L; Lubans, D R

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a school-based obesity prevention programme on physical self-perception and key physical-activity related cognitions in adolescent boys from disadvantaged secondary schools. A secondary objective was to determine if any psychological changes were associated with improved weight status. Participants (n = 100, age = 14.3[0.6]) were randomized to the PALS (Physical Activity Leaders) intervention (n = 50) or a control group (n = 50) and assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow up. Measures included BMI, BMI z-score and % body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis). Students also completed the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile and a physical activity-related cognitions questionnaire. The findings include secondary data analyses. Relative to the controls, the PALS group significantly increased their physical self worth (p = .01), perceived physical condition (p = .02), resistance training self efficacy (p physical activity behavioural strategies (p = .02). A school-based obesity prevention programme that targeted leadership skills improved psychological health in the physical domain in adolescent boys from disadvantaged schools. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Making Psychology a Science: A Discourse Analysis upon the history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Mowat, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks is the focus of a discourse analysis (DA), to explore how it constructs the scientific status of the discipline that it is chronicling. Given the importance of Psychology’s scientific status to retain its cultural authority, and the lack of a clear demarcation between science and other forms of knowledge producing activities, there is a need to understand better how psychological knowledge came to be seen as scie...

  12. The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to Be Physically Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Evelia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

  13. A study of the physical rehabilitation and psychological state of patients who sustained limb loss as a result of terrorist activity in Northern Ireland 1969-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine; Parke, R C; Paterson, M C; Stevenson, M

    2006-06-30

    To benchmark the psychological state and physical rehabilitation of patients who have sustained limb loss as a result of terrorist activity in Northern Ireland and to determine their satisfaction with the period of primary prosthetic rehabilitation and the artificial limb. All patients who sustained limb loss as a result of the Troubles and were referred to our rehabilitation centre were sent a questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the SIGAM mobility grades, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and three screening questions for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Out of a 66% response rate, 52 (69%) patients felt that the period of primary prosthetic rehabilitation was adequate; 32 (54%) lower limb amputees graded themselves SIGAM C or D; 45 (60%) patients stated that they were still having significant stump pain. Significant stump pain was associated with poorer mobility. Nine (56%) upper limb amputees used their prosthetic limb in a functional way; 33 (44%) patients showed "psychiatric caseness" on the GHQ 12 and 50 (67%) had symptoms of PTSD. Most patients felt that the period of physical rehabilitation had been adequate; those who did not were more likely to be having ongoing psychological problems. A high percentage of patients continue to have psychological problems and stump pain.

  14. SOCIAL - PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL -PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STOMATOLOGISTS WORK HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Petrenko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the results of influence the conditions of work upon psychological and psychophysiologic status of stomatological staff. The results revealed that labor activity of stomatological staff influences on their functional condition and capacity for work. Changes of psychological, psychophysiologic indices and motoric characteristics proved it.

  15. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...

  16. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  17. Simulation of Numerical Distance Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwali, Hamid; Abdlrahem, Abdlmnam

    2010-01-01

    As modern numerical relays are widely employed in protection systems nowadays and modeling of these types of relays is important to adjust and settle protection equipment in electrical facilities and to train protection personnel, the simulation of distance relays using MATLAB offers a good opportunity to perform these activities efficiently and with minimum cost. Another advantages is that, as MATLAB is a powerful tool rich with component models, any shape of relay characteristic (Impedance,...

  18. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C B; Dalal, N; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Kuhlmann, S.

    2015-03-15

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  19. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  20. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  1. Long-term Psychological and Quality-of-life Effects of Active Surveillance and Watchful Waiting After Diagnosis of Low-risk Localised Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Sam J; Calopedos, Ross J; O'Connell, Dianne L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Woo, Henry H; Smith, David P

    2017-08-26

    Long-term psychological well-being and quality-of-life are important considerations when deciding whether to undergo active treatment for low-risk localised prostate cancer. To assess the long-term effects of active surveillance (AS) and/or watchful waiting (WW) on psychological and quality-of-life outcomes for low-risk localised prostate cancer patients. The Prostate Cancer Care and Outcome Study is a population-based prospective cohort study in New South Wales, Australia. Participants for these analyses were low-risk localised prostate cancer patients aged prostate cancer patients. Adjusted mean differences (AMDs) in outcome scores between prostate cancer treatment groups were estimated using linear regression. At 9-11 yr after diagnosis, patients who started AS/WW initially had (1) higher levels of distress and hyperarousal than initial radiation/high-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=5.9; 95% confidence interval or CI [0.5, 11.3] and AMD=5.4; 95% CI [0.2, 10.5], respectively), (2) higher levels of distress and avoidance than initial low-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=5.3; 95% CI [0.2, 10.3] and AMD=7.0; 95% CI [0.5, 13.5], respectively), (3) better urinary incontinence scores than initial radical prostatectomy patients (AMD=-9.1; 95% CI [-16.3, -2.0]), and (4) less bowel bother than initial radiation/high-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=-16.8; 95% CI [-27.6, -6.0]). No other significant differences were found. Limitations include participant attrition, inability to assess urinary voiding and storage symptoms, and nonrandom treatment allocation. Notwithstanding some long-term differences between AS/WW and various active treatment groups in terms of distress, hyperarousal, avoidance, urinary incontinence, and bowel bother, most long-term outcomes were similar between these groups. This study assessed the long-term psychological and quality-of-life impacts of initially monitoring rather than actively treating low-risk prostate cancer. The results

  2. Weighted Feature Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Yazdani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of machine learning methods for clustering depends on the optimal selection of similarity functions. Conventional distance functions for the vector space might cause an algorithm to being affected by some dominant features that may skew its final results. This paper introduces a flexible...... environment for mining algorithms that uses the most suitable similarity functions to cover the diversity of both vector and feature spaces. The paper describes some well known conventional distance functions and introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD) and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD......). These novel functions attempt to balance the impact of the dominant features by covering both feature and vector spaces, additionally to optionally allowing us to increase or decrease the impact of some features. We evaluate and compare the accuracy of our proposed WFD(s) on conventional fuzzy...

  3. Benchmarking Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the myriad perspectives on measures of quality and benchmarking in distance education. Reviews the standards or benchmarks of quality that have been promulgated by various stakeholder groups. (EV)

  4. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  5. Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D. R.; Martinez, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called the Heterogeneous Value Difference M...

  6. What Would Batman Do? Self-Distancing Improves Executive Function in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rachel E.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    This experimental research assessed the influence of graded levels of self-distancing--psychological distancing from one's egocentric perspective--on executive function (EF) in young children. Three- (n = 48) and 5-year-old (n = 48) children were randomly assigned to one of four manipulations of distance from the self (from proximal to distal:…

  7. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  8. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Job G; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon J; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2014-05-02

    Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and response efficacy (OR = 0

  9. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering…

  10. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…

  11. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  12. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  13. Statistical Distance For Chaotic Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Johal, R S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to define a distance on the underlying phase space of a chaotic map, based on natural invariant density of the map. It is observed that for logistic map this distance is equivalent to Wootters' statistical distance. This distance becomes the Euclidean distance for a map with constant invariant density.

  14. Environmental Impact of Long Distance Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel...... and the climate burden from long overseas distances is especially high even though only few travel overseas. The travel activity is furthermore increasing much more for long distances than for European destinations. Domestic travel activity with overnight stay is nearly stagnating. The study furthermore shows...

  15. Environmental Impact of Long Distance Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel...... and the climate burden from long overseas distances is especially high even though only few travel overseas. The travel activity is furthermore increasing much more for long distances than for European destinations. Domestic travel activity with overnight stay is nearly stagnating. The study furthermore shows...

