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Sample records for psychological contract theory

  1. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  2. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Zagenczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  3. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J.; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L.; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation. PMID:28713315

  4. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  5. The Relationship between McGregor's X-Y Theory Management Style and Fulfillment of Psychological Contract: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor’s X-Y theory and its relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract. This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. McGregor’s X-Y theory is a natural rule for managing people. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X management style generally get poor results compare with managers use theory Y, which produces better ...

  6. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  7. The Analysis of the Science and Technology Enterprise Core Employee Turnover Negative Effects – Based on the theory of psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of negative effect of resignation of core employees from scientific enterprise based on psychological contract theory and summary of references. It uses questionnaires to analyze the data and construct a model of negative effect of resignation caused by psychological contract violation. It also makes an analysis on resignation tendency and negative effect of resignation in two perspectives to provide a basis for reduction of the negative effect.

  8. The Analysis of the Science and Technology Enterprise Core Employee Turnover Negative Effects – Based on the theory of psychological contract

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xin; Li Lijun

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the problem of negative effect of resignation of core employees from scientific enterprise based on psychological contract theory and summary of references. It uses questionnaires to analyze the data and construct a model of negative effect of resignation caused by psychological contract violation. It also makes an analysis on resignation tendency and negative effect of resignation in two perspectives to provide a basis for reduction of the negative effect.

  9. Contribution to contract theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom share the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for 2016, awarded to them by Sveriges Riksbank. They have been rewarded for their work in enhancing the design of contracts, i.e. arrangements connecting employers with employees or companies with clients, in other words, for their contribution to contract theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Their analysis of optimal contractual arrangements lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions. Hart is an expert in contract theory, theory of the firm, corporate finance, and law and economics. His contribution to contract theory is exquisite when it comes to designing contracts which cover eventualities that cannot be precisely specified in advance.

  10. Predicting Commitment Forms From Psychological Contract Breach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.

  11. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  12. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  13. Psychological reactance theory (3)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms

  14. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter.......Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...

  15. Linkage between psychological contract and employee retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... employees' participation. This is necessary if organizations need to maintain their vibrant and resourceful workforce that will competitively drive organizational goals in this globalized economy and society. Keywords: Psychological contract, Employer, Employee retention, Performance, Productivity, Organization, Nigeria.

  16. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhan Othman; Rasidah Arshad; Noor Azuan Hashim; Rosmah Md Isa

    2005-01-01

    A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV) is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OC...

  18. Student Satisfaction with Online Learning: Is It a Psychological Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Charles; Moskal, Patsy; Thompson, Jessica; Kramer, Lauren; DeCantis, Genevieve; Hermsdorfer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the possible relationship between student satisfaction with online learning and the theory of psychological contracts. The study incorporates latent trait models using the image analysis procedure and computation of Anderson and Rubin factors scores with contrasts for students who are satisfied, ambivalent, or dissatisfied with…

  19. linkage between psychological contract and employee retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    One of the solutions for organizations to effectively and efficiently respond to these changes is to create a positive relationship between employers and employees (Curwen,. 2013), and embrace the use of human resource management practices and develop a psychological contract to improve on the corporate performance ...

  20. Psychological contract breach and job attitudes : A meta-analysis of age as a moderator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; De lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to

  1. Psychological contract and perceived performance of a rugby team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little research has connected the psychological contract and sport. Therefore, the content of the psychological contract of rugby team members was analysed and the correlation between the psychological contract and the perceived performance of rugby team members was determined. A longitudinal research design was ...

  2. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  3. [The state of the psychological contract and its relation with employees' psychological health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina

    2006-05-01

    In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhan Othman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. It is argued that the antecedents of PCV lead to a sense of  injustice. These will then create the emotional response that is indicative of PCV. It is also argued that an outcome of this PCV experience is reduced OCB and the emergence of a new outlook towards employment relationship. Data was collected from a Malaysian company that initiated a voluntary separation scheme as part of an effort to downsize its work force. The finding of this study provides partial support for the model.

  5. A longitudinal study of age-related differences in reactions to psychological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Age-Related Differences in Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  7. The application of the psychological contract to workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Arlene; Hutton, Dorothy M

    2006-01-01

    Psychological contracts of safety are conceptualized as the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations inferred from implicit or explicit promises. Although the literature on psychological contracts is growing, the existence of psychological contracts in relation to safety has not been established. The research sought to identify psychological contracts in the conversations of employees about safety, by demonstrating reciprocity in relation to employer and employee safety obligations. The identified safety obligations were used to develop a measure of psychological contracts of safety. The participants were 131 employees attending safety training sessions in retail and manufacturing organizations. Non-participant observation was used to collect the data during safety training sessions. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Categories for coding were established through identification of language markers that demonstrated contingencies or other implied obligations. Direct evidence of reciprocity between employer safety obligations and employee safety obligations was found in statements from the participants demonstrating psychological contracts. A comprehensive list of perceived employer and employee safety obligations was compiled and developed into a measure of psychological contracts of safety. A small sample of 33 safety personnel was used to validate the safety obligations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Implications of these findings for safety and psychological contract research are discussed.

