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Sample records for psychological defense mechanisms

  1. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

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    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  2. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

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    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

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    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  4. Psychological defense mechanisms in patients with syphilis at different stages of the disease

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    Filonova A.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the study of psychological defense mechanisms in patients with syphilis at different stages of the disease. Material and methods. We used questionnaire Plutchik-Kellerman-Comte "life style Index". The study involved 257 people (118 women (46% and 139 men (54% aged 18 to 67 years (mean age — 23,5±8,9years. Results. In patients with primary syphilis primary mecha-protection scheme is "denying"; secondary syphilis of skin and mucus-purity membranes— "replacement"; syphilis latent early — "projection"; in patients with late syphilis — intellectualization. Thus, in patients with late forms of syphilis is dominated by more Mature mechanisms of protection (projection, rationalization. Patients with early forms use more primitive mechanisms (denial, substitution. Conclusion. The obtained data may be useful in the choice of methods of psychotherapy, the formation of patients more realistic (ADAP-tive installations for the treatment, restoration of family and other social relations, the prevention of distress and improving the quality of life of patients.

  5. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

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    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  6. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

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    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Gender and age aspects of child psychological defenses in child-mother relationships

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    Bogdanova, Maria V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The high level of stress in modern society poses a need to study family factors and resources for the development of children’s defense mechanisms in the current social environment. This study investigates correlations between maternal and child psychological defense mechanisms, using interviews, a structured clinical survey, projective drawing, and a projective game. Analysis of data from 240 people (120 children and 120 mothers revealed specifics of the formation of psychological defense mechanisms among children aged 4 to 12 years in child-mother relationships. We suggest that maternal and child defense mechanisms have some isomorphic traits, but the level and quality of isomorphism changes with each age period of the child. Certain defensive mechanisms of mother and child appear with the same frequency. The child’s gender influences the correlation between the mother’s and child’s psychological defense mechanisms. Initially, children are more likely to directly copy defense mechanisms observed from the mother’s behavior. As they grow older, they use defenses that they have learned consciously. Based on empirical data, we also found a correlation between the maturity of the maternal psychological defense mechanisms and specifics of child psychological defense mechanisms. We propose that the maturity of maternal psychological defense mechanisms has the greatest meaning for child psychological defense mechanisms at the earliest stages of ontogenesis — it provides consistency between the mother’s own psychological defense mechanisms and the psychological defense mechanisms that she teaches her child.

  8. Defense mechanisms and personality disorders.

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    Lingiardi, V; Lonati, C; Delucchi, F; Fossati, A; Vanzulli, L; Maffei, C

    1999-04-01

    The evaluation of defense mechanisms represents one of the most promising fields in the psychodynamic-oriented empirical research on personality disorders (PDs). This study examines the association between DSM-IV PDs and defense mechanisms. We evaluated a sample of 50 adult outpatients seeking personality assessment and psychotherapeutic treatment. PDs have been assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorder, version 2.0. Defense mechanisms have been evaluated by a group of trained clinical psychologists and psychiatrists (interrater reliability from .61 to .95) using Perry's Defense Mechanism Rating Scale. Our results support the hypothesis that some defense mechanisms underlie PDs and that defenses call for further attention as we assess PDs.

  9. [Relationship between defense mechanism and therapeutic alliance].

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    Laconi, S; Cailhol, L; Pourcel, L; Thalamas, C; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Chabrol, H

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic alliance can be defined as a collaborative relationship between the patient and the practitioner. It represents an essential component of the psychotherapeutic process (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006; Martin et al., 2000). Some authors suggest that a good alliance can have a favorable impact on the therapeutic success (Barber et al., 2000; Hubble, Duncan, & Miller 1999; Horvath & Luborsky, 1993; Horvath & Symonds, 1991). This alliance can be influenced by psychological and behavioral factors (Cungi, 2006) Thus, some defense mechanisms could prevent change or, on the contrary could facilitate adaptation (Ambresin et al., 2007) and have an impact on the therapeutic success (Muris & Merckelbach, 1996). However, the relationship between therapeutic alliance and defense mechanisms represents an insufficiently explored field (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and twenty defense mechanisms in a sample of French psychiatric patients, by differentiating results in men and women. We also examined the positive and the negative therapeutic alliance. Sixty patients aged from 18 to 58 (M=41.50; SD=11.03) completed the French versions of the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and the Helping Alliance questionnaire-II (HAq-II). Therapeutic alliance was significantly associated with each defense style: mature (0.62), neurotic (0.45) Ptherapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.39, β=0.65, Ptherapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.34, β=0.62, Ptherapeutic alliance was significantly associated with all mature defenses, three neurotic defenses (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization) and four immature defenses (splitting, denial, somatization, passive aggression). Among men, three mature defenses were associated (anticipation, humor, sublimation), four neurotic (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization and undoing) and two immature (somatization and

  10. Changes in Psychological Adjustment of Female Students During the First Year of Study: Analysis of Defense Mechanisms

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    Aldo Spelic

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of a study represents for freshmen a difficult period of adjustment. Observations obtained in student counseling centers as well as in investigations of students' adjustment indicate that the beginning of a study represents for students a specific crisis period determined by dealing with the experiences of ‘psychological separation’. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to prove the existence of a crisis period at the beginning of a study by investigating ...

  11. Defense mechanisms and morality: a link between isolation and moralization.

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    Björklund, F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between morality and perceptual defense mechanisms was studied. Three new scales were constructed to measure different aspects of morality: moralism (the tendency to evaluate everything in terms of right and wrong), conscience (strength of feelings of right and wrong) and reparation (inclination to repair the damage one has caused). Perceptual defense mechanisms were measured with Kragh's Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Three hypotheses about relationships between morality and defense mechanisms, derived from psychoanalytical literature, were tested on 54 male University students. Results show positive correlations between the defense mechanism isolation of affect and moralism, and between identification with the aggressor and reparation. Total amount of perceptual defense correlated positively with moralism. It is argued that the psychological study of morality should take unconscious processes into consideration.

  12. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

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    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  13. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

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    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  14. Defense Mechanism Card Pull in TAT Stories.

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    Cramer, Phebe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the question of whether different Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943 ) cards are likely to prompt stories that are characterized by different defense mechanisms. This condition is known as card pull and refers to the probability that different TAT cards elicit different personality scores for the same variable. If so, the assessment of defense use would be importantly influenced by the TAT cards used in an assessment. TAT stories from 3 different community samples were examined (Ns = 91, 98, 121), using a statistical method developed by Stein et al ( 2014 ). The results indicated that different TAT cards pull for different defenses, as assessed by the Defense Mechanism Manual (DMM: Cramer, 1991b ). However, the nature of card pull was not always consistent across samples. These dissimilarities could be due to group differences, or to the presence of different TAT cards used in the test battery, indicating that card pull is importantly determined by context.

  15. Structural organization of psychological defenses and coping strategies of preschool teachers with different levels of professional burnout

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    Тетяна Анатоліївна Колтунович

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problem of modern education system – preschool teachers’ professional burnout. Assumptions about the existence of the relationship between professional burnout, coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defenses; about the determination of burnout at different stages of its formation according to the structural organization of coping and psychological defenses were empirically proven, and their leading and basic components were defined

  16. Psychological defensive profile of sciatica patients with neuropathic pain and its relationship to quality of life.

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    Tutoglu, A; Boyaci, A; Karababa, I F; Koca, I; Kaya, E; Kucuk, A; Yetisgin, A

    2015-09-01

    To identify differences between defense styles and mechanisms in sciatica patients with or without neuropathic pain and their relationship to quality of life. The study included 37 sciatica patients with neuropathic pain (SNP), 36 sciatica patients without neuropathic pain and 38 healthy subjects. Pain severity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Psychological condition was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Defense mechanisms were assessed using a 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and quality of life was assessed using Short Form-36 (SF-36). BDI and BAI scores were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.001). Idealization and immature defense styles, as well as isolation, displacement and somatization were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.05). SF-36 parameters also differed significantly between the groups, with controls having the best scores and the SNP group the worst. In linear regression analysis, acting out and BDI were found to affect the pain domain of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). The acting out defensive style and BDI were independently associated with pain-related quality of life. In the SNP group, significant differences were found in the immature and neurotic styles of the defense mechanisms.

  17. Specificities of defense mechanisms in bipolar affective disorder: relations with symptoms and therapeutic alliance.

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    Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Perry, J Christopher; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-09-01

    Defense mechanisms as a central notion of psychoanalysis have inspired various levels of interest in research in psychotherapy and psychopathology. Defense specificities have only recently been investigated systematically with regard to several clinical diagnoses, such as affective and personality disorders. For the present study, 30 inpatients diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder I (BD) were interviewed. An observer-rater method, the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales (DMRS), applied to session-transcripts, of assessment of defenses was used. A matched, nonclinical control group was introduced. Defense specificities in BD encompass a set of 5 immature defenses, of which omnipotence is linked with symptom level. The level of the therapeutic alliance is predicted by mature defenses. These results are discussed with regard to the psychological vulnerability of BD, and treatment implications for psychodynamic psychotherapy with such challenging patients are evoked.

  18. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health.

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    Malone, Johanna C; Cohen, Shiri; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Waldinger, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of research suggests that personality characteristics relate to physical health; however, this relation ship has primarily been tested in cross-sectional studies that have not followed the participants into old age. The present study utilizes data from a 70-year longitudinal study to prospectively examine the relationship between the adaptive defense mechanisms in midlife and objectively assessed physical health in late life. In addition to examining the direct effect, we test whether social support mediates this relation ship. The sample consisted of 90 men who were followed for over seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Health ratings from medical records were made at three time points (ages 70, 75, and 80). Defense mechanisms were coded from narratives by trained independent raters (Vaillant, Bond, & Vaillant, 1986). Independent raters assessed social supports between ages 50 and 70. More adaptive defenses in midlife were associated with better physical health at all three time points in late life. These relationships were partially mediated by social support. Findings are consistent with the theory that defense maturity is important for building social relationships, which in turn contribute to better late-life physical health. Psychological interventions aimed at improving these domains may be beneficial for physical health.

  19. Study of General health, resiliency, and defense mechanisms in patients with migraine headache

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    Alireza Aghayusefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a neurological disease that the etiology, several factors affect its onset or its exacerbation. One of the factors affecting disease is psychological factors such as defense mechanisms, resiliency, and general health. This study assessed the relationship between general health, resiliency, and general defense mechanisms, and also predicts the general health of people with migraine headaches that have a high resiliency and use mature defense mechanisms. Material and Methods: 50 women with migraine headache in the city of Bushehr using defense mechanisms, resiliency, and general health questionnaires were studied. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests were used by SPSS 17 software. Results: The results showed that most of the defense mechanisms of migraine sufferers are Immature and Neuroticism. There is significant negative correlation between the deterioration of general health and resiliency as well as the mature defense mechanism (p=0/003, and also there is a significant positive correlation between this deterioration with neuroticism (p=0/040 and immature defense mechanisms (p=0/041. On the other hand there is significant negative correlation between resiliencies with immature (p=0/009 and neuroticism defense mechanisms (p=0/04, and also with mature defense mechanism has a significant positive correlation (p=0/003. Also, as more people use the mature defense mechanism, their deterioration of general health will be reduced, but this relationship will be stronger with the presence of resiliency. So migraine people use the mature defense mechanisms with high resiliency will have more favorable general health (less deterioration of general health. Conclusion: This study showed that migraine patients use the mature defense mechanisms with high resiliency will have more favorable general health (less deterioration of general health.

  20. [Relationships between defense mechanisms and coping strategies, facing exam anxiety performance].

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    Grebot, E; Paty, B; Girarddephanix, N

    2006-01-01

    Defence mechanisms and coping strategies rely on different theoretical backgrounds and describe distinct psychological processes. Cramer has based a distinction on the following dimensions: conscious processes vs. not; intentionality vs. not; hierarchical conception vs. not. On the contrary to these distinctions, the two notions of defense mechanisms and coping strategies are defined as similar in the Diagnostical and Statistical Manual (DSM IV). This assimilation between coping and defenses in the DSM IV is not confirmed by some researches, namely the one by Callahan and Chabrol. It indeed proves a relationship between adaptive coping and mature defenses, as well as between maladaptive coping and immature defenses. Similarly, Plutchik offered theoretical correspondences between eight defense mechanisms and eight coping strategies: (a) Defenses: repression, isolation, introjection and Coping escape; (b) Defense denial and Coping minimalization; (c) Defense undoing and coping substitution; (d) Defenses: regression, acting out and coping social support; (e) Defenses: compensation, identification, fantasy and coping replacement; (f) Defenses: intellectualization, sublimation, annulation, rationalisation and coping: planification; (g) Defense projection and coping blame; (h) Defense: reactional formation and coping inversion. this research aims at testing the relations observed by Callahan and Chabrol and some theoretical correspondences proposed by Plutchik between defences and coping strategies in a population of students similar to the one used by Callahan and Chabrol. It also aims at studying the relationships between coping strategies and conscious derives of defense mechanisms, such as defined by Bond (1995). Defenses were evaluated the first day of the examination week. the population includes 184 women students in human sciences (sociology and psychology). defenses were evaluated with the Defense Style Questionnaire by Bond (DSQ 40). Its French version is made

  1. Defense mechanisms of hepatocytes against Burkholderia pseudomallei

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    Antje eBast

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative facultative intracellular rod Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, an infectious disease with a wide range of clinical presentations. Among the observed visceral abscesses, the liver is commonly affected. However, neither this organotropism of B. pseudomallei nor local hepatic defense mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated so far. Own previous studies using electron microscopy of the murine liver after systemic infection of mice indicated that hepatocytes might be capable of killing B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the interaction of B. pseudomallei with these cells and to analyse the role of hepatocytes in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense. In vitro studies using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2 revealed that B. pseudomallei can invade these cells. Subsequently, B. pseudomallei is able to escape from the vacuole, to replicate within the cytosol of HepG2 cells involving its type 3 and type 6 secretion systems, and to induce actin tail formation. Furthermore, stimulation of HepG2 cells showed that IFNgamma can restrict growth of B. pseudomallei in the early and late phase of infection whereas the combination of IFNgamma, IL-1beta and TNFalpha is required for the maximal antibacterial activity. This anti-B. pseudomallei defense of HepG2 cells did not seem to be mediated by iNOS-derived nitric oxide or NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide. In summary, this is the first study describing B. pseudomallei intracellular life cycle characteristics in hepatocytes and showing that IFNgamma-mediated, but nitric oxide- and reactive oxygen species-independent, effector mechanisms are important in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense of hepatocytes.

  2. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

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    Sabina Bele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

  3. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

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    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  4. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

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    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

  5. Construction and characteristics of questionnaire for the assessment of defense mechanisms: MOD

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    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense mechanisms are psychological constructs of key importance for the assessment of personality and planning therapeutic process. Their assessment is mainly based on interview, observation and projective techniques. Questionnaires, as the self-assessment techniques, apparently are not suitable method for unconscious processes such as defense mechanisms. The paper presents the results of construction of the questionnaire for the assessment of defense mechanisms, abbreviated called MOD (Mechanisms of Defense, which represents an attempt to clarify conceptualization and operationalization of these constructs through a variety of behavioral and emotional manifestations, personal attitudes and beliefs, patterns of interpersonal relationships and feedback from environment. Research objectives included testing of metric characteristics and the factor structure of the questionnaire, as well as its validity for differentiating subjects from clinical and non-clinical populations. The questionnaire has 110 items assessed at the 5-point Likert scale for evaluation of 20 defense mechanisms. The sample consisted of 194 subjects of both sexes, of which 136 students of psychology and social work and 58 nonpsychotic patients from clinical populations. The results showed that the reliability of the scale varies from high to unsatisfactory (Cronbach alpha .82- .35, although for most subscales is around .65-.70. The most of defense mechanisms has one factor structure, whereas from about a third of the subscales two principal components were isolated. Analysis of the structure of mature defense mechanisms clearly derived out four factors corresponding to the presumed mechanisms of defense, while for the groups of neurotic and immature mechanisms were not obtained pure solutions. The questionnaire successfully differentiate clinical from non-clinical sample, based on higher scores on mature and lower scores on immature mechanisms, while the groups did not differ

  6. Antioxidative defense mechanisms in the aging brain

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    Jovanović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an extremely complex, multifactorial process that is characterized by a gradual and continuous loss of physiological functions and responses, particularly marked in the brain. A common hallmark in aging and age-related diseases is an increase in oxidative stress and the failure of antioxidant defense systems. Current knowledge indicates that the level of glutathione progressively declines during aging. Because nerve cells are the longest-living cells that exhibit a high consumption rate of oxygen throughout an individual’s lifetime, the brain may be especially vulnerable to oxidative damage and this vulnerability increases during aging. In addition, the brain contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and transition metals and low antioxidative defense mechanisms. Although aging is an inevitable event, a growing volume of data confirms that antioxidant supplementation in combination with symptomatic drug treatments reduces oxidative stress and improves cognitive function in aging and age-related diseases. The present review discusses the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the aging brain.

  7. The Evolutionary Psychology of War: Offense and Defense in the Adapted Mind.

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    Lopez, Anthony C

    2017-01-01

    The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit. The results indicate that humans do indeed distinguish readily between these two domains and that their willingness to participate, as well as their emotional responses toward others, is highly contingent upon this informational cue in adaptively relevant ways. In addition, and consistent with parental investment theory, data reveal a range of sex differences in attitudes toward coalitional aggression in the two conflict domains. Beyond the study of warfare, this project has implications for our understanding of the relationship between individual behavior and group dynamics, as well as for our understanding of the mechanisms by which the psychological framing of political events can lead to important social outcomes.

  8. The psychological defensive profile of hemodialysis patients and its relationship to health-related quality of life.

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    Carvalho, André F; Ramírez, Susana P; Macêdo, Danielle S; Sales, Paulo Marcelo G; Rebouças, Juliana C; Daher, Elizabeth F; Hyphantis, Thomas N

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary data suggest that defensive profile of hemodialysis (HD) patients might influence adaptation to the disease. However, the association of defense mechanisms with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HD patients remains unknown. In this cross-sectional investigation, 170 HD patients and 170 age- and sex-matched healthy participants had their psychological profile assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Furthermore, the HD patients had their HRQoL measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-abbreviated version. The HD patients had a more neurotic and immature defensive profile. Splitting, projection, reaction formation, and denial were significantly associated with impaired HRQoL, independent of psychological distress. Somatization was an independent correlate of worse overall and physical HRQoL. These findings suggest that, apart from the treatment of psychological distress symptoms, clinicians should also consider the defensive profile of HD patients because it is independently associated with HRQoL and may be amenable to treatment.

  9. Children with cancer with different survival perspectives: defensiveness, control strategies, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether children with cancer with different survival perspectives differ in their psychological adjustment, defensiveness and their use of cognitive control strategies. Furthermore, the study investigated which variables predict emotional

  10. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background:?Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual?s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performan...

  11. A Description of Psychological Type at the Defense Systems Management College

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    AD-A251 873 A DESCRIPTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AT THE DEFENSE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT COLLEGE ISTJ ENFP I- Carl Bryant, Ph.D. w_=_ William H. Cummings...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable) Defense Systems Mgmt. College FD-MD Defense Systems Management College 6c

  12. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial host defense in the airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joost Bastiaan

    2007-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are indispensable for the host defense system in the lungs. Various strategies by which epithelial cells protect the lungs against inhaled pathogens have been described. In spite of that, the molecular mechanisms by which epithelial cells initiate and control the host defense

  13. Psychological defense in anticipation of anxiety: eliminating the potential for anxiety eliminates the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeff; Martens, Andy; Jonas, Eva; Eisenstadt, Donna; Pyszczynski, Tom; Solomon, Sheldon

    2003-09-01

    A large body of research has shown that when people are reminded of their mortality, their defense of their cultural worldview intensifies. Although some psychological defenses seem to be instigated by negative affective responses to threat, mortality salience does not appear to arouse such affect. Terror management theory posits that the potential to experience anxiety, rather than the actual experience of anxiety, underlies these effects of mortality salience. If this is correct, then mortality-salience effects should be reduced when participants believe they are not capable of reacting to the reminder of mortality with anxiety. In a test of this hypothesis, participants consumed a placebo purported to either block anxiety or enhance memory. Then we manipulated mortality salience, and participants evaluated pro- and anti-American essays as a measure of worldview defense. Although mortality salience intensified worldview defense in the memory-enhancer condition, this effect was completely eliminated in the anxiety-blocker condition. The results suggest that some psychological defenses serve to avert the experience of anxiety rather than to ameliorate actually experienced anxiety.

  14. Psychological defenses against death anxiety: integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F

    2007-09-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing behaviors, addictive couple bonds, and adopting an anti-sexual approach to life. TMT offers a strong base of experimentally validated ideas and the experimental paradigms to test the broad array of defenses enumerated in Firestone's Separation Theory. Therefore, an integration of the two theories would be beneficial to a fuller understanding of psychological defenses against death anxiety.

  15. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  16. Investigating Aggressive Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Bipolar Patients and in their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggr...

  17. Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi; Franca Pezzoni; Giovanni Del Puente

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggr...

  18. The physician's quality of life: Relationship with ego defense mechanisms and object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benedito; Louzã, Mário Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether ego defense mechanisms and object relations (the way an individual subjectively experiences his/her relationships with others) are related to quality of life among physicians. In this cross-sectional mail survey, 602 physicians from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, were sent a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory-Form O (BORRTI-O), the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40), and the World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF). 198 questionnaires (33%) with valid responses were obtained. High BORRTI-O scores (indicative of pathology) on the alienation, egocentricity and insecure attachment subscales were associated with reduced WHOQOL-BREF scores for the psychological health and social relationship domains. Immature ego defense mechanisms were associated with lower WHOQOL-BREF scores for all domains. No significant associations of WHOQOL-BREF scores with working hours, workplace or monthly income were observed in the study population WHOQOL-BREF scores correlated with mature defense mechanisms and normal object relations, suggesting an association between psychological maturity and quality of life among physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  20. Gender differences in self-reported defense mechanisms: a study using the new Defense Style Questionnaire-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Thygesen, Kylie Louise; Lecours, Serge; Drapeau, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that men and women differ in their use of defense mechanisms (e.g. Cramer, 1991; Watson and Sinha, 1998). However, how and why this difference exists is still open to debate. The present study explores the relationship between gender and defenses using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-60; Trijsburg Bond, & Drapeau, 2003). As expected, no significant differences were found in Overall Defensive Functioning (ODF); however, men and women differed in their choice of defense style, defense level, and individual defense mechanisms. Evidence is provided to support the notion that while overall adaptivity of defenses is comparable, men and women rely on different defensive organizations during conflict-laden situations. We discuss the clinical relevance of these results in light of previous findings.

  1. Do defense mechanisms vary according to the psychiatric disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaya Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense mechanisms used by depressive and anxious patients without comorbidities compared to those used by controls and to determine whether these patterns differ between diagnoses. METHOD: The sample was composed of 167 psychiatric patients and 36 controls that were evaluated using the Defense Style Questionnaire 40. All subjects were evaluated through a clinical interview, and each evaluation was confirmed through the application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured psychiatric interview. We used ANOVA and discriminant analysis to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Neurotic defense mechanisms discriminated controls from all patients except those with social anxiety. Immature defense mechanisms differentiated controls from all patients, as well as distinguished depressive patients from panic disorder and obsessive disorder patients. The discriminant analysis indicated that depressive patients are characterized by projection, panic disorder patients by sublimation and obsessive-compulsive patients by acting out. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and anxious patients differ from other individuals in their use of defense mechanisms, and each diagnosis has a particular pattern. These findings could lead to the development of specific psychotherapeutic interventions.

  2. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P homophobia, while neurotic defense mechanisms (β = -0.123; P = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (β = -0.152; P = 0.04) have an opposite role. Moreover, categorical constructs of the RQ revealed a significant difference between secure and fearful attachments styles in levels of homophobia (secure = 22.09 ± 17.22 vs. fearful = 31.07 ± 25.09; P homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the psychologic aspects described earlier. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens .

  5. Convergent validity of the Defense Mechanisms Manual and the Defensive Functioning Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Cogan, Rosemary; Kamoo, Ray; Miller, Kristen

    2010-09-01

    We examined the convergent validity of Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (DMM; Cramer, 1991b) by comparing it to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS). A total of 60 low income urban women from a primary care medical facility responded to four Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) cards and an interview of early memories and descriptions of significant others. We scored the TAT narratives with the DMM, and we coded the interview narratives with the DFS. DMM Denial and Projection scales were negatively correlated with the DFS Overall Defensive Functioning scale (r = -.28, p< .01 and r = -.22, p< .10, respectively) and were positively correlated with a DFS pathological composite score (r = .36, p< .01 and r = .32, p< .05, respectively). These findings support the convergent validity of the DMM Denial and Projection scales.

  6. Colors and Some Morphological Traits as Defensive Mechanisms in Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans may be brightly colored or completely cryptic. Generally, in the former situation, we are dealing with aposematism, and the latter is an example of camouflage. However, these are only simple views of what such colorations really mean and which defensive strategy is implied. For instance, a brightly colored frog may be part of a mimicry ring, which could be either Batesian, Müllerian, or Browerian. These are only examples of the diversity of color-usage systems as defensive strategies. Unfortunately, reports on the use of colors as defensive mechanisms are widespread in the available literature, and the possible functions are rarely mentioned. Therefore, we reviewed the literature and added new data to this subject. Then, we the use of colors (as defensive mechanism into categories. Mimicry was divided into the subcategories camouflage, homotypy, and nondeceitful homotypy, and these groups were also subcategorized. Dissuasive coloration was divided into behavioral display of colors, polymorphism, and polyphenism. Aposematism was treated apart, but aposematic colorations may be present in other defensive strategies. Finally, we propose functions and forms of evolution for some color systems in post-metamorphic anurans and hope that this review can be the basis for future research, even on other animal groups.

  7. Determination of defense mechanism in ,i> Phaseolus trilobus Ait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  8. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gopaljee Jha; Karnika Thakur; Priyanka Thakur

    2010-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  9. Activation of innate host defense mechanisms by Borrelia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berende, A.; Oosting, M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Borrelia is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a widespread disease with important health consequences. Immune-mediated mechanisms are believed to play a major role in both host defense and in late complications of Lyme disease. Recognition of Borrelia and the initial activation of the innate

  10. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  11. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Perinel, Giada; Arnaboldi, Paola; Gandini, Sara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Rotmensz, Nicole; Tagini, Angela; Didier, Florence; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-11-09

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  12. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae t...

  13. Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment. All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.

  14. Investigating Aggressive Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Bipolar Patients and in their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-11-06

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education) and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment). All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.

  15. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: so-called psychiatric comorbidity and underlying defense mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Paola Beffa Negrini,1 Cecilia Perin,1,3 Federica Peroni,1,3 Adriana Magaudda,4 Cesare Cerri,1,3 Cesare Maria Cornaggia1,3 1Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, 2Department of Mental Health, “Guido Salvini” Hospital, Garbagnate Milanese, Milan, Italy; 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Istituti Clinici Zucchi, Carate Brianza, Monza and Brianza, Italy; 4Epilepsy Center, Department of Neuroscience, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES do not have a unique classification as they can be found within different categories: conversion, dissociative, and somatization disorders. The ICD-10, instead, considers PNES within dissociative disorders, merging the dissociative disorders and conversion disorders, although the underlying defense mechanisms are different. The literature data show that PNES are associated with cluster B (mainly borderline personality disorders and/or to people with depressive or anxiety disorders. Defense mechanisms in patients with PNES with a prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms are of “neurotic” type; their goal is to lead to a “split”, either vertical (dissociation or horizontal (repression. The majority of patients with this type of PNES have alexithymia traits, meaning that they had difficulties in feeling or perceiving emotions. In subjects where PNES are associated with a borderline personality, in which the symbolic function is lost, the defense mechanisms are of a more archaic nature (denial. PNES with different underlying defense mechanisms have different prognoses (despite similar severity of PNES and need usually a different treatment (pharmacological or psychological. Thus, it appears superfluous to talk about psychiatric comorbidity, since PNES are a different symptomatic expression of specific psychiatric disorders

  16. Botryticides affect grapevine leaf photosynthesis without inducing defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Anne-Noëlle; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Panon, Marie-Laure; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie

    2009-02-01

    The effects of the two botryticides, fludioxonil (fdx) and fenhexamid (fhd), were investigated on grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) following photosynthesis and defense mechanisms. Treatments were carried out in vineyard at the end of flowering. Phytotoxicity of both fungicides was evaluated by measuring variations of leaf photosynthetic parameters and correlated expression of photosynthesis-related genes. Results demonstrated that similar decrease in photosynthesis was caused by fdx and fhd applications. Moreover, the mechanism leading to photosynthesis alteration seems to be the same for both fungicides. Stomatal limitation to photosynthetic gas exchange did not change following treatments indicating that inhibition of photosynthesis was mostly attributed to non-stomatal factors. Nevertheless, fungicides-induced depression of photosynthesis was related neither to a decrease in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency and in the capacity for regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate nor to loss in PSII activity. However, fdx and fhd treatments generated repression of genes encoding proteins involved in the photosynthetic process. Indeed, decreased photosynthesis was coupled with repression of PsbP subunit of photosystem II (psbP1), chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem I (cab) and Rubisco small subunit (rbcS) genes. A repression of these genes may participate in the photosynthesis alteration. To our knowledge, this is the first study of photosynthesis-related gene expression following fungicide stress. In the meantime, defense responses were followed by measuring chitinase activity and expression of varied defense-related genes encoding proteins involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis (PAL) or octadecanoid synthesis (LOX), as well as pathogenesis-related protein (Chi4C). No induction of defense was observed in botryticides-treated leaves. To conclude, the photosynthesis is affected without any triggering of plant defense responses.

  17. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaljee Jha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  18. Review of the Book “Defense Mechanisms. Coping Strategies. Self-Regulation”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoil Mavrodiev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This book deals with coping strategies and defense mechanisms as two kinds of self-regulation of human behaviour. The defense mechanisms are described with some examples of fiction books.

  19. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  20. [Path causal analysis of a model of a functional organization between defense mechanisms and coping strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvernet, B; Mouchard, J; Combaluzier, S

    2015-10-01

    In the psychological literature, two concepts are often used to approach psychological and social adaptation: defense mechanisms and coping strategies. Many empirical studies deal with these strategies independently of each other. However, the nature of their relationship is still debated, making empirical studies necessary jointly evaluating these two types of strategies to better reflect the adaptive process. To test Chabrol and Callahan's theoretical model of the relationship between defence mechanisms and coping strategies. According to theses authors, defence mechanisms and coping strategies are distinct mechanisms, functionally organized: defenses appear first and modulate the emergence of coping strategy defenses through threat representation. Ninety-four young adult volunteers completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS14). The data were treated according to the structural equation modeling method. Overall, the results support the theoretical model proposed by Chabrol and Callahan. The statistical model provides a good fit to the data (chi(2)/df=18.62/22=.85, P=.67, RMSEA=.00 (90% CI: .00-.07), CFI=1, TLI=1.04). It explains from 7 to 24% of coping variability scores (Avoidant Coping: R(2)=.07, Pcoping and problem-focused coping: R(2)=24, Pmechanisms and copings strategies are mediated by perceived distress and perceived controllability. Defence impact on coping strategies is not the same whether one considers problem-focused coping or emotional and avoidant coping. Immature and mature defences' impact on problem-focused coping is underpinned by a simple mediation: perceived controllability. Defences' impact on emotional coping and avoidant coping is more complex and underpinned by a double mediation: first by the perceived controllability and then, in a second time, the perceived distress. Finally, the results show the existence of a feedback loop from emotional

  1. Mechanisms and strategies of plant defense against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuQamar, Synan; Moustafa, Khaled; Tran, Lam Son

    2017-03-01

    Biotic factors affect plant immune responses and plant resistance to pathogen infections. Despite the considerable progress made over the past two decades in manipulating genes, proteins and their levels from diverse sources, no complete genetic tolerance to environmental stresses has been developed so far in any crops. Plant defense response to pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea, is a complex biological process involving various changes at the biochemical, molecular (i.e. transcriptional) and physiological levels. Once a pathogen is detected, effective plant resistance activates signaling networks through the generation of small signaling molecules and the balance of hormonal signaling pathways to initiate defense mechanisms to the particular pathogen. Recently, studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and crop plants have shown that many genes are involved in plant responses to B. cinerea infection. In this article, we will review our current understanding of mechanisms regulating plant responses to B. cinerea with a particular interest on hormonal regulatory networks involving phytohormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA). We will also highlight some potential gene targets that are promising for improving crop resistance to B. cinerea through genetic engineering and breeding programs. Finally, the role of biological control as a complementary and alternative disease management will be overviewed.