  16. Physical fitness and psychological health in overweight/obese children: A cross-sectional study from the ActiveBrains project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ayllon, M; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Esteban-Cornejo, I; Migueles, J H; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Henriksson, P; Martín-Matillas, M; Mena-Molina, A; Molina-García, P; Estévez-López, F; Enriquez, G M; Perales, J C; Ruiz, J R; Catena, A; Ortega, F B

    2018-02-01

    To examine the associations of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and speed/agility) with psychological distress and psychological well-being in overweight/obese pre-adolescent children. 110 overweight/obese children (10.0±1.1years old, 61 boys) from the ActiveBrains project (http://profith.ugr.es/activebrains) participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical fitness was evaluated by the ALPHA battery test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was additionally evaluated by a maximal incremental treadmill. Stress was assessed by the Children's Daily Stress Inventory, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, depression by the Children Depression Inventory, positive affect and negative affect by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, happiness by the Subjective Happiness Scale, optimism by the Life Orientation Test, and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire. Linear regression adjusted for sex and peak height velocity was used to examine associations. Absolute upper-body muscular strength was negatively associated with stress and negative affect (β=-0.246, p=0.047; β=-0.329, p=0.010, respectively). Furthermore, absolute lower-body muscular strength was negatively associated with negative affect (β=-0.301, p=0.029). Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed by the last completed lap, and relative upper-body muscular strength were positively associated with optimism (β=0.220, p=0.042; β=0.240, p=0.017, respectively). Finally, absolute upper-body muscular strength was positively associated with self-esteem (β=0.362, p=0.003) independently of sex and weight status (p for interactions >0.3), and absolute lower-body muscular strength was also positively associated with self-esteem (β=0.352, p=0.008). Muscular strength was associated with psychological distress (i.e. stress and negative affect) and psychological well-being (i.e. optimism and self-esteem) as well as cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with

  17. Support Services for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Frieden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. It’s a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

  18. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  19. [Clinical psychology in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdy, E

    1998-11-08

    What is health- and clinical psychology? How do they fit into the healthcare system as disciplines and branches of professional practice? This overviews presents the theoretical sources of the profession, its components and interdisciplinary relations. Outlined are the criteria of being a profession, within the framework of the developmental history of clinical psychology in Hungary and abroad. Also discussed are specific aspects of practical care, both within and beyond healthcare as primary prevention (mental hygiene). In addition, we deal with the current problems of clinical psychology, international and specifically Hungarian, as well as its potential for development. Our main message is that the answer to present day challenges is activity based upon on integrated care model. This uses the framework of primary care and is capable of bringing about the reconciliation and integration of biological and psycho-social interventions. A crucial aspect of this is the role of team-work and, above all, that of the clinical psychologist.

  20. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  1. Idols of the psychologist: Johannes Linschoten and the demise of phenomenological psychology in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hezewijk, René; Stam, Henderikus J

    2008-08-01

    Before and after World War II, a loose movement within Dutch psychology solidified as a nascent phenomenological psychology. Dutch phenomenological psychologists attempted to generate an understanding of psychology that was based on Husserlian interpretations of phenomenological philosophy. This movement came to a halt in the 1960s, even though it had been exported to North America and elsewhere as "phenomenological psychology." Frequently referred to as the "Utrecht school," most of the activity of the group was centered at Utrecht University. In this article, the authors examine the role played by Johannes Linschoten in both aspects of the development of a phenomenological psychology: its rise in North America and Europe, and its institutional demise. By the time of his early death in 1964, Linschoten had cast considerable doubt on the possibilities of a purely phenomenological psychology. Nonetheless, his own empirical work, especially his 1956 dissertation published in German, can be seen to be a form of empiricism inspired by phenomenology but that clearly distanced itself from the more elitist and esoteric aspects of Dutch phenomenological psychology.

  2. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  3. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa S. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women.

  4. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  5. Ethical issues in sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack C; Way, William C; Hilliard, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    The field of sport psychology is dynamic and growing. To continue building credibility with the public and allied professionals, effective and ethical practice is crucial. Advances in technology have allowed sport psychology professionals to consult with athletes from a distance, but practitioners must be mindful of their competency to use technology, confidentiality concerns, and the suitability of technology for their clients. Movement toward defining competency and clarifying issues of title usage are additional areas in which the field is gaining momentum. Recent attention has also been drawn to the topics of professional development and cultural competency. With the unique settings in which applied sport psychology practice takes place, attention to multiple relationships is another key ethical issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychology of negotiating activity of employees of internal affairs agencies in situations related to the fact of committing a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhnina V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the problem of negotiating with the perpetrators of the criminal act in situations related to the fact of the crime. It identified six types of negotiation, including: negotiating with terrorists, hostage-taking on mercenary motives for ransom or other benefits; negotiate with criminals, hostage-taking, being caught in flagrante delicto; negotiate with criminals operating on psychological grounds; talks with political extremists; Negotiations with religious fanatics, acting in accordance with their religious beliefs; Negotiations with the crowd in order to prevent riots. The negotiations with the criminals studied as a managed balanced system, which includes the process of negotiation, management negotiating process under the influence of external conditions, factors and subjects of composition.

  7. A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingston, Jessica; Chadwick, Paul; Meron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of mindfulness skills. Methods: Forty-two asymptomatic University students participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study....... Participants in the experimental condition were offered six (1-h) mindfulness sessions; control participants were offered two (1-h) Guided Visual Imagery sessions. Both groups were provided with practice CDs and encouraged to practice daily. Pre-post pain tolerance (cold pressor test), mood, blood pressure......, pulse, and mindfulness skills were obtained. Results: Pain tolerance significantly increased in the mindfulness condition only. There was a strong trend indicating that mindfulness skills increased in the mindfulness condition, but this was not related to improved pain tolerance. Diastolic blood...

  8. REGULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE IN INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Volodko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an essence of psychological climate and its role in the professional activity and efficiency of institution performance. The state of psychological climate depends on concrete factors: director personality, human relations, system of incentives including motivations and labour conditions. Acting on these factors ensures regulation of the psychological climate. 

  9. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  10. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  11. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  12. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  13. Using self-efficacy theory to develop interventions that help older people overcome psychological barriers to physical activity: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Arthur, Antony; Avis, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Only a fifth of older people undertake a level of physical activity sufficient to lead to health benefit. Misconceptions about the ageing process and beliefs about the costs and benefits of exercise in late life may result in unnecessary self-imposed activity restriction. Thus, adhering to a physical activity can be difficult particularly when the benefits of exercise are often not immediate. Many of the barriers to engaging in physical activity among older people are attitudinal. It is therefore important to take account of the non-physical aspects of physical activity intervention programmes, such as increasing confidence. Self-efficacy is a widely applied theory used to understand health behaviour and facilitate behavioural modification, such as the increase of physical activity. This paper aims to examine the ways in which self-efficacy theory might be used in intervention programmes designed to overcome psychological barriers for increasing physical activity among older people. A number of studies have demonstrated that exercise self-efficacy is strongly associated with the amount of physical activity undertaken. Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of a physical activity intervention is beneficial. Physical activity interventions aimed at improving the self perception of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate and maintain physical activity behaviour. There are a number of ways for nurses to facilitate older people to draw on the four information sources of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, verbal encouragement, and physiological and affective states. Research challenges that future studies need to address include the generalisability of exercise setting, the role of age as an effect modifier, and the need for more explicit reporting of how self-efficacy is operationalised in interventions.

  14. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  15. 'Bright side' and 'dark side' hypomania are associated with differences in psychological functioning, sleep and physical activity in a non-clinical sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-06-01

    No research has yet focused on hypomanic states in non-clinical early adult populations. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess hypomania in a large non-clinical sample of young adults. A total of 862 participants (639 females and 223 males; mean age: M=24.67; SD=5.91) took part in the study. They completed a series of validated self-report questionnaires assessing hypomania (HCL-32) and other aspects of psychological functioning, sleep, stress, quality of life, cognitive-emotional elaboration of pain, self-efficacy, and physical activity. Based on the HCL-32, 19% of the participants (n=169) were categorized as currently being in a hypomanic state. Of those, 57.6% were classified as "active/elated" ('bright side'), whereas 42.4% were classified as "irritable/risk-taking" ('dark side'). Compared to non-hypomanic participants and the 'bright side' group, 'dark side' hypomanic participants reported more depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, somatic complaints, perceived stress, negative coping strategies, and lower self-efficacy. By contrast, 'bright side' hypomanic participants had lower stress scores, more positive self-instructions, and higher levels of exploration, self-efficacy, and physical activity. A cross-sectional design was adopted, assessing university students, who may not be representative of the stage of early adulthood. The present results underscore the notion of a continuity between a mood state and both favorable ('bright side') and unfavorable ('dark side') hypomanic states. In early adulthood, 'bright' and 'dark side' hypomania differs with respect to physical activity, psychological functioning and sleep. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAZRAN, G

    1958-11-14

    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some

  17. Distance Training as Part of a Distance Consulting Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Chiazzese, Giuseppe; Allegra, Mario

    "Distance Training" models, when integrated in a more complex framework, such as a "Distance Consulting" model, present specific features and impose a revision of the strategies commonly adopted in distance training experiences. This paper reports on the distance training strategies adopted in a European funded project aimed at…

  18. Looking for a Symphony: A Sort of Essay with a Perspective on Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences by Jens Mammen & Irina Mironenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Asger

    2016-06-01

    As a perspective on Mammen and Miroenkos the article is reflecting on the possibility of Activity Theory being a foundation on which Psychology could be integrated. Mammen and Miroenkos point that directed activity not only is towards objects "defined as a sum of qualities, but by individual reference" is a starting point. As a specific example the phenomenon Love, as "significant object relations", is related to the concept "choice categories". It is stated that relations of affection and love can't be understood independent of history of common activity, and that this makes the concept "choice categories" central in a psychological understanding of what love is.