  8. Career Stage and Generational Differences in Psychological Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Narelle; Jepsen, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine how employees in different generational groups (or cohorts) and different career stages perceive their psychological contracts. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 345 working adults included psychological contract obligations, incentives and importance and the cognitive responses of job…

  9. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  10. Dynamics of psychological contracts with work engagement and turnover intention: the influence of organizational tenure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Cooman, R.; Mol, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the interrelations of the psychological contract with work engagement and turnover intention, which has hitherto been a largely overlooked topic in psychological contract research. Although previous research has mainly focused on how psychological contracts influence job

  11. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  12. The changing psychological contract at work and employee burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malach Pines, Ayala

    2002-01-01

    Today we stand in a vortex of technological, economic, and cultural changes that altered dramatically the world of labor and with it the psychological contract between employers and employees. While the effects of the changed contract at work are usually addressed from an organizational, social or economic perspective, the current article addresses it from a psychological perspective from which one noteworthy cost of the changed psychological contract is employee burnout. The article describes burnout, differentiates it from stress, and proposes an existential perspective to explain its underlying dynamic, using the results of a cross-cultural study of Israeli and American managers as an example. Recent studies on gender differences in management are used to point in the recommended for preventing employee burnout, despite the new psychological contract, namely--a democratic, egalitarian management style.

  13. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  14. Values underlying perceptions of breach of the psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Botha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred.Research purpose: The study identifies the most important breaches and investigates which values underlie employee perceptions of breach of the psychological contract. It also addresses values that lead to employees interpreting incidents as breaches.Motivation for the study: The study calls on the fact that employees make inconsequential contributions to the terms of many formal employment contracts may imply that such contracts cannot be viewed as documents between equals.Research design, approach and method: The study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred.Main findings: The data revealed lack of promotion, poor interpersonal relations between colleagues and bad treatment by seniors as three main breaches of the contract, and social recognition, world of peace and sense of accomplishment as three dominant values that underlie perceptions of contract violation.Practical/managerial implications: The competent and intelligent manner in which lack of promotion is handled and communicated to employees is vital because it has implications for their willingness to contribute, their career prospects and their intention to stay in the organisation.Contribution/value-add: This research can serve as the basis for the development of survey or research instruments that are appropriate and relevant to the population.

  15. Influence of Personality on Perception of Psychological Contract Breach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Jafri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to investigate the influence of personality (Five-Factor Model on Psychological Contract Breach. Using random sampling procedure, data were collected from 90 faculties of colleges of Royal University of Bhutan. Personality scales by John, Naumann, and Soto (2008 and Robinson and Morrison’s (2000 Psychological Contract Breach scale were used in this study. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out to analyze the obtained data. Results revealed that Extraversion and Neuroticism dimensions of the personality model have been found to be positively associated with the perception of breach. Employees who are by nature Agreeable and Conscientiousness are less likely to perceive breach in their psychological contract. Organization should look into the personality aspect while recruiting employees. If employees are hired with certain personality traits, they may focus on their performance and organizational growth.

  16. Personality, preterm labor contractions, and psychological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Freund, Yael; Carmiel, Naama; Ashwal, Eran; Peled, Yoav

    2016-03-01

    Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p < 0.01 each), scored lower on consciousness and agreeableness (p < 0.01 each), and showed greater fear of childbirth (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not found in the postpartum variables of EPDS and MIBS. In the PTL group, MFAS (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), but not fear of childbirth (β = 0.08, p = NS), remained higher, after controlling for demographic variables and neuroticism. PTL was associated with personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.

  17. A socio-emotional selectivity perspective on age-related differences in reactions to psychological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet de Lange; Mandy van der Velde; Matthijs Bal; Paul Jansen

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  18. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB. PMID:28536550

  19. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees' Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB.