  2. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  3. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P anxiety, and depression levels in our sample of Pakistani medical students. PMID:26543695

  4. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change…

  5. Jasmonic acid does not increase oxidative defense mechanisms or common defense-related enzymes in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) treatment significantly reduces rot due to several sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage pathogens. However, the mechanisms by which JA protects postharvest sugarbeet roots from disease are unknown. In other plant species and organs, alterations in antioxidant defense mechanisms ...

  6. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Roha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78 were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62 and Mature (5.60 mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.

  7. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  8. Monuments of memory: defensive mechanisms of the collective psyche and their manifestation in the memorialization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Malgorzata

    2012-09-01

    The paper searches for insight in the area of collective memory as a part of collective consciousness, a phenomenon understood as a stabilizing factor for a society's self-image and identity. Collective memories are seen as originating from shared communications transmitting and creating the meaning of the past in the form of narrative, symbols and signs. As such, they contain the individual, embodied and lived side of our relations to the past. As well as the identity-building and meaning-making functions of collective memories, their defensive function is discussed with a focus on commemorative practices taking place in a transitional space between psychic and social life. Fears of a lack of collective identity and coherence have contributed to the way Polish commemorative practices have been shaped. This is considered in relation to the Smolensk catastrophe in 2010, viewed in the context of the Jungian concept of the collective psyche and the psychoanalytical understanding of defensive group mechanisms against trauma, especially those relating to loss and mourning. It leads to a consideration of how historical experiences and the experience of history can be accessed, as well as their meaning for individual and group development. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498

  10. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.

  11. A quorum-sensing-induced bacteriophage defense mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Svenningsen, Sine

    2013-01-01

    One of the key determinants of the size, composition, structure, and development of a microbial community is the predation pressure by bacteriophages. Accordingly, bacteria have evolved a battery of antiphage defense strategies. Since maintaining constantly elevated defenses is costly, we hypothe...

  12. An Alternative Form of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory: Assessing Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the major weakness in the response format of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory and to use the information most relevant to the population concerned in the present study, an alternative form of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI-AF) was designed. The 80 Likert-scaled items in the inventory were tested among 385 university students in…

  13. [Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: psychological impact and the role of defence mechanisms during illness and follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina Elisabetta; Mazzetti, Martina; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Di Pierro, Rossella; Bergamini, Alice; Giorgione, Veronica; Mangili, Giorgia

    2015-12-01

    Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a group of disorders that derive from the placenta and arise after a rare gestational event. They can be divided into pre-malignant forms (partial and complete hydatidiform mole) and malignant forms called Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN). Despite a favourable prognosis, the nature of this group of disorders can be a source of stress for patients who are affected by this disease. Thirty-one patients diagnosed with GTD completed a battery of self-administered questionnaires aimed at analysing the psychological adaptation of the patients to the disease. The variables analysed were the following: defense mechanisms, anxiety, depression and infertility-related stress. Patients with GTN use mature defense mechanisms significantly more than patients with hydatidiform mole. Regression analyses highlight that, considering demographic and clinical variables, immature defense mechanisms are significantly related to state anxiety. Immature defence mechanisms also significantly predict infertility-related global stress. The results show the importance of taking into consideration defense mechanisms used by patients, as they are involved in the modulation of psychological adaptation to GTD.

  14. Herbivore defense responses and associated herbivore defense mechanism as revealed by comparing a resistant wild soybean with a susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against herbivores to help them adapt to the environment. Understanding the defense mechanisms in plants can help us control insects in a more effective manner. In this study, we found that compared with Tianlong 2 (a cultivated soybean with insect susceptibility, ED059 (a wild soybean line with insect resistance contains sharper pubescence tips, as well as lower transcript levels of wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK and salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK, which are important mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in early defense response to herbivores. The observed lower transcript levels of WIPK and SIPK induced higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA, JA biosynthesis enzymes (AOC3 and some secondary metabolites in ED059. Functional analysis of the KTI1 gene via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that it plays an important role in herbivore defense in ED059. We further investigated the molecular response of third-instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner larvae to Tianlong 2 and ED059. We found apoptotic cells only in the midguts of larvae that fed on ED059. Compared with larvae reared on the susceptible cultivar Tianlong 2, transcript levels of catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST were up-regulated, whereas those of CAR, CHSB, and TRY were down-regulated in larvae that fed on the highly resistant variety ED059. We propose that these differences underlie the different herbivore defense responses of ED059 and Tianlong 2.

  15. A quorum-sensing-induced bacteriophage defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Maerkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2013-02-19

    One of the key determinants of the size, composition, structure, and development of a microbial community is the predation pressure by bacteriophages. Accordingly, bacteria have evolved a battery of antiphage defense strategies. Since maintaining constantly elevated defenses is costly, we hypothesize that some bacteria have additionally evolved the abilities to estimate the risk of phage infection and to adjust their strategies accordingly. One risk parameter is the density of the bacterial population. Hence, quorum sensing, i.e., the ability to regulate gene expression according to population density, may be an important determinant of phage-host interactions. This hypothesis was investigated in the model system of Escherichia coli and phage λ. We found that, indeed, quorum sensing constitutes a significant, but so far overlooked, determinant of host susceptibility to phage attack. Specifically, E. coli reduces the numbers of λ receptors on the cell surface in response to N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals, causing a 2-fold reduction in the phage adsorption rate. The modest reduction in phage adsorption rate leads to a dramatic increase in the frequency of uninfected survivor cells after a potent attack by virulent phages. Notably, this mechanism may apply to a broader range of phages, as AHLs also reduce the risk of χ phage infection through a different receptor. IMPORTANCE To enable the successful manipulation of bacterial populations, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that naturally shape microbial communities is required. One of the key factors in this context is the interactions between bacteria and the most abundant biological entities on Earth, namely, the bacteriophages that prey on bacteria. This proof-of-principle study shows that quorum sensing plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of E. coli to infection by bacteriophages λ and χ. On the basis of our findings in the classical Escherichia coli

  16. A Quorum-Sensing-Induced Bacteriophage Defense Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    H?yland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; M?rkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the key determinants of the size, composition, structure, and development of a microbial community is the predation pressure by bacteriophages. Accordingly, bacteria have evolved a battery of antiphage defense strategies. Since maintaining constantly elevated defenses is costly, we hypothesize that some bacteria have additionally evolved the abilities to estimate the risk of phage infection and to adjust their strategies accordingly. One risk parameter is the density of the ba...

  17. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European-American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European-American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age, and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started to decline thereafter. The defense mechanisms of doubt, displacement, and regression showed decreases from adolescence until early old age, with increases occurring again after the age of 65. Linear age-related decreases were found for the coping mechanism of ego regression and the defense mechanisms of isolation and rationalization. Gender and socioeconomic status were associated with the mean levels of several coping and defense mechanisms, but did not moderate age-related changes. Increases in ego level were associated with increased use of the defense mechanism intellectualization and decreased use of the defense mechanisms of doubt and displacement. Overall, these findings in a European-American sample suggest that most individuals showed development in the direction of more adaptive and less maladaptive coping and defense strategies from adolescence until late middle age or early old age. However, in late old age this development was reversed, presenting potential challenges to the adaptive capacity of older adults. PMID:23834293

  18. Object relations and defense mechanisms of a psychopathic serial sexual homicide perpetrator: a TAT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, J H; Abramsky, M F; Hibbard, S; Kamoo, R

    2001-08-01

    The case of a 24-year-old African American man who committed serial sexual homicide and who met criteria (Hare, 1991) for psychopathy is presented. His Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) responses were used to code key aspects of personality organization--object relations and defense mechanisms--via the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, Lohr, Silk, & Kerber, 1989) and the Defense Mechanisms Manual (Cramer, 1991), respectively. Severe object relations pathology and a reliance on the defense mechanism of immature projection and immature denial are noted. Findings are relatively consistent with previous psychodynamic Rorschach studies of psychopathic sexual homicide perpetrators (Gacono, Meloy, & Bridges, 2000; Meloy, Gacono, & Kenney, 1994).

  19. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-04-01

    Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer. A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ), the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18. Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (pgrief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  20. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues.

  1. DMPD: The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502370 The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of acti....html) (.csml) Show The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. PubmedID 1...7502370 Title The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism

  2. Plant innate immunity: An updated insight into defense mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... Salicylic-acid-mediated systemic acquired immunity provokes the defense response throughout the plant system during pathogen infection at a particular site. Trans-generational immune priming allows the plant to heritably shield their progeny towards pathogens previously encountered. Plants circumvent ...

  3. Psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives among subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) presenting different patterns of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna; Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests-Coping Inventory for Stresfull Situations (CISS), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ 40), Syndrom Checklist (SCL-90) and Short Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (SZPTI-PL). The sample comprised 112 individuals with alcohol dependence, aged 20 to 63 years old, the average age was 37.86; 78 percent were men. There were identified three sub-groups of individuals characterized by a distinctive patterns of coping with stress -"emotional-avoidant", "task oriented" and a "mixed one". Individuals with the predominant emotional-avoidant coping pattern are characterized by significantly higher severity of psychopathological symptoms, less mature defense mechanisms and past time perspectives. Subjects reliant on task-oriented coping pattern were characterized by the highest level of adaptation and the most constructive way of functioning in the face of difficulties. It is worth regarding the examination of patterns of coping as an indispensable element of collecting medical history from alcohol dependent individuals.

  4. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  5. Changes in Defense Mechanism Functioning During Group Therapy for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert; Tasca, Giorgio A; Presniak, Michelle; Francis, Kylie; Palardy, Melissa; Grenon, Renee; Mcquaid, Nancy; Hayden, Genevieve; Gick, Mary; Bissada, Hany

    2015-01-01

    This study examined change in defensive mechanism functioning during group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) for women with binge-eating disorder (BED). Women with BED (N = 85) received 16 weeks of GPIP. Five group therapy sessions (sessions 1, 3, 8, 12, and 16) from each of the 12 groups were video recorded and transcribed. Participants were rated on an observer-based measure of defensive functioning, the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Symptom outcomes were assessed pre- and posttreatment. Overall defensive functioning (ODF) scores improved significantly during group treatment, with specific defense level improvements in high adaptive, major image distorting, and action defenses. The linear increase in ODF mediated a decrease in binge-eating episodes and depressive symptoms. Reverse mediation was also noted. A cubic growth curve best modeled ODF data such that ODF improved in the early stage, followed by a slower rate of improvement in the middle stage, and a further increase in rate of improvement at the end of treatment. Change in defense mechanism functioning may be an important aspect of group psychotherapy that is related to improved symptoms for women with BED who receive GPIP. The cubic trend that represented nonlinear growth in ODF is consistent with psychodynamic theory and a stage model of psychotherapy.

  6. [Adaptation of self-image level and defense mechanisms in elderly patients with complicated stoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivas, Miriam Karina; Moreno-Pérez, Norma Elvira; Vega-Macías, Héctor Daniel; Jiménez-González, María de Jesús; Navarro-Elías, María de Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Ostomy patients face a number of problems that impact negatively on their personal welfare. The aim of this research is determine the nature and intensity of the relationship between the level of self-concept adaptive mode and the consistent use of coping strategies of older adults with a stoma. Quantitative, correlational and transversal. VIVEROS 03 and CAPS surveys were applied in 3 hospitals in the City of Durango, México. The study included 90 older adults with an intestinal elimination stoma with complications. Kendall's Tau-b coefficient was the non-parametric test used to measure this association. Most older adults analyzed (61.3 < % < 79.9) are not completely adapted to the condition of living with an intestinal stoma. There is also a moderate positive correlation (0,569) between the level of adaptation of the older adults with a stoma and the conscious use of coping strategies. The presence of an intestinal stoma represents a physical and psychological health problem that is reflected in the level of adaptation of the self-image. Elderly people with a stoma use only a small part of defense mechanisms as part of coping process. This limits their ability to face the adversities related to their condition, potentially causing major health complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief report: The defense mechanisms of homophobic adolescent males: A descriptive discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; White, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N=86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture of homophobic intolerance. Participants were divided into homophobic and non-homophobic groups based on their scores on the Homophobia Scale Questionnaire. Discriminant analysis was conducted to identify the predictors that would best categorise students into those two groups on the basis of defense styles derived from the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The strongest predictors of homophobia amongst defense styles were idealisation, denial, somatisation and devaluation accounting for 18.31%, 17.64%, 13.10% and 11.35% of the variance, respectively. Results generally supported the larger contribution of more immature defenses to higher levels of homophobia.

  8. Early Family Relationships Predict Children’s Emotion Regulation and Defense Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallu Lindblom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early family relationships have been suggested to influence the development of children’s affect regulation, involving both emotion regulation and defense mechanisms. However, we lack research on the specific family predictors for these two forms of affect regulation, which have been conceptualized to differ in their functions and accessibility to consciousness. Accordingly, we examine how the (a quality and (b timing of family relationships during infancy predict child’s later emotion regulation and defense mechanisms. Parents (N = 703 reported autonomy and intimacy in marital and parenting relationships at the child’s ages of 2 and 12 months, and the child’s use of emotion regulation and immature and neurotic defenses at 7 to 8 years. As hypothesized, the results showed that functional early family relationships predicted children’s efficient emotion regulation, whereas dysfunctional relationships predicted reliance on defense mechanisms in middle childhood. Further, results showed a timing effect for neurotic defenses, partially confirming our hypothesis of early infancy being an especially important period for the development of defense mechanisms. The findings are discussed from the viewpoints of attachment and family dynamics, emotional self-awareness, and sense of security.

  9. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  10. In Defense of a Heuristic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Eamonn F.

    2010-01-01

    Although the presentation of quantum mechanics found in traditional textbooks is intellectually well founded, it suffers from a number of deficiencies. Specifically introducing quantum mechanics as a solution to the arcane dilemma, the ultraviolet catastrophe, does little to impress a nonscientific audience of the tremendous paradigmatic shift…

  11. The Physicalist Worldview as Neurotic Ego-Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The physicalist worldview is often portrayed as a dispassionate interpretation of reality motivated purely by observable facts. In this article, ideas of both depth and social psychology are used to show that this portrayal may not be accurate. Physicalism—whether it ultimately turns out to be philosophically correct or not—is hypothesized to be partly motivated by the neurotic endeavor to project onto the world attributes that help one avoid confronting unacknowledged aspects of one’s own inner life. Moreover, contrary to what most people assume, physicalism creates an opportunity for the intellectual elites who develop and promote it to maintain a sense of meaning in their own lives through fluid compensation. However, because this compensatory strategy does not apply to a large segment of society, it creates a schism—with corresponding tensions—that may help explain the contemporary conflict between neo-atheism and religious belief.

  12. Defense mechanisms and self-reported violence toward partners and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Cogan, Rosemary; Kamoo, Ray; Leitman, Susan

    2004-06-01

    We examined the relationship between defense mechanisms and self-reported violence toward partners and toward strangers in a sample of college student men. Fifty men completed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) and the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus, 1979), a self-report measure of strategies (including violence) for resolving conflicts with partners and strangers. The TAT responses were coded for defense mechanisms with the Defense Mechanisms Manual (Cramer, 1991b). The relative use of identification was negatively correlated (r = -.49, p <.001), and the relative use of projection was positively correlated (r =.49, p <.001) with the most extreme CTS report of violence toward partners. The relative use of identification was negatively correlated with the most extreme CTS report of violence toward strangers (r = -.34, p <.05). The relative use of denial was positively correlated with the most extreme CTS report of violence toward strangers (r =.32, p <.05).

  13. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  14. Ego Defense Mechanisms and Types of Object Relations in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Silva, Vanessa; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    This research evaluates the personality structure of adults with ADHD from a psychodynamic perspective. The hypothesis was that possible structural characteristics in personality could be correlated with this syndrome. Assessment tools for ego functions (Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory [BORRTI-Form O], Defense Style Questionnaire ( DSQ-40)) were applied to a sample of 90 adults with ADHD, recruited in a specialized clinic. Among the ADHD sample, 84.4% of the participants were identified as having object relations pathologies. Pathological elevations were observed mainly in the Alienation, Egocentricity, and Insecure Attachment subscales. Statistically, significant differences were found especially in the use of immature and neurotic defense mechanisms, compared with normative data. The findings indicate that adults with ADHD make more use of immature and neurotic defense mechanisms, and presented pathological internalized object relations that are typical of an archaic and poorly structured egoic structure. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  16. A quorum-sensing-induced bacteriophage defense mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Svenningsen, Sine

    2013-01-01

    . Specifically, E. coli reduces the numbers of ¿ receptors on the cell surface in response to N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals, causing a 2-fold reduction in the phage adsorption rate. The modest reduction in phage adsorption rate leads to a dramatic increase in the frequency...... of uninfected survivor cells after a potent attack by virulent phages. Notably, this mechanism may apply to a broader range of phages, as AHLs also reduce the risk of ¿ phage infection through a different receptor. IMPORTANCE To enable the successful manipulation of bacterial populations, a comprehensive...

  17. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  18. Systemic Acquired Resistance in Moss: Further Evidence for Conserved Defense Mechanisms in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Peter S.; Collin E Bowman; Philip J Villani; Dolan, Thomas E.; Hauck, Nathanael R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosper...

  19. On the Mechanisms of Moral Development in Evolutionary Historical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akop P. Nazaretyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough calculations demonstrate that while demographic densities and the technical capacity for mutual destruction have increased throughout the millennia, the violent death rate – the average number of deliberate killings per capita per time unit – has been decreasing. The resulting downward trend appears highly nonlinear and mediated by man-made crises and catastrophes, but still, in the long term, consecutive. meanwhile, there is no direct evidence of falling aggressiveness of the humans in the course of history – natural aggressive impulses were rather growing up with population concentration. Obviously, some perfecting cultural and psychological mechanisms of aggression-retention have compensated for technological and demographic growth. This issue is explored using the pattern of techno-humanitarian balance.

  20. Autophagy is an inflammation-related defensive mechanism against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; Guirro, Maria; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Menéndez, Javier A

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response is an energy-intensive process. Consequently, metabolism is closely associated with immune function. The autophagy machinery plays a role in metabolism by providing energy but may also be used to attack invading pathogens (xenophagy). The autophagy machinery may function to protect against not only the threats of infection but also the threats of the host's own response acting on the central immunological tolerance and the negative regulation of innate and inflammatory signaling. The balance between too little and too much autophagy is critical for the survival of immune cells because autophagy is linked to type 2-cell death programmed necrosis and apoptosis. Changes in inflammatory cells are driven by extracellular signals; however, the mechanisms by which cytokines mediate autophagy regulation and govern immune cell function remain unknown. Certain cytokines increase autophagy, whereas others inhibit autophagy. The relationship between autophagy and inflammation is also important in the pathogenesis of metabolic, non-communicable diseases. Inflammation per se is not the cause of obesity-associated diseases, but it is secondary to both the positive energy balance and the specific cellular responses. In metabolic tissues, the suppression of autophagy increases inflammation with the overexpression of cytokines, resulting in an activation of autophagy. The physiological role of these apparently contradictory findings remains uncertain but exemplifies future challenges in the therapeutic modulation of autophagy in the management of disease.

  1. Multixenobiotic resistance as a cellular defense mechanism in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard

    2000-04-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance in aquatic organisms exposed to natural toxins or anthropogenic contaminants is a phenomenon analogous to multidrug resistance in mammalian tumor cell lines tolerant of anti-cancer drugs. Multidrug resistance is commonly due to the elevated expression of transmembrane P-glycoproteins (P-gp) which actively transport a wide variety of structurally and functionally diverse compounds. The purpose of this review is to place aquatic ecotoxicological data in context of the larger multidrug resistance field of study. Information on P-glycoproteins structure, mechanism of transport, and substrate specificity gained through traditional mammalian and cell culture models is examined in conjunction with recent work on aquatic species exposed to xenobiotics both in the field and in the laboratory. The physiological function of P-glycoproteins is explored through studies of gene knockout models and expression patterns in normal tissues and tumors. The effect of xenobiotic exposures on P-gp activity and protein titer is examined in wild and captive populations of aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. Substrate overlap and evidence of co-expression of phase I detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochromes P450) and P-gp are presented. The role of P-gp chemosensitizers as environmental pollutants and the ecotoxicological consequences of P-gp inhibition are highlighted. The overwhelming evidence suggests that P-glycoproteins provide aquatic organisms with resistance to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic toxins.

  2. Differences between matched heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernbaum, Mark A; Ruscio, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Differences between heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on measures of defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms were examined. Fifty-six (28 heterosexual, 28 non-heterosexual) subjects were drawn from a larger study of college student adjustment. Non-heterosexual subjects were matched to a heterosexual peer on several demographic variables as well as on attachment security/insecurity. Differences between the two groups on the Defense Mechanism Inventory and the Brief Symptom Inventory were tested. Contrary to traditional psychoanalytic conceptions of homosexuality, no differences were found between the two groups on any subscale of the Defense Mechanism Inventory, thereby repudiating one important aspect of traditional psychoanalytic theories on the development of homosexuality. Non-heterosexual students reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, somaticization, paranoid ideation, general symptom severity, and suicidal ideation. These students appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology and suicidal ideation, despite similar defense profiles, when compared to matched heterosexual peers. Additional research is needed to determine the origins of this increased risk, and comprehensive and targeted prevention and intervention programs must be established to ameliorate such risks.

  3. Gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism against cannibalism and intraguild predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Claudia; Fréchette, Bruno; Labrie, Geneviève; Dumont, François; Lucas, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Coccinellid pupae use an array of defensive strategies against their natural enemies. This study aims to assess the efficiency of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against intraguild predators and cannibals in coccinellid. The study was designed specifically (i) to determine the natural occurrence of gregarious pupation in the field for different coccinellid species, and (ii) to evaluate the adaptive value of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against 2 types of predators (i.e., cannibals and intraguild predators). In the field, gregarious pupation consisted of a group of 2-5 pupae. The proportion of gregarious pupation observed varied according to species, the highest rate being observed with Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coccinellidae; 14.17%). Gregarious pupation had no impact on the probability that intraguild predators and cannibals locate pupae. Intraguild predation occurred more often in site with gregarious pupation, while cannibalism occurred as often in site with gregarious pupation as in site with isolated pupa. However, for a specific pupa, the mortality rate was higher for isolated pupae than for pupae located in a gregarious pupation site both in the presence of intraguild predators and in the presence of cannibals. The spatial location of pupae within the group had no impact on mortality rate. Since it reduces the risk of predation, it is proposed that gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism for H. axyridis pupae. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the role of antioxidant responses in salinity tolerance in rice genotypes under salt stress, experiments were conducted using four rice varieties, including salt-sensitive BRRI dhan 28 and three salt-tolerant varieties BRRI dhan 47, BINA dhan 8 and BINA dhan 10. Thirty-day-old rice seedlings were transplanted into pots. At the active tillering stage (35 d after transplanting, plants were exposed to different salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Salt stress caused a significant reduction in growth for all the rice genotypes. Growth reduction was higher in the salt-sensitive genotype than in the salt-tolerant ones, and BINA dhan 10 showed higher salt tolerance in all measured physiological parameters. The reduction in shoot and root biomass was found to be minimal in BINA dhan 10. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased under salt stress except for BINA dhan 10. Proline content significantly increased in salt-tolerant rice genotypes with increased salt concentration, and the highest proline content was obtained from BINA dhan 10 under salt stress. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities significantly decreased in salt-sensitive genotype whereas significantly increased in salt-tolerant ones with increasing salt concentration. However, salt stress significantly decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity in all the rice genotypes irrespective of salt tolerance. K+/Na+ ratio also significantly decreased in shoots and roots of all the rice genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotype BINA dhan 10 maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and proline contents as well as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities under salt stress, thus, this might be the underlying mechanism for salt tolerance.

  5. Exploring relationships over time between psychological distress, perceived stress, life events and immature defense style on disordered eating pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Williams, Sarah Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress, immature defense style, depression and anxiety and negative life events all are known to be associated with eating disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between these factors and their relative strength of association with eating disorder symptoms over time. This research was embedded in a longitudinal study of adult women with varying levels of eating disorder symptoms and who were initially recruited from tertiary educational institutions in two Australian states. Four years from initial recruitment, 371 participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination- Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for eating disorder symptoms. Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) as a measure of depression and anxiety, a Life Events Checklist as a measure of previous exposure to potentially traumatic events, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to determine perceived stress. One year later, in year 5, 295 (878.7%) completed follow-up assessments including the EDE-Q. The questionnaires were completed online or returned via reply paid post. All four independent factors were found to correlate significantly with the global EDE-Q score in cross-sectional analyses (all Spearman rho (rs) >0.18, p  0.15, all p stress and psychological distress scores were significantly associated with year 5 global EDE-Q scores (p = 0.046 and stress had the strongest association with eating disorder symptoms over time The findings support further investigation of interventions to reduce distress and perceived stress in adult females with disordered eating.

  6. Development of a Q-sort version of the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales (DMRS-Q) for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Mariagrazia; Perry, J Christopher; Petraglia, Jonathan; Janzen, Jennifer; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    This report focuses on the need to provide clinicians with a reliable and valid measure for detecting patient defense mechanisms "inside psychotherapy." To avoid the limitations of existing methods, we designed a Q-sort based on the theoretical definitions and criteria of the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales (DMRS-Q), but one that does not require transcripts of clinical interviews or sessions and may be applied without specific training on defenses. The DMRS-Q is sensitive to changes in psychotherapy and its scores correlate significantly with various aspects of mental functioning, making it potentially available for the psychotherapy process and outcome research as well. We report the results of using the DMRS-Q on a systematic single case study with the aim of detecting changes in defense mechanisms during a long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The DMRS-Q reveals change both in quantitative scores and in the literary Defensive Profile Narrative. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mechanisms of psychological distress following war in the former Yugoslavia: the role of interpersonal sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickerson, A.; Priebe, S.; Bryant, R.A.; Morina, N.

    2014-01-01

    While high prevalence rates of psychological symptoms have been documented in civilian survivors of war, little is known about the mechanisms by which trauma exposure might lead to poor psychological outcomes in these populations. One potential mechanism that may underpin the association between

  8. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  9. Mechanism of bystander-blaming: defensive attribution, counterfactual thinking, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary victimology recognizes that an understanding of the mechanism of blaming requires a comprehensive approach that includes the victim, the offender, and the bystander. However, most of the existing research on blaming focuses on the victim and the offender, ignoring the issue of bystander-blaming. This study highlights the bystander and investigates bystander-blaming by exploring some theoretical explanations, including counterfactual thinking, defensive attribution, and gender differences. The study included 363 young male and female participants, who read vignettes describing the behavior of the victim and the bystander in a rape scenario and answered questions regarding bystander-blaming. The results show that both counterfactual thinking and defensive attribution play a role in bystander-blaming. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Revisiting Psychological Mechanisms in the Anthropology of Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Munira, Shirajum; Jasmin, Khaleda; Hruschka, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Anthropologists have long been interested in the reasons humans choose to help some individuals and not others. Early research considered psychological mediators, such as feelings of cohesion or closeness, but more recent work, largely in the tradition of human behavioral ecology, shifted attention away from psychological measures to clearer observables, such as past behavior, genetic relatedness, affinal ties, and geographic proximity. In this paper, we assess the value of reintegrating psychological measures-perceived social closeness-into the anthropological study of altruism. Specifically, analyzing social network data from four communities in rural Bangladesh (N = 516), we show that perceived closeness has a strong independent effect on helping, which cannot be accounted for by other factors. These results illustrate the potential value of reintegrating proximate psychological measures into anthropological studies of human cooperation.

  11. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  12. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISM IN HEART OF THE DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atalay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus

  13. Biological mechanisms of premature ovarian failure caused by psychological stress based on support vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing-hua; Min, Jian-Xin; Ma, Na; Luo, Lai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the...

  14. Proteomic approaches to understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in host-defense mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Marko; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a cellular scaffolding system whose functions include maintenance of cellular shape, enabling cellular migration, division, intracellular transport, signaling and membrane organization. In addition, in immune cells, the cytoskeleton is essential for phagocytosis. Following the advances in proteomics technology over the past two decades, cytoskeleton proteome analysis in resting and activated immune cells has emerged as a possible powerful approach to expand our understanding of cytoskeletal composition and function. However, so far there have only been a handful of studies of the cytoskeleton proteome in immune cells. This article considers promising proteomics strategies that could augment our understanding of the role of the cytoskeleton in host-defense mechanisms. PMID:21329431

  15. Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Stucken

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production of hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

  16. Anxiety, depression and defense mechanisms associated with treatment decisional preferences and quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Almyroudi, Augoustina; Paika, Vassiliki; Degner, Lesley F; Carvalho, André F; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    Treatment decisional preferences impact breast cancer patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and may relate to psychological variables, although many aspects of this relationship remain unknown. This prospective study aimed to assess psychological correlates of treatment decisional preferences and predictors of HRQoL in women with early non-metastatic breast cancer. Of the 124 women initially assessed for anxiety (Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D)) symptoms, HRQoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and defense mechanisms (Life Style Index), 82 (66.1%) completed the 1-year follow-up. Mean age was 54.6 years (SD = 9.76), and mean disease duration was 19.4 months (SD = 25.55); 19.5% had stage I, 63.4% stage II and 17.1% stage III disease. The predictive power and moderator effects of psychological variables were tested using multiple and hierarchical regression models. Depressive symptoms and physical HRQoL improved significantly, state anxiety and mental and environment HRQoL remained stable, and social relations HRQoL deteriorated over the 1-year period. Older age (p = 0.021) and higher scores in repression defense (p = 0.044) were independently associated with passive decisional preferences. Earlier stage of cancer (p = 0.043), lower state anxiety (p = 0.039), lower repression scores (p = 0.021) and improvement in depressive symptoms (p cancer. Clinicians should address the patients' anxiety and depressive symptoms and refer patients with high repression tendencies for psychological evaluation and management. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. West; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  18. Viewing loved faces inhibits defense reactions: a health-promotion mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guerra

    Full Text Available We have known for decades that social support is associated with positive health outcomes. And yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The link between social support and positive health outcomes is likely to depend on the neurophysiological regulatory mechanisms underlying reward and defensive reactions. The present study examines the hypothesis that emotional social support (love provides safety cues that activate the appetitive reward system and simultaneously inhibit defense reactions. Using the startle probe paradigm, 54 undergraduate students (24 men viewed black and white photographs of loved (romantic partner, father, mother, and best friend, neutral (unknown, and unpleasant (mutilated faces. Eye-blink startle, zygomatic major activity, heart rate, and skin conductance responses to the faces, together with subjective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance, were obtained. Viewing loved faces induced a marked inhibition of the eye-blink startle response accompanied by a pattern of zygomatic, heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective changes indicative of an intense positive emotional response. Effects were similar for men and women, but the startle inhibition and the zygomatic response were larger in female participants. A comparison between the faces of the romantic partner and the parent who shares the partner's gender further suggests that this effect is not attributable to familiarity or arousal. We conclude that this inhibitory capacity may contribute to the health benefits associated with social support.