  19. A Comparative Study of Student Satisfaction Level in Distance Learning and Live Classroom at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Azhar; Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq; Malik, Allah Bakhsh

    2012-01-01

    The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. Distance Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of student satisfaction of graduate distance learning educational psychology course to a traditional classroom educational psychology course…

  20. Building Sense of Community at a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred P. Rovai

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the belief that strong sense of community is limited to the traditional classroom and proposes that the virtual classroom has the potential of building and sustaining sense of community at levels that are comparable to the traditional classroom. Drawing on research literature, the concept of learning community is applied to the virtual classroom by taking on the issue of how best to design and conduct an online course that fosters community among learners who are physically separated from each other. Course design principles are described that facilitate dialogue and decrease psychological distance, thereby increasing a sense of community among learners.

  1. Effect of electric foot shock and psychological stress on activities of murine splenic natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer receptors and mRNA transcripts for granzymes and perforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Liang, Zaifu; Nakadai, Ari; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2005-06-01

    To explore the mechanism of stress-induced inhibition of natural killer (NK) activity, female C57BL/6 mice were stimulated by electric foot shock and psychological stress for 7 days consecutively. The shocked mice received scrambled, uncontrollable, inescapable 0.6 mA electric shocks in a communication box 120 times during 60 min. The mice in the psychological stress group were put into the communication box without electric foot shock. The plasma corticosterone level in both stressed groups was significantly higher than that in controls on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 and showed the highest level on day 3 in the foot shock stress. According to these results, therefore, we investigated the effect of stress on immunological function on day 3, and measured body weight, weight of the spleen, number of splenocytes, splenic NK, lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities, NK receptors, and mRNA transcripts for granzymes A and B and perforin in splenocytes. The NK, LAK and CTL activities, and NK receptors in mice with both types of stress were significantly decreased compared to those of the control mice, but the decreases were greater in the foot-shocked mice than in the psychological-stress mice. The mRNA transcripts for granzyme A and perforin were significantly decreased only in the foot-shocked mice. On the other hand, the foot-shock stress increased granzyme B. The above findings suggest that stress induced inhibition of NK, LAK and CTL activities partially via affecting NK receptors, granzymes and perforin.

  2. Lactose electroisomerization into lactulose: effect of the electrode material, active membrane surface area-to-electrode surface area ratio, and interelectrode-membrane distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aït-Aissa, Amara; Aïder, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and develop an innovative, clean, and environmentally friendly process for lactulose synthesis by electroactivation of lactose. In this work, the electrode material (type 304 stainless steel, titanium, and copper), dimensionless interelectrode-membrane distance at the cathodic compartment (0.36, 0.68, and 1), and the membrane:electrode surface area ratio (0.23, 0.06, and 0.015) were considered to be the factors that could affect the kinetic conversion of lactose into lactulose. The reactions were conducted under an initial lactose concentration of 0.15mol/L at 10°C, Froude number (mixing speed) of 2.05×10(-2), and electric current intensity of 300mA for 30min. The highest lactulose formation yield of 32.50% (0.05mol/L) was obtained by using a copper electrode, interelectrode-membrane distance of 0.36, and membrane:electrode surface area ratio of 0.23. The 2-parameter Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used for the prediction of the lactose isomerization kinetics as well as the 3-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. It was shown that the lactose isomerization kinetics into lactulose followed the Temkin and Langmuir-Freundlich models with coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.90 and a relative error of 1.42 to 1.56% and 4.27 to 4.37%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  4. The anisotropy of perceived distance: The eyes story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the eye position shift changes perceived distance, that is, whether kinesthetic information from eye muscles affects distance perception. Two experiments were done, in a dark room (reduced-cue situation, with 27 participants, psychology undergraduates. Participants had a task to match distances of three stimuli, on three viewing directions, 0, 30 and 60 deg rees relative to the body. Head and body of participants were fixed, and they changed viewing directions only by moving their eyes. Stimuli were 7cm

  5. Academic psychology or the lost meaning of psychology as praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic psychology has interpreted the development of neuro-biological sciences, especially neurobiological psychology, as the death of the soul and the disappearance of its hermeneutic dimension. One could ask maliciously why the need to look so deeply for the meaning sought by the Soul and "speech-being", at a time when the secrets of neurons are successfully decoded, as well as their chemical and electrical activity. It would be a huge mistake to think, by following the achievements of the so-called empirical research in psychology and works that can be published only in Serbian journal Psihologija, that the same cognitive schemes can equally well explaine the behavior of individual cells and individual behavior. Fortunately, the subject’s soul, which is believed to have been banished from the "real", "true" science, and biological theories, returns even under the banner of cognitivism. Academic psychology would still have to ask what has always been its primary objective: what constitutes the soul; what types of ideas, what kind of logical diversity constitutes the soul. Psychology does not have to know the answer, but it must be noted that only dynamic psychology seeks one. So, for the sake of psychology as praxis, dynamic psychology should be a syllabus in the education of future psychologists, who would not imitate otorhinolaryngologists or ophthalmologists.

  6. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  7. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  8. Coping with Stress in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Its Relationship with Disease Activity, Psychological Disorders, and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Danesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic diseases with significant impact on patients’ well-being. The aim of this study was the determination of stress coping strategies in IBD patients and their correlation with disease activity, psychological health, and quality of life (QOL. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on IBD patients referred to a gastroenterology clinic in Isfahan city (Iran. Disease activity, severity of anxiety and depression symptoms, stress coping strategies, and QOL were assessed using standard questionnaires. Coping strategies in IBD patients were compared to an unaffected control group. Results: 80 patients with mean age of 52.9 years (57.5% female and mean disease duration of 6.5 years were studied. Compared to the controls, IBD patients had higher scores in the maladaptive coping styles (evasive and palliative (P < 0.05. Association between coping strategies and disease activity was not significant. Severity of anxiety and depression was directly correlated with the maladaptive strategies (fatalistic and emotional (r = 0.283 to 0.468 and inversely correlated with the adaptive strategies (confrontive, optimistic, and self-reliant (r = -0.320 to -0.534. In addition, QOL was inversely correlated with the maladaptive strategies (fatalistic and emotional (r = -0.278 to -0.327 and directly correlated with the adaptive strategies (confrontive and optimistic (r = 0.262 to 0.355. Conclusion: Patients with IBD use more maladaptive and less adaptive stress coping strategies which are associated with their psychological health and QOL. Larger and prospective studies on the dynamic and interactive network of biopsychosocial factors in IBD patients are required.

  9. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  10. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  11. Long distance travel ‘today’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Dane’s long distance travel. It is a part of the Drivers and Limits project about long distance travel. Long distance travel is in the project defined as infrequent travel with overnight stay. Danes 15-85 years-old travel in average 5.5 long distance travel...... per year og which a third is for international destinations, a third is for domestic second homes and a third are other domestic trips. However, 87% of the kilometres are for international destinations and only 4% are for domestic second homes. Travel activity is very uneven distributed with only half...... of the population having had a journey during the last three month. At the other hand 60% have travelled internationally during the last year and only 2% have never travelled abroad. The paper presents among other things how the travel activity is distributed on travel purpose and mode and how the mode choice...