  20. Teacher Views on Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' view regarding Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation. The study conducted with relational screening model included 230 secondary school teachers employed in Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year. Perceived Organizational Support Scale…

  1. Job Insecurity and Innovative Work Behaviour: A Psychological Contract Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Niesen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered to be of crucial importance for organisational survival and growth, and in this respect employees play a leading role, as they are the ones who develop innovative ideas. At the same time, the struggle for organisational survival and growth gives rise to perceptions of job insecurity. To date, few studies have explored how employees’ innovative work behaviour (IWB is influenced by the perceived threat of job loss (i.e. job insecurity. As both job insecurity and IWB are increasingly salient in light of organisational change and competition, the present study examines the relationship between job insecurity and IWB, as well as the role of psychological contract breach in explaining this relationship. We hypothesized a negative relation between job insecurity and innovative work behaviour, with psychological contract breach as a mediator in this relationship. Participants were 190 employees from an industrial organisation that had faced restructuring and downsizing for several years. Contrary to our predictions, no direct association was found between job insecurity and the two sub-dimensions of innovative work behaviour (i.e., idea generation and idea implementation. Indirect relationships, however, were found between job insecurity and the two types of IWB through psychological contract breach. Surprisingly, psychological contract breach was positively related to idea generation and idea implementation. These findings shed new light on the relationship between job insecurity and IWB.

  2. Building Psychological Contracts in Security-Risk Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Madero, Sergio; Vélez-Zapata, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    and the impacts of narcoterrorism on firms were conducted with human resources (HR) personnel, line managers and subordinates at eight national and multinational corporations (MNCs) with subsidiaries in Colombia and Mexico. Our findings generally support the existence of a relational psychological contract in our...

  3. Teachers' Psychological Contract Perceptions and Person-Environment Fit Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…

  4. Integrator backstepping using contraction theory: a brief technological note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Lottin, Jacques

    approach, i.e. contraction theory, to the integrator backstepping design on the methodological aspect. After briefly recalling basic results from contraction theory, a full contraction-based integrator backstepping procedure is presented. An example is given to illustrate the method....

  5. Applying Psychological Theories to Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to the application of psychological theories to education might be referred to as domain-general and domain-specific. The domain-general approach seeks a general theory of cognitive and other skills that apply across subject-matter areas. The domain-specific approach seeks to apply specific theories within given domains, such as…

  6. Tales of IT Consultants: Understanding Psychological Contract Maintenance and Employment Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlheinz Kautz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the question why dedicated Information Technology (IT consultants quit their jobs and voluntarily terminate their employment contracts. A research approach inspired by grounded theory is used and as a theoretical contribution a novel, cyclic process model for the maintenance or neglect of the psychological contract between employees and employers is derived from the empirical data. The model is subsequently substantiated through the integration of various concepts and theories identified in the literature, combining the concept of psychological contract with social influence theory and a theory of the relation between intrinsic motivation and management practices. The research is based on a revelatory case study which provides tales from four IT consultants in an IT consulting firm. The model helps to explain IT consultants’ behaviour of voluntarily terminating their employment contracts. Additionally, it should assist managers in IT consulting firms to avoid practices which might lead to their employees’ loss of intrinsic motivation and result in the loss of valuable employees for the organization.

  7. Organisational change and the psychological contract at a pharmaceutical company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelebogile D. Magano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Over a period of 6 years, a South African pharmaceutical company had been involved in several mergers and acquisitions. These changes had proved difficult for staff and staff attrition had risen.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract. The sub-objectives were to determine what organisational factors contribute to changes in the psychological contract during periods of change, and the implications of the breach of the psychological contract for the company and its employees.Motivation for the study: As the company was set to embark on further mergers and acquisitions, the opinions of senior managers about how such changes should be addressed are important for the company.Research design, approach and method: A case study approach was used in this qualitative study. The population comprised 60 senior managers of whom 12 were purposefully selected for inclusion in the study. A semistructured interview schedule was used to capture the views of these managers and themes were extracted by means of content analysis.Main findings: Seven themes emerged which encapsulated the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract during periods of mergers and acquisitions – lack of communication, an absence of planning, lack of employee engagement, less than optimal human resources involvement, lack of preparation of the organisational culture and poor change management processes. These factors need to be addressed to strengthen the psychological contract of employees during periods of change.Practical/managerial implications: The study highlighted areas that leaders and managers of the company should consider when embarking on mergers and acquisitions if the psychological contract of employees is not to be negatively impacted.Contribution: While caution must be exercised in the generalisation of

  8. Psychological Contract Development: An Integration of Existing Knowledge to Form a Temporal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Windle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract has received substantial theoretical attention over the past two decades as a popular framework within which to examine contemporary employment relationships. Previous research mostly examines breach and violation of the psychological contract and its impact on employee organization outcomes. Few studies have employed longitudinal, prospective research designs to investigate the psychological contract and as a result, psychological contract content and formation are incompletely understood. It is argued that employment relationships may be better proactively managed with greater understanding of formation and changes in the psychological contract. We examine existing psychological contract literature to identify five key factors proposed to contribute to the formation of psychological contracts. We extend the current research by integrating these factors for the first time into a temporal model of psychological contract development.