  19. Responses to falling lll: defense mechanisms used by women with Turner syndrome and variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Soares Chvatal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Article extracted from the doctoral research entitled "Experiences of the infertility phenomenon by patients suffering from Turner syndrome and variants: a clinical-qualitative study" approved by the University of Campinas. OBJECTIVES: To understand the defenses employed by women suffering from TS and different ways of dealing with the disease. METHOD: Qualitative research with exploratory design, non-experimental. The instrument consisted of a semidirect psychological interview, involving 13 women, undergoing semestral medical follow-up at the Center for Integral Attention to Women's Health (CAISM, and whose sampling was determined by saturation. Data was interpreted using the psychodynamic approach along with an eclectic framework of theoretical references for discussion in the spirit of interdisciplinary approach. RESULTS:These women displayed psychosocial conflicts such as difficulties in interpersonal relationships; feelings of resignation, anger, impotence, devaluation and depression symptoms. Defenses used were: repression, denial, annulment, fantasizing, adaptation and sublimation. DISCUSSION: Women suffering from TS and variants must deal with the disease's organic and psychic implications that cause great suffering and often hinder a saner social insertion. In this case, the study's findings can guide ambulatory psychological support concomitantly to the routine clinical protocol.OBJETIVO:Conhecer as defesas utilizadas por mulheres com síndrome de Turner (ST ou formas variantes para lidar com a doença. MÉTODO: Pesquisa qualitativa com desenho exploratório, não experimental. O instrumento consistiu em entrevista psicológica semidirigida, aplicada em 13 mulheres, cuja amostragem deu-se por saturação, as quais fazem acompanhamento semestral no Centro de Atendimento Integral à Saúde da Mulher. Os dados foram interpretados utilizando-se da abordagem psicodinâmica, aliada a um quadro eclético de referenciais te

  20. Systemic acquired resistance in moss: further evidence for conserved defense mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peter S; Bowman, Collin E; Villani, Philip J; Dolan, Thomas E; Hauck, Nathanael R

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6-8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction), moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge) by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss - pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SAR in

  1. Systemic acquired resistance in moss: further evidence for conserved defense mechanisms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Winter

    Full Text Available Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR. In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6-8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction, moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss - pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary

  2. Potential self-regulatory mechanisms of yoga for psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory. From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.

  3. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.

  4. Change in defense mechanisms during short-term dynamic and cognitive therapy in patients with cluster C personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål-Ørjan; Krebs, Teri S; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C; Holen, Are

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether a change in overall defensive functioning during treatment a) would predict change in symptom distress during the course of treatment and follow-up and b) would be greater in short-term dynamic therapy than in cognitive therapy. Patients (N = 50) who met criteria for cluster C personality disorders were randomized to 40 weekly sessions of short-term dynamic therapy or cognitive therapy. Video recordings of a pretreatment interview and therapy session 36 were evaluated using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Symptom distress was measured using the revised version of Symptom Checklist-90. Change in overall defensive functioning during treatment predicted change in symptom distress from pretreatment to 2 years after treatment. Both treatment groups showed significant changes in defensive functioning toward greater adaptability but without any significant differences between the short-term dynamic therapy and cognitive therapy groups in a sample of patients with cluster C personality disorders.

  5. Using the TAT to Assess the Relation Between Gender Identity and the Use of Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether 2 different dimensions of personality, when assessed at an implicit level with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943 ) will show a theoretically meaningful coherence not demonstrated when 1 is assessed at an implicit level and the other at an explicit level. Gender identity and defense mechanisms were assessed implicitly using the TAT. Gender identity was compared with a self-report measure of gender-related attributes assessed at the explicit level. The results showed a theoretically meaningful coherence when different dispositions were assessed at the same level, but a lack of agreement when similar dispositions were assessed at different levels. The study is based on a secondary analysis of data from 2 previously published papers (Cramer, 1998 ; Cramer & Westergren, 1999 ).

  6. Photochemistry and photobiology of actinic erythema: defensive and reparative cutaneous mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tedesco

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight is part of our everyday life and most people accept it as beneficial to our health. With the advance of our knowledge in cutaneous photochemistry, photobiology and photomedicine over the past four decades, the terrestrial solar radiation has become a concern of dermatologists and is considered to be a major damaging environmental factor for our skin. Most photobiological effects (e.g., sunburn, suntanning, local and systemic immunosuppression, photoaging or dermatoheliosis, skin cancer and precancer, etc. are attributed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and more particularly to UVB radiation (290-320 nm. UVA radiation (320-400 nm also plays an important role in the induction of erythema by the photosensitized generation of reactive oxygen species (singlet oxygen (1O2, superoxide (O2.- and hydroxyl radicals (.OH that damage DNA and cellular membranes, and promote carcinogenesis and the changes associated with photoaging. Therefore, research efforts have been directed at a better photochemical and photobiological understanding of the so-called sunburn reaction, actinic or solar erythema. To survive the insults of actinic damage, the skin appears to have different intrinsic defensive mechanisms, among which antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems play a pivotal role. In this paper, we will review the basic aspects of the action of UVR on the skin: a photochemical reactions resulting from photon absorption by endogenous chromophores; b the lipid peroxidation phenomenon, and c intrinsic defensive cutaneous mechanisms (antioxidant systems. The last section will cover the inflammatory response including mediator release after cutaneous UVR exposure and adhesion molecule expression

  7. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of autoprotection and the role of stress-proteins in natural defenses, autoprotection, and salutogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J; Nierhaus, K H; Lohff, B; Peters, T; Schaefer, T; Vos, R

    1998-08-01

    We hypothesize that in all physiotherapeutically oriented procedures of naturotherapy -- such as helio-, climate-, thalasso- or hydrotherapy or certain forms of physical exercise -- the transient expression of stress-proteins (heat-shock proteins, HSPs) is an important element of salutogenesis. These therapeutical procedures all cause a transitory 'disturbance' by an unspecific stressor that leads to functional responses. These functional responses can be trained and thus increase the forces and the capacity for resistance of the organism. The autoprotective mechanisms which we want to deal with in more detail are based on the functions of the heat-shock proteins (HSPs, stress-response proteins, 'chaperones') and represent archaic autoprotective responses. In addition, more complex mechanisms of autoprotection seem to have evolved that may play a role in the natural defenses against disease and which show a hierarchy of various genomically conserved strategies with different time-constants and time windows. This becomes apparent by studying autoprotective responses of the cardiovascular system of warm-blooded animals under ischemic stress. Recent extensive experimental protocols and clinical observations in elucidating the molecular basis of cardiac ischemia show that powerful autoprotective mechanisms are involved in the phenomena of 'hibernation', 'stunning', and 'ischemic preconditioning'. The system of the heat-shock proteins may therefore be regarded as a basic model for the principle of autoprotection and salutogenesis.

  9. An Integrated Review of Psychological Stress in Parkinson's Disease: Biological Mechanisms and Symptom and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by complex symptoms and medication-induced motor complications that fluctuate in onset, severity, responsiveness to treatment, and disability. The unpredictable and debilitating nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in psychological stress. Psychological stress may exacerbate biological mechanisms believed to contribute to neuronal loss in PD and lead to poorer symptom and health outcomes. The purpose of this integrated review is to summarize and appraise animal and human research studies focused on biological mechanisms, symptom, and health outcomes of psychological stress in PD. A search of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and CINAHL from 1980 to the present using the key words Parkinson's disease and stress, psychological stress, mental stress, and chronic stress resulted in 11 articles that met inclusion criteria. The results revealed significant associations between psychological stress and increased motor symptom severity and loss of dopamine-producing neurons in animal models of PD and between psychological stress and increased symptom severity and poorer health outcomes in human subjects with PD. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for these relationships, for the ultimate purpose of designing targeted interventions that may modify the disease trajectory. PMID:28058129

  10. Psychological and neural mechanisms of experimental extinction: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Andrew R; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2014-02-01

    The present review examines key psychological concepts in the study of experimental extinction and implications these have for an understanding of the underlying neurobiology of extinction learning. We suggest that many of the signature characteristics of extinction learning (spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition) can be accommodated by the standard associative learning theory assumption that extinction results in partial erasure of the original learning together with new inhibitory learning. Moreover, we consider recent behavioral and neural evidence that supports the partial erasure view of extinction, but also note shortcomings in our understanding of extinction circuits as these relate to the negative prediction error concept. Recent work suggests that common prediction error and stimulus-specific prediction error terms both may be required to explain neural plasticity both in acquisition and extinction learning. In addition, we suggest that many issues in the content of extinction learning have not been fully addressed in current research, but that neurobiological approaches should be especially helpful in addressing such issues. These include questions about the nature of extinction learning (excitatory CS-No US, inhibitory CS-US learning, occasion setting processes), especially as this relates to studies of the micro-circuitry of extinction, as well as its representational content (sensory, motivational, response). An additional understudied problem in extinction research is the role played by attention processes and their underlying neural networks, although some research and theory converge on the idea that extinction is accompanied by attention decrements (i.e., habituation-like processes). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Winkelman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences. Objective evidence that psychedelics produce classic mystical experiences, coupled with the finding that hallucinatory experiences can be induced by many non-drug mechanisms, illustrates the need for a common model of visionary effects. Several models implicate disturbances of normal regulatory processes in the brain as the underlying mechanisms responsible for the similarities of visionary experiences produced by psychedelic and other methods for altering consciousness. Similarities in psychedelic-induced visionary experiences and those produced by practices such as meditation and hypnosis and pathological conditions such as epilepsy indicate the need for a general model explaining visionary experiences. Common mechanisms underlying diverse alterations of consciousness involve the disruption of normal functions of the prefrontal cortex and default mode network (DMN. This interruption of ordinary control mechanisms allows for the release of thalamic and other lower brain discharges that stimulate a visual information representation system and release the effects of innate cognitive functions and operators. Converging forms of evidence support the hypothesis that the source of psychedelic experiences involves the emergence of these innate cognitive processes of lower brain systems, with visionary experiences resulting from the activation of innate

  12. The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences. Objective evidence that psychedelics produce classic mystical experiences, coupled with the finding that hallucinatory experiences can be induced by many non-drug mechanisms, illustrates the need for a common model of visionary effects. Several models implicate disturbances of normal regulatory processes in the brain as the underlying mechanisms responsible for the similarities of visionary experiences produced by psychedelic and other methods for altering consciousness. Similarities in psychedelic-induced visionary experiences and those produced by practices such as meditation and hypnosis and pathological conditions such as epilepsy indicate the need for a general model explaining visionary experiences. Common mechanisms underlying diverse alterations of consciousness involve the disruption of normal functions of the prefrontal cortex and default mode network (DMN). This interruption of ordinary control mechanisms allows for the release of thalamic and other lower brain discharges that stimulate a visual information representation system and release the effects of innate cognitive functions and operators. Converging forms of evidence support the hypothesis that the source of psychedelic experiences involves the emergence of these innate cognitive processes of lower brain systems, with visionary experiences resulting from the activation of innate processes based in the

  13. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Shiguo; Xu, Haibin; Nelson, David R.; Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Luo, Hongmei; Xiang, Li; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Wang, Lizhi; Lu, Shanfa; Hayward, Alice; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiwen; Schwartz, David C.; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, were revealed in G. sinense. Systematic bioinformatic investigation of the genome and methylome suggested that RIP and DNA methylation combinatorially maintain G. sinense genome stability by inactivating invasive genetic material and transposable elements. The elucidation of the G. sinense genome and epigenome provides an unparalleled opportunity to advance our understanding of secondary metabolism and fungal defense mechanisms. PMID:26046933

  14. The evolved psychological mechanisms of fertility motivation: hunting for causation in a sea of correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lisa S.; Pepper, Gillian V.; Virgo, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Cultural, ecological, familial and physiological factors consistently influence fertility behaviours, however, the proximate psychological mechanisms underlying fertility decisions in humans are poorly understood. Understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying human fertility may illuminate the final processes by which some of these known predictors have their influence. To date, research into the psychological mechanisms underlying fertility has been fragmented. Aspects of reproductive psychology have been examined by researchers in a range of fields, but the findings have not been systematically integrated in one review. We provide such a review, examining current theories and research on psychological mechanisms of fertility. We examine the methods and populations used in the research, as well as the disciplines and theoretical perspectives from which the work has come. Much of the work that has been done to date is methodologically limited to examining correlations between ecological, social and economic factors and fertility. We propose, and support with examples, the use of experimental methods to differentiate causal factors from correlates. We also discuss weaknesses in the experimental research, including limited work with non-WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic) populations. PMID:27022078

  15. The evolved psychological mechanisms of fertility motivation: hunting for causation in a sea of correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lisa S; Pepper, Gillian V; Virgo, Sandra; Coall, David A

    2016-04-19

    Cultural, ecological, familial and physiological factors consistently influence fertility behaviours, however, the proximate psychological mechanisms underlying fertility decisions in humans are poorly understood. Understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying human fertility may illuminate the final processes by which some of these known predictors have their influence. To date, research into the psychological mechanisms underlying fertility has been fragmented. Aspects of reproductive psychology have been examined by researchers in a range of fields, but the findings have not been systematically integrated in one review. We provide such a review, examining current theories and research on psychological mechanisms of fertility. We examine the methods and populations used in the research, as well as the disciplines and theoretical perspectives from which the work has come. Much of the work that has been done to date is methodologically limited to examining correlations between ecological, social and economic factors and fertility. We propose, and support with examples, the use of experimental methods to differentiate causal factors from correlates. We also discuss weaknesses in the experimental research, including limited work with non-WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic) populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Post-ejection nest-desertion of common cuckoo hosts : a second defense mechanism or avoiding reduced reproductive success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Rosendaal, Erik C.; Boers, Myra; Zoelei, Aniko; Ban, Miklos; Komdeur, Jan; Soler, M.

    Hosts of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), an avian brood parasite, develop antiparasite defense mechanisms to increase their reproductive success. Ejection of the parasite egg and desertion of the parasitized nest are the most typical adaptations in response to brood parasitism, but nest

  17. Defense Mechanisms Reported by Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects Over 16 Years of Prospective Follow-up: Description and Prediction of Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology over 16 years of prospective follow-up. It also assessed the relationship between time-varying defenses and recovery from borderline personality disorder. Method The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was initially administered at study entry. It was readministered at eight contiguous two-year long follow-up periods. Results Borderline patients had significantly lower scores than axis II comparison subjects on one mature defense mechanism (suppression) and significantly higher scores on seven of the other 18 defenses studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image-distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In terms of change, borderline patients were found to have had significant improvement on 13 of the 19 defenses studied. More specifically, they had significantly higher scores over time on one mature defense (anticipation) and significantly lower scores on two neurotic defenses (isolation and undoing), all immature defenses, and all image-distorting/borderline defenses except primitive idealization. In addition, four time-varying defense mechanisms were found to predict time-to-recovery: humor, acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and projection. Conclusions Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the longitudinal defensive functioning of borderline patients is both distinct and improves substantially over time. They also suggest that immature defenses are the best predictors of time-to-recovery. PMID:23223866

  18. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Bartley, Mel; Pikhart, Hynek; Stafford, Mai; Cable, Noriko

    2014-03-23

    An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent-child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0-16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter's Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect=33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.

  19. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n = 10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect = 33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

  20. Coping as a Multifaceted Construct: Associations With Psychological Outcomes Among Family Members of Mechanical Ventilation Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Nandita; Huff, Nidhi G; Cox, Christopher E; Ford, Dee W

    2016-09-01

    To develop and evaluate a preliminary multifaceted model for coping among family members of patients who survive mechanical ventilation. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, we interviewed family members of mechanically ventilated patients at the time of transfer from the ICU to the hospital ward. We constructed a theoretic model of coping that included characteristics attributable to family members, family-clinician rapport, and patients. We then explored relationships between coping factors and symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress). Fifty-six family members of survivors of mechanical ventilation. Psychological distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Posttraumatic Stress Scale. Optimism measured using the Life Orientation Test scale, resiliency by Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and social support using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System inventory. Family members had moderate levels of psychological distress with median total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale equal to 14 (interquartile range, 5-20) and Posttraumatic Stress Scale equal to 22 (interquartile range, 15-31). Among family member characteristics, greater optimism (p = 0.001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; p = 0.010, Posttraumatic Stress Scale), resilience (p = 0.012, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and social support (p = 0.013, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were protective against psychological distress. On the contrary, characteristics of family-clinician rapport such as communication quality and presence of conflict did not have any associations with psychological distress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore coping as a multifaceted construct and its relationship with family psychological outcomes among survivors of mechanical ventilation. We found certain family characteristics of coping such as optimism, resilience, and social support to be

  1. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  2. Defense Mechanisms of Pregnant Mothers Predict Attachment Security, Social-Emotional Competence, and Behavior Problems in Their Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Huprich, Steven K; Richardson, Laura

    2016-02-01

    For at-risk (single parent, low income, low support) mothers, healthy adaptation and the ability to manage stress have clear implications for parenting and the social-emotional well-being of their young offspring. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between defense mechanisms in pregnant women and their toddlers' attachment security, social-emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants were 84 pregnant women during their last trimester of pregnancy, recruited from community agencies primarily serving low-income families. Women were followed prospectively from pregnancy through 2 years after birth and completed several multimethod assessments during that period. Observations of mother-child interactions were also coded after the postnatal visits. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mothers' defense mechanisms were significantly associated with several toddler outcomes. Mature, healthy defenses were significantly associated with greater toddler attachment security and social-emotional competence and fewer behavior problems, and less mature defenses (disavowal in particular) were associated with lower levels of attachment security and social-emotional competence. Associations remained significant, or were only slightly attenuated, after controlling for demographic variables and partner abuse during pregnancy. The study findings suggest that defensive functioning in parents preparing for and parenting toddlers influences the parent-child attachment relationship and social-emotional adjustment in the earliest years of life. Possible mechanisms for these associations may include parental attunement and mentalization, as well as specific caregiving behavior toward the child. Defensive functioning during times of increased stress (such as the prenatal to postnatal period) may be especially important for understanding parental influences on the child.

  3. Sensory Motor Mechanisms Unify Psychology: The Embodiment of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer eSoliman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor mechanisms can unify explanations at cognitive, social, and cultural levels. As an example, we review how anticipated motor effort is used by individuals and groups to judge distance: the greater the anticipated effort the greater the perceived distance. Anticipated motor effort can also be used to understand cultural differences. People with interdependent self-construals interact almost exclusively with in-group members, and hence there is little opportunity to tune their sensorimotor systems for interaction with out-group members. The result is that interactions with out-group members are expected to be difficult and out-group members are perceived as literally more distant. In two experiments we show a interdependent Americans, compared to independent Americans, see American confederates (in-group as closer; b interdependent Arabs, compared to independent Arabs, perceive Arab confederates (in-group as closer, whereas interdependent Americans perceive Arab confederates (out-group as farther. These results demonstrate how the same embodied mechanism can seamlessly contribute to explanations at the cognitive, social, and cultural levels.

  4. Zinc Induced Enzymatic Defense Mechanisms in Rhizoctonia Root Rot Infected Clusterbean Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Wadhwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was planned to determine the effect of different concentrations of zinc (Zn on biochemical constituents of clusterbean, which play an important role in disease resistance mechanisms. Clusterbean seedlings were grown with 0, 10, or 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatments in earthen pots filled with 700 g inoculated soil. Soil was inoculated by pretreatment with 250 mg (wet weight of Rhizoctonia inoculums per pot. A similar set was maintained in uninoculated soil. Root rot incidence decreased to 41 and 27 per cent with 10 and 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatments, respectively, as compared to 68 percent at control. Antioxidative enzyme activity (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and tyrosine ammonia lyase increased in inoculated seedlings and was increased further by 20 mg Zn kg−1 soil treatment. Antioxidative enzymes play an important role against fungal invasion, as peroxidase is involved in the formation of barrier via lignifications at the site of pathogen penetration. PAL and TAL play a key role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and could perform defense-related functions. Zn acts as a cofactor for these enzymes, so it can be concluded that Zn may be used as a soil-nutritive agent to increase resistance in plants against fungal diseases.

  5. Cisplatin Resistance: A Cellular Self-Defense Mechanism Resulting from Multiple Epigenetic and Genetic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ding-Wu; Pouliot, Lynn M.; Hall, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs. Its effectiveness seems to be due to the unique properties of cisplatin, which enters cells via multiple pathways and forms multiple different DNA-platinum adducts while initiating a cellular self-defense system by activating or silencing a variety of different genes, resulting in dramatic epigenetic and/or genetic alternations. As a result, the development of cisplatin resistance in human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro by necessity stems from bewilderingly complex genetic and epigenetic changes in gene expression and alterations in protein localization. Extensive published evidence has demonstrated that pleiotropic alterations are frequently detected during development of resistance to this toxic metal compound. Changes occur in almost every mechanism supporting cell survival, including cell growth-promoting pathways, apoptosis, developmental pathways, DNA damage repair, and endocytosis. In general, dozens of genes are affected in cisplatin-resistant cells, including pathways involved in copper metabolism as well as transcription pathways that alter the cytoskeleton, change cell surface presentation of proteins, and regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Decreased accumulation is one of the most common features resulting in cisplatin resistance. This seems to be a consequence of numerous epigenetic and genetic changes leading to the loss of cell-surface binding sites and/or transporters for cisplatin, and decreased fluid phase endocytosis. PMID:22659329

  6. Change in defense mechanisms and coping patterns during the course of 2-year-long psychotherapy and psychoanalysis for recurrent depression: a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Perry, J Christopher; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    Very little research has been conducted so far to study the potential mechanisms of change in long-term active psychological treatments of recurrent depression. The present pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the feasibility of studying the change process occurring in patients during the course of 2-year-long dynamic psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, and cognitive therapy, as compared with clinical management. In total, eight outpatients presenting with recurrent depression, two patients per treatment arm, were included. All patients were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment conditions. Defense mechanisms and coping patterns were assessed using validated observer-rated methodology based on transcribed, semistructured follow-along independent dynamic interviews. The results indicated that, whereas some patients in the active treatments changed on the symptomatic levels, some others remained unchanged during the course of their 2-year-long treatment. However, with regard to potential mechanisms of change in these patients, changes in defense mechanisms and coping patterns were revealed to be important processes over time in successful therapies and, to a lesser extent, in less successful treatments. No change was found either on outcome or on the process measure for the control condition, that is, clinical management. These results are discussed along with previous data comparing change in defense mechanisms and coping during the course of treatments.

  7. Social Identity and Psychosis: Associations and Psychological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jason C; Wickham, Sophie; Barr, Ben; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-08-26

    Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge. Here, we examined the relationship between social identity and mental health (paranoia, auditory verbal hallucinations [AVHs], and depression), and tested the mediating role of self-esteem. In study 1, we analyzed data collected from 4319 UK residents as part of the NIHR CLAHRC NWC Household Health Survey. Study 2 comprised data collected from 1167 students attending a large UK university. The studies provided convergent evidence that social identification reduces symptoms of paranoia and depression by furnishing people with self-esteem. There was no consistent effect of social identification on AVHs. People developing mental health assessments, treatments, and policies are encouraged to consider the notion that joining and identifying with social groups may reduce people's risk of paranoia and depression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  8. Cellular and exosome mediated molecular defense mechanism in bovine granulosa cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed-Zidane, Mohammed; Linden, Lea; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Held, Eva; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2017-01-01

    Various environmental insults including diseases, heat and oxidative stress could lead to abnormal growth, functions and apoptosis in granulosa cells during ovarian follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Despite the fact that cells exposed to oxidative stress are responding transcriptionally, the potential release of transcripts associated with oxidative stress response into extracellular space through exosomes is not yet determined. Therefore, here we aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in bovine granulosa cells in vitro on the cellular and exosome mediated defense mechanisms. Bovine granulosa cells were aspirated from ovarian follicles and cultured in DMEM/F-12 Ham culture medium supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum. In the first experiment sub-confluent cells were treated with 5 μM H2O2 for 40 min to induce oxidative stress. Thereafter, cells were subjected to ROS and mitochondrial staining, cell proliferation and cell cycle assays. Furthermore, gene and protein expression analysis were performed in H2O2-challenged versus control group 24 hr post-treatment using qRT-PCR and immune blotting or immunocytochemistry assay, respectively. Moreover, exosomes were isolated from spent media using ultracentrifugation procedure, and subsequently used for RNA isolation and qRT-PCR. In the second experiment, exosomes released by granulosa cells under oxidative stress (StressExo) or those released by granulosa cells without oxidative stress (NormalExo) were co-incubated with bovine granulosa cells in vitro to proof the potential horizontal transfer of defense molecules from exosomes to granulosa cells and investigate any phenotype changes. Exposure of bovine granulosa cells to H2O2 induced the accumulation of ROS, reduced mitochondrial activity, increased expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes (both mRNA and protein), altered the cell cycle transitions and induced cellular apoptosis. Granulosa cells exposed to oxidative

  9. UVR defense mechanisms in eurytopic and invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleda, Michael Y; Nyberg, Cecilia D; Wulff, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The invasive success of Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been attributed to its wide tolerance range to different abiotic factors, but its response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is yet to be investigated. In the laboratory, carpospores and vegetative thalli of an Atlantic population were exposed to different radiation treatments consisting of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) only (P), PAR+UV-A (PA) and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB). Photosynthesis of carpospores was photoinhibited under different radiation treatments but photosystem II (PSII) function was restored after 12 h under dim white light. Growth of vegetative thalli was significantly higher under radiation supplemented with UVR. Decrease in chlorophyll a (Chl a) under daily continuous 16-h exposure to 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of PAR suggests preventive accumulation of excited chlorophyll molecules within the antennae to minimize the generation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Moreover, an increase in total carotenoids and xanthophyll cycle pigments (i.e. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin) further suggests effective photoprotection under UVR. The presence of the ketocarotenoid β-cryptoxanthin also indicates protection against UVR and oxidative stress. The initial concentration of total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in freshly-released spores increased approximately four times after 8-h laboratory radiation treatments. On the other hand, initial specific MAAs in vegetative thalli changed in composition after 7-day exposure to laboratory radiation conditions without affecting the total concentration. The above responses suggest that G. vermiculophylla have multiple UVR defense mechanisms to cope with the dynamic variation in light quantity and quality encountered in its habitat. Beside being eurytopic, the UVR photoprotective mechanisms likely contribute to the current invasive success of the species in shallow lagoons and estuaries exposed to high solar radiation. Copyright

  10. Mechanism of decomposition of the human defense factor hypothiocyanite near physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, József; Woldegiorgis, Kelemu L; Biri, Bernadett; Ashby, Michael T

    2011-12-14

    Relatively little is known about the reaction chemistry of the human defense factor hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)) and its conjugate acid hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), in part because of their instability in aqueous solutions. Herein we report that HOSCN/OSCN(-) can engage in a cascade of pH- and concentration-dependent comproportionation, disproportionation, and hydrolysis reactions that control its stability in water. On the basis of reaction kinetic, spectroscopic, and chromatographic methods, a detailed mechanism is proposed for the decomposition of HOSCN/OSCN(-) in the range of pH 4-7 to eventually give simple inorganic anions including CN(-), OCN(-), SCN(-), SO(3)(2-), and SO(4)(2-). Thiocyanogen ((SCN)(2)) is proposed to be a key intermediate in the hydrolysis; and the facile reaction of (SCN)(2) with OSCN(-) to give NCS(═O)SCN, a previously unknown reactive sulfur species, has been independently investigated. The mechanism of the aqueous decomposition of (SCN)(2) around pH 4 is also reported. The resulting mechanistic models for the decomposition of HOSCN and (SCN)(2) address previous empirical observations, including the facts that the presence of SCN(-) and/or (SCN)(2) decreases the stability of HOSCN/OSCN(-), that radioisotopic labeling provided evidence that under physiological conditions decomposing OSCN(-) is not in equilibrium with (SCN)(2) and SCN(-), and that the hydrolysis of (SCN)(2) near neutral pH does not produce OSCN(-). Accordingly, we demonstrate that, during the human peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of SCN(-), (SCN)(2) cannot be the precursor of the OSCN(-) that is produced. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  12. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  13. Gender differences in defense mechanisms, ways of coping with stress and sense of identity in adolescent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foto-Özdemir, Dilşad; Akdemir, Devrim; Çuhadaroğlu-Çetin, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in defense mechanisms, ways of coping with stress and identity formation in relation to adolescent suicidal behavior. This study involved 64 adolescents between 12-17 years of age, who were admitted to the emergency service with a suicide attempt. They were evaluated with a semi-structured clinical interview (K-SADS), Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI), Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). 60.9% (n = 39) of the adolescents were female, and 39.1% (n=25) were male. There were no statistically significant differences between the girls and the boys with respect to the clinical characteristics of the suicide attempt and the rate of psychiatric disorders. Of the 64 adolescents with suicide attempt, 47 (73.4%) had at least one, and 26 (40.6%) had more than one psychiatric disorder according to K-SADS. Disruptive behavior disorders were more frequent in males, whereas depression was more frequent in girls. The data indicated the importance of identity confusion, major depression and ADHD in adolescents with suicide attempt in both genders. 43.6% (n=17) of the girls and 36% (n=9) of the boys obtained scores higher than the cut-off point of SIAF indicating identity confusion. Professional help seeking and NSSI behaviors before the suicide attempt were more common in adolescents with identity confusion. While there were differences between genders with respect to the defense mechanisms used, no significant difference was found in terms of ways of coping. Evaluation of DMI scores revealed that the turning against object subscale score was significantly higher in boys compared to girls. While evaluating the adolescents at risk, their defense mechanisms, way of coping and sense of identity, as well as their psychiatric diagnosis should be assessed in detail in order to identify the suicidal thoughts and prevent possible suicide attempts.

  14. TMT-based quantitative proteomics analyses reveal novel defense mechanisms of Brassica napus against the devastating necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia-Yi; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-06-30

    The white mould disease, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases in the vital oil crop Brassica napus. Nevertheless, the defense mechanisms of B. napus against S. sclerotiorum are poorly understood. In this study, we performed comparative quantitative proteomics analyses to reveal B. napus defense mechanisms against S. sclerotiorum. The proteomes of B. napus leaves inoculated with S. sclerotiorum wild-type strain 1980 and nonpathogenic mutant strain Ep-1PB as well as empty agar plug as the control were analyzed using TMT label-based quantitative analysis technique. A total of 79, 299 and 173 proteins consistently differentially expressed between Ep-1PB- and mock-inoculated leaves, 1980- and mock-inoculated leaves, as well as 1980- and Ep-1PB-inoculated leaves, respectively, were identified. The differential expression of 12 selected proteins was confirmed by qRT-PCR analyses. The Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction prediction analyses revealed that redox homeostasis, lipid signaling, calcium signaling, histone and DNA methylation-mediated transcription regulation and defense-related proteins such as defensin and defensin-like proteins and cyanate lyase, contribute to defense against S. sclerotiorum. Our results provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that may be involved in defense responses of B. napus to S. sclerotiorum. The Sclerotinia white mould disease is one of the most important diseases in the significant oil crop Brassica napus. Nevertheless, the defense mechanisms of B. napus against S. sclerotiorum are still largely unknown to date. In this study, we addressed this issue by performing TMT label-based comparative quantitative analyses of the proteomes of B. napus leaves inoculated with S. sclerotiorum wild-type strain 1980 and nonpathogenic mutant strain Ep-1PB as well as empty agar plug as the control. Through comparative analyses on 79, 299, and 173

  15. Psychological pain interventions and neurophysiology: implications for a mechanism-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an illustrative overview of neurophysiological changes related to acute and chronic pain involving structural and functional brain changes, which might be the targets of psychological interventions. A number of psychological pain treatments have been examined with respect to their effects on brain activity, ranging from cognitive- and operant behavioral interventions, meditation and hypnosis, to neuro- and biofeedback, discrimination training, imagery and mirror treatment, as well as virtual reality and placebo applications. These treatments affect both ascending and descending aspects of pain processing and act through brain mechanisms that involve sensorimotor areas as well as those involved in affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative aspects. The analysis of neurophysiological changes related to effective psychological pain treatment can help to identify subgroups of patients with chronic pain who might profit from different interventions, can aid in predicting treatment outcome, and can assist in identifying responders and nonresponders, thus enhancing the efficacy and efficiency of psychological interventions. Moreover, new treatment targets can be developed and tested. Finally, the use of neurophysiological measures can also aid in motivating patients to participate in psychological interventions and can increase their acceptance in clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A structural model of mechanisms predicting depressive symptoms in women following childhood psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Aubrey A; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2014-01-01

    Two underlying mechanisms, emotion dysregulation and negative internalized beliefs, were examined as potential mediators of the association between childhood psychological maltreatment (PM) and depression in emerging adult women. PM was assessed as a multi-faceted construct including aspects of psychological abuse (e.g., corrupting) and psychological neglect (e.g., emotional unresponsiveness) that occurred by parents. Female undergraduates (n=771) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing childhood PM, current depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation (lack of emotional clarity and regulation strategies), and negative internalized beliefs (mistrust, shame, and defectiveness). Psychological maltreatment was represented as four subtypes of psychological abuse or neglectful behavior: Emotional Non-Responsiveness, Spurning/Terrorizing, Corrupting, and Demanding/Rigid (i.e., controlling behavior). Both emotion dysregulation and negative internalized beliefs significantly mediated the link between childhood PM and depressive symptoms, accounting for approximately 68% of the variance in symptomatology. Findings suggest the importance of focusing intervention on development of emotion regulation capacity including emotional awareness and regulatory strategies, as well as a focus on core negative beliefs including shame, defectiveness, and mistrust of others. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  18. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  19. Unraveling molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense in response to dual insect attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the field, plants suffer from attack by herbivorous insects. Plants have numerous adaptations to defend against herbivory. Not only do these defense responses reduce performance of the feeding herbivore, they also result in the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. The majority of studies

  20. Differential validity of the Defense Mechanism Manual for the TAT between Asian Americans and Whites. Thematic Apperception Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, S; Tang, P C; Latko, R; Park, J H; Munn, S; Bolz, S; Somerville, A

    2000-12-01

    Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) responses of 69 Asian American (hereafter, Asian) and 83 White students were coded for defenses according to the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991b) and studied for differential validity in predicting paper-and-pencil measures of relevant constructs. Three tests for differential validity were used: (a) differences between validity coefficients, (b) interactions between predictor and ethnicity in criterion prediction, and (c) differences between groups in mean prediction errors using a common regression equation. Modest differential validity was found. It was surprising that the DMM scales were slightly stronger predictors of their criteria among Asians than among Whites and when a common predictor was used, desirable criteria were overpredicted for Asians, whereas undesirable ones were overpredicted for Whites. The results were not affected by acculturation level or English vocabulary among the Asians.