  12. Physical activity is associated with the physical, psychological, social and environmental quality of life in people with mental health problems in a low resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Van Damme, Tine; Probst, Michel; Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Basangwa, David; Mugisha, James

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of encouraging patients with mental health problems to become more active as an efficacious strategy to reduce the disability-associated burden. The aim of the current study was to investigate if there are differences in quality of life (QoL) outcomes between people with mental health problems that do and do not meet the recommendations of 150min per week of physical activity. 109 (36♀) Ugandan in- and outpatients (mean age = 34.2 ± 10.2 years) (depression = 7, bipolar disorder = 31, schizophrenia = 21, alcohol use disorder = 50) completed the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) method and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment brief version. Those who did not achieve the minimum physical activity recommendations as assessed by the PAVS (n = 63) had a lower physical, psychological, social and environmental QoL. The current data offer further evidence that the PAVS method might be an important risk identification tool in people with mental health problems. The feasibility and acceptability of the PAVS may help promote the importance of physical activity assessment and prescription as a core part of the treatment of mental health problems in LMICs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015. The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001 and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08 predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18. Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13. A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04 and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001 were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06. Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06 and lower

  14. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  15. The sound of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurd....../value - The paper offers new insights into the concept of CD and the findings may amount to a potentially fundamental contribution to the literature with important implications for the theory and practice of international human resource management.......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...... of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...

  17. Quantum Minimum Distance Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Enrica Santucci

    2017-01-01

    We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC). In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. First, a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier (QNMC), together with a possible generalization to any number of dimensions. Secondly, we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-...

  18. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...... of 11 urban families who have moved to the countryside and chosen to commute in order to dwell there....

  19. Electronic imitation of behavioral and psychological synaptic activities using TiOx/Al2O3-based memristor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Writam; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Long, Shibing; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-05

    Seeking an effective electronic synapse to emulate biological synaptic behavior is fundamental for building brain-inspired computers. An emerging two-terminal memristor, in which the conductance can be gradually modulated by external electrical stimuli, is widely considered as the strongest competitor of the electronic synapse. Here, we show the capability of TiOx/Al2O3-based memristor devices to imitate synaptic behaviors. Along with analog resistive switching performances, the devices replicate the bio-synapse behaviors of potentiation/depression, short-term-plasticity, and long-term-potentiation, which show that TiOx/Al2O3-based memristors may be useful as electronic synapses. The essential memorizing capabilities of the brain are dependent on the connection strength between neurons, and the memory types change from short-term memory to long-term memory. In the TiOx/Al2O3-based electronic synaptic junction, the memorizing levels can change their state via a standard rehearsal process and also via newly introduced process called "impact of event" i.e. the impact of pulse amplitude, and the width of the input pulse. The devices show a short-term to long-term memory effect with the introduction of intermediate mezzanine memory. The experimental achievements using the TiOx/Al2O3 electronic synapses are finally psychologically modeled by considering the mezzanine level. It is highly recommended that similar phenomena should be investigated for other memristor systems to check the authenticity of this model.

  20. Leader–Member Skill Distance, Team Cooperation, and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Longwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Peter Ping

    2015-01-01

    –member skill distance on team performance. We find the empirical support for our views with a mixed-methods design: a qualitative study interviewing informants in different cultures to clarify the psychological mechanisms, and also a quantitative study analyzing the data from US’s National Basketball...

  1. The Role of Dialogue in Distance Education: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Lynette K.

    2010-01-01

    Distance education has come a long way from its first offerings of pen and paper when submissions had to be mailed and no interaction occurred between students and instructors. One concern that has remained is that of keeping students connected to peers and instructors. Moore (1973) stated this psychological and communication gap (transactional…

  2. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

  3. Southern Federal University in Relation to Teacher Education Modernization Project: Strategic Reflection of the Testing Results of Integrative Modules of the “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” Research Master’s Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernaya A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of a strategic reflection of the Southern Federal University participation in the project of modernization of teacher education. It analyses how theoretical, methodological and organizational-activity basis of “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” research master’s program designed by Moscow State University of Psychology & Education relates to the strategic objectives of Southern Federal University. Priorities and forward-looking statements in the strategy for the training of specialists in education based on action-competence approach, integrative principle of educational modules construction, network forms of cooperation of educational institutions are shown. Basic methodological ideas of culturalhistorical psychology and activity theory and their applicability to the needs of modern education objectified in the draft are specially considered. The article presents the preliminary test results of integrative modules of research master’s program for Southern Federal University

  4. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGY OF COOPERATION, MOTIVATIONAL, INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF FUTURE HUMANITARIAN TEACHER READINESS FOR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY IN POLYSUBJECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Spivakovska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Redefining of modern information and communication technologies (ICT from teaching aids to teaching process subjects, continuous growth of their subjectivity necessary demands appropriate knowledge, skills, appropriate attitude to didactic capabilities of ICT, ability to cooperate with them and to build pupils learning activity aimed at formation and development of self organization, self development skills, promoting their subjective position in getting education that will be readiness of modern teacher to organize effective professional activities in polysubjective learning environment (PLE. The new tasks of humanitarian teacher related to self selection and design of educational content as well as the modeling of the learning process in conditions of PLE virtualized alternatives choice, impose special requirements to professionally important teacher’s personality qualities, rather to his readiness to implement effective professional work in such conditions. In this article the essence of future humanitarian teacher readiness concept to professional activity in polysubjective educational environment is proved. The structure of the readiness is analyzed. Psychological strategy of cooperation, reflective, motivational and informational partials are substantiated and characterized as components of the future humanitarian teacher readiness to professional activities in polysubjective educational environment.

  6. A longitudinal test of the predictions of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behaviour for passive and active suicidal ideation in a large community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Walker, Jennie; Leach, Liana S; Ma, Jennifer; Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) aims to elucidate the key antecedents of suicide deaths. Limited research has tested the IPTS in a community setting, and very little longitudinal research has been conducted. The current study longitudinally tested the predictions of the IPTS for suicidal ideation in a large population-based sample. The PATH through Life study assesses three age cohorts (20's, 40's, 60's) every four years. Two interpersonal factors were estimated at the third wave of assessment: thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB). The roles of these factors in suicide ideation (active and passive) four years later were estimated using logistic regression models (n = 4545). A one SD increase in TB was associated with increased odds of 37% for passive ideation and 24% for active ideation. For PB, odds were increased 2.5-fold for passive ideation and 2.4-fold for active ideation. A significant negative PB × TB interaction was found for passive but not active ideation. Effects were not consistent by age group or gender. Proxy measures were used to assess the constructs. The extended timeframe and low prevalence of suicidal ideation limited power to find effects within subgroups. Although TB and PB were individually associated with suicidal thoughts, little evidence was found for the key predictions of the IPTS longitudinally. Further investigation of the dynamic interplay between interpersonal factors over time is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Cindy E; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lambert, Joshua D; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L; Sauder, Katherine A; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-16

    Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the inhibitory effect of spices on digestive enzymes. In a 2 x 2, randomized, 4-period crossover design, we compared the effects of 14.5 g spices (black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, rosemary, and turmeric) vs. placebo incorporated into a high fat meal (1000 kcal, 45 g fat), followed by psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test) vs. rest on postprandial metabolism in 20 healthy but overweight adults. Blood was sampled at baseline and at 105, 140, 180, and 210 minutes for analysis of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Additional in vitro analyses examined the effect of the spice blend and constituent spices on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂). Mixed models were used to model the effects of spices and stress (SAS v9.3). Serum triglycerides, glucose and insulin were elevated following the meal (p < 0.01). Spices reduced post-meal triglycerides by 31% when the meal was followed by the rest condition (p = 0.048), but this effect was not present during stress. There was no effect of the spice blend on glucose or insulin; however, acute stress significantly increased both of these measures (p < 0.01; mean increase of 47% and 19%, respectively). The spice blend and several of the individual spices dose-dependently inhibited PL and PLA2 activity in vitro. Inclusion of spices may attenuate postprandial lipemia via inhibition of PL and PLA₂. However, the impact of psychological stress negates any

  8. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the…

  9. Resistance among Alienated Adult Students in Korea National Open University: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Contradictions in Distance Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Kyoung Phil

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in the variety of educational activities and resistance among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student number, the students' resistance shed light on…

  10. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan

    2003-03-01

    This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.