  9. Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior : A new deal for new generations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Blomme, R.J.; Bal, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to shed light on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of different generations of hospitality workers in relation to their psychological contract. The psychological contract, which describes employees' implicit expectations of their employer, is related to a range of

  10. Reflections on the 2016 Nobel Memorial Prize for Contract Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    We briefly summarize the contributions of Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström, two key founders of modern contract theory, and describe their significance for the analysis of organizations and institutions. We then discuss the foundations of modern contract theory and review some criticisms related...... to modeling strategy, assumptions about knowledge and cognition, and relevance. We conclude with some suggestions for advancing contract theory in a world of uncertainty, complexity, and entrepreneurship....

  11. Psychological Contract and Organizational Change: Assessing M-As’ Impact on Survivors of Pharmaceuticals in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Quiñones González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions (M-A affect the psychological contract of employees. This study assessed the impact of the M-A on survivors’ psychological contract, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and whether credible explanation moderated employees’ reactions. Statistical analyses were performed on data gathered from 196 respondents of two pharmaceuticals in Puerto Rico. Results revealed an inverse correlation between perceived psychological contract violation (PCV and the variables job satisfaction and organizational commitment. They also confirmed the direct correlation between PCV and the variable turnover intention. This study found an effect of the moderating variable credible explanation on the variables job satisfaction and organizational commitment. An understanding of psychological contract theory may reduce the perceived violation and its impact on employees’ attitudes.

  12. Ecological Systems Theory in "School Psychology Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Warmbold-Brann, Kristy; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological systems theory (EST) has been suggested as a framework to provide effective school psychology services, but previous reviews of research found questionable consistency between methods and the principles of EST. The current article reviewed 349 articles published in "School Psychology Review" (SPR) between 2006 and 2015 and…

  13. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  14. Cognitive psychological theories of suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saška Roškar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviour is a consequence of simultaneous influences of many factors. Basically it can be regarded as a consequence of an interplay of two risk factors, namely genetic and environmental, which express themselves in the form of sociological, biological and psychological factors. It is difficult to find a theory of suicidal behaviour which would cover or consider all factors, and although present theories are overlapping, they emphasize different risk factors. More recent studies are focusing on neuropsychological and cognitive functioning of suicidal persons. The most cited psychological theory of suicidal behaviour is the Cry of Pain model which understands the suicidal behaviour as a consequence of a situation signaling defeat, entrapment and no rescue, which subsequently can lead to feelings of hopelessness. The psychobiological theory of two vulnerability components of sucidal behaviour extends existing psychological theories and helps to understand why some persons with depressive disorder engage in suicidal behaviour and the other don't. Both theories imply impaired cognitive abilities in suicidal persons. It is still not entirely understood if these cognitive impairments can be regarded as a state or a trait feature. What happens with cognitive functions after the initial crisis is over, explains the Theory of differential activation. The purpose of the present paper is to introduce and combine these theories and discuss their practical implications.

  15. A conceptual model of psychological contracts in construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Ke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of relationship style contracting is recognised in the construction industry. Both public and private sector clients are stipulating more integrated and collaborative forms of procurement. Despite relationship and integrated contractual arrangement being available for some time, it is clear that construction firms have been slow to adopt them. Hence it is timely to examine how social exchanges, via unwritten agreement and behaviours, are being nurtured in construction projects. This paper adopted the concept of Psychological Contracts (PC to describe unwritten agreement and behaviours. A conceptual model of the PC is developed and validated using the results from a questionnaire survey administered to construction professionals in Australia. The results uncovered the relationships that existed amongst relational conditions and relational benefits, the PC and the partners’ satisfaction. The results show that all the hypotheses in the conceptual model of the PC are supported, suggesting the PC model is important and may have an effect on project performance and relationship quality among contracting parties. A validated model of the PC in construction was then developed based on the correlations among each component. The managerial implications are that past relationships and relationship characteristics should be taken into account in the selection of procurement partners and the promise of future resources, support and tangible relational outcomes are also vital. It is important for contracting parties to pay attention to unwritten agreements (the PC and behaviours when managing construction projects.

  16. Activity theories and the ontology of psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mammen, Jens Skaun; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key...... in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human...... psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain....

  17. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Influence of Organizational Culture on the Relationship Between Psychological Contracts and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL ...AFIT/GRD/ENV/06M-01 INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS AND ORGANIZATIONAL...51 x INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS AND

  19. Attachment Theory: Implications for School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Janice H.; Kennedy, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The effective practice of school psychology requires a strong research and theoretical base, a framework that encompasses developmental processes and outcomes, both adaptive and maladaptive, which facilitates assessment and intervention and offers insight into classroom and family dynamics. Attachment theory provides the school psychologist with…

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH, ORGANIZATIONAL DISIDENTIFICATION, AND EMPLOYEES' UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICAL CLIMATE AS MODERATOR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ni Ning; Li Zhaoyi

    2017-01-01

    We explored the effect of psychological contract breach on employees' unethical behavior and examined the mediating and moderating roles of organizational disidentification and organizational ethical...