  1. Animal Assisted Interactions to Alleviate Psychological Symptoms in Patients on Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Bailey, Tanya; Prince-Paul, Maryjo

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a common life support intervention for critically ill patients that can cause stressful psychological symptoms. Animal assisted interactions have been used in variety of inpatient settings to reduce symptom burden and promote overall well-being. Due to the severity of illness associated with critical care, use of highly technological equipment, and heightened concern for infection control and patient safety, animal-assisted interaction has not been widely adopted in the intensive care unit. This case study of the therapeutic interaction between a canine and a mechanically ventilated patient provides support for the promotion of animal-assisted interactions as an innovative symptom management strategy in the intensive care unit.

  2. Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment.

  3. Overestimation of heterosexually attributed AIDS deaths is associated with immature psychological defence mechanisms and clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, S; Costa, R M

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that (1) greater use of immature psychological defence mechanisms (associated with psychopathology) is associated with lesser orgasmic consistency from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), but greater frequency of other sexual behaviours and greater condom use for PVI, and (2) unlike the vectors of receptive anal intercourse and punctures, HIV acquisition during PVI is extremely unlikely in reasonably healthy persons. However, the relationship between overestimation of AIDS deaths due to 'heterosexual transmission' (often misunderstood as only PVI), sexual behaviour and mental health has been lacking. Two hundred and twenty-one Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire, reported past month frequencies of their various sexual activities, and estimated the total number of women who died from AIDS in Scotland nominally as a result of heterosexual transmission in the UK from a partner not known to be an injecting drug user, bisexual or infected through transfusion. The average respondent overestimated by 226,000%. Women providing lower estimates were less likely to use immature psychological defences, and had a lower frequency of orgasms from clitoral masturbation during PVI and from vibrator use. The results indicate that those who perceive 'heterosexual transmission' led to many AIDS deaths have poorer psychological functioning, and might be less able to appreciate PVI.

  4. The role of urgency and its underlying psychological mechanisms in problematic behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-11-01

    The urgency facet of impulsivity, that is, the tendency to act rashly in response to intense emotional contexts [Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive and negative urgency. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 807-828], has been related to a wide range of maladaptive behaviours. The present study further investigates the role of urgency in problematic behaviours by considering distinct psychological mechanisms that may underlie this component of impulsivity. With this aim, 95 volunteer participants were screened with self-reported questionnaires assessing urgency and three problematic behaviours (compulsive buying, excessive mobile phone use, excessive Internet use). They performed two laboratory tasks: a stop-signal task designed to assess the capacity to inhibit prepotent responses in response to both neutral and emotional stimuli; and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measuring the ability to take into account the future consequences of an action. A poor ability to inhibit prepotent responses in the emotional condition of the stop-signal task was found to predict more disadvantageous choices in the IGT, which ultimately results in higher urgency and more problematic behaviours. These findings shed new light on the construct of urgency, its related psychological mechanisms, and its role in problematic behaviours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NSF grant helps researchers study ways to return plants' defense mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Sally L.

    2004-01-01

    Humans and animals have a "fight or flight" response to danger, but plants can't flee. They originally had a built-in defense system to protect them from bugs and injuries, but humans cultivated some plants to serve humans' needs; and now some plants can't flee or fight. So costly pesticides that are sometimes harmful to the environment now defend the plants from the same things they used to be able to fight on their own.

  6. Molecular mechanism of BjCHI1-mediated plant defense against Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-02

    Plant chitinases are a group of proteins associated with defense against pathogen attack. BjCHI1 is the first characterized chitinase containing two chitin binding domains (CBDs). Investigations have shown that BjCHI1 inhibits growth of fungal phytopathogens and agglutinates Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent studies revealed that expression of BjCHI1 mRNA is largely induced upon infection of Botrytis cinerea via a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BjMYB1 interacting with a W box-like element (Wbl-4) in the BjCHI1 promoter. The enhanced expression pattern of BjMYB1 was similar to that of BjCHI1 and associated with resistant phenotype against B. cinerea. These findings suggest that BjCHI1 is involved in host defense against fungal attack through interaction with BjMYB1. Here, we review the recent studies on BjCHI1 and propose a model of BjCHI1-mediated plant defense against fungal attack.

  7. Anatomy and function of the ptychoid defensive mechanism in the mite Euphthiracarus cooki (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Francis H; Norton, Roy A

    2004-02-01

    Ptychoidy is a defensive adaptation of several groups of oribatid mites in which legs and coxisternum can be fully retracted into the opisthosoma and protected by a ventrally deflected prodorsum, resulting in a seed-like appearance. Using Euphthiracarus cooki as a model, we examined details of exoskeletal and muscular anatomy in combination with studies of live individuals to provide the first functional analysis of ptychoidy. There are two main functional components: the first is a set of exoskeletal and muscular adaptations, mostly of the podosoma and prodorsum, that combine to effect leg withdrawal and prodorsal deflection; the second comprises adaptations of the opisthosoma that allow control of hydrostatic pressure during the large hemocoel volume adjustments associated with ptychoidy. Adaptations important in the closing process (enptychosis) are found in four body regions. Much of the podosomal exoskeleton (especially pleural) is unsclerotized, which facilitates leg retraction and prodorsal deflection during enptychosis. The coxisternum has several flexible furrows along which it folds in order to bring legs into a tightly parallel arrangement. The prodorsum has specialized attachment surfaces (manubrium and inferior retractor process) for retractor muscles and a paired bothridial scale that participates in prodorsal alignment during enptychosis. The subcapitulum has a prominent capitular apodeme on which important retractor muscles insert. The mineralized notogaster has an anterior "collar" that accommodates the retracted prodorsum; it includes paired notches and receptacles that accommodate the bothridial scales, thereby creating a temporary fixed axis for rotation of the prodorsum in a "lazy hinge" mechanism. Specialized muscles form the retractor system; most conspicuous are the large coxisternal retractors and prodorsal retractors, both of which originate on the notogaster. Other components have adjustor roles; among them are muscles of the endosternal

  8. Caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Ileana; Droguett, Daniel; Castillo, Christian; Liempi, Ana; Muñoz, Lorena; Maya, Juan Diego; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Congenital Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that must cross the placental barrier during transmission. The trophoblast constitutes the first tissue in contact with the maternal-blood circulating parasite. Importantly, the congenital transmission rates are low, suggesting the presence of local placental defense mechanisms. Cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death are induced by the parasite and constitute part of the epithelial turnover of the trophoblast, which has been suggested to be part of those placental defenses. On the other hand, caspase-8 is an essential molecule in the modulation of trophoblast turnover by apoptosis and by epithelial differentiation. As an approach to study whether T. cruzi induced trophoblast turnover and infection is mediated by caspase-8, we infected BeWo cells (a trophoblastic cell line) with the parasite and determined in the infected cells the expression and enzymatic activity of caspase-8, DNA synthesis (as proliferation marker), β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) (as differentiation marker) and activity of Caspase-3 (as apoptotic death marker). Parasite load in BeWo cells was measured by DNA quantification using qPCR and cell counting. Our results show that T. cruzi induces caspase-8 activity and that its inhibition increases trophoblast cells infection while decreases parasite induced cellular differentiation and apoptotic cell death, but not cellular proliferation. Thus, caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against T. cruzi infection. Together with our previous results, we suggest that the trophoblast turnover is part of local placental anti-parasite mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring psychological mechanisms of collective action: Does relevance of group identity influence how people cope with collective disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, M.; Spears, R.; Leach, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies examined how the relevance of group identity influences two psychological mechanisms of collective action: Emotion- and problem-focused coping with collective disadvantage. Extending Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, and Leach's (2004) integrative theoretical model of coping with collective

  10. Psychological Mechanisms of Regulation of the Students’ Social Behavior in a Multicultural Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Gavlitskaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some approaches of empathy and reflection actualization as mechanism of social person behavior regulation based on the analysis of multi-ethnic membership of the Ukrainian Danube region and on the results of the aim at experimental investigation tolerance. From the viewpoint of understanding a personality as mechanism of interactive and communicative subject the phenomenon of “social identity of the person” is analyzed in the article where multicultural society is the context. The article proves the importance of such psychological mechanisms as empathy and reflection in connection with understanding of way how modern student personality is identified in multicultural society just the Ukrainian Danube region. The tendency to cooperation as important social psychological kind of the student personality is analyzed through the lenses of processes in which international evaluation is developed. These are the processes as interiorisation, social comparison, self-attribution and sense interpretation of life experience. It is concluded that cooperation and communication are the most important ways of the students’ coauthorship, cooperation and community development under multicultural society.

  11. Internet Addiction and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Avoidant Coping and Coping Inflexibility as Psychological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Sun, Peizhen; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2015-09-01

    This 6 month prospective study systematically tested some multivariate models that advanced the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. On the basis of previous theories, avoidant coping and coping inflexibility were proposed as underlying mechanisms. Participants were 271 Chinese undergraduates (75% women, Mage=20.49) who took part in both phases of this study. Structural equation modeling was performed to obtain the best fit models for both the cross-sectional and the prospective data. The cross-sectional model testing revealed statistically significant mediating effects for both avoidant coping (β=0.149 [95% CI 0.071-0.226], p=0.002) and coping flexibility (β=0.048 [95% CI 0.013-0.081], p=0.032). The prospective model testing further showed that avoidant coping mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=0.141 [95% CI 0.065-0.216], p=0.005), as well as that between coping flexibility and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=-0.096 [95% CI -0.161 to -0.031], p=0.015). This study was the first to establish theory-driven models, which unveiled an inflexible, avoidant coping style as psychological mechanisms that explained the link between Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment.

  12. A novel mechanism for NETosis provides antimicrobial defense at the oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Sjögren, Jonathan; Kahn, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense at the oral mucosa and neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects lead to disordered oral homeostasis. We found that neutrophils from the oral mucosa harvested from morning saliva had released neutrophil extracellular traps (undergone NETosis) in vivo...... of bacteria by neutrophils. Saliva from patients with aphthous ulcers and Behçet disease prone to oral ulcers failed to induce NETosis, but for different reasons it demonstrated that disordered homeostasis in the oral cavity may result in deficient saliva-mediated NETosis....

  13. Mechanisms for Creating a Psychologically Safe Learning Environment in an Educational Institution of General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova O.I.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the question of how to create and maintain the psychological safety of the educational environment of the school is not sufficiently studied. Meanwhile, there has been proved its positive effect on the psychological health of students, their emotional and personal well-being, the formation of a meta-subjective and personal educational outcomes. This paper describes a study the purpose of which was to examine and verify empiricaly the features of management activities in the educational organization to create a psychologically safe learning environment. We studied personality traits of the Head of an educational organization by the procedure "Troubleshooting leadership abilities" (E. Zharikova, E. Krushelnytsky, techniques "Diagnosis of the level of burnout" (V.V. Boyko, methods of self-management style assessment (A.V. Agrashenkova, modified by E.P. Ilyin, and methods for rapid assessment of health, activity, mood (SAN. We proposed mechanisms to solve the problem of creating a comfortable and safe learning environment in the educational organization of general education

  14. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-09-11

    This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services.

  15. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijin Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC, and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. Methods: An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Results: 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Conclusion: Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services.

  16. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. Methods: An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results: 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Conclusion: Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services. PMID:26378566

  17. Increased proliferation and decreased membrane permeability as defense mechanisms of Fusobacterium nucleatum against human neutrophilic peptide-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mutlu; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Isik, Gülden; Firatli, Erhan; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2014-12-01

    Human neutrophilic peptides (HNPs) constitute a class of host defense molecules, which contribute to the non-oxidative killing of bacteria and other microorganisms. Since the adaptability is crucial to bacterial survival in changing environments, it is of interest to know how Fusobacterium nucleatum, the major bridge organism connecting early and late colonizers in dental biofilms, defends itself against HNPs. This study aimed to examine the planktonic growth, membrane permeability, and biofilm formation characteristics as defense mechanisms of F. nucleatum against HNP-1. In all experiments, the type strain of F. nucleatum (ssp. nucleatum ATCC 25586) and two clinical strains (ssp. nucleatum AHN 9508 and ssp. polymorphum AHN 9910) were used. Planktonic growth (measured in colony forming units), capsular polysaccharide production (visualized by Ziehl-Neelsen stain), membrane permeability (demonstrated as N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake), biofilm formation, and established biofilm development (measured as total mass and polysaccharide levels) were analyzed in the presence of 0 μg/ml (control), 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, and 10 μg/ml of HNP-1. Planktonic growth of the strains AHN 9508 and ATCC 25586 were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the presence of HNP-1, while their membrane permeability decreased (p<0.005) in the planktonic form. HNP-1 decreased the biofilm formation of the strains ATCC 25586 and AHN 9910, whereas it increased the growth of the strain AHN 9508 in established biofilms. Capsule formation and polysaccharide production were not observed in any strain. We conclude that the inhibition of the membrane permeability and the increase in planktonic and established biofilm growth could act as bacterial defense mechanisms against neutrophilic defensins. In addition, this strain-dependent survival ability against HNP-1 may explain the variation in the virulence of different F. nucleatum strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics be applied to psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2008-03-01

    We show that (in contrast to rather common opinion) the domain of applications of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics is not restricted to physics. This formalism can be applied to the description of various quantum-like (QL) information processing. In particular, the calculus of quantum (and more general QL) probabilities can be used to explain some paradoxical statistical data which was obtained in psychology and cognitive science. We consider the QL description of prisoners dilemma (PD) and so called disjunction effect (violation of Savage's sure thing principle which plays the fundamental role in modern economics).

  19. Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

    2010-02-24

    The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways.

  20. The Transcriptome and Terpene Profile of Eucalyptus grandis Reveals Mechanisms of Defense Against the Insect Pest, Leptocybe invasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Caryn N; Külheim, Carsten; Myburg, Alexander A; Slippers, Bernard; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved complex defenses that allow them to protect themselves against pests and pathogens. However, there is relatively little information regarding the Eucalyptus defensome. Leptocybe invasa is one of the most damaging pests in global Eucalyptus forestry, and essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing the interaction between the pest and host. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the transcriptional landscape and terpene profile of a resistant and susceptible Eucalyptus genotype in an effort to improve our understanding of this interaction. We used RNA-seqencing to investigate transcriptional changes following L. invasa oviposition. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. Terpene profiles were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectometry on uninfested and oviposited leaves. We found 698 and 1,115 significantly differentially expressed genes from the resistant and susceptible interactions, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Mapman analyses identified putative defense mechanisms including cell wall reinforcement, protease inhibitors, cell cycle suppression and regulatory hormone signaling pathways. There were significant differences in the mono- and sesquiterpene profiles between genotypes and between control and infested material. A model of the interaction between Eucalyptus and L. invasa was proposed from the transcriptomic and chemical data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter E; Novembre, Giacomo; Hove, Michael J

    2014-12-19

    Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social-psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms Linked to Exercise During Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Fisher-Wellman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases, in addition to the aging process. Although various stimuli exist, acute exercise is known to induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, evident by several reports of increased oxidative damage following acute bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although the results are somewhat mixed and appear disease dependent, individuals with chronic disease experience an exacerbation in oxidative stress following acute exercise when compared to healthy individuals. However, this increased oxidant stress may serve as a necessary “signal” for the upregulation in antioxidant defenses, thereby providing protection against subsequent exposure to prooxidant environments within susceptible individuals. Here we present studies related to both acute exercise-induced oxidative stress in those with disease, in addition to studies focused on adaptations resulting from increased RONS exposure associated with chronic exercise training in persons with disease.

  3. Model Wheat Genotypes as Tools to Uncover Effective Defense Mechanisms Against the Hemibiotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha, Aloysius Ebelechukwu; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Schäfer, Patrick; Singh, Devendra Pal; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the interaction of several differentially resistant wheatwith the hemibiotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus). Wheat genotypes Yangmai, M 3 (W7976), Shanghai 4, and Chirya 7 showed higher levels of resistancewith cv. Sonalika, used as a susceptible control. In amicroscopic inspection, we found that fungal penetration intoepidermal layer failed mostly through a cell wall-associated defense. In cases where the fungus successfully overcame epidermal, its spread within the mesophyll tissue (necrotrophic phase) wasin the more resistant genotypes. Epidermal cell wall-associated, spreading as well as the extent of electrolyte leakage of infected, correlated well with field resistance. We propose that cellular hostsuch as formation of cell wall appositions as well as the degreeearly mesophyll spreading of fungal hyphae are indicative of thepotential of the respective host genotype and, therefore, could befor the characterization of new spot blotch resistance traits in cereals.

  4. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  5. CRISPR-mediated defense mechanisms in the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Andrea; Schleper, Christa

    2013-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-mediated virus defense based on small RNAs is a hallmark of archaea and also found in many bacteria. Archaeal genomes and, in particular, organisms of the extremely thermoacidophilic genus Sulfolobus, carry extensive CRISPR loci each with dozens of sequence signatures (spacers) able to mediate targeting and degradation of complementary invading nucleic acids. The diversity of CRISPR systems and their associated protein complexes indicates an extensive functional breadth and versatility of this adaptive immune system. Sulfolobus solfataricus and S. islandicus represent two of the best characterized genetic model organisms in the archaea not only with respect to the CRISPR system. Here we address and discuss in a broader context particularly recent progress made in understanding spacer recruitment from foreign DNA, production of small RNAs, in vitro activity of CRISPR-associated protein complexes and attack of viruses and plasmids in in vivo test systems. PMID:23535277

  6. Defense mechanisms against herbivory in Picea: sequence evolution and expression regulation of gene family members in the phenylpropanoid pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porth Ilga

    2011-12-01

    phenylpropanoid pathway in the evolution of plant defense mechanisms against insect pests and provide substantial potential for the functional characterization of several not yet resolved alternative pathways in plant defenses.

  7. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications.

  8. The brain–the organ of the psychic (The lesions / the defense mechanisms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, AV

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on the Leopold Szondi theory (March 11, 1893 – January 24, 1986), who was a Hungarian psychiatrist. He is known for the psychological tool that bears his name, the Szondi test. He developed a form of depth psychology that had some prominence in Europe in the mid–20th century, but has been ignored for the most part), the study seeks to correlate the szondian test results with the imagistic ones on a wide–range pathology. In the Neurosurgery Department, patients are investigated using modern exploration methods (MRI, CTscan, and computed EEG, etc.) in order to identify possible somatic lesions. The study's subjects selected during 2000–2004 from the patients admitted and investigated for neurosurgical conditions; they were divided into two subgroups, based on whether the organic lesions were or were not present (the independent variable). The exclusion criterion was a lesion due to external causes. Statistically meaningful there are seven types of Ego profiles, in relation with the lesion: the archaic ego [0 –], the inhibited ego [– +], the adaptive ego [– –], the narcissist ego [+ +], the identified ego [+/– 0], the fugitive ego [+/– –] and the possessed ego [0 +]. The nexus in the destiny's analysis description highlights the dialectic between the Ego's functions and the drived dangers when facing the demands of the concrete reality. PMID:20945811

  9. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alba

    Full Text Available Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores.

  10. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores.

  11. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Attar, S.; Westra, E.R.; Oost, van der J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Many prokaryotes contain the recently discovered defense system against mobile genetic elements. This defense system contains a unique type of repetitive DNA stretches, termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs). CRISPRs consist of identical repeated DNA sequences

  12. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  13. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, −0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling. PMID:28849669

  14. Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults' Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.

  15. [The psychological dynamics of Kurt Lewin. The problem of the relation between mechanics and phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    By reviewing especially Lewin's researches from his German period - which are important insofar as they exhibit the epistemological grounds of his whole work, as well as his fundamental insights into the "structure of mind" - the Author points out a series of difficulties inherent in Lewin's original approach. Such difficulties also explain why Lewin's grandiose program to develop a scientific psychology, more mathematico-galilaeiano, was after his time abandoned. Indeed, if on the one hand a rereading of Lewin's epistemology reveals the unexpected debt he pays to the mechanical model of thought, yet, on the other hand, a careful analysis of his notion of "field," otherwise fruitful, shows that he can neither consistently exploit his phenomenological view of the field as a "space of life," nor adequately deal with the human subject by the mere experimental method. As a matter of fact, the brave effort to join the two patterns together - the phenomenological and the experimental-objectivistic-mathematical one - produces a basic ambiguity, owing not so much to Lewin's limitations as to the epochal clash between two patterns that are actual gnoseological and methodological archetypes. Nevertheless, some weakness in Lewin's "dynamic" approach does not seem by itself to prejudge his later social psychology; rather, also in the light of recent historiography, the question of the link between these different moments of his work should be reconsidered.

  16. The evolution of defense mechanisms correlate with the explosive diversification of autodigesting Coprinellus mushrooms (Agaricales, Fungi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, László G; Házi, Judit; Szappanos, Balázs; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bálint, Balázs; Rákhely, Gábor; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2012-07-01

    Bursts of diversification are known to have contributed significantly to the extant morphological and species diversity, but evidence for many of the theoretical predictions about adaptive radiations have remained contentious. Despite their tremendous diversity, patterns of evolutionary diversification and the contribution of explosive episodes in fungi are largely unknown. Here, using the genus Coprinellus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales) as a model, we report the first explosive fungal radiation and infer that the onset of the radiation correlates with a change from a multilayered to a much simpler defense structure on the fruiting bodies. We hypothesize that this change constitutes a key innovation, probably relaxing constraints on diversification imposed by nutritional investment into the development of protective tissues of fruiting bodies. Fossil calibration suggests that Coprinellus mushrooms radiated during the Miocene coinciding with global radiation of large grazing mammals following expansion of dry open grasslands. In addition to diversification rate-based methods, we test the hard polytomy hypothesis, by analyzing the resolvability of internal nodes of the backbone of the putative radiation using Reversible-Jump MCMC. We discuss potential applications and pitfalls of this approach as well as how biologically meaningful polytomies can be distinguished from alignment shortcomings. Our data provide insights into the nature of adaptive radiations in general by revealing a deceleration of morphological diversification through time. The dynamics of morphological diversification was approximated by obtaining the temporal distribution of state changes in discrete traits along the trees and comparing it with the tempo of lineage accumulation. We found that the number of state changes correlate with the number of lineages, even in parts of the tree with short internal branches, and peaks around the onset of the explosive radiation followed by a slowdown, most

  17. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attachment, penetration and early host defense mechanisms during the infection of filamentous brown algae by Eurychasma dicksonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigoti, Amerssa; Beakes, Gordon W; Hervé, Cécile; Gachon, Claire M M; Katsaros, Christos

    2015-05-01

    Eurychasma dicksonii is one of the most common and widespread marine pathogens and attacks a broad spectrum of more than 45 brown algal species. The present study focuses on the mechanism used by the pathogen to attach on the host cell wall and force its way into algal cells. Ultrastructural examination revealed a needle-like structure which develops within the attached spore and extends along its main axis. Particular cell wall modifications are present at the basal part of the spore (adhesorium pad) and guide the needle-like tool to penetrate perpendicularly the host cell wall. The unique injection mechanism is shared with Haptoglossa species which suggests that this is an important characteristic of early diverging oomycetes. Furthermore, the encystment and adhesion mechanism of E. dicksonii shows significant similarities with other oomycetes, some of which are plant pathogens. Staining and immunolabelling techniques showed the deposition of β-1,3-glucans on the host cell wall at the pathogen penetration site, a strategy similar to physical responses previously described only in infected plant cells. It is assumed that the host defense in terms of callose-like deposition is an ancient response to infection.

  19. Burnout, psychological morbidity and use of coping mechanisms among palliative care practitioners: A multi-centre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mervyn Yong Hwang; Chong, Poh Heng; Neo, Patricia Soek Hui; Ong, Yew Jin; Yong, Woon Chai; Ong, Wah Ying; Shen, Mira Li Juan; Hum, Allyn Yin Mei

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of burnout, psychological morbidity and the use of coping mechanisms among palliative care practitioners in Singapore have not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among palliative care practitioners in Singapore and its associations with demographic and workplace factors as well as the use of coping mechanisms. This was a multi-centre, cross-sectional study of all the palliative care providers within the public healthcare sector in Singapore. The study was conducted in hospital palliative care services, home hospice and inpatient hospices in Singapore. The participants were doctors, nurses and social workers. The prevalence of burnout among respondents in our study was 91 of 273 (33.3%) and psychological morbidity was 77 (28.2%). Working >60 h per week was significantly associated with burnout (odds ratio: 9.02, 95% confidence interval: 2.3-35.8, p = 0.002) and psychological morbidity (odds ratio: 7.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-28.8, p = 0.005). Home hospice care practitioners (41.5%) were more at risk of developing psychological morbidity compared to hospital-based palliative care (17.5%) or hospice inpatient care (26.0%) (p = 0.007). Coping mechanisms like physical well-being, clinical variety, setting boundaries, transcendental (meditation and quiet reflection), passion for one's work, realistic expectations, remembering patients and organisational activities were associated with less burnout. Our results reveal that burnout and psychological morbidity are significant in the palliative care community and demonstrate a need to look at managing long working hours and promoting the use of coping mechanisms to reduce burnout and psychological morbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense mechanisms in the oral cavity: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Symone M; Opperman, Lynne A; Allen, Edward P; Svoboda, Kathy K H

    2011-01-01

    Through dental procedures and environment, periodontal tissues are exposed to many types of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. This article focuses on the classification of antioxidants and the link between oxidative stress and periodontal disease. The protective mechanisms of antioxidants and how routine dental procedures may increase ROS is discussed. The final section reviews the effect of tobacco products on gingival health and disease.

  1. Psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures and disability retirement: a prospective registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberland, Jan S; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein

    2017-01-10

    Relations between several occupational psychological and social factors and disability retirement remain largely unexplored. Knowledge of which specific aspects of the work environment that affect risk of disability is a prerequisite for the success of organizational interventions aiming to prevent premature work force exit. The objective of the present study was to determine contributions to registered disability retirement by a broad range of psychological and social work exposures while taking into account effects of mechanical exposure. Written consent was obtained from 13 012 employees (96 organizations) representing a wide range of occupations, to link their survey responses to data from the Norwegian national registry of disability compensation. Median follow-up time was 5.8 years. To determine effects of self-reported work exposures on risk of disability retirement hazard ratios (HR) and 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated with Cox regression analysis. Effects of sex, age group, skill level, sickness absence in the last three years, and work exposures estimated to be confounders were accounted for. Post hoc stratification by sex was conducted to explore if identified predictors affected risk of disability retirement differently in men compared to women. Contributors to higher risk of disability retirement were "role conflict" (high level HR 1.55 99% CI 1.07 to 2.24) and "physical workload" (high level HR 1.93 99% CI 1.39 to 2.68). Contributors to lower risk of disability retirement were "positive challenge" (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.34 to 0.93), "fair leadership" (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.39 to 0.81), and "control over work intensity" (high level HR 0.62, 99% CI 0.47 to 0.82). Direction of effects was not dependent on sex in any of the five identified predictors. Several specific psychological and social work factors are independent contributors to risk of disability retirement. In order to prevent premature work force exit workplace

  2. Psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures and disability retirement: a prospective registry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S. Emberland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relations between several occupational psychological and social factors and disability retirement remain largely unexplored. Knowledge of which specific aspects of the work environment that affect risk of disability is a prerequisite for the success of organizational interventions aiming to prevent premature work force exit. The objective of the present study was to determine contributions to registered disability retirement by a broad range of psychological and social work exposures while taking into account effects of mechanical exposure. Methods Written consent was obtained from 13 012 employees (96 organizations representing a wide range of occupations, to link their survey responses to data from the Norwegian national registry of disability compensation. Median follow-up time was 5.8 years. To determine effects of self-reported work exposures on risk of disability retirement hazard ratios (HR and 99% confidence intervals (99% CI were calculated with Cox regression analysis. Effects of sex, age group, skill level, sickness absence in the last three years, and work exposures estimated to be confounders were accounted for. Post hoc stratification by sex was conducted to explore if identified predictors affected risk of disability retirement differently in men compared to women. Results Contributors to higher risk of disability retirement were “role conflict” (high level HR 1.55 99% CI 1.07 to 2.24 and “physical workload” (high level HR 1.93 99% CI 1.39 to 2.68. Contributors to lower risk of disability retirement were “positive challenge” (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.34 to 0.93, “fair leadership” (high level HR 0.56 99% CI 0.39 to 0.81, and “control over work intensity” (high level HR 0.62, 99% CI 0.47 to 0.82. Direction of effects was not dependent on sex in any of the five identified predictors. Conclusions Several specific psychological and social work factors are independent contributors to risk of

  3. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  4. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven H

    2017-09-01

    Personal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery. Cross-sectional online survey. People with a verified research diagnosis of BD (n = 87), recruited via relevant voluntary sector organizations and social media, completed online measures. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analysed associations between appraisals, beliefs, and recovery. Normalizing appraisals of mood changes were positively associated with personal recovery. Depression, negative self-appraisals of depression-relevant experiences, extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states, and negative beliefs about mood swings had negative relationships with recovery. After controlling for current mood symptoms, negative illness models (relating to how controllable, long-term, concerning, and treatable mood swings are; β = -.38), being employed (β = .39), and both current (β = -.53) and recent experience of depression (β = .30) predicted recovery. Due to the cross-sectional design, causality cannot be determined. Participants were a convenience sample primarily recruited online. Power was limited by the sample size. Interventions aiming to empower people to feel able to manage mood and catastrophize less about mood swings could facilitate personal recovery in people with BD, which might be achieved in recovery-focused therapy. Personal recovery is an important outcome for people living with bipolar disorder More positive

  5. Possible psychological mechanisms for "wind turbine syndrome". On the windmills of your mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Burns, Miriam; Wessely, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, people have suffered from physical symptoms that they have attributed to modern technologies. Often these attributions are strongly held, but not supported by scientific evidence. Symptoms attributed to the operation of wind turbines (called "wind turbine syndrome" by some) may fit into this category. Several psychological mechanisms might account for symptoms attributed to wind turbines. First, the "nocebo effect" is a well-recognized phenomenon in which the expectation of symptoms can become self-fulfilling. Second, misattribution of pre-existing or new symptoms to a novel technology can also occur. Third worry about a modern technology increases the chances of someone attributing symptoms to it. Fourth, social factors, including media reporting and interaction with lobby groups can increase symptom reporting. For wind turbines, there is already some evidence that a nocebo effect can explain the attributed symptoms while misattribution seems likely. Although worry has not been directly studied, research has shown that people who are annoyed by the sound that turbines produce are more likely to report symptoms and that annoyance is associated with attitudes toward the visual impact of wind farms and whether a person benefits economically from a wind farm. Given that these mechanisms may be sufficient to account for the experiences reported by sufferers, policy-makers, clinicians and patients should insist on good-quality evidence before accepting a more direct causal link.