  11. Flight distance and population trends in European breeding birds

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller

    2008-01-01

    Flight distance reflects the risk that individual animals are willing to take when approached by a potential predator, as shown by a negative relationship between susceptibility to predation and flight distance. Species with long flight distances should more often suffer from disruption of their activities by potential predators, including humans, than species with short distances, resulting in declining reproductive success and hence declining population size of such species if disturbance h...

  12. Distance to Dark Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception. Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies. Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness. A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is. To determine OGLE-2005-SMC-001's distance

  13. Evaluation of work place group and internet based physical activity interventions on psychological variables associated with exercise behavior change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawson, Kimberley A; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy...

  14. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  15. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Garcés

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The challenge for reform in long distance transportation of animals is to raise community awareness about the issue without invoking the psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance, which has the paradoxical effect of reinforcing adverse behaviour. NGO activity in long distance transportation of animals is described for Australia, the United States and the European Union and aspirations elsewhere in the world are discussed. Importantly, animal welfare NGOs are now recognised by and have a voice in the forums of international bodies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE and the International Finance Corporation. Challenges for the future include the development of partnerships in global markets to replace the trade in live animals with a meat-only trade.

  16. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

  17. Distance collaborations with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  18. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...... and the organisational set-up. It is debated which kind of social learning that has taken place. The innovation process was based on the implementation of an inflexible video-conference system without any proactive considerations of organisational change or pedagocical development. User appropriation of the technology...... was confined to technical problem solving pursued by teachers, students and a limited technical staff. The outcome was a prolonged and troublesome learning and implementation process....

  19. [The concept of "psychological risk" in the professional activity of employees of fly-in fly-out method of labor organization on the example of oil and gas companies in the Far North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Ia A; Simonova, N N; Degteva, G N

    2013-01-01

    Professional work in shift team in the Far North contributes to the formation of unfavorable functional states and the development of destructive personality traits of employees, which lead to a decrease in the level of mental health, productivity and work efficiency With the aim to predict the professional efficiency of the rotational personnel it is necessary to determine the probability of negative psychological states, properties and qualities that will prevent its implementation, i.e, the psychological risks in professional activities. Psychological risk in the professional activity is the probability of occurrence of a professional personal destructions and the formation of unfavorable functional states of employees when performing job functions due to the prolonged negative impact of social-household and occupational factors in the lack of personal and environmental resource.

  20. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  1. Engineering the Activity and Stability of Pt-Alloy Cathode Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts by Tuning the Pt-Pt Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Malacrida, Paolo; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to the commercialisation of low-temperature fuel cells is the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In order to decrease the ORR overpotential and reduce the Pt loading we need to develop more active and stable electrocatalysts. A fruitful strategy...... for enhancing the cathode activity is to alloy Pt with transition metals [1-2]. However, alloys of Pt and late transition metals are typically unstable under fuel-cell conditions. Herein, we present experimental and theoretical studies showing the trends in activity and stability of novel cathode catalysts...... based on alloys of Pt and lanthanides. Sputter-cleaned, polycrystalline Pt5Gd shows a five-fold increase in ORR activity [3], relative to Pt at 0.9 V in 0.1 M HClO4. The rest of the Pt5Ln (Ln = lanthanide) tested present at least a 3-fold enhancement in activity [4,5]. In all cases, a Pt overlayer...

  2. Soil pH, total phosphorus, climate and distance are the major factors influencing microbial activity at a regional spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Ruirui; Wang, Libing

    2016-01-01

    were collected across a region from south to north China (about 1,000 km) to address the questions if microbial activity displays biogeographic patterns and what are driving forces. These samples represented different soil types, land use and climate. Redundancy analysis and nonmetric multidimensional......Considering the extensive functional redundancy in microbial communities and great difficulty in elucidating it based on taxonomic structure, studies on the biogeography of soil microbial activity at large spatial scale are as important as microbial community structure. Eighty-four soil samples...... scaling clearly revealed that soil microbial activities showed distinct differentiation at different sites over a regional spatial scale, which were strongly affected by soil pH, total P, rainfall, temperature, soil type and location. In addition, microbial community structure was greatly influenced...

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  4. The importance of psychological characteristics in potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the importance of aerobic conditioning, long distance running requires a great deal of mental toughness. The purpose of this study was to compare talented, ... Sport psychological skill levels were measured with the Athletic Copings Skills Inventory (ACSI-28). The Australian Talent Search Protocol was used to ...

  5. Distancing, self-esteem, and subjective well-being in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Distancing (i.e. construing oneself as dissimilar to a negatively-stereotyped group) preserves self-esteem and may benefit other domains of subjective well-being. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is stigmatized because major risk factors include avoidable lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papilloma virus). Because the benefits of coping efforts, such as distancing, are most evident when people are under stress, we hypothesize that the psychosocial benefits of distancing will be most pronounced when cancer and its treatment interfere substantially with participation in valued activities and interests (i.e. high illness intrusiveness). To test whether distancing preserves self-esteem and other domains of subjective well-being (SWB) in HNC, especially when illness intrusiveness is high. Five hundred and twenty-two HNC outpatients completed a semantic-differential measure of perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' and measures of illness intrusiveness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in structured interviews. Evaluations of the 'cancer patient' reflected cancer stereotypes. A statistically significant interaction supported the central hypothesis: When people held negative stereotypes, those who construed themselves as similar to the 'cancer patient' reported lower self-esteem than those who construed themselves as dissimilar. Distancing did not benefit other SWB variables. Some results were counter-intuitive: e.g. Emotional distress increased with increasing illness intrusiveness when people did not hold negative cancer stereotypes, but when they held highly negative stereotypes, distress decreased with increasing illness intrusiveness. Overall, distancing preserved self-esteem in people with HNC and was associated with benefits in other SWB domains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Dose-dependent effects of intravenous lorazepam on cardiovascular activity, plasma catecholamines and psychological function during rest and mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); P. Moleman (Peter); F. Boomsma (Frans); H.G. van Steenis (H.); V.J.H.M. van den Heuij (Venantius)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractDose-dependent effects of intravenously administered lorazepam on psychophysiological activity during rest and mental stress were studied in order to examine differential responses to doses which may induce anxiolysis or sedation. In a double-blind randomized cross-over study, nine male

  7. Psychological Needs as Mediators? The Relationship between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Well Being in People Diagnosed with Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Katie E.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Adachi, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in compromised bone strength, increased fracture risk, and reduced well being. With evidence attesting to the positive effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on biomedical health in people with…

  8. Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity, Fitness and Psychological Well-Being during a Health Club Physical Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Jeff; Timken, Gay L.; Coste, Sarah C.; Tompkins, Tanya L.; Peterson, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This pilot project aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of an innovative physical education programme, referred to as a health club (HC) approach, in a high school setting. We measured adolescent girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), components of health-related physical fitness, and perceptions about themselves and…

  9. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  10. Preparation for action: psychophysiological activity preceding a motor skill as a function of expertise, performance outcome, and psychological pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; Gallicchio, Germano; Willoughby, Adrian; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of the psychophysiological responses that characterize optimal motor performance is required to inform biofeedback interventions. This experiment compared cortical, cardiac, muscular, and kinematic activity in 10 experts and 10 novices as they performed golf putts in low- and high-pressure conditions. Results revealed that in the final seconds preceding movement, experts displayed a greater reduction in heart rate and EEG theta, high-alpha, and beta power, when compared to novices. EEG high-alpha power also predicted success, with participants producing less high-alpha power in the seconds preceding putts that were holed compared to those that were missed. Increased pressure had little impact on psychophysiological activity. It was concluded that greater reductions in EEG high-alpha power during preparation for action reflect more resources being devoted to response programming, and could underlie successful accuracy-based performance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Preparation for action: Psychophysiological activity preceding a motor skill as a function of expertise, performance outcome, and psychological pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; Gallicchio, Germano; Willoughby, Adrian; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the psychophysiological responses that characterize optimal motor performance is required to inform biofeedback interventions. This experiment compared cortical, cardiac, muscular, and kinematic activity in 10 experts and 10 novices as they performed golf putts in low- and high-pressure conditions. Results revealed that in the final seconds preceding movement, experts displayed a greater reduction in heart rate and EEG theta, high-alpha, and beta power, when compared to novices. EEG high-alpha power also predicted success, with participants producing less high-alpha power in the seconds preceding putts that were holed compared to those that were missed. Increased pressure had little impact on psychophysiological activity. It was concluded that greater reductions in EEG high-alpha power during preparation for action reflect more resources being devoted to response programming, and could underlie successful accuracy-based performance. PMID:24611889

  12. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  13. An examination of self-report physical activity and its relationship with psychological factors in inflammatory arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, Louise

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: In???ammatory arthritis (IA) is the term given to a group of chronic in???ammatory rheumatic diseases that primarily include rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Physical activity (PA), defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure (EE), is important for everyone, including people with RA and PsA. Despite the importance of including PA in the management of these two inflammatory conditions decrea...