  1. Psychological contract types as moderator in the breach-violation and violation-burnout relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Amber; Raja, Usman; Darr, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationships between perceived psychological contract breach, felt violation, and burnout in a sample (n = 361) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. The moderating role of contract types in these relationships was also tested. Findings supported a positive association between perceived psychological contract breach and felt violation and both were positively related to burnout. Transactional and relational contracts moderated the felt violation-burnout relationship. Scores on relational contract type tended to be higher than for transactional contract type showing some contextual influence.

  2. Raising the Curtain: Exploring Dancers’ Perceptions of Obligation through the Psychological Contract Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, Alicia R.; Bordia, Sarbari; Fein, Erich C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study takes an exploratory approach to investigate which situational factors influence perceptions of psychological contracts, as well as the content that comprises psychological contracts in the dance training industry. Semi-structured interviews ("n"?=?10) were conducted with students enrolled in a higher education…

  3. Organizational change and the psychological contract : How change influences the perceived fulfillment of obligations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Smissen, A.I.M.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine how organizational change and attitude towards change affects the fulfillment of the psychological contract. The influence of type of change, impact of change, former change experiences and frequency of change on fulfillment of the psychological contract is

  4. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts : A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  5. Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; de Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes: a meta-analysis P.M. Bal, A H. De Lange, P.G.W Jansen Er M.E G Van der Velde, Gedrag en Organisatie, volume 23, March 2010, nr 1, pp 44-72. The meta-analysis investigated the relations between age and psychological contracts It was expected that

  6. Modeling Psychological Contract Violation using Dual Regime Models: An Event-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2017-01-01

    A good understanding of the dynamics of psychological contract violation requires theories, research methods and statistical models that explicitly recognize that violation feelings follow from an event that violates one's acceptance limits, after which interpretative processes are set into motion, determining the intensity of these violation feelings. Whereas theories-in the form of the dynamic model of the psychological contract-and research methods-in the form of daily diary research and experience sampling research-are available by now, the statistical tools to model such a two-stage process are still lacking. The aim of the present paper is to fill this gap in the literature by introducing two statistical models-the Zero-Inflated model and the Hurdle model-that closely mimic the theoretical process underlying the elicitation violation feelings via two model components: a binary distribution that models whether violation has occurred or not, and a count distribution that models how severe the negative impact is. Moreover, covariates can be included for both model components separately, which yields insight into their unique and shared antecedents. By doing this, the present paper offers a methodological-substantive synergy, showing how sophisticated methodology can be used to examine an important substantive issue.

  7. Identifying psychological contract breaches to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Desselle, Shane P; Draugalis, JoLaine R; Spies, Alan R; Davis, Tamra S; Bolino, Mark

    2012-08-10

    To identify pharmacy faculty members' perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF EMPLOYEE AFFECT ON LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Kunze; James Phillips

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated employees’ psychological dispositions of positive affect, negative affect, and cynicism as potential influences upon their perceptions of psychological contract fulfillment or violation. Leader-member exchange (LMX) was hypothesized to serve as a partial mediator of the relationship. Prior research has focused mainly on direct relationships between various personality variables and either LMX or psychological contract violation; none have yet examined LMX as a pot...

  9. Introduction: Expanding the boundaries of psychological resource theories

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, Marjan; Halbesleben, Jonathon; Bakker, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article introduces JOOP’s special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in Occupational and Organizational Psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in Occupational and Organizational Psychology – Key resource theories, Conservation of Resources Theory, Resource Theory of Social exchange, and Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory – the opportunities and challenges for future res...

  10. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  11. A tutorial on incremental stability analysis using contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for dierential nonlinear stability analysis using contraction theory (Lohmiller and Slotine, 1998). The methodology includes four distinct steps: the descriptions of two systems to be compared (the plant and the observer in the case of observer convergence...... on several simple examples....

  12. Psychological contracts and commitment amongst nurses and nurse managers: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, T J; Sambrook, Sally

    2013-07-01

    Few studies explore the link between the psychological contracts and the commitment of nursing professionals in the healthcare sector, and how perceived breaches of the psychological contract can impact on nurses' commitment levels. This study explores the connections between the psychological contracts and organisational and professional commitment of nurses and nurse managers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses and nurse managers, to explore the connections between their psychological contracts and organisational and professional commitment. Large acute and small community organisation within the British National Health Service. 28 nurses and 11 nurse managers working within an acute and a community sector organisation - 20 and 19 in each organisation. Participants were selected through a process of purposive sampling, reflecting variations in terms of age, grade, ward and tenure. A discourse analysis was conducted on the qualitative data from the thirty nine semi-structured interviews. Two overall themes emerged, professional and managerial values. Professional values included the sub-themes: professional recognition; immediate work environment - leadership and peer support; professional development and progression. Sub-themes under managerial values included: involvement; general management; resource management. The findings suggest that nurses and nurse managers are governed by relational psychological contracts, underpinned by an affective and to a lesser extent normative commitment towards the nursing profession. They emphasise 'professional values', and professional commitment, as the basis for positive psychological contracts amongst nursing professionals. There was anecdotal evidence of relational psychological contract breach, with decreasing job satisfaction as the outcome of perceived psychological contract breach. Positive psychological contracts and commitment levels amongst nursing professionals can be supported by managers been