  6. Transient hypofrontality as a mechanism for the psychological effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2006-11-29

    Although exercise is known to promote mental health, a satisfactory understanding of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been achieved. A new mechanism is proposed that is based on established concepts in cognitive psychology and the neurosciences as well as recent empirical work on the functional neuroanatomy of higher mental processes. Building on the fundamental principle that processing in the brain is competitive and the fact that the brain has finite metabolic resources, the transient hypofrontality hypothesis suggests that during exercise the extensive neural activation required to run motor patterns, assimilate sensory inputs, and coordinate autonomic regulation results in a concomitant transient decrease of neural activity in brain structures, such as the prefrontal cortex, that are not pertinent to performing the exercise. An exercise-induced state of frontal hypofunction can provide a coherent account of the influences of exercise on emotion and cognition. The new hypothesis is proposed primarily on the strength of its heuristic value, as it suggests several new avenues of research.

  7. Possible psychological mechanisms for "wind turbine syndrome". On the windmills of your mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G James Rubin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, people have suffered from physical symptoms that they have attributed to modern technologies. Often these attributions are strongly held, but not supported by scientific evidence. Symptoms attributed to the operation of wind turbines (called "wind turbine syndrome" by some may fit into this category. Several psychological mechanisms might account for symptoms attributed to wind turbines. First, the "nocebo effect" is a well-recognized phenomenon in which the expectation of symptoms can become self-fulfilling. Second, misattribution of pre-existing or new symptoms to a novel technology can also occur. Third worry about a modern technology increases the chances of someone attributing symptoms to it. Fourth, social factors, including media reporting and interaction with lobby groups can increase symptom reporting. For wind turbines, there is already some evidence that a nocebo effect can explain the attributed symptoms while misattribution seems likely. Although worry has not been directly studied, research has shown that people who are annoyed by the sound that turbines produce are more likely to report symptoms and that annoyance is associated with attitudes toward the visual impact of wind farms and whether a person benefits economically from a wind farm. Given that these mechanisms may be sufficient to account for the experiences reported by sufferers, policy-makers, clinicians and patients should insist on good-quality evidence before accepting a more direct causal link.

  8. Application of an Improved Proteomics Method for Abundant Protein Cleanup: Molecular and Genomic Mechanisms Study in Plant Defense*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2013-01-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery. PMID:23943779

  9. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: involvement of gut chemosensing in the regulation of mucosal barrier function and defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, I; Akiba, Y; Kaunitz, J D

    2013-05-01

    Meal ingestion is followed by release of numerous hormones from enteroendocrine cells interspersed among the epithelial cells lining the intestine. Recently, the de-orphanization of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type nutrient receptors, expressed on the apical membranes of enteroendocrine cells, has suggested a plausible mechanism whereby luminal nutrients trigger the release of gut hormones. Activation of nutrient receptors triggers intracellular signaling mechanisms that promote exocytosis of hormone-containing granules into the submucosal space. Hormones released by foregut enteroendocrine cells include the glucagon-like peptides (GLP) affecting glycemic control (GLP-1) and releasing pro-proliferative, hypertrophy-inducing growth factors (GLP-2). The foregut mucosa, being exposed to pulses of concentrated HCl, is protected by a system of defense mechanisms, which includes epithelial bicarbonate and mucus secretion and augmentation of mucosal blood flow. We have reported that luminal co-perfusion of AA with nucleotides in anesthetized rats releases GLP-2 into the portal vein, associated with increased bicarbonate and mucus secretion and mucosal blood flow. The GLP-2 increases bicarbonate secretion via release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from myenteric nerves. Luminal bile acids also release gut hormones due to activation of the bile-acid receptor known as G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPR) 131, G Protein Bile Acid Receptor (GPBAR) 1, or Takeda G Protein-Coupled Receptor (TGR) 5, also expressed on enteroendocrine cells. The GLP are metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme of particular interest to pharmaceutical, because its inhibition increases plasma concentrations of GLP-1 to treat diabetes. We have also reported that DPPIV inhibition enhances the secretory effects of nutrient-evoked GLP-2. Understanding the release mechanism and the metabolic pathways of gut hormones is of potential utility to the formulation of feedstuff

  10. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal pathogen. Keywords: Pear callus, fungi infection, defense enzyme, isozyme, biochemical defense mechanism ...

  11. Innate immune memory: towards a better understanding of host defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jessica; Cheng, Shih-Chin; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-08-01

    Innate immunity is classically defined as unable to build up immunological memory. Recently however, the assumption of the lack of immunological memory within innate immune responses has been reconsidered. Plants and invertebrates lacking adaptive immune system can be protected against secondary infections. It has been shown that mammals can build cross-protection to secondary infections independently of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that innate immune cells such as NK cells and monocytes can display adaptive characteristics, a novel concept for which the term trained immunity has been proposed. Several mechanisms are involved in mediating innate immune memory, among which epigenetic histone modifications and modulation of recognition receptors on the surface of innate immune cells are likely to play a central role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging due to the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate lifespan. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age-pigment lipofuscin measured in muscle, nerve and esophagus, increased with age however it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species, however further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage. PMID:23707327

  13. Psychological outcome of patients following treatment of oral cancer and its relation with functional status and coping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Kamal Abdel-Aal Mohamed; Musgrove, Brian T; Bradbury, Eileen

    2005-12-01

    Traditionally health-care providers have measured outcome of treatment of disease by focusing on tumour response and disease-free survival. However, it has become increasingly apparent that the behavioural and functional impact of treatment on the patient is important. This study investigates the psychological outcome and its relationship with functional status and coping mechanisms following treatment of oral cancer patients. Sixty-eight patients were evaluated 6 months to 6 years after treatment (from October 1992 to October 1997) for oral cancer. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used for psychological evaluation, the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL) and The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) for evaluating the head and neck specific and general functional status, respectively. Finally, the "Mental Adjustment to Cancer Questionnaire" (MAC-Q) was used for evaluation of coping mechanisms. The incidence of anxiety and/or depression was 25% and the socio-demographic and medical characteristics showed poor correlation with the psychological outcome in this study. The results indicated that there was a strong association between psychological outcome and head and neck specific and general quality-of-life (QOL) domains, and style of coping. The p-value was less than 0.01 for most of the domains and items of functional status and the effective coping style. Deteriorated functional status and ineffective coping strategies are strongly associated with poor psychological outcome in patients with oral cancer.

  14. Immune-related transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers: the defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Li, Yi-Feng; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chuan-Cheng; Wen, Shuo-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana), Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences), signal modulators (52 sequences), signal transducers (137 sequences), effectors (39 sequences) and others (164 sequences). From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites.

  15. Immune-related transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers: the defense mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences, signal modulators (52 sequences, signal transducers (137 sequences, effectors (39 sequences and others (164 sequences. From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR. Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites.

  16. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructures and crops every year affecting the economy of the country negatively. Some naturally adapted plants as well as landscapes usually reduce the speed of cyclones and tornadoes and thus, protect the coastal zones. However, human activities have destroyed many of the forests and landscapes. Sundarbans and Chokoria Sundarbans mangrove forests of Bangladesh are under a great threat of extinction due to illicit logging and agricultural expansion. At least 34 plant species of tropical forest are on the verge of extinction. Many animals e.g., cats, bears, porcupines, wild boars, pythons and anteaters are in the process of being wiped out from the coastal areas. Among the marine and coastal species, Red crabs, jelly-fish, sharks, and dolphins are also rare but these were the major species prior to 1980s. This study revealed that during the recent decades there has been massive plantations and construction of embankment and polderization but these and other measures have been found to be impractical and ineffective in reducing disasters in coastal areas. There is a need for integration of traditional coping practices and wisdoms with modern approaches. Available knowledge on some of these traditional practices has been documented for establishing a sustainable policy for management of coastal zones of Bangladesh. By combining traditional and scientific management of coastal ecosystem with mangroves and other plants following triple-tier mechanism and habitat, it is

  17. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Lobato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi

  18. Physiological and pharmacological inductors of HSP70 enhance the antioxidative defense mechanisms of the liver and pancreas in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovska, Maja; Dervisevik, Mirsada; Cipanovska, Natasa; Gerazova, Katerina; Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Suzana; Miova, Biljana

    2018-02-01

    Heat preconditioning (HP) is a powerful adaptive and protective phenomenon and the heat stress proteins (HSPs) it produces are an important determinant for the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin has been reported to modulate heat shock response in different organisms through increased induction of HSPs and is also known to exert antioxidative and radical scavenging effects in diabetes. We estimated the effect of physiological (heat stress: 45 min at 41 ± 0.5 °C) and pharmacological (aspirin treatment) induction of HSP70 on several parameters of oxidative state in the pancreas and liver of diabetic rats. Diabetes increased HSP70 level and decreased poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the pancreas. In the liver, there was reduction of HSP70 level, GSH concentration, and CAT activity, while GPx and GR activity were enhanced. HP of diabetic rats caused an additional increase of HSP70, GSH, and antioxidant enzymes in both organs. Pre-treatment of HP-diabetic animals with aspirin led to an additional increase of PARP and HSP70. Both HP and aspirin, as physiological and pharmacological inductors of HSP70, respectively, enhanced the antioxidative defense mechanisms of the liver and pancreas in diabetic rats.

  19. Bacteria and smoke-water extract improve growth and induce the synthesis of volatile defense mechanisms in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, María Victoria; Piccoli, Patricia; Funes Pinter, Iván; Stirk, Wendy Ann; Kulkarni, Manoj; van Staden, Johannes; Bottini, Rubén

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable agricultural practices have been developed as alternative to the use of agrochemicals, and viticulture is not exempt of that. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and smoke water extracts (SW) are environmentally-friendly alternative to those agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the single or combined effects of SW and the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and Bacillus licheniformis (Bl) on the physiology and biochemistry of grapevines plants. After 38 days, single applications of SW solutions and bacterial suspensions increase rooting and root length. Combined treatments had a slight positive effect compared to the water control. At the end of 60-days pot trial, grapevine treated with 1:1000 SW and Pf applied alone showed increases in stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of the roots, shoot and leaves, although not significantly differences from the water control were found. In addition, Pf augmented chlorophyll relative content, all treatments decreased the stomatal conductance (mainly 1:500 SW, Pf and 1:1000 SW + Bl), as well as lipid peroxidation in roots (mainly in bacterial treatments), and induced the synthesis of mono and sesquiterpenes in leaves, where the effect was enhanced in combined treatments. In conclusion, PGPR and SW are effective to improve growth of V. vinifera cuttings as well as to increase the plants defense mechanisms that may help them to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury. PMID:18818737

  1. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts.

  2. Beyond the Mechanics of Infertility: Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Infertility and Involuntary Childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph

    1986-01-01

    Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…

  3. Modularity and the Facilitation Effect: Psychological Mechanisms of Transfer in Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2005-01-01

    This article draws upon recent work in the cognitive neurosciences to suggest that the facilitation effect follows naturally within current psychological theory. A view of the mind as consisting of discrete mental modules, called psychological modularity, is defended with case study evidence of double dissociation. It is argued that transfer of…

  4. Involvement of Host Defense Mechanisms against Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Anhedonic and Despair-Like Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Fereig, Ragab; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a pathogen relevant to psychiatric disorders. We recently showed that reactivation of chronic T. gondii infection induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that depression-like behaviors are mediated via a host defense mechanism against invading pathogens; proximate mechanisms of this behavioral hypothesis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the contribution of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), inflammation, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) to anhedonic and despair-related behaviors in T. gondii-infected mice by using sucrose preference and forced-swim tests, respectively. First, we confirmed that BALB/c mice exhibited both sickness and depression-like behaviors during acute infection. Treatment of infected wild-type mice with minocycline (anti-inflammatory drug) abated sickness and anhedonic and despair-like behaviors, whereas in T. gondii-infected mice, treatment normalized kynurenine/tryptophan (Kyn/Trp) ratios in both plasma and brain tissue. Additionally, T. gondii infection failed to induce anhedonic and despair-like behaviors or increase the Kyn/Trp ratio in immunocompromised (IFN-γ(-/-)) mice, whereas sickness behavior was observed in both immunocompetent and IFN-γ(-/-) mice following infection. Furthermore, treatment with 1-methyl tryptophan (an IDO inhibitor) did not affect locomotor activity, attenuated clinical scores and anhedonic and despair-like behaviors, and resulted in normal Kyn/Trp ratios in T. gondii-infected wild-type mice. Although low levels of serotonin and dopamine were observed in the brain during acute and chronic infections, anhedonic and despair-like behaviors were not detected in the chronic stage of infection. Collectively, our results demonstrated that immune enhancement in response to infection with T. gondii resulted in IFN-γ production, IDO activation, and inflammation associated with anhedonic and despair-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American

  5. On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.

  6. Correlates of Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…

  7. Defense Concept - Mechanized Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    34••• wvmwwvm*»"*»’**’^ m>mKm:mm^™v.’>wm*mw*^wmnjmjmmm i-»"mi»m»^< » wmw mvwmH.m.".» w» .mum nuclnar response. The emphasis...characteristically difficult for armored vehicles to traverse such as marshes and heavy forests. Engineers are used to develop "tank proof" terrain where it

  8. Mechanisms for Creating a Psychologically Safe Learning Environment in an Educational Institution of General Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonova, O.I; Polikarkina, E.I

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper describes a study the purpose of which was to examine and verify empiricaly the features of management activities in the educational organization to create a psychologically safe learning environment...

  9. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  10. Possible involvement of self-defense mechanisms in the preferential vulnerability of the striatum in Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia eFrancelle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HD is caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene that consists in a CAG repeat expansion translated into an abnormal poly-glutamine (polyQ tract in the huntingtin (Htt protein. The most striking neuropathological finding in HD is the atrophy of the striatum. The regional expression of mutant Htt (mHtt is ubiquitous in the brain and cannot explain by itself the preferential vulnerability of the striatum in HD. mHtt has been shown to produce an early defect in transcription, through direct alteration of the function of key regulators of transcription and in addition, more indirectly, as a result of compensatory responses to cellular stress. In this review, we focus on gene products that are preferentially expressed in the striatum and have down- or up-regulated expression in HD and, as such, may play a crucial role in the susceptibility of the striatum to mHtt. Many of these striatal gene products are for a vast majority down-regulated and more rarely increased in HD. Recent research shows that some of these striatal markers have a pro-survival/neuroprotective role in neurons (e.g. MSK1, A2A and CB1 receptors whereas others enhance the susceptibility of striatal neurons to mHtt (e.g. Rhes, RGS2, D2 receptors. The down-regulation of these latter proteins may be considered as a potential self-defense mechanism to slow degeneration. For a majority of the striatal gene products that have been identified so far, their function in the striatum is unknown and their modifying effects on mHtt toxicity remain to be experimentally addressed. Focusing on these striatal markers may contribute to a better understanding of HD pathogenesis, and possibly the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  11. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions.

  12. Defense Profiles in Adaptation Process to Sport Competition and Their Relationships with Coping, Stress and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the potentially distinct defense profiles of athletes in order to provide insight into the complex associations that can exist between defenses and other important variables tied to performance in sports (e.g., coping, perceived stress and control and to further our understanding of the complexity of the adaptation process in sports. Two hundred and ninety-six (N = 296 athletes participated in a naturalistic study that involved a highly stressful situation: a sports competition. Participants were assessed before and after the competition. Hierarchical cluster analysis and a series of MANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated two stable defense profiles (high and low defense profiles of athletes both before and during sport competition. These profiles differed with regards to coping, stress and control. Athletes with high defense profiles reported higher levels of coping strategies, perceived stress and control than athletes with low defense profiles. This study confirmed that defenses are involved in the psychological adaptation process and that research and intervention should not be based only on coping, but rather must include defense mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of psychological adaptation in competitive sports.

  13. Coping with infertility: Comparison of coping mechanisms and psychological immune competence in fertile and infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Erika; Nagy, Beáta Erika

    2016-08-01

    This study compared coping strategies and psychological immunity of parents with a child conceived with assisted reproductive technology (n = 84) and parents with a naturally conceived child (n = 84) in a Hungarian fertility-age population. Results showed that in vitro fertilization parents are able to control their emotions in a better way than comparison couples. They interpret trials as challenges and consider themselves more worthy than the members of the control group. Our research confirms that consideration and management of psychological factors in treating infertility have an important preventive role to play. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  15. Basic Psychological Skills Usage and Competitive Anxiety Responses: Perceived Underlying Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports.…

  16. Organizational stressors and basic psychological needs: The mediating role of athletes' appraisal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K J; Arnold, R; Hampson, R J; Fletcher, D

    2017-12-01

    This article reports the first study to quantitatively examine the relationships between the demands encountered by athletes that are associated with the organization within which they are operating, cognitive appraisals, and basic psychological need experiences. Three hundred and fifteen high-level British athletes completed a multisection questionnaire which assessed each of the aforementioned constructs. A series of path analyses provided valuable insight into the way in which the three dimensions (ie, frequency, intensity, and duration) of five organizational stressor categories were evaluated by athletes and, in turn, how such threat or challenge appraisals predicted feelings of need satisfaction and need frustration. Moreover, cognitive stress appraisals were found to mediate the relationship between organizational stressors and psychological need experiences. The role of secondary control appraisals was also explored and found to mediate the relationship between primary cognitive appraisals and basic psychological need experiences. Study limitations, proposed future research directions, and the implications of the findings for applied practitioners are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Proceedings of the Symposium: Psychology in the Department of Defense (9th) Held at Colorado Springs, Colorado on 18-20 April 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    vertical and translational instrument flight: Phase I interim scientific report. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Department of Psychology...networks, personal computers, videogame technology, secure encryption, and electronic billing are all available today. The high powered multi-channel

  18. Lysozyme- and chitinase activity in latex bearing plants of genus Euphorbia--A contribution to plant defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Günther, Florian; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of latices in plants is widespread, there are 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. Latices exhibit a constitutive part of plant defense due to the stickiness. The appearance of proteins incorporated in latices is well characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable. A lot of plants constitute so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, to overcome stressful conditions. In our investigation we are focused on latex bearing plants of Euphorbiaceae Juss., and investigated the appearance of chitinase- and lysozyme activity in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of lysozyme and chitinase activity of genus Euphorbia at the first time. 110 different species of genus Euphorbia L. were tested, and the appearance of chitinase and lysozyme were determined in different quantities. The appearance itself, and the physicochemical properties of latices indicate an efficient interaction for plant defense against pathogen attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression: An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Müller, Viola N L S; Arntz, Arnoud; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect. Probably the biggest challenge in the field is demonstrating the causal relation between change in the mediator and change in depressive symptoms. The field would benefit from a further refinement of research methods to identify processes of therapeutic change. Recommendations for future research are discussed. However, even in the most optimal research designs, explaining psychotherapeutic change remains a challenge. Psychotherapy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that might work through interplay of multiple mechanisms at several levels. As a result, it might be too complex to be explained in relatively simple causal models of psychological change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Auxin promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae via a mechanism independent of suppression of salicylic acid-mediated defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutka, Andrew M; Fawley, Stephen; Tsao, Tiffany; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2013-06-01

    Auxin is a key plant growth regulator that also impacts plant-pathogen interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae manipulates auxin physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana to promote pathogenesis. Pseudomonas syringae strategies to alter host auxin biology include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and production of virulence factors that alter auxin responses in host cells. The application of exogenous auxin enhances disease caused by P. syringae strain DC3000. This is hypothesized to result from antagonism between auxin and salicylic acid (SA), a major regulator of plant defenses, but this hypothesis has not been tested in the context of infected plants. We further investigated the role of auxin during pathogenesis by examining the interaction of auxin and SA in the context of infection in plants with elevated endogenous levels of auxin. We demonstrated that elevated IAA biosynthesis in transgenic plants overexpressing the YUCCA 1 (YUC1) auxin biosynthesis gene led to enhanced susceptibility to DC3000. Elevated IAA levels did not interfere significantly with host defenses, as effector-triggered immunity was active in YUC1-overexpressing plants, and we observed only minor effects on SA levels and SA-mediated responses. Furthermore, a plant line carrying both the YUC1-overexpression transgene and the salicylic acid induction deficient 2 (sid2) mutation, which impairs SA synthesis, exhibited additive effects of enhanced susceptibility from both elevated auxin levels and impaired SA-mediated defenses. Thus, in IAA overproducing plants, the promotion of pathogen growth occurs independently of suppression of SA-mediated defenses. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human induced pluripotent stem cell lines show stress defense mechanisms and mitochondrial regulation similar to those of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lyle; Tilgner, Katarzyna; Saretzki, Gabriele; Atkinson, Stuart P; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Moreno, Ruben; Przyborski, Stefan; Lako, Majlinda

    2010-04-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has enormous potential for the development of patient-specific regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are able to defend their genomic integrity by maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of these molecules. Such limited ROS production stems partly from the small number of mitochondria present in hESC; thus, it was important to determine that human iPSC (hiPSC) generation is able to eliminate the extra mitochondria present in the parental fibroblasts (reminiscent of "bottleneck" situation after fertilization) and to show that hiPSC have antioxidant defenses similar to hESC. We were able to generate seven hiPSC lines from adult human dermal fibroblasts and have fully characterized two of those clones. Both hiPSC clones express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate in vitro into cells belonging to all three germ layers. One of these clones is able to produce fully differentiated teratoma, whereas the other hiPSC clone is unable to silence the viral expression of OCT4 and c-MYC, produce fully differentiated teratoma, and unable to downregulate the expression of some of the pluripotency genes during the differentiation process. In spite of these differences, both clones show ROS stress defense mechanisms and mitochondrial biogenesis similar to hESC. Together our data suggest that, during the reprogramming process, certain cellular mechanisms are in place to ensure that hiPSC are provided with the same defense mechanisms against accumulation of ROS as the hESC.

  2. Proceedings of the Symposium on Psychology in the Department of Defense (8th) Held in Colorado Springs, Colorado on 21-23 April 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    or support. These " norma !" reactions are separated -from "abnormal" reactions by a continum based on the severity, number and duration of these...Force Psychologist. Profes- sional Psychology, Summer 1970, 1(4), 383-387. Rosenbach, W. E., and Gregory, R. A., Job Attitudes of APA Military...distinct profiles when compared to their civilian norma - tive groups. Comparison of male and female attritee’s profiles with the whole class indicated

  3. iTRAQ-based comparative proteome analysis for molecular mechanism of defense against acute ammonia toxicity in Pacific White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie

    2017-12-25

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens and even causing high mortality. We have revealed that the survival time under acute ammonia stress varied substantially among different families and obtained ammonia-tolerant (LV_T) and ammonia-sensitive (LV_S) families. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of defense against ammonia toxicity in shrimp, we performed iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis between LV_T and LV_S groups of L. vannamei under acute ammonia stress to identify the key proteins and pathways that play an effective role for against ammonia toxicity. By comparative proteome analysis, 202 significantly differentially proteins (DEPs) were identified in LV_T compared to LV_S, and most of the DEPs (60%) were up-regulated. Excepting for the proteins without function reporting, the meaningful finding is that 77.8% of the DEPs have been reported mainly involving in immune defense and stress tolerant in crustacean species, such as hemocyanin, Rab7, Rab GTPase, Rac1, alpha 2 macroglobulin, Bip, peroxiredoxin, Cu/Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin, calreticulin, and Elongation Factor 1-alpha, etc. These DEPs might potentially play important role in against ammonia toxicity, and it also reflected a relation between ammonia tolerance and pathogen resistance. In addition, a total of 10 significantly changed KEGG pathways were detected, and the network diagram of these KEGG pathways showed that more critical nodes were up-regulated, which involved in protein synthesis and transport, and against stress stimuli. This study provided important information for understanding the molecular mechanism of defense against ammonia toxicity in shrimp at whole protein level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Westra, Edze R; van der Oost, John; Brouns, Stan J J

    2011-04-01

    Many prokaryotes contain the recently discovered defense system against mobile genetic elements. This defense system contains a unique type of repetitive DNA stretches, termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs). CRISPRs consist of identical repeated DNA sequences (repeats), interspaced by highly variable sequences referred to as spacers. The spacers originate from either phages or plasmids and comprise the prokaryotes' 'immunological memory'. CRISPR-associated (cas) genes encode conserved proteins that together with CRISPRs make-up the CRISPR/Cas system, responsible for defending the prokaryotic cell against invaders. CRISPR-mediated resistance has been proposed to involve three stages: (i) CRISPR-Adaptation, the invader DNA is encountered by the CRISPR/Cas machinery and an invader-derived short DNA fragment is incorporated in the CRISPR array. (ii) CRISPR-Expression, the CRISPR array is transcribed and the transcript is processed by Cas proteins. (iii) CRISPR-Interference, the invaders' nucleic acid is recognized by complementarity to the crRNA and neutralized. An application of the CRISPR/Cas system is the immunization of industry-relevant prokaryotes (or eukaryotes) against mobile-genetic invasion. In addition, the high variability of the CRISPR spacer content can be exploited for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Despite impressive progress during the last couple of years, the elucidation of several fundamental details will be a major challenge in future research.

  5. Psychological consultation in older adult inpatient settings: a qualitative investigation of the impact on staff's daily practice and the mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sinead A; Osborne, Hannah; Smith, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Psychological consultation is becoming increasingly common within older adult mental health and dementia services. However, there is very little research that examines the impact or effectiveness of this method of working. This study explored how psychological consultation impacted on the daily practice of staff working on mental health and dementia inpatient units. It also examined the mechanisms that enabled this process. Given the lack of current literature in this area, an exploratory qualitative design was employed. Ten staff who had received psychological consultation were individually interviewed. Staff comprised qualified and unqualified staff from a range of professions, and worked on older adult mental health or dementia units. Interviews were subject to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified from the analysis: (1) 'It makes you understand the reasons why people are like they are'; (2) 'It depends on the patient or service user'; (3) the importance of visibility and accessibility; (4) impact of psychology consultation on the effectiveness of the team; and (5) impact of psychology consultation on feelings invoked in the workplace. The findings suggest that psychological consultation impacted on staffs' daily practice in a variety of ways. Psychological consultation also appeared to increase team efficiency. Less positive findings were identified within the dementia setting. Specific recommendations are drawn from the conclusions to further guide clinical psychologists working within teams. Direction for future research in the area of psychological consultation is also suggested.

  6. Battered woman syndrome defense in Canadian courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1995-04-01

    As a result of a 1990 Supreme Court of Canada decision, battered woman syndrome defense is now accepted as a legitimate extension of self-defense in Canadian courts. This defense hinges on the expert testimony that a battered woman who is accused of murder or aggravated assault suffers from the psychological sequelae of abuse and that this psychological distress contributes to her apprehension of danger and ultimately her apprehension of death during a particular battering episode. The authors present a brief overview of the history of battered woman syndrome defense, the role of the expert in assessing the applicability of this defense in any particular situation, and the pitfalls of using battered woman syndrome defense.

  7. Heterotrimeric G proteins-mediated resistance to necrotrophic pathogens includes mechanisms independent of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid/ethylene- and abscisic acid-mediated defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Sewelam, Nasser; Rookes, James Edward; Kunkel, Matt; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer Martin; Botella, José Ramón

    2009-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in the defense response against necrotrophic fungi in Arabidopsis. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanisms involving heterotrimeric G proteins, we analyzed the effects of the Gβ (subunit deficiency in the mutant agb1-2 on pathogenesis-related gene expression, as well as the genetic interaction between agb1-2 and a number of mutants of established defense pathways. Gβ-mediated signaling suppresses the induction of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, ethylene (ET)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent genes during the initial phase of the infection with Fusarium oxysporum (up to 48 h after inoculation). However, at a later phase it enhances JA/ET-dependent genes such as PDF1.2 and PR4. Quantification of the Fusarium wilt symptoms revealed that Gβ- and SA-deficient mutants were more susceptible than wild-type plants, whereas JA- and ET-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants demonstrated various levels of resistance. Analysis of the double mutants showed that the Gβ-mediated resistance to F. oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola was mostly independent of all of the previously mentioned pathways. However, the progressive decay of agb1-2 mutants was compensated by coi1-21 and jin1-9 mutations, suggesting that at this stage of F. oxysporum infection Gβ acts upstream of COI1 and ATMYC2 in JA signaling. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    extraterrestrial objects. Such an organization might be an efficient way to pool capital from the many governments of the world and perhaps even from the...4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world. Millions of asteroids and...private sector. A second path would be the development of technology required for planetary defense for other objectives such as asteroid mining

  9. Protozoan-Induced Regulation of Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthesis Is an Effective Predation Defense Mechanism for Pseudomonas fluorescens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Mark; de Bruijn, Irene; Cohen, Michael F.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental bacteria are exposed to a myriad of biotic interactions that influence their function and survival. The grazing activity of protozoan predators significantly impacts the dynamics, diversification, and evolution of bacterial communities in soil ecosystems. To evade protozoan predation, bacteria employ various defense strategies. Soil-dwelling Pseudomonas fluorescens strains SS101 and SBW25 produce the cyclic lipopeptide surfactants (CLPs) massetolide and viscosin, respectively, in a quorum-sensing-independent manner. In this study, CLP production was shown to protect these bacteria from protozoan predation as, compared to CLP-deficient mutants, strains SS101 and SBW25 exhibited resistance to grazing by Naegleria americana in vitro and superior persistence in soil in the presence of this bacterial predator. In the wheat rhizosphere, CLP-producing strains had a direct deleterious impact on the survival of N. americana. In vitro assays further showed that N. americana was three times more sensitive to viscosin than to massetolide and that exposure of strain SS101 or SBW25 to this protozoan resulted in upregulation of CLP biosynthesis genes. Enhanced expression of the massABC and viscABC genes did not require physical contact between the two organisms as gene expression levels were up to threefold higher in bacterial cells harvested 1 cm from feeding protozoans than in cells collected 4 cm from feeding protozoans. These findings document a new natural function of CLPs and highlight that bacterium-protozoan interactions can result in activation of an antipredator response in prey populations. PMID:19717630

  10. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  11. The dynamics of fear: The defense cascade - La dinámica del miedo: la cascada defensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of defense reactions has become in the last years one of the most relevant ways to advance knowledge on the psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of fear and anxiety. The antecedents of these studies are rooted in the work of Pavlov on the unconditioned reflexes of orienting and defense and on the work of Cannon on the fight or flight response, giving rise to two different approaches to defense: the attentional and the motivational. These two approaches have been difficult to reconcile in the past. However, in the last years new data have been accumulated on defense reactions which are facilitating the integration of both traditions. Part of these data refers to the cardiac defense response. Recent research in this area has shown that cardiac defense is a complex pattern of heart rate changes with two accelerative/decelerative sequential components, with both sympathetic and parasympathetic physiological mediation, and with both attentional and motivational significance. In this context, an attentional-motivational model of cardiac defense has been proposed. The model postulates an attentional defense phase –analogous to the freezing response- associated with the first acceleration/deceleration and a motivational defense phase –analogous to the fight/flight response- associated with the second acceleration/deceleration.