  14. Effects of geomagnetic activity variations on the physiological and psychological state of functionally healthy humans: Some results of Azerbaijani studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Elchin S.; Allahverdiyeva, Aysel A.

    There are collaborative and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences conducted with purposes of revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems. This paper describes some results of the experimental studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of geomagnetic activity upon human brain, human health and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. It is experimentally established that weak and moderate geomagnetic storms do not cause significant changes in the brain's bioelectrical activity and exert only stimulating influence while severe disturbances of geomagnetic conditions cause negative influence, seriously disintegrate brain's functionality, activate braking processes and amplify the negative emotional background of an individual. It is concluded that geomagnetic disturbances affect mainly emotional and vegetative spheres of human beings while characteristics reflecting personality properties do not undergo significant changes.

  15. Does a history of exercise in COPD patients affect functional status? A study using a lifetime physical activity questionnaire investigates a correlation between exercise and functional status as evidenced by six-minute walk distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Peter Weiyen; Ramsdell, Joseph; Renvall, Marian; Vora, Chirag

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown strong associations between chronic exercise and improved spirometric values. Building on these findings, we investigated whether habitual lifetime exercise influences six-minute walk test performance (6MWT) in subjects with at least 10 pack-years smoking history. The 6MWT was chosen for its correlation with performance on activities of daily living and predictive value for inactivity, morbidity and mortality in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) versus spirometric values, which are less adept at predicting functional status. Because COPD is a global cause of disability, therapeutic measures that delay symptom-induced immobility are more cost-effective versus late-stage interventional therapies. Among 49 subjects, we compared lifetime exercise assessed with a validated physical activity questionnaire with six-minute walk distances (6MWD). The American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) recommended exercise levels (30 minutes/day, 1000 kcal/week) were used as a benchmark. Among subjects with spirometry-determined lung obstruction (n = 21), those who have not met at least half of ACSM guidelines (500 kcal/week) were classified as "Inactive," while others were "Active." A significant difference in 6MWD was found between Inactive and Active subjects: (1123.86ft vs. 1468.25ft, STDev = 210.07 vs. 240.25, p = 0.0045). This difference was not found in subjects without lung obstruction. Pack-years was a significant covariate: subjects who smoked less walked farther distances. No relation was found between exercise and predicted FEV(1)%. In summary, our case-control study suggests that meeting even half of ACSM exercise guidelines could improve functional status in smokers if habitual exercise is adopted early in life.

  16. Distances with forming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Burke, David L; Hicken, Malcolm; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Zheng, WeiKang

    2015-03-27

    The luminosities of type Ia supernovae (SNe), the thermonuclear explosions of white-dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and the rate at which they fade. From images taken with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we identified SNe Ia that erupted in environments that have high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, we calibrate these SNe using their broadband optical light curves to within ~0.065 to 0.075 magnitude, corresponding to <4% in distance. The tight scatter, probably arising from a small dispersion among progenitor ages, suggests that variation in only one progenitor property primarily accounts for the relationship between their light-curve widths, colors, and luminosities. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  18. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  19. Criterion-Validity of Commercially Available Physical Activity Tracker to Estimate Step Count, Covered Distance and Energy Expenditure during Sports Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Yvonne; Düking, Peter; Droszez, Anna; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the past years, there was an increasing development of physical activity tracker (Wearables). For recreational people, testing of these devices under walking or light jogging conditions might be sufficient. For (elite) athletes, however, scientific trustworthiness needs to be given for a broad spectrum of velocities or even fast changes in velocities reflecting the demands of the sport. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the validity of eleven Wearables for monitoring step coun...

  20. Long-distance activation of the Myc protooncogene by provirus insertion in Mlvi-1 or Mlvi-4 in rat T-cell lymphomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo, P A; Lee, J S; Tsichlis, P N

    1990-01-01

    T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus frequently have proviruses integrated at the Mlvi-4 and Mlvi-1 loci, which map approximately 30 and 270 kilobases 3' of the promoter region of the Myc protooncogene, respectively. Provirus insertion in these loci is responsible for the activation of adjacent genes. To determine whether Myc expression was also affected by these provirus insertions, we constructed T-cell hybrids between two rat thymic lymphomas containing a provirus in M...

  1. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  3. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  4. The effectiveness of physical activity monitoring and distance counseling in an occupational setting – Results from a randomized controlled trial (CoAct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijonsaari Karita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of physical activity (PA is a known risk factor for many health conditions. The workplace is a setting often used to promote activity and health. We investigated the effectiveness of an intervention on PA and productivity-related outcomes in an occupational setting. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 12 months duration with two 1:1 allocated parallel groups of insurance company employees. Eligibility criteria included permanent employment and absence of any condition that risked the participant’s health during PA. Subjects in the intervention group monitored their daily PA with an accelerometer, set goals, had access to an online service to help them track their activity levels, and received counseling via telephone or web messages for 12 months. The control group received the results of a fitness test and an information leaflet on PA at the beginning of the study. The intervention’s aim was to increase PA, improve work productivity, and decrease sickness absence. Primary outcomes were PA (measured as MET minutes per week, work productivity (quantity and quality of work; QQ index, and sickness absence (SA days at 12 months. Participants were assigned to groups using block randomization with a computer-generated scheme. The study was not blinded. Results There were 544 randomized participants, of which 521 were included in the analysis (64% female, mean age 43 years. At 12 months, there was no significant difference in physical activity levels between the intervention group (n = 264 and the control group (n = 257. The adjusted mean difference was −206 MET min/week [95% Bayesian credible interval −540 to 128; negative values favor control group]. There was also no significant difference in the QQ index (−0.5 [−4.4 to 3.3] or SA days (0.0 [−1.2 to 0.9]. Of secondary outcomes, body weight (0.5 kg [0.0 to 1.0] and percentage of body fat (0.6% [0.2% to 1.1%] were slightly

  5. A Model of Distance Analysis. Epistemic Field Notes for Education Ethnographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, O.

    2015-01-01

    This document aims to help education ethnographers to think about, describe and complete their scientific research: based on a personal research curricula and ongoing scientific discussions in social sciences and psychology, I develop an anthropology synthesis of three epistemic distances. (1) Cultural distance from fieldwork: How far is the…

  6. Ethnic differences in psychological well-being in adolescence in the context of time spent in family activities

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, MJ; Harding, S

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn Britain and elsewhere there is ethnic variation in mental health in adulthood but less is known about adolescence. Few studies examining the role of family life in adolescent mental well-being have been based on a multi-ethnic UK sample. We explored whether family activities explain ethnic differences in mental health among adolescents in London, UK.MethodThese analyses are based on 4,349 Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi and White UK boys and girl...