  13. Biodynamics of living cells: the molecule-contraction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvtrup, S

    1992-01-01

    Living cells can carry out work, by transforming chemical to mechanical energy. It has been found that such biodynamic activities are carried out by filaments built of proteinaceous subunits. Since work in general involves contractions, the proteins which are involved in the execution of work may thus be called "contractile proteins". There seem to be three such proteins: flagellin, actin and tubulin, forming bacterial flagella, actin filaments and microtubules, respectively. Myosin is also a filament-forming protein, important for the activity of actin filaments, notably in striated muscle cells, but it is not a contractile protein. When a muscle works, that is, contracts, then it is observed that the actin filaments slide in between the myosin filaments, and this observation has been used to develop a theory of contraction, the "sliding filament" theory. But it should be emphasized that this theory is essentially descriptive, not explanatory, and the main point in muscular activity, the presence of two kinds of filament, is not found in most other cases when cells are performing physical work. In order to solve this dilemma and reach a general theory of biodynamics the molecule-contraction theory, as presented here and on some earlier occasions, was created. The essential aspect of the theory is the existence of "contractile" proteins, which also have the property of forming filaments. This theory is based on four premises, out of which three are supposed to be involved in all kinds of biodynamic activity, while the fourth is required only in those instances where polymerization and depolymerization is a constituent part of the performance of mechanical work.

  14. The Rod Contraction-Clock Retardation Ether Theory and the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlichson, Herman

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical rod contraction-block retardation (RC-CR) ether theory to illustrate its relationship to the special theory of relativity and the possibility of experimental differences between them. Indicates that the RC-CR theory is worthy of the attention of both physicists and science philosophers. (CC)

  15. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  16. [Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. The Place and Promise of Theory in Rehabilitation Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although rehabilitation psychology is more focused on empirical evidence and clinical application than theory development, we argue for the primacy of theory, and explain why theories are needed in and useful for rehabilitation psychology. Impediments to theory development are discussed, including the difficulties of applying psychological theories in multidisciplinary enterprises, and the difficulties in developing a theory-driven research program. We offer suggestions by reviewing research settings, knowledge gained through controlled studies, grantsmanship, and then identify topical areas where new theories are needed. We remind researcher-practitioners that rehabilitation psychology benefits from a judicious mix of scientific rigor and real-world vigor. Conclusions We close by advocating for theory-driven research programs that embrace a methodological pluralism, which will in turn advance new theory, produce meaningful research programs that inform practice, and realize the goals of this special issue of Rehabilitation Psychology—advances in research and methodology. PMID:19649146

  18. The Effect of Coaching Practices on Psychological Contract Fulfillment of Student-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezania Davar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationships between coaching practices, psychological contract fulfillment and the impact it has on satisfaction and in-role behavior of student-athletes. We surveyed a total of 183 student-athletes in Canada. Utilizing Partial Least Squares path modeling algorithm, the results confirm that the extent of psychological contract fulfillment is positively related to satisfaction and role-behavior. In addition, practices of compensation, information sharing, and security (i.e. ensuring continuation of position on the team are related to fulfillment of psychological contracts. However, the data does not provide support for the idea that training is related to the fulfillment of psychological contracts. The results suggest that universities can manage students-athletes’ expectations by institutionalizing coaching practices that signal commitments for compensation, information sharing, and provide assurance of position on the team. Such practices have potential to improve the athlete’s performance.

  19. Positive management : The relationship between the psychological contract, employee engagement and organisational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Van Elst; D.N.D. Meurs

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyse the connection between the psychological contract, employee engagement and organisational commitment in the context of positive management and to create a theoretical background for future research.