  12. Physiological mechanisms, behavioral and psychological factors influencing the transfer of milk from mothers to their young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Wibke; Woodside, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Producing milk to support the growth of their young is a central element of maternal care in mammals. In spite of the facts that ecological constraints influence nursing frequency, length of time until weaning and the composition of milk, there is considerable similarity in the anatomy and physiology of milk production and delivery across mammalian species. Here we provide an overview of cross species variation in nursing patterns and milk composition as well as the mechanisms underlying mammary gland development, milk production and letdown. Not all women breastfeed their infants, thus in later sections we review studies of factors that facilitate or impede the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The results of these investigations suggest that the decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding are influenced by an array of personal, social and biological factors. Finally, studies comparing the development of breastfed and formula fed infants as well as those investigating associations between breastfeeding, maternal health and mother/infant interaction are reviewed. Leading health agencies including the World Health Organization and CDC advocate breastfeeding for at least the first 6months postpartum. To achieve these rates will require not only institutional support but also a focus on individual mother/infant dyads and their experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects and safety of mechanical bathing as a complementary therapy for terminal stage cancer patients from the physiological and psychological perspective: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Sawako; Iwawaki, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Yamamoto, Yoko; Murota, Masako; Yoshioka, Saori; Hayano, Azusa; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-11-01

    In palliative care hospitals in Japan, mechanical bathing is conducted to maintain cleanliness. However, the physiological and psychological influence of mechanical bathing on patients has not been sufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess, using physiological and psychological indices, the effects of mechanical bathing care for patients in the terminal stage of cancer. Mechanical bathing was performed using a Marine Court SB7000 in a supine or semi-seated position. The heart rate variability analysis method was used to measure autonomic nervous system function. The patients' state of anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a psychological index, and patients' verbal responses were also collected after mechanical bathing. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. Their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity did not differ before and after bathing. A significant difference was found between pre- and post-bathing anxiety, as evaluated by STAI (P mechanical bathing according to STAI evaluation and their verbal responses. The findings suggest that the method of bathing used in this study is safe and pain-relieving for terminal stage cancer patients. It is thus possible to provide safe and comfortable care for terminal stage cancer patients using mechanical baths.

  14. Possible mechanisms in a multicomponent email guided positive psychology intervention to improve mental well-being, anxiety and depression : A multiple mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Walburg, Jan A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of several multicomponent positive psychology interventions (PPIs) have been demonstrated, but little is known about its possible mechanisms of change. We examined (1) the efficacy of an email guided self-help PPI on six core well-being processes (positive emotion, use of strengths,

  15. Proteomic characterization of the interactions between fish serum proteins and waterborne bacteria reveals the suppression of anti-oxidative defense as a serum-mediated antimicrobial mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Miao; Liang, Yimin; Ramalingam, Rajkumar; Tang, Sze Wing; Shen, Wei; Ye, Rui; Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Au, Doris Wai Ting; Lam, Yun Wah

    2017-03-01

    Fish blood is one of the crucial tissues of innate immune system, but the full repertoire of fish serum components involved in antibacterial defense is not fully identified. In this study, we demonstrated that turbot serum, but not the heat-inactivated control, significantly reduced the number of Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda). By conjugating serum proteins with fluorescent dyes, we showed that E. tarda were coated with multiple fish proteins. In order to identify these proteins, we used E. tarda to capture turbot serum proteins and subjected the samples to shotgun proteomic analysis. A total of 76 fish proteins were identified in high confidence, including known antimicrobial proteins such as immunoglobins and complement components. 34 proteins with no previously known immunological functions were also identified. The expression of one of these proteins, IQ motif containing H (IQCH), was exclusively in fish brain and gonads and was induced during bacterial infection. This approach also allowed the study of the corresponding proteomic changes in E. tarda exposed to turbot serum, which is a general decrease of bacterial protein expression except for an upregulation of membrane components after serum treatment. Interestingly, while most other known stresses stimulate bacterial antioxidant enzymes, fish serum induced a rapid suppression of antioxidant proteins and led to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Heat treatment of fish serum eliminated this effect, suggesting that heat labile factors in the fish serum overrode bacterial antioxidant defenses. Taken together, this work offers a comprehensive view of the interactions between fish serum proteins and bacteria, and reveals previously unknown factors and mechanisms in fish innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response and Defense Mechanisms of Taxus chinensis Leaves Under UV-A Radiation are Revealed Using Comparative Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Cui, Lei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-09-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is a species endemic to south-eastern China and one of the natural sources for the anticancer medicine paclitaxel. To investigate the molecular response and defense mechanisms of T. chinensis leaves to enhanced ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, gel-free/label-free and gel-based proteomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. The transmission electron microscopy results indicated damage to the chloroplast under UV-A radiation. Proteomics analyses in leaves and chloroplasts showed that photosynthesis-, glycolysis-, secondary metabolism-, stress-, and protein synthesis-, degradation- and activation-related systems were mainly changed under UV-A radiation. Forty-seven PSII proteins and six PSI proteins were identified as being changed in leaves and chloroplasts under UV-A treatment. This indicated that PSII was more sensitive to UV-A than PSI as the target of UV-A light. Enhanced glycolysis, with four glycolysis-related key enzymes increased, provided precursors for secondary metabolism. The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase were identified as being significantly increased during UV-A radiation, which resulted in paclitaxel enhancement. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway indicated a down-regulation under UV-A irradiation and up-regulation in dark incubation. These results reveal that a short-term high dose of UV-A radiation could stimulate the plant stress defense system and paclitaxel production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  18. 32 CFR 324.13 - Access to medical and psychological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to medical and psychological records. 324.13 Section 324.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... to medical and psychological records. Individual access to medical and psychological records should...

  19. (1)H NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolomics Reveal Defense and Detoxification Mechanism of Cucumber Plant under Nano-Cu Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Huang, Yuxiong; Hu, Jerry; Zhou, Hongjun; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-02-16

    Because copper nanoparticles are being increasingly used in agriculture as pesticides, it is important to assess their potential implications for agriculture. Concerns have been raised about the bioaccumulation of nano-Cu and their toxicity to crop plants. Here, the response of cucumber plants in hydroponic culture at early development stages to two concentrations of nano-Cu (10 and 20 mg/L) was evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics. Changes in mineral nutrient metabolism induced by nano-Cu were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that nano-Cu at both concentrations interferes with the uptake of a number of micro- and macro-nutrients, such as Na, P, S, Mo, Zn, and Fe. Metabolomics data revealed that nano-Cu at both levels triggered significant metabolic changes in cucumber leaves and root exudates. The root exudate metabolic changes revealed an active defense mechanism against nano-Cu stress: up-regulation of amino acids to sequester/exclude Cu/nano-Cu; down-regulation of citric acid to reduce the mobilization of Cu ions; ascorbic acid up-regulation to combat reactive oxygen species; and up-regulation of phenolic compounds to improve antioxidant system. Thus, we demonstrate that nontargeted (1)H NMR and GC-MS based metabolomics can successfully identify physiological responses induced by nanoparticles. Root exudates metabolomics revealed important detoxification mechanisms.

  20. Psychological rehabilitation of patients with endogenous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kryvonis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for early psychotherapeutic intervention in combination with psychopharmatherapy in patients with endogenous disorders is provided. The mechanisms of psychological defenses to deal with traumatic experience, used by personalities functioning on a psychotic level, are also described here. Characteristic behavior patterns of extended family members in terms of emotional codependence are provided. Individual pathopsychology is considered as a symptom of abnormal functioning of the family. Emphasis is placed on the importance of inclusion of family members in psychotherapeutic interaction in order to correct interpersonal relations.

  1. Central nervous system mechanisms linking the consumption of palatable high-fat diets to the defense of greater adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Karen K; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2012-02-08

    The central nervous system (CNS) plays key role in the homeostatic regulation of body weight. Satiation and adiposity signals, providing acute and chronic information about available fuel, are produced in the periphery and act in the brain to influence energy intake and expenditure, resulting in the maintenance of stable adiposity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) does not result from a failure of these central homeostatic circuits. Rather, the threshold for defended adiposity is increased in environments providing ubiquitous access to palatable, high-fat foods, making it difficult to achieve and maintain weight loss. Consequently, mechanisms by which nutritional environments interact with central homeostatic circuits to influence the threshold for defended adiposity represent critical targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance of human brain microvascular endothelial cells in culture to methylmercury: cell-density-dependent defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Chika; Yasutake, Akira; Satoh, Masahiko; Eto, Komyo; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2010-06-01

    Vascular toxicity is important for understanding the neurotoxicity of methylmercury, because microvessels strongly influence the construction of microenvironment around neurons. Previously, we found that low density-human brain microvascular pericytes are markedly susceptible to methylmercury cytotoxicity due to high expression levels of the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT-1) that transports methylmercury into the cells. Although LAT-1 can be, in general, highly expressed in sparse cells that require amino acids for growth, we found that human brain microvascular endothelial cells, regardless of cell density, were resistant to methylmercury cytotoxicity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we exposed the endothelial cells at low and high cell densities to methylmercury and determined the extent of nonspecific cell damage, intracellular accumulation of methylmercury, expression of LAT-1 and LAT-2 mRNAs, and intracellular expression of reduced glutathione and metallothionein. These experiments indicate that sparse endothelial cells intracellularly accumulate more methylmercury via the highly expressed LAT-1, but are resistant to methylmercury cytotoxicity by higher expression of the protective sulfhydryl peptides, namely, reduced glutathione and metallothionein. It is suggested that both nonspecific and functional damage is caused in pericytes, whereas functional abnormalities rather than nonspecific damage may occur to a greater extent in the endothelial cells in the brain microvessels exposed to methylmercury. The previous and present data also suggest that methylmercury exhibits toxicity in endothelial cells in a manner different from that in pericytes in the brain microvessels.

  3. Reorganization of Extracellular Matrix in Placentas from Women with Asymptomatic Chagas Disease: Mechanism of Parasite Invasion or Local Placental Defense?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Duaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi.

  4. A Role for the Anti-Viral Host Defense Mechanism in the Phylogenetic Divergence in Baculovirus Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Nagamine

    Full Text Available Although phylogenic analysis often suggests co-evolutionary relationships between viruses and host organisms, few examples have been reported at the microevolutionary level. Here, we show a possible example in which a species-specific anti-viral response may drive phylogenic divergence in insect virus evolution. Two baculoviruses, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV, have a high degree of DNA sequence similarity, but exhibit non-overlapping host specificity. In our study of their host-range determination, we found that BmNPV replication in B. mori cells was prevented by AcMNPV-P143 (AcP143, but not BmNPV-P143 (BmP143 or a hybrid P143 protein from a host-range expanded phenotype. This suggests that AcMNPV resistance in B. mori cells depends on AcP143 recognition and that BmNPV uses BmP143 to escapes this recognition. Based on these data, we propose an insect-baculovirus co-evolution scenario in which an ancestor of silkworms exploited an AcMNPV-resistant mechanism; AcMNPV counteracted this resistance via P143 mutations, resulting in the birth of BmNPV.

  5. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  6. A recessive resistance to rice yellow mottle virus is associated with a rice homolog of the CPR5 gene, a regulator of active defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Julie; Deless, E F Thiémélé; Kolade, Olufisayo; Chéron, Sophie; Ghesquière, Alain; Albar, Laurence

    2013-12-01

    RYMV2 is a major recessive resistance gene identified in cultivated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) which confers high resistance to the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). We mapped RYMV2 in an approximately 30-kb interval in which four genes have been annotated. Sequencing of the candidate region in the resistant Tog7291 accession revealed a single mutation affecting a predicted gene, as compared with the RYMV-susceptible O. glaberrima CG14 reference sequence. This mutation was found to be a one-base deletion leading to a truncated and probably nonfunctional protein. It affected a gene homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana CPR5 gene, known to be a defense mechanism regulator. Only seven O. glaberrima accessions showing this deletion were identified in a collection consisting of 417 accessions from three rice species. All seven accessions were resistant to RYMV, which is an additional argument in favor of the involvement of the deletion in resistance. In addition, fine mapping of a resistance quantitative trait locus in O. sativa advanced backcrossed lines pinpointed a 151-kb interval containing RYMV2, suggesting that allelic variants of the same gene may control both high and partial resistance.

  7. CodY Regulates Thiol Peroxidase Expression as Part of the Pneumococcal Defense Mechanism against H2O2 Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Hajaj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative anaerobic pathogen. Although it maintains fermentative metabolism, during aerobic growth pneumococci produce high levels of H2O2, which can have adverse effects on cell viability and DNA, and influence pneumococcal interaction with its host. The pneumococcus is unusual in its dealing with toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS in that it neither has catalase nor the global regulators of peroxide stress resistance. Previously, we identified pneumococcal thiol peroxidase (TpxD as the key enzyme for enzymatic removal of H2O2, and showed that TpxD synthesis is up-regulated upon exposure to H2O2. This study aimed to reveal the mechanism controlling TpxD expression under H2O2 stress. We hypothesize that H2O2 activates a transcription factor which in turn up-regulates tpxD expression. Microarray analysis revealed a pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H2O2. Mutation of tpxD abolished H2O2-mediated response to high H2O2 levels, signifying the need for an active TpxD under oxidative stress conditions. Bioinformatic tools, applied to search for a transcription factor modulating tpxD expression, pointed toward CodY as a potential candidate. Indeed, a putative 15-bp consensus CodY binding site was found in the proximal region of tpxD-coding sequence. Binding of CodY to this site was confirmed by EMSA, and genetic engineering techniques demonstrated that this site is essential for TpxD up-regulation under H2O2 stress. Furthermore, tpxD expression was reduced in a ΔcodY mutant. These data indicate that CodY is an activator of tpxD expression, triggering its up-regulation under H2O2 stress. In addition we show that H2O2 specifically oxidizes the 2 CodY cysteines. This oxidation may trigger a conformational change in CodY, resulting in enhanced binding to DNA. A schematic model illustrating the contribution of TpxD and CodY to pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H2O2 is proposed.

  8. CodY Regulates Thiol Peroxidase Expression as Part of the Pneumococcal Defense Mechanism against H2O2Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaj, Barak; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Zhi, Xiangyun; Benisty, Rachel; Tchalah, Shiran; Kuipers, Oscar P; Porat, Nurith

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative anaerobic pathogen. Although it maintains fermentative metabolism, during aerobic growth pneumococci produce high levels of H 2 O 2 , which can have adverse effects on cell viability and DNA, and influence pneumococcal interaction with its host. The pneumococcus is unusual in its dealing with toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in that it neither has catalase nor the global regulators of peroxide stress resistance. Previously, we identified pneumococcal thiol peroxidase (TpxD) as the key enzyme for enzymatic removal of H 2 O 2 , and showed that TpxD synthesis is up-regulated upon exposure to H 2 O 2 . This study aimed to reveal the mechanism controlling TpxD expression under H 2 O 2 stress. We hypothesize that H 2 O 2 activates a transcription factor which in turn up-regulates tpxD expression. Microarray analysis revealed a pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H 2 O 2 . Mutation of tpxD abolished H 2 O 2 -mediated response to high H 2 O 2 levels, signifying the need for an active TpxD under oxidative stress conditions. Bioinformatic tools, applied to search for a transcription factor modulating tpxD expression, pointed toward CodY as a potential candidate. Indeed, a putative 15-bp consensus CodY binding site was found in the proximal region of tpxD- coding sequence. Binding of CodY to this site was confirmed by EMSA, and genetic engineering techniques demonstrated that this site is essential for TpxD up-regulation under H 2 O 2 stress. Furthermore, tpxD expression was reduced in a Δ codY mutant. These data indicate that CodY is an activator of tpxD expression, triggering its up-regulation under H 2 O 2 stress. In addition we show that H 2 O 2 specifically oxidizes the 2 CodY cysteines. This oxidation may trigger a conformational change in CodY, resulting in enhanced binding to DNA. A schematic model illustrating the contribution of TpxD and CodY to pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H 2 O 2 is

  9. The potential for social contextual and group biases in team decision-making: biases, conditions and psychological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P E; Roelofsma, P H

    2000-08-01

    This paper provides a critical review of social contextual and group biases that are relevant to team decision-making in command and control situations. Motivated by the insufficient level of attention this area has received, the purpose of the paper is to provide an insight into the potential that these types of biases have to affect the decision-making of such teams. The biases considered are: false consensus, groupthink, group polarization and group escalation of commitment. For each bias the following four questions are addressed. What is the descriptive nature of the bias? What factors induce the bias? What psychological mechanisms underlie the bias? What is the relevance of the bias to command and control teams? The analysis suggests that these biases have a strong potential to affect team decisions. Consistent with the nature of team decision-making in command and control situations, all of the biases considered tend to be associated with those decisions that are important or novel and are promoted by time pressure and high levels of uncertainty. A concept unifying these biases is that of the shared mental model, but whereas false consensus emanates from social projection tendencies, the rest emanate from social influence factors. The authors also discuss the 'tricky' distinction between teams and groups and propose a revised definition for command and control team. Finally, the authors emphasize the need for future empirical research in this area to pay additional attention to the social side of cognition and the potential that social biases have to affect team decision-making.

  10. SOME THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COMPLEX CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE LIVER DISEASES IN CIRRHOTIC STAGE BEFORE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gerasimova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary results of complex clinical-psychological investigation of patients with autoim- mune liver diseases with cirrhosis waiting for liver transplant. The data discussed defense role of anxiety com- bined with other emotional affective disorders, psychological mechanisms in combination with coping strategies of stress-overcoming behavior in the state of disease and their involvement in formation of the clinical picture of the disease. It considers the need for differential diagnosis of the pathology using modern experimental- psychological methods in connection with further building of psychological aid to patients with autoimmune liver diseases. 

  11. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  12. Defensive coping and health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonomou Margarita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with the stresses of chronic disease is considered as a key factor in the perceived impairment of health related quality of life (HRQL. Little is known though about these associations in chronic kidney disease (CKD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of defensive coping and HRQL among patients in different CKD stages, after adjusting for psychological distress, sociodemographic and disease-related variables. Methods The sample consisted of 98 CKD patients, attending a university nephrology department. Seventy-nine (79 pre-dialysis patients of disease stages 3 to 4 and 19 dialysis patients were included. HRQL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF-36, defensive coping by the Rationality/Emotional Defensiveness (R/ED scale of the Lifestyle Defense Mechanism Inventory (LDMI and psychological distress by the depression and anxiety scales of the revised Hopkins Symptom CheckList (SCL-90-R. Regression analyses were carried out to examine the association between SF-36 dimensions and defensive coping style. Results Patients on dialysis had worse scores on SF-36 scales measuring physical aspects of HRQL. In the fully adjusted analysis, a higher defensive coping score was significantly associated with a lower score on the mental component summary (MCS scale of the SF-36 (worse mental health. In contrast, a higher defensive score showed a small positive association with the physical component summary (PCS scale of the SF-36 (better health, but this was marginally significant. Conclusions The results provided evidence that emotional defensiveness as a coping style tends to differentially affect the mental and the physical component of HRQL in CKD. Clinicians should be aware of the effects of long-term denial and could examine the possibility of screening for defensive coping and depression in recently diagnosed CKD patients with the aim to improve both physical and mental health.

  13. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncov...

  14. How do people become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration reveals the cultural transmission mechanisms underlying variation in psychological processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Mesoudi; Kesson Magid; Delwar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncov...

  15. Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Alba; M Deane Bowers; Dana Blumenthal; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L...

  16. Contribution of transcription factor, SP1, to the promotion of HB-EGF expression in defense mechanism against the treatment of irinotecan in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Nam, Sung Ouk; Odawara, Takashi; Manabe, Sadao; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo; Takada, Shuji; Asahara, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2014-10-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a worst histological subtype than other ovarian malignant tumor. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. The aims of this study were to validate the efficacy of HB-EGF-targeted therapy for OCCC and to identify the transcription factor that contributed to the induction of HB-EGF by SN38 treatment in OCCC cells. HB-EGF was highly expressed in OCCC cells, and an increase of HB-EGF was induced by SN38 which had only antitumor effect among conventional anticancer agents on OCCC. A specific inhibitor of HB-EGF, a cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), led to a synergistic increase in the number of apoptotic OCCC cells with the treatment of SN38. The luciferase assay with 5'-deletion promoter constructs identified a GC-rich element between -125 and -178 (the distal transcription start site was denoted +1) as a cis-regulatory region, and the treatment of SN38 induced luciferase activity in this region. An in silico and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis estimated that SP1 bound to the cis-regulatory region of HB-EGF in OCCC cells. Real-time PCR and cell viability assays showed that the transfection of a small interfering RNA targeting SP1 suppressed the expression of HB-EGF induced by SN38, resulting in the enhanced sensitivity of SN38. Taken together, these results indicate that induction of HB-EGF expression contributed to defense mechanism against treatment of SN38 through the transcriptional activity of SP1 in OCCC cells. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The complete genome of a new marine Thaumarchaea strain contains evidence of previous virus infection and a possible defense mechanism from infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, N.; Parada, A. E.; Fuhrman, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    While marine viruses have been isolated from several marine bacterial phyla, no reported viruses have been isolated from mesophilic marine archaea. There is growing evidence for viruses that infect marine Thaumarchaea, an abundant phylum of mesophilic archaea that are important in C and N cycles in the ocean. We have recently sequenced the complete genome of new Thaumarchaeota strain, SPOT01, that contains evidence of viral infection. Two independent virus finding programs, VirSorter and phiSpy, indicate the genome contains a 20 kb region that is likely viral in origin. Manual inspection of this region, including comparison to known viral proteins, also supports that this region contains viral genes. It is unclear if this region is a viable prophage or the remnants of a previous lytic infection. Next to this region are genes for a newly recognized form of DNA modification, phosphorothioation (PT), and an adjacent operon that likely encodes a restriction endonuclease (RE). PT genes are found in a variety of bacteria and archaea, but this is the first example of PT genes in a marine achaeon. PT and adjacent RE genes in Salmonella enterica have been shown to function as a restriction modification system—non PT-modified DNA is degraded by the PT system RE such that the host is protected from invasion of foreign DNA. The discovery of both PT and adjacent RE genes in SPOT01 is novel among marine microbes, and we hypothesize that they act to restrict infection by degrading non PT-modified viral DNA. Recruitment of metagenomes from a near-shore site off California indicates that the putative virus and PT regions are found in roughly 25% and 2% respectively of Thaumarchaea in the field. Results from PacBio sequencing will be presented on which genomic sites are PT modified. This new genome provides compelling evidence that marine Thaumarchaea are susceptible to viral infection and possess a potential new mechanism for defense from infection.

  18. The Sweet Potato NAC-Domain Transcription Factor IbNAC1 Is Dynamically Coordinated by the Activator IbbHLH3 and the Repressor IbbHLH4 to Reprogram the Defense Mechanism against Wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Peng; Kuo, Chih-Hsien; Lu, Hsueh-Han; Lo, Hui-Shan; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    IbNAC1 is known to activate the defense system by reprogramming a genetic network against herbivory in sweet potato. This regulatory activity elevates plant defense potential but relatively weakens plants by IbNAC1-mediated JA response. The mechanism controlling IbNAC1 expression to balance plant vitality and survival remains unclear. In this study, a wound-responsive G-box cis-element in the IbNAC1 promoter from -1484 to -1479 bp was identified. From a screen of wound-activated transcriptomic data, one transcriptional activator, IbbHLH3, and one repressor, IbbHLH4, were selected that bind to and activate or repress, respectively, the G-box motif in the IbNAC1 promoter to modulate the IbNAC1-mediated response. In the early wound response, the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH3 protein complex binds to the G-box motif to activate IbNAC1 expression. Thus, an elegant defense network is activated against wounding stress. Until the late stages of wounding, IbbHLH4 interacts with IbbHLH3, and the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH4 heterodimer competes with the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH3 complex to bind the G-box and suppress IbNAC1 expression and timely terminates the defense network. Moreover, the JAZs and IbEIL1 proteins interact with IbbHLH3 to repress the transactivation function of IbbHLH3 in non-wounded condition, but their transcription is immediately inhibited upon early wounding. Our work provides a genetic model that accurately switches the regulatory mechanism of IbNAC1 expression to adjust wounding physiology and represents a delicate defense regulatory network in plants. PMID:27780204

  19. Evidence and potential mechanisms for mindfulness practices and energy psychology for obesity and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojcher, Renee; Gould Fogerite, Susan; Perlman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic. Chronic stress produces endocrine and immune factors that are contributors to obesity's etiology. These biochemicals also can affect appetite and eating behaviors that can lead to binge-eating disorder. The inadequacies of standard care and the problem of patient noncompliance have inspired a search for alternative treatments. Proposals in the literature have called for combination therapies involving behavioral or new biological therapies. This manuscript suggests that mind-body interventions would be ideal for such combinations. Two mind-body modalities, energy psychology and mindfulness meditation, are reviewed for their potential in treating weight loss, stress, and behavior modification related to binge-eating disorder. Whereas mindfulness meditation and practices show more compelling evidence, energy psychology, in the infancy stages of elucidation, exhibits initially promising outcomes but requires further evidence-based trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among african american adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13-19 years) completed questionnaires that assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  1. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  2. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media, with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission, or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly. Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of

  3. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  4. Mechanisms of Action Contributing to Reductions in Suicide Attempts Following Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Military Personnel: A Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Wood, David S; May, Alexis; Peterson, Alan L; Wertenberger, Evelyn; Rudd, M David

    2017-04-19

    Brief cognitive behavioral therapy (BCBT) is associated with significant reductions in suicide attempts among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of action contributing to reductions in suicide attempts in effective psychological treatments remain largely unknown. The present study conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of BCBT versus treatment as usual (TAU) to examine the mechanisms of action hypothesized by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPT): perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and fearlessness about death. In a sample of 152 active duty U.S. Army personnel with recent suicide ideation or attempts, there were significantly fewer suicide attempts in BCBT, but there were no differences between treatment groups from baseline to 6 months postbaseline on any of the 3 IPT constructs or their interactions. Tests of the moderated mediation failed to support an indirect effect for the IPT model, regardless of which IPT variables were specified as mediators or moderators. Results suggest that the IPT's hypothesized mechanisms of action do not account for reductions in suicide attempts in BCBT. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  5. Tomato defense to Oidium neolycopersici: Dominant Ol genes confer isolate-dependent resistance via a different mechanism than recessive ol-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Bonnema, A.B.; Marcel, T.C.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Niks, R.E.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tomato powdery mildew caused by Oidium neolycopersici has become a globally important disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). To study the defense responses of tomato triggered by tomato powdery mildew, we first mapped a set of resistance genes to O. neolycopersici from related Lycopersicon

  6. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  7. Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in people with physical and/or psychological conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Modi; Abbott, Rebecca; Dunn, Barnaby; Dickens, Chris; Keil, Tina Frieda; Henley, William; Kuyken, Willem

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  9. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  10. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S; Klöckner, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game's general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined.

  11. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S.; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game’s general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined. PMID:28701988

  12. Functional mechanics of the plant defensive Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II: resistance to proteolysis is independent of glycoconjugate binding in the insect gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, K; Salzman, R A

    2001-10-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSII) is a plant defensive protein that significantly delays development of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Previous structure/function analysis by site-directed mutagenesis indicated that carbohydrate binding and resistance to insect gut proteolysis are required for the anti-insect activity of this lectin. However, whether there is a causal link between carbohydrate binding and resistance to insect metabolism remains unknown. Two proteases principally responsible for digestive proteolysis in third and fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by activated thiol sepharose chromatography and resolved as cathepsin L-like proteases, based on N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. Digestion of bacterially expressed recombinant GSII (rGSII) and its mutant protein variants with the purified gut proteases indicates that carbohydrate binding, presumably to a target ligand in insect gut, and proteolytic resistance are independent properties of rGSII, and that both facilitate its efficacy as a plant defensive molecule.

  13. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  14. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychology of fragrance use: perception of individual odor and perfume blends reveals a mechanism for idiosyncratic effects on fragrance choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.

  16. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  17. Psychological Aspects of Responding to Feedback in the Coaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways in which individuals respond to feedback received in the coaching process. In the first part, the author discusses different response styles to feedback and their consequences. She focuses especially on the defensive, dominating, manipulative, and improvement-oriented behaviors of the coached. In the second part, she addresses psychological determinants of effective feedback reception by the coaching participants, including their dispositional determinants. The author concludes emphasizing that for the coached to correct their behavior, the provision of feedback by coaches must be founded on the knowledge of the mechanisms and the dispositional determinants of human functioning.

  18. Effect of exposure to ozone and coincident viral infection on airway integrity and defense mechanisms of the lung. Atemwegsschaedigung und Abwehrmechanismen der Lunge beim Zusammentreffen von inhalativer Schadstoffexposition und viralen Atemwegsinfekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihorst, J.; Hardt, H. v.d. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Kinderheilkunde 1 - Paediatrische Pneumologie); Muhle, H.; Roesler, J.; Lohmann-Matthes, M. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung (ITA), Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    In an animal model (BALB/c-mice) the effects of ozone inhalation and a coincident respiratory infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are to be evaluated. By means of an inhalative model antigen (ovalbumin) the integrity of the respiratory epithelium and the development of specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the lung will be assessed under different combinations of both noxious agents. The results might provide new insights into the respective role of air pollutants and viral infections and possible synergistic actions in airway disease. (orig.).

  19. Oncology clinicians' defenses and adherence to communication skills training with simulated patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mathieu; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the impact of clinicians' defense mechanisms-defined as self-protective psychological mechanisms triggered by the affective load of the encounter with the patient-on adherence to a communication skills training (CST). The population consisted of oncology clinicians (N=31) who participated in a CST. An interview with simulated cancer patients was recorded prior and 6 months after CST. Defenses were measured before and after CST and correlated with a prototype of an ideally conducted interview based on the criteria of CST-teachers. Clinicians who used more adaptive defense mechanisms showed better adherence to communication skills after CST than clinicians with less adaptive defenses (F(1, 29) =5.26, p=0.03, d=0.42). Improvement in communication skills after CST seems to depend on the initial levels of defenses of the clinician prior to CST. Implications for practice and training are discussed. Communication has been recognized as a central element of cancer care [1]. Ineffective communication may contribute to patients' confusion, uncertainty, and increased difficulty in asking questions, expressing feelings, and understanding information [2, 3], and may also contribute to clinicians' lack of job satisfaction and emotional burnout [4]. Therefore, communication skills trainings (CST) for oncology clinicians have been widely developed over the last decade. These trainings should increase the skills of clinicians to respond to the patient's needs, and enhance an adequate encounter with the patient with efficient exchange of information [5]. While CSTs show a great diversity with regard to their pedagogic approaches [6, 7], the main elements of CST consist of (1) role play between participants, (2) analysis of videotaped interviews with simulated patients, and (3) interactive case discussion provided by participants. As recently stated in a consensus paper [8], CSTs need to be taught in small groups (up to 10

  20. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  1. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Sani SH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

  2. Chronic idiopathic urticaria, psychological co-morbidity and posttraumatic stress: the impact of alexithymia and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Victoria; Chung, Man Cheung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), psychological co-morbidity, posttraumatic stress, repression and alexithymia. 89 participants with CIU and 105 without CIU responded to an online questionnaire. Both groups completed the general health questionnaire-12, the perceived stress scale, the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale and the Toronto alexithymia scale-20 and were categorised into four defence mechanism groups (repressive, defensive, high-anxious, low-anxious). CIU participants also completed the Skindex-17 and a self-report severity measure. CIU participants reported higher levels of alexithymia than the control group and their defence mechanism was most likely to be categorised as defensive, with conscious self-image management reported alongside high manifest anxiety. Partial least squares analysis revealed significant paths between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity and psychological co-morbidity. Posttraumatic stress was associated with alexithymia and type of defence mechanism. Only being in the high-anxious group partially mediated the relationship between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity. In conclusion, there is evidence for a relationship between CIU and trauma. The severity of posttraumatic symptoms varies depending upon alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms used. Disease severity and psychological co-morbidity are differentially influenced by the relationships between trauma, alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms.