  7. Psychology in the public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  8. Cross-sectional analysis of long bones, occupational activities and long-distance trade of the Classic Maya from Xcambó--archaeological and osteological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiano, Isabel S; Schultz, Michael; Kierdorf, Horst; Sosa, Thelma Sierra; Maggiano, Corey M; Tiesler Blos, Vera

    2008-08-01

    Xcambó is a Classic period Maya site (250-700 AD) situated on the northern coast of Yucatan, Mexico. Archaeological evidence suggests that the site began as a salt production center but adopted a more administrative role as a commercial port in the Late Classic period. Economic growth, depending on its magnitude, could have affected the daily occupations of Xcambó's inhabitants. However, this is difficult to infer from the archaeological record. The aim of this study was to directly evaluate this possibility through skeletal analysis. Since diaphyseal robusticity and shape are predominantly influenced by mechanical loading history, long bone cross-sections can be used to access activity patterns. To this end, humeri and femora of 47 male and 35 female adult specimens from two Xcambó population samples were scrutinized. Our analysis satisfies general archaeological expectations and provides additional information on the population's physical response to economic growth. Decreasing robusticity and femoral anterior-posterior rigidity indicate an overall decrease in physical workload and mobility, concomitant with the site's increasing administrative function. We also observed a significant decrease in sexual dimorphism, possibly attributable to the differential response of male and female physical work spheres during socioeconomic change. In general, our findings suggest even nonsubsistence based socioeconomic change can significantly affect the bone structure of a population, rendering activity analysis an important aspect of the reconstruction of living conditions of past populations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Priming of spatial distance enhances children's creative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Polack, Orli; Hameiri, Boaz; Blumenfeld, Maayan

    2012-04-01

    According to construal level theory, psychological distance promotes more abstract thought. Theories of creativity, in turn, suggest that abstract thought promotes creativity. Based on these lines of theorizing, we predicted that spatial distancing would enhance creative performance in elementary school children. To test this prediction, we primed spatial distance by presenting 6- to 9-year-olds with pictures of increasingly distal objects (from their own desk to the galaxy) or increasingly proximal objects (from the galaxy to their own desk) and then assessed the fluency and originality of their ideas in a creativity test. We found, consistent with the hypothesis, that after priming of spatial distance, compared with priming of spatial proximity, children were more creative, as reflected in higher scores of both fluency and originality. This result was not qualified by children's age or gender. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological stress in aged female mice causes acute hypophagia independent of central serotonin 2C receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinami Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Sex differences exist in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following exposure to stress, and the stress response is further affected by aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress. Immediately after a stress load, aged female mice exhibited acute hypophagia and a rise in plasma corticosterone levels. The administration of a serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR antagonist suppressed plasma corticosterone but did not affect the reduction in food intake. In contrast, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, rikkunshito (RKT, significantly inhibited the reduction in food intake. An increase in peripheral acylated ghrelin levels during fasting, which occurs in young mice, was not observed in aged female mice. Moreover, in these mice, significantly increased levels of ghrelin and gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression were observed in the fed status. Moreover, plasma ghrelin levels were elevated by RKT and not by the 5-HT2CR antagonist. In female mice, the hypothalamic non-edited (INI and partially edited mRNA 5-HT2CR isoforms (VNV, VNI, VSV or VSI decreased with age, while in male mice, the editing isoform was unchanged by aging or stress. Estrogen receptor α (ERα-positive cell counts in the arcuate nucleus of young male mice exposed to stress and control aged male mice were increased compared with those in young control mice. In aged male mice exposed to stress, the number of ERα-expressing cells in the paraventricular nucleus were significantly increased compared with those in aged control mice; in female mice, there was no increase in the number of ERα-positive cells. Hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress may be independent of 5-HT2CR activation. It seems likely that the mechanisms may be caused by sex dependent, differential regulation in 5-HT2CR mRNA expression, peripheral acylated ghrelin secretion and/or hypothalamic ERα expression.

  11. Psychological stress in aged female mice causes acute hypophagia independent of central serotonin 2C receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Yamada, Chihiro; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis following exposure to stress, and the stress response is further affected by aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress. Immediately after a stress load, aged female mice exhibited acute hypophagia and a rise in plasma corticosterone levels. The administration of a serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonist suppressed plasma corticosterone but did not affect the reduction in food intake. In contrast, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, rikkunshito (RKT), significantly inhibited the reduction in food intake. An increase in peripheral acylated ghrelin levels during fasting, which occurs in young mice, was not observed in aged female mice. Moreover, in these mice, significantly increased levels of ghrelin and gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression were observed in the fed status. Moreover, plasma ghrelin levels were elevated by RKT and not by the 5-HT2CR antagonist. In female mice, the hypothalamic non-edited (INI) and partially edited mRNA 5-HT2CR isoforms (VNV, VNI, VSV or VSI) decreased with age, while in male mice, the editing isoform was unchanged by aging or stress. Estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive cell counts in the arcuate nucleus of young male mice exposed to stress and control aged male mice were increased compared with those in young control mice. In aged male mice exposed to stress, the number of ERα-expressing cells in the paraventricular nucleus were significantly increased compared with those in aged control mice; in female mice, there was no increase in the number of ERα-positive cells. Hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress may be independent of 5-HT2CR activation. It seems likely that the mechanisms may be caused by sex dependent, differential regulation in 5-HT2CR mRNA expression, peripheral acylated ghrelin secretion and/or hypothalamic ERα expression. PMID:29125864

  12. Effects of active vs. passive recovery during Wingate-based training on the acute hormonal, metabolic and psychological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Mathes, Sebastian; Köhler, Karsten; Achtzehn, Silvia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    The exercise-induced metabolic stress can be influenced by the mode of recovery and is associated with acute hormonal responses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that active recovery between high intensity intervals reduces the metabolic stimulus and therefore the hormonal response compared to passive recovery. 12 male cyclist/triathletes performed four 30s all-out intervals, either with active (A) or passive (P) recovery between each bout. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone and cortisol, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were determined pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after both interventions. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO3(-), PO2, PCO2), and spirometric analysis. Both interventions caused a transient increase in circulating levels of cortisol, testosterone, testosterone/cortisol-ratio, hGH, VEGF and HGF. Transient differences between A- and P-recovery were found only for testosterone and HGF directly after exercise, despite significant differences in metabolic disturbances (lactate, acid base status). Based on the data of testosterone, hGH and the testosterone/cortisol-ratio, as well as on the data of VEGF and HGF it appears that this kind of exercise protocol may promote anabolic processes and may lead to pro-angiogenic conditions independent of the mode of recovery. However transient differences between A- and P-recovery were shown for testosterone and HGF. In contrast, cortisol and hGH, which are known to be sensitive for metabolic perturbations (e.g. pH) showed no differences. Therefore, it is proposed that if a certain threshold for metabolic perturbations is exceeded, a hormonal response is induced, which does not differ between A- and P-recovery. © 2013.

  13. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  14. The effect of acute moderate psychological stress on working memory-related neural activity is modulated by a genetic variation in catecholaminergic function in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozheng eQin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress has an important impact on higher-order cognitive functions supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC such as working memory (WM. In rodents, such effects are mediated by stress-induced alterations in catecholaminergic signaling, but human data in support of this notion is lacking. A common variation in the gene encoding Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is known to affect basal catecholaminergic availability and PFC functions. Here, we investigated whether this genetic variation (Val158Met modulates effects of stress on WM-related prefrontal activity in humans. In a counterbalanced crossover design, 41 healthy young men underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI while performing a numerical N-back WM task embedded in a stressful or neutral context. Moderate psychological stress was induced by a well-controlled procedure involving viewing strongly aversive (versus emotionally neutral movie material in combination with a self-referencing instruction. Acute stress resulted in genotype-dependent effects on WM performance and WM-related activation in the dorsolateral PFC, with a relatively negative impact of stress in COMT Met-homozygotes as opposed to a relatively positive effect in Val-carriers. A parallel interaction was found for WM-related deactivation in the anterior medial temporal lobe. Our findings suggest that individuals with higher baseline catecholaminergic availability (COMT Met-homozygotes appear to reach a supraoptimal state under moderate levels of stress. In contrast, individuals with lower baselines (Val-carriers may reach an optimal state. Thus, our data show that effects of acute stress on higher-order cognitive functions vary depending on catecholaminergic availability at baseline, and thereby corroborate animal models of catecholaminergic signaling that propose a non-linear relationship between catecholaminergic activity and prefrontal functions.

  15. Kinesiophobia in pre-operative patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes in relation to pain-related variables, psychological state and sports activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Jakub; Shadi, Milud; Walczak, Michał; Głowacki, Maciej

    2015-01-14

    No research group has ever investigated the level of kinesiophobia in a well defined group of preoperative patients treated due to cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease, confirmed by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. We aimed to investigate the degree of kinesiophobia and the differences in pain-related and psychosocial characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia, in relation to factors commonly associated with neck pain. Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes were assessed pre-surgically. The mean pain duration was 31.7 SD 34.0 months. Patients completed the Polish versions of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-PL) on 2 occasions, and the following once: Neck Disability Index (NDI-PL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-PL). A high level of kinesiophobia was indicated in 81.5% and 87.7% of patients in first and second completion, respectively. Patients with high and low kinesiophobia differ in regards to the recreation section of NDI-PL (p=0.012), gender (p=0.043), and sports activity (p=0.024). Correlations were identified between TSK-PL and marital status (p=0.023) and sports activity (p=0.024). Kinesiophobia levels are higher in patients with chronic cervical pain before surgical treatment. Fear of movement tends to be higher in women and among patients avoiding sports recreation before surgical treatment. Although sports activity and socio-demographic data are predictors of kinesiophobia, psychological, pain-related, and clinical data are not. These findings should be considered when planning rehabilitation after surgical treatment of cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes.