  20. A Lifespan Perspective on Psychological Contracts and its Relations with Organizational Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beatrice van der Heijden; Hannes Zacher; Matthijs Bal; Annet de Lange

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of age-related constructs on the psychological contract and its relationships with continuance and normative commitment. It was proposed that as people age, their future time perspective (FTP) decreases. Consequently, it was expected that contract

  1. A lifespan perspective on psychological contracts and their relations with organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; de Lange, Annet H.; Zacher, Hannes; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of age-related constructs on the psychological contract and its relationships with continuance and normative commitment. It was proposed that as people age, their future time perspective (FTP) decreases. Consequently, it was expected that contract

  2. A lifespan perspective on psychological contracts and their relations with organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Zacher, H.; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of age-related constructs on the psychological contract and its relationships with continuance and normative commitment. It was proposed that as people age, their future time perspective (FTP) decreases. Consequently, it was expected that contract

  3. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  5. Introduction: Expanding the boundaries of psychological resource theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); J.R.B. Halbesleben (Jonathon); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article introduces JOOP’s special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in Occupational and Organizational Psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in Occupational and Organizational Psychology

  6. The impact of psychological contract on organisational commitment: A study on public sector of Maldives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact to psychological contract on the organisational commitment of public sector employees in Maldives. The research draws a sample of 100 respondents from ministry of Youth and Sports, Maldives, using simple random probability sampling technique. A Likert-Scale with 1-5 rating was used to obtain. The Questionnaire distributed included five variables to measure the Psychological Contract construct. These are ‘trust, ‘mutual obligation’, ‘perceived fairness, and ‘length of contract’. The dependent variable was organizational commitment (affective commitment, which is measured using ‘sense of belonging to the organization’, pride in organization membership’, and meaning associated with the work’. The data collected was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 22.0 for windows. The correlation analysis shows that the dimensions of psychological contract have positive correlation with affective commitment. The main results indicate that psychological contract dimension such as fulfillment of mutual obligations, perceived fairness and length of contract has a positive and significant impact on affective commitment. However this study found that psychological contract dimension, trust in employer has a positive correlation although it does not have a significant impact on affective commitment. Implications and suggestion for future researches are discussed.

  7. Fixed point theory for multivalued φ-contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazăr Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present a fixed point theory for multivalued φ-contractions using the following concepts: fixed points, strict fixed points, periodic points, strict periodic points, multivalued Picard and weakly Picard operators; data dependence of the fixed point set, sequence of multivalued operators and fixed points, Ulam-Hyers stability of a multivalued fixed point equation, well-posedness of the fixed point problem, limit shadowing property of a multivalued operator, set-to-set operatorial equations and fractal operators. Our results generalize some recent theorems given in Petruşel and Rus (The theory of a metric fixed point theorem for multivalued operators, Proc. Ninth International Conference on Fixed Point Theory and its Applications, Changhua, Taiwan, July 16-22, 2009, 161-175, 2010. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification 47H10; 54H25; 47H04; 47H14; 37C50; 37C70

  8. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  9. The psychological contract: is the UK National Health Service a model employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high.

  10. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  11. Actively coping with violation: Exploring upward dissent patterns in functional, dysfunctional and deserted psychological contract end states

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the...

  12. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    OpenAIRE

    René Schalk; René Schalk; René Schalk; Melanie De Ruiter; Joost Van Loon; Evy Kuijpers; Tine Van Regenmortel; Tine Van Regenmortel

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the...

  13. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein, individual psychology (A. Adler, analytical psychology (C.G. Jung, concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm, social-cultural theory (K. Horney, ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters, dispositional direction (G. Allport, R. Cattell, humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, existential psychology (V. Frankl. It is shown that in Russian theories of personality the problem of envy is reflected in the works of A.A. Bodalev, V.N. Myasishchev, V.N. Panferov, A.V. Petrovsky.Purpose.To carry out the analysis of psychological theories of the personality to identify the specific of ideas of psychological essence and envy sources.Methodology.Theoretical analysis and systematization of scientific data.Results.Separation and heterogeneity of scientific ideas of envy is revealed, that, on the one hand, allows looking at it from different points of view, and with another – counteracts the integration of knowledge of envy into uniform theoretical system.Practical implications. Research results can be used in the practice of psychological consultation, the psycho-correction of the envious relation, the outreach activity of psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-68

  14. Evolutionary Theory's Increasing Role in Personality and Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT, MOTIVATION AND CHANGES IN HR MANAGEMENT IN THE AGE OF CRISIS IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    George, Xanthakis; Marianthi, Stogiannidou

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines and discusses an approach to HR management in Greek Civil Engineer Consultant Companies during the economical crisis of 2010-12. A discussion of the definition of crisis nature and a brief literature review about the motivation and psychological contract are presented in the first part of it. The paper is integrated with one case study, the results and the conclusions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the crisis process, to explore the changes into psychological con...

  16. The impact of the academic psychological contract on job performance and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tookey, Max

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT What is known as the psychological contract is the ‘promises and the nature of relationships that exists between employee and employer’ (Schein, 1978). While this concept has been researched at some depth with the study of organisational careers, a paucity of research exists in terms of its application to the university environment, with very few studies identifying what the factors of an “academic psychological contract” could be (Krivokapic-Skoko & O’Neill ,2008; Shen, 2010). Th...