  3. The Motivational Foundations of Prosocial Behavior From A Developmental Perspective-Evolutionary Roots and Key Psychological Mechanisms: Introduction to the Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, Maayan; Vaish, Amrisha; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Hastings, Paul D

    2016-11-01

    Prosocial behavior is versatile, multifaceted, and complex. This special section seeks to advance coherent, integrative understanding of prosocial development by addressing this topic through the prism of motivations. This conceptual Introduction presents key ideas that provide a framework for thinking about motivation for prosocial behavior and its development. It outlines the evolutionary roots of prosocial behavior, underscoring the interdependent roles of nature and nurture. This is followed by a discussion of several key psychological mechanisms reflecting different motivations for prosocial action (empathy for a distressed other, concern about another's goal, desire to act in accordance with internalized prosocial norms, and guilt). We discuss the critical components of each motivation and highlight pertinent contributions of the special section articles. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  5. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  6. A novel defense mechanism that is activated on amyloid-beta insult to mediate cell survival: role of SGK1-STAT1/STAT2 signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, W L; Chiu, T H; Tai, D J C; Ma, Y L; Lee, E H Y

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) is known to induce apoptotic cell death and its underlying mechanism has been studied extensively, but the endogenous protection mechanism that results from Abeta insult is less known...

  7. Is Psychology a Science?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    falsifiable theory- no matter what symptom or behaviour a person expresses, it is always possible to explain it with reference to early childhood complexes, defense mechanisms, or constructs like the id, ego and superego. Far from being a strength, ...

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.

  10. Unconscious vigilance: worldview defense without adaptations for terror, coalition, or uncertainty management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this "worldview defense" effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Genetic transformation of cotton with a harpin-encoding gene hpaXoo confers an enhanced defense response against different pathogens through a priming mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weiguo; Wang, Xiben; Li, Ming; Song, Congfeng; Wang, Yu; Hu, Dongwei; Wang, Jinsheng

    2010-04-15

    The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34) with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Cells of the transgenic T-34, when mixed with the conidia suspension of V. dahliae, had a higher tolerance to V. dahliae compared to cells of untransformed Z35. Cells of T-34 were more viable 12 h after mixing with V. dahliae conidia suspension. Immunocytological analysis showed that Hpa1Xoo, expressed in T-34, accumulated as clustered particles along the cell walls of T-34. In response to the infection caused by V. dahliae, the microscopic cell death and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates were observed in leaves of T-34 and these responses were absent in leaves of Z35 inoculated with V. dahliae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that five defense-related genes, ghAOX1, hin1, npr1, ghdhg-OMT, and hsr203J, were up-regulated in T-34 inoculated with V. dahliae. The up-regulations of these defense-relate genes were not observed or in a less extent in leaves of Z-35 after the inoculation. Hpa1Xoo accumulates along the cell walls of the transgenic T-34, where it triggers the generation of H2O2 as an endogenous elicitor. T-34 is thus in a primed state, ready to protect the host from the pathogen. The results of this study suggest that the transformation of cotton with hpa1Xoo could be an effective approach for the development of cotton varieties with the improved resistance against soil-borne pathogens.

  12. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  13. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. An empirical study of defensive avoidance in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutoussis, Michael; El-Deredy, Wael; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether psychological defensive avoidance is associated with paranoia. To elucidate whether "Poor-me" paranoid patients, who believe that the persecution they perceive is undeserved, show more prominent avoidance of negative thoughts about themselves than healthy and clinical controls. The act of avoidance of aversive mental contents was assessed in 27 healthy controls and 48 patients with poor-me, bad-me (perceived to be deserved) or no paranoia. Defensive avoidance was assessed via established questionnaires, a novel task based on self-discrepancy theory and research-clinician ratings. Participants in all groups showed substantial levels of verbal defensive avoidance. Paranoia was associated with reduced self-reported tolerance of negative mental contents (high Experiential Avoidance, EA). Contrary to our hypotheses, poor-me and bad-me patients showed similar EA. All participant groups showed similar levels of verbal defensive avoidance. The findings do not support an association of psychological avoidance with paranoia.

  15. Versão em português do Defense Style Questionaire (DSQ-40 para avaliação dos mecanismos de defesa: um estudo preliminar Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 for defense mechanisms measure: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Blaya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é o de descrever o processo de tradução e adaptação do Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 versão em português e avaliar a validade de conteúdo dessa versão do instrumento. MÉTODOS: A primeira versão da escala foi apresentada para cinco indivíduos, com graus diferentes de escolaridade, que efetuaram pequenos ajustes de linguagem. Posteriormente, a escala foi apresentada para três "experts", que avaliaram a validade de conteúdo do instrumento. A versão final foi retraduzida e apresentada para o autor do instrumento original que aceitou essa versão do DSQ-40. RESULTADOS: Houve necessidade de pequenos ajustes no vocabulário em nove questões e modificações na linguagem em quatro questões, resultando na versão final do instrumento. A média de correlação dos "experts" com cada defesa foi de 89%, e dos fatores maduros, imaturos e neuróticos foi de 100%. CONCLUSÕES: A adaptação do DSQ-40 por diferentes indivíduos com diferentes graus de escolaridade e pelo grupo de experts possibilitou o ajuste à realidade sociocultural brasileira.The aim of this study is to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 into Brazilian-Portuguese version. The instrument has also contended validation evaluation. METHODS: The first version of the scale was presented to five individuals with different schooling for language adaptation. Afterwards the instrument was presented to three experts that evaluated its content validation. The final version was back-translated and accepted by the original author. RESULTS: Vocabulary adjustments were needed in 9 items and language adaptation in 4 items in order to render the final DSQ-40 Brazilian-Portuguese version. The mean of experts' correlation to each defense was 89%, being 100% to mature, neurotic and immature factors. CONCLUSION: The adaptation of DSQ-40 by different individuals and the group of experts enabled the necessary

  16. Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collins

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. Furthermore, we reported recently that epigenetic changes related to gene transcription are involved in memory formation of stressful events. In view of the enhanced coping capabilities in exercised subjects we investigated epigenetic, gene expression and behavioral changes in 4-weeks voluntarily exercised rats.Exercised and control rats coped differently when exposed to a novel environment. Whereas the control rats explored the new cage for the complete 30-min period, exercised animals only did so during the first 15 min after which they returned to sleeping or resting behavior. Both groups of animals showed similar behavioral responses in the initial forced swim session. When re-tested 24 h later however the exercised rats showed significantly more immobility behavior and less struggling and swimming. If rats were killed at 2 h after novelty or the initial swim test, i.e. at the peak of histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction, then the exercised rats showed a significantly higher number of dentate granule neurons expressing the histone modifications and immediate-early gene induction.Thus, irrespective of the behavioral response in the novel cage or initial forced swim session, the impact of the event at the dentate gyrus level was greater in exercised rats than in control animals. Furthermore, in view of our concept that the neuronal response in the dentate gyrus after forced swimming is involved in memory formation of the stressful event, the observations in exercised rats of enhanced neuronal responses as well as higher immobility responses in the re-test are consistent with the reportedly improved cognitive performance in these animals. Thus, improved stress coping in exercised subjects seems to involve enhanced cognitive capabilities possibly resulting from distinct epigenetic mechanisms in dentate gyrus neurons.

  17. DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PIG SYMPOSIUM: Involvement of gut chemosensing in the regulation of mucosal barrier function and defense mechanisms1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Kaji, I.; Akiba, Y.; Kaunitz, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Meal ingestion is followed by release of numerous hormones from enteroendocrine cells interspersed among the epithelial cells lining the intestine. Recently, the de-orphanization of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type nutrient receptors, expressed on the apical membranes of enteroendocrine cells, has suggested a plausible mechanism whereby luminal nutrients trigger the release of gut hormones. Activation of nutrient receptors triggers intracellular signaling mechanisms that promote exocyto...

  18. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  19. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  20. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  1. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  2. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  3. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    , every country and every society has approached changes in this domain in different ways, but most of these reforms may include the term New Public Management. The societies that have gone deeply in change seek to improve the New Public Management concept by accepting the principle of Public Value ​​Management.   Management in the defense system   Regarding the public sector width, appropriate management models are different  from segment to segment. One of the most specific segments of public sector is the defense system. Regardless of awareness of management in the defense system of the necessity of increasing the effectiveness and efficiency in management, there are numerous risks that may prevent achievement of these goals. Certain specifics in terms of organizational complexity of military systems, in the sense of freedom and autonomy in decision making, human resource management, way of functioning, etc., make defense management,, in some areas, considerably more complex than this is the case with civil organization systems. If mechanisms established to regulate the system have a demotivating character, the consequences can be very negative. Generally, there are two categories of managers in defense systems: general managers and professional managers. A large problem in the management of defense systems is transparency and measurability of results. Accordingly, management reforms in the defense must be directed to the state (the relevant Ministry which seeks to achieve the set goals in specific areas, and to service users (citizens who also want high quality of this public service. The characteristics and the results of the management in defense system logistics are direct indicators and a prism through which the management of the overall system can be viewed and its performance evaluated.   Improving the management of defense logistics   Given the global economic situation, many states are trying to achieve the desired efficiency and effectiveness by

  4. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice. PMID:28465709

  5. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Scuteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients’ quality of life (QoL, relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice.

  6. PTSD and Psychological Debriefing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a personal, community or national crisis or disaster there is a need to provide some form of early intervention and crisis support. The essential components of successful early interventions include planning, education, training and support for those affected. The goal of all early interventions should be to maximize the likelihood of a positive mental health outcome using the person’s own adaptive coping mechanisms and support structures. Psychological debriefing (PD has been described as an intervention conducted by trained professionals shortly after a catastrophe, allowing victims to talk about their experience and receive information on “normal” types of reactions to such an event. Psychological debriefing has been developed and has been at the centre of significant levels of controversy during the past 15 years. Talking through traumatic or stressful events may help the psychological recovery of those who have suffered psychological insults.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  10. Psychological Correlates of Civilian Preparedness for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-08-01

    Preparedness for emergencies and disasters is imperative for public resilience. Previous studies have revealed low levels of civilian preparedness for conflicts. Classic behavioral models prove inapt in describing preparedness patterns in victimized populations chronically exposed to this threat. In an effort to expand this perspective, we hypothesized that other psychological constructs are correlated with preparedness. A cross-sectional, Internet-based study was performed in Israel in early 2016. A sociodemographically diverse sample included 385 participants, Jews and Arabs. The tools included a preparedness index, sense of preparedness questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Life Orientation Test, Behavioral Inhibition & Activation System scales, and ego defenses. The results suggested that optimistic and rational individuals reported significantly higher levels of preparedness, whereas those who scored highly on the trait anxiety scale and those with a tendency to use denial coping mechanisms reported significantly lower levels of preparedness. The findings suggest that additional constructs, other than classic threat perception components, might play a key role in governing preparedness behavior. In particular, psychological manipulation of dispositional optimism or optimistic thinking might be effective in motivating preparedness behavior. Future research should explore such innovative ways to promoting preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:451-459).

  11. Defense Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    through the insertion of advanced jamming techniques. Progress in Digital RF Memory ( DRFM ) technology ( DRFM on a chip) is the basis for advanced, low cost...DoD Department of Defense DoE Department of Energy A-2 DoT Department of Transportation DRFM Digital RF Memory DSPO Defense Support Project Office E

  12. Role of Air Force Special Operations in Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    can detract from the menta.’ legitimacy of the state. The Salvadoran The necessity to maintain the fragile Organizacion DemocratIca Nacionallsta...supplement the regular forces while civil defense: or psychological opera- providing the people with a reason to tions.2 The flexibility required in...countries with (R&S). airlift, close air support (CAS), in- rudimentary infrastructure. In these terdiction, and psychological operations. cases, airlift

  13. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  14. Defense Management Challenges Facing DOD in Implementing Defense Reform Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Specifically, it is proposing to: reengineer many of its business processes; consolidate and reorganize DOD'S headquarters elements and defense agencies, including the Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  15. A novel antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism involved in defense against malaria requires costimulation of monocytes FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafarshad, Ali; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lundquist, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Clinical experiments have shown that the Ab-dependent cell-mediated inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum is a major mechanism controlling malaria parasitemia and thereby symptoms. In this study, we demonstrate that a single merozoite per monocyte (MN) is sufficient to trigger optimal antiparasitic......-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and implies that all MN are not equally effective. These findings have both fundamental and practical implications, particularly for vaccine discovery....

  16. Staphylococcus aureus sortase A contributes to the Trojan horse mechanism of immune defense evasion with its intrinsic resistance to Cys184 oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Jeffrey A; Murphy, Christine F; Dubois, Laura G; Thompson, J Will; Moseley, M Arthur; McCafferty, Dewey G

    2011-09-06

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes serious infections which have become increasingly difficult to treat due to antimicrobial resistance and natural virulence strategies. Bacterial sortase enzymes are important virulence factors and good targets for future antibiotic development. It has recently been shown that sortase enzymes are integral to bacterial survival of phagocytosis, an underappreciated, but vital, step in S. aureus pathogenesis. Of note, the reaction mechanism of sortases relies on a solvent-accessible cysteine for transpeptidation. Because of the common strategy of oxidative damage employed by professional phagocytes to kill pathogens, it is possible that this cysteine may be oxidized inside the phagosome, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. This study addresses this apparent paradox by assessing the ability of physiological reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite, to inhibit sortase A (SrtA) from S. aureus. Surprisingly, we found that SrtA is highly resistant to oxidative inhibition, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of resistance to oxidative damage is likely mediated by maintaining a high reduction potential of the catalytic cysteine residue, Cys184. This is due to the unusual active site utilized by S. aureus SrtA, which employs a reverse protonation mechanism for transpeptidation, resulting in a high pK(a) as well as reduction potential for Cys184. The results of this study suggest that S. aureus SrtA is able to withstand the extreme conditions encountered in the phagosome and maintain function, contributing to survival of phagocytotic killing.

  17. In silico genomic insights into aspects of food safety and defense mechanisms of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmate Abriouel

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food. The annotated genome sequence revealed evidence of diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, transposases and transposons involved in their adaptation to brine-associated niches. In-silico analysis of L. pentosus MP-10 genome sequence identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes as an immune system against foreign genetic elements, which consisted of six arrays (4-12 repeats and eleven predicted cas genes [CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 consisted of 3 (Type II-C and 8 (Type I genes] with high similarity to L. pentosus KCA1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed L. pentosus MP-10 to be absent of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, and most resistance genes were related to efflux mechanisms; no virulence determinants were found in the genome. This suggests that L. pentosus MP-10 could be considered safe and with high-adaptation potential, which could facilitate its application as a starter culture and probiotic in food preparations.

  18. In silico genomic insights into aspects of food safety and defense mechanisms of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Montoro, Beatriz; Casado Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food. The annotated genome sequence revealed evidence of diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, transposases and transposons involved in their adaptation to brine-associated niches. In-silico analysis of L. pentosus MP-10 genome sequence identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) as an immune system against foreign genetic elements, which consisted of six arrays (4-12 repeats) and eleven predicted cas genes [CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 consisted of 3 (Type II-C) and 8 (Type I) genes] with high similarity to L. pentosus KCA1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed L. pentosus MP-10 to be absent of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, and most resistance genes were related to efflux mechanisms; no virulence determinants were found in the genome. This suggests that L. pentosus MP-10 could be considered safe and with high-adaptation potential, which could facilitate its application as a starter culture and probiotic in food preparations.

  19. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  20. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  1. Self-forgiveness is associated with reduced psychological distress in cancer patients and unmatched caregivers: Hope and self-blame as mediating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Barry, Michael; Angus, Drew; Bornfriend, Lynn; Markman, Maurie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association between self-forgiveness and psychological distress and tested whether self-blame and hope mediated these associations equally for both patients and caregivers. Participants were 38 patients and 44 unmatched caregivers receiving care at a national cancer hospital. Participants completed measures of self-forgiveness, self-blame, hope, and psychological distress. Self-forgiveness was inversely associated with self-blame and psychological distress and positively associated with hope. Self-forgiveness was indirectly associated with psychological distress through hope but not self-blame and more strongly for caregivers than patients. Group differences between patients and caregivers in associations are intriguing and may have implications for improved psychosocial care of cancer patients and support of caregivers.

  2. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  3. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  4. Developing Confidence within Girls through Self-Defense Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Aaron L.

    2012-01-01

    Through physical activity, physical educators have long sought to improve the self-efficacy and self-esteem in girls and young woman. Current research indicates that self-defense education may have a positive psychological impact on female participants, specifically regarding the development of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Through participation…

  5. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...... of political, military, organizational, and technological challenges and possibilities are related to the development of green solutions for defense. Based on this conclusion the report argues that it is essential to comprehensively describe how a green solution is linked to a security challenge to develop...

  6. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  7. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  8. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  9. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    as a carrot and a stick. In the balance of this article, I want to focus on this second principle. How do we use profit effectively to obtain better...low), cost ($), performance (a composite scaled metric) and degree of small business utilization (with its own scale). Think how this would have...the Department of Defense went through a period of transition that included major chang­ es in defense budgets and force composition . But today we are

  10. New technology favors defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herolf, G. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden))

    1988-09-01

    Many new technological developments thus serve offensive plans. But in most cases the new technology can serve both offensive and defensive purposes. In fact, the technological trends actually favor the defense overall, partly because of some inherent weaknesses in an offensive military posture. Not only is the technology itself versatile, but some components and even some weapons now under development or in operation are suitable for strictly defensive activities. Moreover, some technologies would work much better in a defensive context than they would in the offensive missions for which they were designed. Not all proponents of nonoffensive defense would agree that defensive plans should take advantage of new technologies. The Study Group on Alternative Security Policy, for one, has warned against technical fetishism and recommends extreme caution in accepting the products of modern technology. Some analysts also prefer simple, sturdy systems to complicated, high-tech ones which tend to be fragile. Some of the technologies now under development are considered expensive, vulnerable, and easy to counteract.

  11. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  12. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  13. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  14. Italian version of the defense style questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martini, Pietro; Roma, Paolo; Sarti, Sara; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Bond, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) assesses defensive behavior by empirically evaluating conscious derivatives of defense and coping mechanisms in everyday life. It was developed on the assumption that defenses can be ordered along a maturity-immaturity continuum and tend to group into clusters, or defensive styles. The original factor analytical study, by Bond et al. (1983) identified four styles, called maladaptive, image-distorting, self-sacrifice, and adaptive styles. Successive studies only partially confirmed this factor structure. We present the factor structure and the main psychometric features of the Italian version of the questionnaire. The DSQ was translated into Italian by the back-translation method and administered to a sample of 294 men (mean age, 33.33 years) and 333 women (mean age, 32.38 years). An exploratory factor analysis identified three factors largely corresponding to Bond's maladaptive, image-distorting, and adaptive defensive styles and to analogous factors identified by other authors. Accordingly, three defense style scales were constructed, containing respectively 37, 17, and 12 items. These scales showed intercorrelations compatible with the hierarchical model of defensive functioning at the base of the questionnaire, acceptable, though ameliorable, test-retest reliabilities (r's = .79, .63, and .81, respectively) and, with the exception of the Adaptive Style scale, sufficient internal consistencies (alphas: .85, .72, .57). However, only the Maladaptive Style scale, probably due to its greater length, showed values of reliability and internal consistency high enough to warrant clinical use in its present form. Further investigation is required to find new items that may improve the reliability of the Image-Distorting and the Adaptive Style scales.

  15. Unconscious Vigilance: Worldview Defense Without Adaptations for Terror, Coalition, or Uncertainty Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this “worldview defense” effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. PMID:21644809

  16. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Defense Industrial Base DID Data Item Description DIEA Department of Defense Information Enterprise Architecture DIPEC Defense Industrial Plant...CJCSI 6212.01F). Department of Defense Information Enterprise Architecture ( DIEA ) A federation of descriptions that provide context and rules for

  17. The psychological boundary of nurses separating professional and maternal roles

    OpenAIRE

    Laušmanová, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Author: Alexandra Laušmanová Institute: Institute of social medicine FM CU in Hradec Králové Nursing department Title: The Psychological Boundary of Nurses separating Professional and Maternal Roles Supervisor: Bc. Eva Prchalová Number of pages: 131 Number of attachments: 4 Year of defense: 2007 Keywords: psychological boundary, social role, family, child needs, psychological strain on nurses, work conditions of nurses, realistic options in compatibility of professional and parent role This b...

  18. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ethics in health care: the practice of defensive medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such advertisements support a common consumer- orientated mechanical model of malpractice which implies that if there is injury or illness, then there must have been medical negligence. Is it any wonder that doctors are increasingly embracing what is termed “defensive medicine”? Defensive medicine, a significant ...

  20. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV

  1. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  3. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  4. Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1999-11-01

    To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.

  5. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  6. Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving toward a Model of Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Parker, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    Among people exposed to major psychological stressors in early life, there are elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases of aging. The most compelling data come from studies of children raised in poverty or maltreated by their parents, who show heightened vulnerability to vascular disease, autoimmune disorders, and premature…

  7. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  8. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  9. Role of Psychological Factors in Individuals Investment Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasrita Lubis; M Dileep Kumar; P Ikbar; Saqib Muneer

    2015-01-01

    ... (risk, repay and corporate data). With regard to this aim, the criteria for investment decision were examined through defense mechanisms, personality traits, emotional intelligence and financial literacy...

  10. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    diminue le contenu en chlorophylle et augmente la quantité de composés absorbant l'UV-B tels que des anthocyanines et des flavonoïdes. D'autres altérations d'UV-induits ont inclus la réduction de poids à l'état frais ainsi que de la surface foliaire. Cependant, on a observé des feuilles ridées et un accroissement en ...

  11. COPING MECHANISM OF CAREER WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosnani Rosnani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with cancer may experience psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, anger, helplessness, and unappreciated, so in certain situations require defense mechanisms (coping mechanism to oppose or resist feelings of anxiety, fear or stress that haunt her. The aim of this study was to know the coping mechanism of career women with breast cancer reviewed by phenomenology in Palembang 2016. Method: Type of this study was a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Total samples were 8 participants with inclusion criteria: career women, productive age range, health physic and physiologic. Independent variable was a coping mechanism, and the dependent variable was breast cancer. The instrument used the voice recorder, and interview guides. Data analyze used verbatim transcript with credibility, dependability, and confirmability. Result: The results showed that working women who have breast cancer have a coping strategy that is adjusted to the psychological condition and physical reactions of the therapy in progress. Psychologically, the coping mechanism is in the form of rejecting, drawing closer to Allah SWT, seeking the opinion of other health workers, discussing conditions with spouse and family, seeking alternative treatment and asking for doctor's direction. The coping mechanism of the body's reaction to therapy is done by taking medicine according to the rules and remember Allah SWT. Conclusions: Need the support of the coping mechanism in patients with breast cancer and nursing care approach with the pattern of coping mechanisms with the involvement of the family.

  12. Analysis of Psychological Growth of the Main Character in Chenlun by Yu Dafu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuc Lin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the psychological aspect of the main character in the novel “Chen Lun”. The feelings of inferiority and loneliness are his initial mental states. The latter is caused by two factors: the social and personality factors while the former is caused by the political condition in China at that time and the fact that the Japanese underestimate the Chinese people. The writer uses Freud’s theory on the structure of personality and conflict, anxiety, and the defense mechanism to analyze the process of the psychological development of the main character. In the end of the story, the main character commits suicide since “he” cannot only solve the problem of his loneliness and inferiority but also he feels guilty of his wrongdoing which crushes his-ideal-self. The guilty feeling haunts him in such a way that he even denies himself.

  13. The onset, development, basic patterns and empirical norms of DSQ-40 psychological test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological defence mechanisms represent relatively stable aspect of personality, while character and frequency of defence mechanisms which a person uses, points to the character structure of personality. Measuring psychological defence mechanisms is very difficult and very unreliable, so that only several instruments have been developed for the estimation of such characteristics. The most notable instrument of this kind in the world is DSQ-40 (Defense Style Questionnaire, which has lately been more often used in our country. As DSQ-40 is still not widely known in our environment, the aim of this study was to represent the onset and the development of this test, its basic characteristics and empirical norms acquired on our population. Examination included two examined groups in military population of male sex only: soldiers of adolescent age (n=400 and officers of the adult age (n=165. Statistical analysis and the comparison of the results with corresponding standards obtained in foreign researches showed that defence style and structure of psychological defence mechanisms were connected with socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of examinees. It was concluded that norms of the test DSQ-40 must be adjusted to the concrete population, which hasn't diminished its practical values and employment in diagnostic and selection purposes.

  14. [Development, basic characteristics and empirical norms of the DSQ-40 psychological test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Dedić, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Psychological defence mechanisms represent relatively stable aspect of personality, while character and frequency of defence mechanisms which a person uses, points to the character structure of personality. Measuring psychological defence mechanisms is very difficult and very unreliable, so that only several instruments have been developed for the estimation of such characteristics. The most notable instrument of this kind in the world is DSQ-40 (Defense Style Questionnaire), which has lately been more often used in our country. As DSQ-40 is still not widely known in our environment, the aim of this study was to represent the onset and the development of this test, its basic characteristics and empirical norms acquired on our population. Examination included two examined groups in military population of male sex only: soldiers of adolescent age (n = 400) and officers of the adult age (n = 165). Statistical analysis and the comparison of the results with corresponding standards obtained in foreign researches showed that defence style and structure of psychological defence mechanisms were connected with socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of examinees. It was concluded that norms of the test DSQ-40 must be adjusted to the concrete population, which hasn't diminished its practical values and employment in diagnostic and selection purposes.

  15. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  16. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  17. Multiple different defense mechanisms are activated in the young transgenic tobacco plants which express the full length genome of the Tobacco mosaic virus, and are resistant against this virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489-1494). Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7-8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X) induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the TMV replication

  18. Multiple different defense mechanisms are activated in the young transgenic tobacco plants which express the full length genome of the Tobacco mosaic virus, and are resistant against this virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Jada

    Full Text Available Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489-1494. Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7-8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the

  19. Multiple Different Defense Mechanisms Are Activated in the Young Transgenic Tobacco Plants Which Express the Full Length Genome of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, and Are Resistant against this Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J.; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489–1494). Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7–8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X) induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the TMV

  20. Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linden, Carol D

    2001-01-01

    Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical...

  1. Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving Towards a Model of Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Parker, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    Among people exposed to major psychological stressors in early life, there are elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases of aging. The most compelling data come from studies of children raised in poverty or maltreated by their parents, who show heightened vulnerability to vascular disease, autoimmune disorders, and premature mortality. These findings raise challenging theoretical questions. How does childhood stress get under the skin, at the molecular level, to affect r...

  2. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  3. Center for Infrastructure Defense

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. The Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) focuses on the continued operation of critical military and civilian infrastructure in the presence of accident, failure, and attack. Operations Research (OR) Department in the Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  4. Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    to the United States as a result of cyber espionage and cybercrime is over$100 billion dollars per year.13,14The DoD faces a cyber defense investment...that cost continues 17 L. Ablon, M.C. Libicki, and A.A. Golay. Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar. Santa Monica, CA: RAND

  5. Defense Spending and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...global military spending is China with 7 percent, and United Kingdom comes in a distant third with 4 percent (see Table 2).8 Table 1 Adjusted

  6. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  7. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles . We are currently sustaining 30...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Name Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) DoD Component DoD Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Planning Estimate) National Security

  9. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MoDA and DIILS Support of DIB Activity Objectives . . . . . . . 26 2.8. Overlapping Program Objectives...Wales Initiative Fund–Defense Institution Building (WIF-DIB), the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) program, and the Defense Insti- tute of...other events and activities related to a partner nation’s defense institution capabilities and capacity. One exception is MoDA , where engagements are

  10. Belowground herbivory and plant defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground-feeding herbivores may be very destructive to plants. Roots are known to produce various defense compounds to protect themselves against these herbivores, both with direct and indirect—inducible—defense compounds. Recent literature reviews reveal no overall pattern for root-shoot defense

  11. Psychological Factors in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is one of the most emphasized psychosomatic disorders. Age, sexuality, excessive salt and alcohol consumption, lower activity level, fatigue, personality traits, emotional factors and stress are some of the risk factors for essential hypertension. The presence of emotional factors in the etiology of the essential hypertension and the emergence of psychiatric symptoms in the course of the illness has driven considerable attention from mental health workers on the disease for a long time. Some of the personality traits that make a person vulnerable to hypertension are being over controlled, being submissive, and hardworking. Hypertension is accepted to be a reaction against suppressed emotions and an adaptive and defense mechanism of the body. Among persons who are prone to hypertension, sympathetic nerve system is affected as a response to emotional stress and hypertension appears as a result of vasoconstriction and other autonomous responses. All at once, it was also shown that vasoconstrictor response continues much longer in hypertensive individuals than in normotensive patients. Autonomic response to stress almost always displays itself as hypertension in individuals who are prone to hypertension. Moreover, normotensive children of hypertensive parents also have elevation in blood pressures as a response to emotional stress almost without exception. The increase in sympathetic stimulus, re-modulation of bar receptors by structural and functional changes are the main features of the most commonly valid hypothesis in essential hypertension, currently. According to this hypothesis: as a result of emotional stress, inhibition over vasomotor center decreases and output of stimulus increases; epigenetic changes in endothelial structure of carotid sinus and/or aortic arch and/or vasomotor centers occurs; and finally stress increases sympathetic stimulus output. This situation leads to neurohormonal excitation; increases in

  12. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month In November, the military community recognizes the strength and resilience – physically, mentally, and spiritually – of our wounded, ill, and injured service members, and their families and caregivers. Warrior Care Month ... of Strength.” This strength is represented in the physical, mental, ...

  13. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  14. Original article Identifying indicators of defensive activity in narration about important interpersonal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Soroko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the main components of psychological conversation that influence communication is psychological defensiveness. 
In the paper I propose processual – situational understanding of defensiveness, and its measurement based on coding system. Preliminary results on link between personality traits and defensiveness in people’s narratives are presented as well. Participants and procedure To test proposed coding system, study was conducted with participants presenting different levels of personality organization’s (borderline: n = 35, 20 women, M = 26.09, SD = 4.82, neurotic: n = 29, 24 women, M = 25.90, SD = 5.25, integrated: n = 31, 26 women, M = 21.94, SD = 1.69. Correlation method was applied (Borderline Personality Inventory, Neuroticism Scale, Emotion Control Inventory, as well as narrative’s interviews. Participants’ statements were coded by competent judges (defensiveness and coherence of narratives, and by automatic lexical analyses (descriptive indicators. Results Results indicate that proposed defensiveness coding system is a set of heterogeneous indicators, and four groups of indicators could be extracted. Correlations between those indicators and expression control (positive relation, and coherence of narratives (negative relation. Moreover, differences between borderline participants and neurotic ones emerged. Conclusions Proposed coding system seems to be a heterogeneous but useful tool for assessing defensiveness during psychological interviews. It could be applied as an element of a procedural control measures, directed to test the reliability of psychological conversation.

  15. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  16. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  17. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  18. Molecular and structural antioxidant defenses against oxidative stress in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Costantini, David

    2011-10-01

    In this review, it is our aim 1) to describe the high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses against oxidative stress in animals, 2) to extend the traditional concept of antioxidant to other structural and functional factors affecting the "whole" organism, 3) to incorporate, when supportable by evidence, mechanisms into models of life-history trade-offs and maternal/epigenetic inheritance, 4) to highlight the importance of studying the biochemical integration of redox systems, and 5) to discuss the link between maximum life span and antioxidant defenses. The traditional concept of antioxidant defenses emphasizes the importance of the chemical nature of molecules with antioxidant properties. Research in the past 20 years shows that animals have also evolved a high diversity in structural defenses that should be incorporated in research on antioxidant responses to reactive species. Although there is a high diversity in antioxidant defenses, many of them are evolutionary conserved across animal taxa. In particular, enzymatic defenses and heat shock response mediated by proteins show a low degree of variation. Importantly, activation of an antioxidant response may be also energetically and nutrient demanding. So knowledge of antioxidant mechanisms could allow us to identify and to quantify any underlying costs, which can help explain life-history trade-offs. Moreover, the study of inheritance mechanisms of antioxidant mechanisms has clear potential to evaluate the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to stress response phenotype variation.

  19. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  20. Allergic Host Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Fur...