  16. Quantum Minimum Distance Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Santucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC. In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. First, a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier (QNMC, together with a possible generalization to any number of dimensions. Secondly, we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-feature vectors into density operators. In the present paper, another promising encoding is considered, suggested by recent debates on quantum machine learning. Further, we observe a significant property concerning the non-invariance by feature rescaling of our quantum classifier. This fact, which represents a meaningful difference between the NMC and the respective quantum version, allows us to introduce a free parameter whose variation provides, in some cases, better classification results for the QNMC. The experimental section is devoted: (i to compare the NMC and QNMC performance on different datasets; and (ii to study the effects of the non-invariance under uniform rescaling for the QNMC.

  17. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Coping with Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og det...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur...... trussel mod samfundsbygningen. Men kap. 6 viser de mange måder hvori gennem turismen bidrager til samfundsbygningen, og det er en historie som indledes med en grundig diskussion af opdagelsesrejsernes grundlæggende betydning, også kulturelt. Begge disse kapitler tilføjer coping tilgangen flere analytiske...

  19. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  20. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  1. Social Psychology in The Course of Time

    OpenAIRE

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the behavioural interaction of individual or group of population in the general public community. The objective of current study is to analyse the trend of scientific activities in the field of social psychology during the last two decades. All publication entitled as “Social Psychology” that was indexed in the database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) through 1993-2012 was extracted an...

  2. Explorations in Physics and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    How can the activity-based directed inquiry model be applied in a distance learning class? Lessons learned during a two-year pilot program (2007-2009) using the ``Explorations in Physics'' curriculum (David P. Jackson, Priscilla W. Laws, Scott V. Franklin) for a class taught over the internet using VCAM technology. The author reports on the successes, difficulties and surprises of teaching an exploratory physics class at a distance, where teacher-student interaction occurred via high-definition camera and big screen, two-way sight and sound carried by high-speed internet. )

  3. Correlational analysis of neck/shoulder pain and low back pain with the use of digital products, physical activity and psychological status among adolescents in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhi; Deng, Guoying; Li, Jipeng; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Yongxing; Zhao, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP) among current high school students in Shanghai and explores the relationship between these pains and their possible influences, including digital products, physical activity, and psychological status. An anonymous self-assessment was administered to 3,600 students across 30 high schools in Shanghai. This questionnaire examined the prevalence of NSP and LBP and the level of physical activity as well as the use of mobile phones, personal computers (PC) and tablet computers (Tablet). The CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) scale was also included in the survey. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test, univariate logistic analyses and a multivariate logistic regression model. Three thousand sixteen valid questionnaires were received including 1,460 (48.41%) from male respondents and 1,556 (51.59%) from female respondents. The high school students in this study showed NSP and LBP rates of 40.8% and 33.1%, respectively, and the prevalence of both influenced by the student's grade, use of digital products, and mental status; these factors affected the rates of NSP and LBP to varying degrees. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that Gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, tablet use, sitting time after school and academic stress entered the final model of NSP, while the final model of LBP consisted of gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, mobile phone use, sitting time after school, academic stress and CES-D score. High school students in Shanghai showed high prevalence of NSP and LBP that were closely related to multiple factors. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of NSP and LBP.

  4. Correlational analysis of neck/shoulder pain and low back pain with the use of digital products, physical activity and psychological status among adolescents in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Shan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigates the neck/shoulder pain (NSP and low back pain (LBP among current high school students in Shanghai and explores the relationship between these pains and their possible influences, including digital products, physical activity, and psychological status. METHODS: An anonymous self-assessment was administered to 3,600 students across 30 high schools in Shanghai. This questionnaire examined the prevalence of NSP and LBP and the level of physical activity as well as the use of mobile phones, personal computers (PC and tablet computers (Tablet. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale was also included in the survey. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test, univariate logistic analyses and a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Three thousand sixteen valid questionnaires were received including 1,460 (48.41% from male respondents and 1,556 (51.59% from female respondents. The high school students in this study showed NSP and LBP rates of 40.8% and 33.1%, respectively, and the prevalence of both influenced by the student's grade, use of digital products, and mental status; these factors affected the rates of NSP and LBP to varying degrees. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that Gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, tablet use, sitting time after school and academic stress entered the final model of NSP, while the final model of LBP consisted of gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, mobile phone use, sitting time after school, academic stress and CES-D score. CONCLUSIONS: High school students in Shanghai showed high prevalence of NSP and LBP that were closely related to multiple factors. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of NSP and LBP.

  5. Social Distance Evaluation in Human Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. “close friends” “high lord”). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space. PMID:19204791

  6. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  7. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

  8. Radical psychology institutionalized: a history of the Journal Psychologie & Maatschappij [psychology & society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, R; Jansz, J

    2000-01-01

    Starting out as a newsletter for radical psychologists, the Dutch journal Psychologie & Maatschappij (Psychology & Society) moved in the past decade toward the theoretical mainstream within psychology. In this paper, the major changes in the journal are described and analyzed, as well as the features that did not change: an emphasis on theory and history, an interdisciplinary approach, and an emphasis on discussion. The main transformations were from psychology as instrumental toward the goals of the progressive movement in the Netherlands, then to extreme criticism of all scientific and professional psychological activities, and finally to adherence to the most advanced approaches within academic psychology. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Assessment of the Impact of Pre-military and Military Trauma on the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Female and Male Active Duty Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knudson, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    ...-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The analyses examined the relationships between trauma, social support/unit cohesion, health risks and a history of reported symptoms of PTSD and other psychological and physical problems...

  10. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  11. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  12. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina SB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shana B Traina,1 Susan D Mathias,2 Hilary H Colwell,2 Ross D Crosby,2–4 Charles Abraham5 1Patient-Reported Outcomes, Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Health Outcomes Solutions, Winter Park, FL, USA; 3Biomedical Statistics & Methodology, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 5Psychology Applied to Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK Background: This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q, which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods: The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36, section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results: In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes

  13. A conceptual model of the psychological health system for U.S. active duty service members: an approach to inform leadership and policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Judy Y; Glover, Wiljeana J; Rhodes, Alison M; Nightingale, Deborah

    2013-06-01

    The influence of individual-level factors such as pretraumatic risk and protective factors and the availability of unit-level and enterprise-level factors on psychological health outcomes have been previously considered individually, but have not been considered in tandem across the U.S. Military psychological health system. We use the existing literature on military psychological health to build a conceptual system dynamics model of the U.S. Military psychological health system "service-cycle" from accession and deployment to future psychological health screening and treatment. The model highlights a few key observations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement for the system that relate to several topics including the importance of modeling operational demand combined with the population's psychological health as opposed to only physical health; the role of resilience and post-traumatic growth on the mitigation of stress; the positive and negative effects of pretraumatic risk factors, unit support, and unit leadership on the service-cycle; and the opportunity to improve the system more rapidly by including more feedback mechanisms regarding the usefulness of pre- and post-traumatic innovations to medical leaders, funding authorities, and policy makers. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  15. Psychology and the conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...

  16. Aspirational Model Teaching Criteria for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Boysen, Guy A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Tazeau, Yvette N.; Meyers, Steven A.; Sciutto, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology commissioned a presidential task force to document teaching criteria for model psychology teachers in undergraduate education. The resulting list of criteria reflects activities related to face-to-face course interaction and online teaching, training, and education; course design; implementation…

  17. Behavior genetics in context of Russian psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Malykh, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to individual differences in psychological characteristics, the influence of genotype and environment on individual diff erences in evoked potential of brain related to the execution of motor action, the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual characteristics of the parameters of sensorimotor activity, genetic and environmental factors in development of psychological traits.

  18. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  19. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  20. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.