  1. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  2. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  3. Splitting and Projection: Drawing on Psychodynamics in Educational Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reflects the author's journey into an area of psychology which is not dominant in Educational Psychology discourse, namely psychodynamic psychology. Two psychodynamic mechanisms, namely splitting and projection are explained, and then the author describes and critiques how these mechanisms have proved useful in his practice. Two case…

  4. The evolutionary psychology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Aaron T

    2010-02-01

    This paper reviews theory and research on the evolutionary psychology of violence. First, I examine evidence suggesting that humans have experienced an evolutionary history of violence. Next, I discuss violence as a context-sensitive strategy that might have provided benefits to our ancestors under certain circumstances. I then focus on the two most common forms of violence that plague humans -violence over status contests and intimate partner violence- outlining psychological mechanisms involved in each. Finally, I suggest that greater progress will be made by shifting the study from contexts to mechanisms.

  5. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  6. Disgust sensitivity predicts defensive responding to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Tumorigenesis: cell defense against hypoxia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Pakravan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microenvironmental elements can directly contribute to the induction and the maintenance of tumor. Oxygen is the main element in the cell microenvironment and hypoxia can affect the process of tumorigenesis. In response to hypoxia, cells change their pattern and characteristics. These changes suggest that it is not just adaptation, but some sort of cell defense against hypoxia. If hypoxia is corrected, then cell defense mechanisms are interrupted. An examination of the process of tumorigenesis helps to design better therapeutic strategies.A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and ISI Web databases for studies on changes that defend and help cells to live in a hypoxic microenvironment. Cells respond to hypoxia by de-differentiation and an increase in heat shock proteins. Angiogenesis and deviation of inflammatory response in favor of hypoxic cell survival also defend and save the oxygen-starved cells from death. Finally, anti-angiogenic therapies and more hypoxia enhance metastasis, as tumors with low oxygen concentration are more malignant than tumors with high oxygen concentration. All these enable cells to migrate away from low oxygen areas and seek a more conducive microenvironment. Therapies that make the microenvironment more hypoxic need to be revised. This has been done for antiangiogenic therapies, previously considered to be anti-tumor approaches. Effective therapies may be correcting therapies which direct the tumor microenvironment towards natural physical/chemical condition. Correcting therapies either bring back tumor cells to a normal form (correct tumor cells or help the immune system to eradicate tumor cells which can not be corrected.

  8. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  10. Self Defense Module

    OpenAIRE

    Shibi k john

    2014-01-01

    Self Defense module is like a Smart Watch For Women .It has the potential to help women with technologies that are embedded. It is specially designed for women safety. It has a control button that will be used by women to inform nearby police when they are in danger. This watch directly gets connected to the satellite through GPS when activated. Then the location is transferred through the GSM and it is also provided with a system that produces 60 shockwaves in 1 second in emergency situations.

  11. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  12. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  13. The Three Bacterial Lines of Defense against Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Shi, Qing-Shan; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Xie, Xiao-Bao

    2015-09-09

    Antimicrobial agents target a range of extra- and/or intracellular loci from cytoplasmic wall to membrane, intracellular enzymes and genetic materials. Meanwhile, many resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria to counter antimicrobial agents have been found and reported in the past decades. Based on their spatially distinct sites of action and distribution of location, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of bacteria were categorized into three groups, coined the three lines of bacterial defense in this review. The first line of defense is biofilms, which can be formed by most bacteria to overcome the action of antimicrobial agents. In addition, some other bacteria employ the second line of defense, the cell wall, cell membrane, and encased efflux pumps. When antimicrobial agents permeate the first two lines of defense and finally reach the cytoplasm, many bacteria will make use of the third line of defense, including alterations of intracellular materials and gene regulation to protect themselves from harm by bactericides. The presented three lines of defense theory will help us to understand the bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents and design efficient strategies to overcome these resistances.

  14. The Three Bacterial Lines of Defense against Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents target a range of extra- and/or intracellular loci from cytoplasmic wall to membrane, intracellular enzymes and genetic materials. Meanwhile, many resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria to counter antimicrobial agents have been found and reported in the past decades. Based on their spatially distinct sites of action and distribution of location, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of bacteria were categorized into three groups, coined the three lines of bacterial defense in this review. The first line of defense is biofilms, which can be formed by most bacteria to overcome the action of antimicrobial agents. In addition, some other bacteria employ the second line of defense, the cell wall, cell membrane, and encased efflux pumps. When antimicrobial agents permeate the first two lines of defense and finally reach the cytoplasm, many bacteria will make use of the third line of defense, including alterations of intracellular materials and gene regulation to protect themselves from harm by bactericides. The presented three lines of defense theory will help us to understand the bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents and design efficient strategies to overcome these resistances.

  15. Empowering self-defense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martha E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of self-defense training is to expand people's options, yet it is often framed as a solely physical, and limiting, response to violence. I draw on my own experience as a self-defense instructor and that of others in the self-defense movement to argue that an empowerment approach to self-defense training contributes to the anti-violence movement in multiple ways: providing a pathway to increase women's and girls' safety and their potential for becoming powerful and effective social change agents right now, providing an informed and embodied understanding of violence, and offering comprehensive options to recognize, prevent, and interrupt violence.

  16. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  17. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  19. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  20. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  1. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Våge

    Full Text Available Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating and top-down (biomass regulating factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW, predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  2. Continuing to assist Albania's Defense Ministry

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Defense Institution Reform Initiative (DIRI) continued to support the Albanian Ministry of Defense in a Strategic Defense Review (SDR) in Tirana, Albania 6-9 November. This engagement was the thirteenth in an eighteen-month series of SDR workshops to address the Government of Albania's desire to strengthen defense systems and processes within the Ministry of Defense.

  3. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  4. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  5. Insect response to plant defensive protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-07

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances.

  6. Tactical Integrated Air Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-09

    119 Patriot ........ ....................... 119 Roland 1I1 ..... ...................... ... 122 Stinger... Roland 11 ..... .. .. ......................... 122 42. Stinger ... . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 CHAPTER I INTRODUCT ION . Both air force and air...oreatest air defense systems of moidern warfare, As Major General George a. Simler stated. A ’"The air defen~se system in North Vietnam is the most

  7. Sources Of Evolution Of The Japan Air Self Defense Force’s Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    asserted that there is no defense practically in the air battle.41 In addition, he thought that one should arouse the enemy’s psychological damage...offensively. He asserted that air power should continue the offensive operations because the enemy is overwhelmed with psychological nervousness by just...also has been weakened due to the resignation of Ryutaro Hashimoto and the fall of the Social Democratic Party (SDP). At this juncture, the

  8. Macroevolution of plant defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A

    2007-02-01

    Theories of plant defense expression are typically based on the concepts of tradeoffs among traits and of phylogenetic conservatism within clades. Here, I review recent developments in phylogenetic approaches to understanding the evolution of plant defense strategies and plant-herbivore coevolutionary interactions. I focus particularly on multivariate defense against insect herbivores, which is the simultaneous deployment of multiple traits, often arranged as convergently evolved defense syndromes. Answering many of the outstanding questions in the biology of plant defense will require generating broad hypotheses that can be explicitly tested by using comparative approaches and interpreting phylogenetic patterns. The comparative approach has wide-spread potential to reinvigorate tests of classic hypotheses about the evolution of interspecific interactions.

  9. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  10. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  11. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  12. Psychological Vulnerability and Gambling in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cory B; Davis, Thomas D; Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Because behavioral problems often emerge from maladaptive coping methods, we investigated whether unmet basic psychological needs evolve toward a level of psychological vulnerability that puts older adults who gamble at risk for becoming problem gamblers. Data from a community sample of 379 adults ages 60 and above were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants responded to items regarding their demographics, gambling frequency, engagement in at-risk gambling behaviors, and the extent to which their basic psychological needs were met. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs among older adults who gamble was negatively associated with their being at risk for developing a gambling problem. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs also mediated the negative effect of socioeconomic status on at-risk gambling behavior. Social workers should become mindful of how older adults, who are confronting psychological vulnerabilities in later life, might well turn to gambling as a maladaptive coping mechanism.As per journal style, abstract must not exceed100 words. Please amend accordingly.

  13. Wormuth: Work on Security, Defense 'Holistically'

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Concepts spawned at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security could be very valuable to government entities such as the Department of Defense as that agency expands its focus in...

  14. Restoring depleted resources: Efficacy and mechanisms of change of an internet-based unguided recovery training for better sleep and psychological detachment from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, David D; Berking, Matthias; Thiart, Hanne; Riper, Heleen; Laferton, Johannes A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Sieland, Bernhard; Lehr, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of an Internet-based intervention, which aimed to improve recovery from work-related strain in teachers with sleeping problems and work-related rumination. In addition, mechanisms of change were also investigated. A sample of 128 teachers with elevated symptoms of insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] ≥ 15) and work-related rumination (Cognitive Irritation Scale ≥ 15) was assigned to either an Internet-based recovery training (intervention condition [IC]) or to a waitlist control condition (CC). The IC consisted of 6 Internet-based sessions that aimed to promote healthy restorative behavior. Self-report data were assessed at baseline and again after 8 weeks. Additionally, a sleep diary was used starting 1 week before baseline and ending 1 week after postassessment. The primary outcome was insomnia severity. Secondary outcomes included perseverative cognitions (i.e., work-related rumination and worrying), a range of recovery measures and depression. An extended 6-month follow-up was assessed in the IC only. A serial multiple mediator analysis was carried out to investigate mechanisms of change. IC participants displayed a significantly greater reduction in insomnia severity (d = 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.77) than did participants of the CC. The IC was also superior with regard to changes in all investigated secondary outcomes. Effects were maintained until a naturalistic 6-month follow-up. Effects on insomnia severity were mediated by both a reduction in perseverative cognitions and sleep effort. Additionally, a greater increase in number of recovery activities per week was found to be associated with lower perseverative cognitions that in turn led to a greater reduction in insomnia severity. This study provides evidence for the efficacy of an unguided, Internet-based occupational recovery training and provided first evidence for a number of assumed mechanisms of change. (PsycINFO Database

  15. Soluble Host Defense Lectins in Innate Immunity to Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wy Ching; Tate, Michelle D.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Host defenses against viral infections depend on a complex interplay of innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) components. In the early stages of infection, innate mechanisms represent the main line of host defense, acting to limit the spread of virus in host tissues prior to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Serum and lung fluids contain a range of lectins capable of recognizing and destroying influenza A viruses (IAV). Herein, we review the mechanisms by which soluble endogenous lectins mediate anti-IAV activity, including their role in modulating IAV-induced inflammation and disease and their potential as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments during severe IAV-induced disease. PMID:22665991

  16. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  17. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  18. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  19. Defensive measures against hostile takeovers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the corporate takeover regime and defensive measures against hostile takeover bids in Slovenia. Although takeover legislation does not differentiate between hostile and friendly takeover, it prescribes the limitation of powers for the management of the target company, with the intention of preventing the use of defensive measures against the hostile takeover. In light of an expected rise in hostile takeover bids in Slovenia, the Corporate Act and the Takeover Act are analysed and accordingly the array of possible preventive measures as well as ad-hoc measures against hostile bids identified and evaluated for their anti-takeover effectiveness. A hostile takeover in Slovenia usually involves a hostile public tender offer at a substantial premium over the prevailing market price for a substantial percentage of the target company’s stock. Managers of target companies use in takeover battles a variety of defensive tactics, which could be controversial because they pose a conflict of interest for management. Duty of neutrality of the management of the target company during takeover process is therefore discussed in connection with the limitation of use of applicable ad hoc defence mechanisms in that period.

  20. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits, such as...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels....

  1. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  2. Assessment of military population-based psychological resilience programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brenda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2011-09-01

    Active duty service members' (ADSMs) seemingly poor adaptability to traumatic stressors is a risk to force health. Enhancing the psychological resilience of ADSMs has become a key focus of Department of Defense (DoD) leaders and the numbers of military programs for enhancing psychological resilience have increased. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of an assessment conducted to determine comprehensiveness of current psychological resilience building programs that target ADSMs. A modified six-step, population-based needs assessment was used to evaluate resilience programs designed to meet the psychological needs of the ADSM population. The assessment results revealed a gap in published literature regarding program outcomes. DoD leaders may benefit from targeted predictive research that assesses program effectiveness outcomes. The necessity of including preventive, evidence-based interventions in new programs, such as positive emotion interventions shown to enhance psychological resilience in civilian samples, is also recommended.

  3. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  4. Cardiovascular profile of defensive hostile women in a real stressful situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palmero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the impact of defensive hostility on cardiovascular response in a stressful situation. By measuring three of the most commonly used cardiovascular indexes (heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure over three experimental phases (adaptation, task and recovery, the evolution of cardiovascular response was analyzed minute by minute throughout the entire experimental session, to check if the defensive hostility influences the cardiovascular function. Two scales were used: the Cook-Medley Composite Hostility Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Based on the scores on these scales, there were formed four groups (high hostility and high defensiveness, high hostility and low defensiveness, low hostility and high defensiveness, and low hostility and low defensiveness. The stressful situation which was used in the task phase was a real academic examination (exam of the Psychology degree. The hypothesis was that cardiovascular response, activation and recovery, minute by minute, will be greater in hostile defensive women, with an intraphase evolution profile characterized by maintenance or sensitization and slow recovery. Results show that defensive hostile individuals present the highest values in the physiological variables recorded, and less adaptive profiles.

  5. Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Vincent R; Krokene, Paal; Christiansen, Erik; Krekling, Trygve

    2005-08-01

    Conifers are long-lived organisms, and part of their success is due to their potent defense mechanisms. This review focuses on bark defenses, a front line against organisms trying to reach the nutrient-rich phloem. A major breach of the bark can lead to tree death, as evidenced by the millions of trees killed every year by specialized bark-invading insects. Different defense strategies have arisen in conifer lineages, but the general strategy is one of overlapping constitutive mechanical and chemical defenses overlaid with the capacity to up-regulate additional defenses. The defense strategy incorporates a graded response from 'repel', through 'defend' and 'kill', to 'compartmentalize', depending upon the advance of the invading organism. Using a combination of toxic and polymer chemistry, anatomical structures and their placement, and inducible defenses, conifers have evolved bark defense mechanisms that work against a variety of pests. However, these can be overcome by strategies including aggregation pheromones of bark beetles and introduction of virulent phytopathogens. The defense structures and chemicals in conifer bark are reviewed and questions about their coevolution with bark beetles are discussed. Copyright New Phytologist (2005).

  6. In Defense of the Body: The Effect of Mortality Salience on Female Body Objectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Routledge, Clay; Cook, Alison; Andersen, Christie; Arndt, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has illustrated the negative psychological consequences of female body objectification. The present study explores how female body objectification may serve as a defense against unconscious existential fears. Drawing from terror management theory, an experiment was designed to test the potential functionality of female body…

  7. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  8. Local Area Defense (LAD) Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackenzie, Colin F

    2004-01-01

    This pilot program is funded by the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) to demonstrate a real-time detection and rapid response system for local area defense using the University of Maryland Baltimore (UMB...

  9. Defenseive Structuring and Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J.

    1970-01-01

    This essay explores a kind of adaptation, referred to as defenseive structuring, that recurs with great regularity among groups that perceive themselves as exposed to environmental stress of long duration with which they cannot cope directly and aggressively." (Author)

  10. What is the mechanism effect that links social support to coping and psychological outcome within individuals affected by prostate cancer? Real time data collection using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Catherine; Jones, Martyn; Rattray, Janice; Lauder, William; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-04-01

    Unmet support needs are prevalent in men affected by prostate cancer. Moreover, little is known about the optimal type of social support, or its mechanism effect between coping and emotional outcome in men affected by this disease to identify areas for clinical intervention. This study aimed to empirically test the propositions of social support theory in "real time" within individual men living with and beyond prostate cancer. Purposeful sub-sample from a larger prospective longitudinal study of prostate cancer survivors, took part in real time data collection using mobile technology. Self-reports were collected for 31 days prompted by an audio alarm 3 times per day (a total of 93 data entries) for each of the 12 case studies. Electronic data were analysed using time series analysis. Majority of response rates were >90%. Men reported a lack of satisfaction with their support over time. Testing the propositions of social support theory "within individuals" over time demonstrated different results for main effect, moderation and mediation pathways that linked coping and social support to emotional outcome. For two men, negative effects of social support were identified. For six men the propositions of social support theory did not hold considering their within-person data. This innovative study is one of the first, to demonstrate the acceptability of e-health technology in an ageing population of men affected by prostate cancer. Collectively, the case series provided mixed support for the propositions of social support theory, and demonstrates that "one size does not fit all". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Origin and functional diversification of an amphibian defense peptide arsenal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Roelants

    Full Text Available The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization, completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones.

  12. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Russian of meeting between then Prime Minister Putin and defence experts in Sarov, Russia , February 24, 2012. 64. Viktor Yesin and Yevgeniy Savostyanov... Putin Letter to Obama to Address Missile Defense, Security,” RIA-Novosti, May 15, 2013, available from en.rian.ru/ russia /20130515/181170446.html...UNITED STATES · ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barrac , ’A STR KNG T H ..,... WI SDOM EUROPEAN MISSILE DEFENSE AND RUSSIA Keir Giles with

  13. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  14. Medicolegal characteristics of defense injuries in cases of homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rančić Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During the homicidal act, a victim usually tries to defend himself/herself, and due to these attempts he/she could sustain so-called defense injuries, mostly localized on the arms. The aim of this research was to analyze important medicolegal characteristics of defense injuries, particularly regarding their importance in forensic expertise of homicides. Methods. We analyzed autopsies of all homicidal cases with defense injuries in Belgrade during a three-year period. Results. Defensive injuries were registered in 71 victims of murder. The majority (67.61% of victims with defense injuries were males. About 25% of victims were aged from 21 to 30 years. The majority (60 of victims were not under influence of alcohol. Homicides were mostly (90.14% performed by mechanical weapons. The highest frequency of defense injuries was noticed in the victims with multiple homicidal injuries localized on the front side of the body. In a half (50.7% of the cases they were present on both arms of the victim, mostly on the dorsal side of hands and forearms. Bruises were the most frequent form of defense injuries (36.61% out of 71 cases, while incisions, abrasions, gunshot injuries and stab wounds were less common. Conclusion. Determination of defense injuries and their medicolegal characteristics enables collecting of facts that are important for legal estimation of homicide, as well as for adequate sentence at the end of the court procedure. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175014

  15. The Role of Hyaluronan in Innate Defense Responses of the Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. de la Motte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan is an abundant extracellular matrix component prevalent in the vertebrate intestinal tract. Here we discuss what is known about hyaluronan distribution during homeostasis and inflammatory diseases of the gut and discuss ways in which this glycosaminoglycan can participate in regulating innate host defense mechanisms. These natural responses include mechanisms promoting rapid leukocyte recruitment after bacterial challenge/colon tissue damage as well as promoting epithelial defense mechanisms in the intestine.

  16. The psychodynamics and developmental psychology of the borderline patient: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, E R

    1978-11-01

    The author reviews the psychodynamics and developmental psychology of the borderline patient as described in the literature on intensive therapy, early mother-child interaction, and family interaction. Focusing on the borderline patient's characteristic difficulties in intimate relationships, he describes the patient's use of splitting and projective identification as seen in the characteristic transference-countertransference interaction in intensive therapy. These primitive defensive mechanisms, which are also utilized by family members, appear to contribute to a failure of empathic responses both during the child's early development and in the family interactions during his adolescence. The author concludes that conceptual attempts to relate adult and child phenomena, although highly speculative, create new and useful perspectives for the treatment of the borderline patient.

  17. The MAP kinase substrate MKS1 is a regulator of plant defense responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jenkins, Thomas; Brodersen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) functions as a regulator of pathogen defense responses, because it is required for both repression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent resistance and for activation of jasmonate (JA)-dependent defense gene expression. To understand MPK4 signaling mechanisms, we used...

  18. Cross-talk in plant defense signaling: Antagonism between salicylate and jasmonate pathways in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833053

    2008-01-01

    Plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens. Some are pre-existing while others are only activated upon insect attack or pathogen invasion. However, induced defense responses entail fitness costs. Therefore, plants

  19. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  20. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  1. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  2. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  3. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR) 1000.22. SUMMARY: On May 18, 2011, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) published a Notice of...

  4. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation (DLAR...

  5. Innate immune signaling in defense against intestinal microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnebrew, Melissa A.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The gastrointestinal system is a common entry point for pathogenic microbes to access the inner environment of the body. Antimicrobial factors produced by the intestinal mucosa limit the translocation of both commensal and pathogenic microbes across the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. The regulation of these host defense mechanisms largely depends on the activation of innate immune receptors by microbial molecules. Under steady-state conditions, the microbiota provides constitutive signals to the innate immune system, which helps to maintain a healthy inflammatory tone within the intestinal mucosa and, thus, enhances resistance to infection with enteric pathogens. During an acute infection, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is breached, and the detection of microbial molecules in the intestinal lamina propria rapidly stimulates innate immune signaling pathways that coordinate early defense mechanisms. Herein, we review how microbial molecules shed by both commensal and pathogenic microbes direct host defenses at the intestinal mucosa. We highlight the signaling pathways, effector molecules, and cell populations that are activated by microbial molecule recognition and, thereby, are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic levels of host defense and in the early response to acute enteric infection. Finally, we discuss how manipulation of these host defense pathways by stimulating innate immune receptors is a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent or alleviate intestinal disease. PMID:22168416

  6. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinas, Nino A; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary "arms race" between plants and pathogens.

  7. Epigenetic control of defense signaling and priming in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR. These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements (TEs as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens.

  8. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  9. Changes in cytokinins are sufficient to alter developmental patterns of defense metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütting, Christoph; Schäfer, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Plant defense metabolites are well known to be regulated developmentally. The optimal defense (OD) theory posits that a tssue's fitness values and probability of attack should determine defense metabolite allocations. Young leaves are expected to provide a larger fitness value to the plant, and therefore their defense allocations should be higher when compared with older leaves. The mechanisms that coordinate development with defense remain unknown and frequently confound tests of the OD theory predictions. Here we demonstrate that cytokinins (CKs) modulate ontogeny-dependent defenses in Nicotiana attenuata. We found that leaf CK levels highly correlate with inducible defense expressions with high levels in young and low levels in older leaves. We genetically manipulated the developmental patterns of two different CK classes by using senescence- and chemically inducible expression of CK biosynthesis genes. Genetically modifying the levels of different CKs in leaves was sufficient to alter ontogenic patterns of defense metabolites. We conclude that the developmental regulation of growth hormones that include CKs plays central roles in connecting development with defense and therefore in establishing optimal patterns of defense allocation in plants. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  11. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  12. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  13. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  14. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  15. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  16. Psychological and interpersonal adaptation to Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.; Connors, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The crucial importance of a thorough understanding of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of Mars flights is indicated. This is necessary both to reduce the chances that psychological problems or interpersonal frictions will threaten the success of Mars missions and to enhance the quality of life of the people involved. Adaptation to interplanetary flight will depend on an interplay of the psychological stresses imposed by the missions and the psychological strengths and vulnerabilities of the crewmembers involved. Stresses may be reduced through environmental engineering, manipulating crew composition, and the structuring of situations and tasks. Vulnerabilities may be reduced through improving personnel selection procedures, training personnel in psychological and group dynamics, and providing mechanisms for emotional support. It is essential to supplement anecdotal evidence regarding the human side of space travel with the results of carefully conducted scientific research.

  17. Infertility as a psychological problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation.

  18. Rape Aggression Defense: Unique Self-Efficacy Benefits for Survivors of Sexual Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-06-01

    Self-defense training is consistently linked to psychological benefits for survivors of sexual trauma, yet little is known about how training may uniquely benefit survivors compared with their nonsurvivor peers enrolled in the same course. Path analysis was used to examine how history of sexual trauma impacts pre- and post-training scores on three domains of self-efficacy using a national sample of Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) participants. All participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy domains, and sexual trauma history significantly predicted pre-training interpersonal self-efficacy and post-training self-defense self-efficacy, suggesting that self-defense training confers benefits for survivors above and beyond benefits for other participants.

  19. Plant defense against herbivorous pests: exploiting resistance and tolerance traits for sustainable crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Mitchell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  20. Th17 responses and host defense against microorganisms: an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Gresnigt, M.S.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells have recently been described as a third subset of T helper cells, and have provided new insights into the mechanisms that are important in the development of autoimmune diseases and the immune responses that are essential for effective antimicrobial host defense. Both

  1. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    chronically by neuro-degenerative diseases. (Gurney et al., 1996; Levy and Bray, 2003). This may be due to the fact that brain consumes large quantities of oxygen relative to its contribution to total body mass and this with its paucity of oxidative defense mechanisms, place this organ at risk for damage mediated by reactive ...

  2. Incorporating Development Into Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Bjorklund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and children’s behavior/cognition/brains. The concept of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms is introduced, defined as information processing mechanisms evolved to solve recurrent problems faced by ancestral populations that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation and are based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. Early perceptual/cognitive biases result in behavior that, when occurring in a species-typical environment, produce continuous adaptive changes in behavior (and cognition, yielding adaptive outcomes. Examples from social learning and tool use are provided, illustrating the development of adaptations via evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms. The integration of developmental concepts into mainstream evolutionary psychology (and evolutionary concepts into mainstream developmental psychology will provide a clearer picture of what it means to be human.

  3. A relação entre os mecanismos de defesa e a qualidade da aliança terapêutica em psicoterapia de orientação analítica The relationship between defense mechanisms and the quality of therapeutic alliance in analytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Grilo Gomes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O estabelecimento de uma aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade em uma psicoterapia psicanalítica é fundamental para o processo terapêutico. Este estudo avaliou a influência do nível de funcionamento defensivo do paciente na qualidade da aliança terapêutica estabelecida durante a psicoterapia. MÉTODO: Para avaliação da qualidade da aliança estabelecida, pacientes em psicoterapia psicanalítica e seus respectivos terapeutas responderam ao Helping Alliance Questionnaire (versão paciente e versão terapeuta, respectivamente. O nível defensivo foi inferido através da Escala de Funcionamento Defensivo proposta no Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais, quarta edição, texto revisado. RESULTADOS: Não houve associação entre o estabelecimento de uma aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade e o nível defensivo do paciente. No entanto, houve diferença significativa quando a versão do terapeuta foi comparada com a respondida pelo paciente: os pacientes estabeleceram uma aliança terapêutica de melhor qualidade em relação a seus terapeutas do que o inverso. CONCLUSÕES: O fato de a aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade ter se estabelecido independentemente do nível defensivo do paciente sugere que o treinamento e as características pessoais do terapeuta podem levar a uma capacidade de conectar-se com o paciente, apesar do grau de comprometimento do seu funcionamento psíquico.BACKGROUND: The quality of a therapeutic alliance is essential in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and influences the therapeutic process. This study evaluated the relationship between the level of defense mechanisms and the quality of therapeutic alliance established during psychotherapy. METHOD: Patients in psychotherapy and their respective therapists completed the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (patient version and therapist version, respectively. The level of defenses was inferred by the Defensive Functioning Scale

  4. Comparative evolutionary psychology of sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2006-05-01

    A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for individuals across many species. The authors first describe mechanisms of sperm competition in insects and in birds. They suggest that the adaptive problems and evolved solutions in these species provide insight into human anatomy, physiology, psychology, and behavior. The authors then review recent theoretical and empirical arguments for the existence of sperm competition in humans and discuss proposed adaptations in humans that have analogs in insects or birds. The authors conclude by highlighting the heuristic value of a comparative evolutionary psychological approach in this field. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  6. Biological Defense Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    832. 10. "A Review: Antimicrobial Activity, Uses, and Mechanism of Action of Glutaraldehyde" S. P. Gorman, E. M. Scott, and A. D. Russell, J. Appl...which either do not exist or are not part of the BDRP. The outstanding safety record of the ongoing BDRP illustrates that the PDT &E activities of the...accordance with EPA-approved label directions. While general references are made in the EIS to the use of other antimicrobial pesticides for the

  7. The onset, development, basic patterns and empirical norms of DSQ-40 psychological test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Dedic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Psychological defence mechanisms represent relatively stable aspect of personality, while character and frequency of defence mechanisms which a person uses, points to the character structure of personality...

  8. Motor cognition and neuroscience in sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul S; Wright, David J

    2017-08-01

    Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we highlight and discuss the contributions to sport psychology that have been made in recent years by applying these techniques, with a focus on the development of expertise, motor cognition, motor imagery and action observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Organisational peculiarities and principles of medical-psychological rehabilitation of military personnel of special units of the Ministry of Defence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trishkin, D V; Titov, I G; Nechiporuk, S A

    2015-06-01

    The authors presented information about current state of organization of medical and psychological rehabilitation at sanatorium stage of military servicemen of special units of the Russian Defense Ministry, information about rehabilitation treatment techniques, and physical and psychological rehabilitation, natural and premature medicinal factors.

  10. Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Pawel; Osbourn, Anne

    2009-05-08

    The chemical diversity within the plant kingdom is likely to be a consequence of niche colonization and adaptive evolution. Plant-derived natural products have important functions in defense. They also have broader ecological roles and may in addition participate in plant growth and development. Recent data suggest that some antimicrobial phytochemicals may not serve simply as chemical barriers but could also have functions in defense-related signaling processes. It is important, therefore, that we should not to be too reductionist in our thinking when endeavoring to understand the forces and mechanisms that drive chemical diversification in plants.

  11. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  12. 76 FR 44293 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... are in support of contingency, humanitarian, or peacekeeping operations, or to facilitate defense... peacekeeping operations, or to facilitate defense against or recovery from nuclear, biological, chemical, or...

  13. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  14. Transnational architecting for homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas W.

    2002-07-01

    The homeland security interests of a many nations are being increasingly threatened by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, drug trafficking, mass migration, global terrorism, environmental concerns, international crime and other global issues. This paper presents the case for development of such a transnational ballistic missile defense architecture for homeland defense and specifically addresses the architecture methodology and process, as well as the potential benefits and the top-level architecture trade issues that would have to be addressed if the community should decide to seriously pursue such an approach.

  15. Psychological perspectives on fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondung, Elisabet; Thomtén, Johanna; Sundin, Örjan

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this narrative review was to examine the literature on fear of childbirth from a psychological perspective, addressing the specificity of childbirth fear, the pathways of fear acquisition, and the physiological, cognitive and behavioral aspects of fear. Systematic procedures for literature search, inclusion and exclusion left 86 original research papers for analysis. Findings summarize the body of knowledge for each area of interest, as well as the number of studies addressing each theme. Overall, few studies adopt a clear-cut psychological perspective, leaving the psychological mechanisms of childbirth fear largely unexplored. Although methodological limitations make conclusions difficult, results give a hint of etiological diversity and possible psychological mechanisms commonly described as transdiagnostic features in anxiety. Systematic investigations of psychological mechanisms, longitudinal studies exploring possible vicious circles of fear, and studies comparing psychological characteristics within the group of women fearing childbirth are identified as research areas of high priority. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    to the United States as a result of cyber espionage and cybercrime is over$100 billion dollars per year.13,14The DoD faces a cyber defense investment...that cost continues 17 L. Ablon, M.C. Libicki, and A.A. Golay. Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar. Santa Monica, CA: RAND

  17. Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF...1 As defined by “Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership : Priorities for the 21st Century Defense,” January...and nuclear (CBRN) consequence management response forces in recognition of the proliferation of destructive technologies and the potent ideologies

  18. Psychological distress: precursor or consequence of dating infidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D

    2009-02-01

    Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.

  19. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Soledad R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/19545264X; van Eijk, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255160216; Haagsman, Henk P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069273278

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that

  20. Quorum sensing determines the choice of antiphage defense strategy in Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    -acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals in the culture medium, and (iii) survives mainly by one of these two defense mechanisms, rather than by genetic mutation to phage resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. anguillarum employs quorum-sensing information to choose between two complementary...... antiphage defense strategies. Further, the prevalence of nonmutational defense mechanisms in strain PF430-3 suggests highly flexible adaptations to KVP40 phage infection pressure, possibly allowing the long-term coexistence of phage and host. IMPORTANCE: Comprehensive knowledge on bacterial antiphage...... in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the presence of quorum-sensing-regulated phage defense mechanisms in the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and provide evidence that quorum-sensing regulation allows V. anguillarum to alternate between different phage protection mechanisms depending...