  17. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY, PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELLIS, NORMAN R.

    THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…

  18. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Game Theory and Social Psychology: Conformity Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc

    2011-11-01

    Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.

  20. Theory in Psychology ( Review essay of Andre Kukla, Methods of Theoretical Psychology).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looren De Jong, H.; Bem, S.; Schouten, M.K.D.

    2004-01-01

    This review essay critically discusses Andre Kukla's Methods of theoretical psychology. It is argued that Kukla mistakenly tries to build his case for theorizing in psychology as a separate discipline on a dubious distinction between theory and observation. He then argues that the demise of

  1. Investigating the Role of Psychological Contract Breach on Career Success: Convergent Evidence from Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Bordia, Prashant; Bordia, Sarbari

    2011-01-01

    The current study extends past research by examining leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between employee reports of psychological contract breach and career success. In addition, we tested a competing perspective in which we proposed that performance mediators (i.e., in-role performance and organizational citizenship…

  2. One job, one deal…or not : Do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  3. One job, one deal . . . or not : Do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  4. One job, one deal… or not: do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, M.J.D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  5. The use of the psychological contract to explain self-perceived employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychological contract and self-perceived employability (intra-organizational mobility intentions, employee development and perceived labor market opportunities). A survey was completed by 247 alumni of the Hotelschool The Hague, a hotel management

  6. Left Unsaid: The Role of Work Expectations and Psychological Contracts in Faculty Careers and Departure

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Bennett, Jessica Chalk; Neihaus, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Early career faculty bring many expectations to the door-steps of their new academic homes. Yet such expectations are often left unsaid. Unfortunately, what is left unsaid can be a major factor in faculty departure. This study makes a distinct contribution to the departure literature by examining the psychological contracts and work expectations…

  7. Training Opportunities and Employee Exhaustion in Call Centres: Mediation by Psychological Contract Fulfilment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Castanheira, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse psychological contract fulfilment as a mechanism through which training affects stress in call centres. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 412 call centre operators, using structural equation modelling to analyse their survey responses. Our results demonstrated that training is negatively related to…

  8. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vantilborgh

    Full Text Available While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

  9. The Importance of the Beginning Teachers' Psychological Contract: A Pathway toward Flourishing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollansky, Tracy D.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the profession with notions about what their school organization will provide for them and what they will give their organization, in exchange. Psychological contracts, as defined by Schein exist between beginning teachers and their organization. I contend, with the use of a conceptual framework, that if the implicit terms…

  10. Review of the Literature on the Changing Psychological Contract: Implications on Career Management and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Ryan; Akdere, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The changing psychological contract has become a focus for organizational development, especially as job roles within organizations continue to change. This literature review examines the evolving employee-employer relationship and how this relationship has impacted career management and organizations for over the past century. The paper…

  11. Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.

    2012-01-01

    Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

  12. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body for labor and delivery. Labor contractions signal the beginning of childbirth. What causes contractions? Braxton-Hicks (false ... of your last menstrual period.) Labor contractions signal the beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, ...

  13. Psychological Theory Seeks to Define Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Debby

    1993-01-01

    Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…

  14. From theory construction to deconstruction: the many modalities of theorising in psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looren De Jong, H.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical psychology seems to have moved from helping theory construction in mainstream psychology to deconstructing and criticizing it. Three projects for theoretical psychology are sketched: theory construction (Kukla), naturalism (the Churchlands) and its variant metascience, and social

  15. Examining the effects of turnover intentions on organizational citizenship behaviors and deviance behaviors: A psychological contract approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ke Michael; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Jessica Siegel; Porter, Christopher O L H

    2016-08-01

    Although turnover intentions are considered the most proximal antecedent of organizational exit, there is often temporal separation between thinking about leaving and actual exit. Using field data from 2 diverse samples of working adults, we explore a causal model of the effects of turnover intentions on employee behavior while they remain with the organization, focusing specifically on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and deviance behaviors (DBs). Utilizing expectancy theory as an explanatory framework, we argue that turnover intentions result in high levels of transactional contract orientation and low levels of relational contract orientation, which in turn lead to a decrease in the incidence of OCBs and an increase in the incidence of DBs. We first used a pilot study to investigate the direction of causality between turnover intentions and psychological contract orientations. Then, in Study 1, we tested our mediated model using a sample of employees from a large drug retailing chain. In Study 2, we expanded our model by arguing that the mediated effects are much stronger when the organization is deemed responsible for potential exit. We then tested our full model using a sample of employees from a large state-owned telecommunications corporation in China. Across both studies, results were generally consistent and supportive of our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings for future theory, research, and practice regarding the management of both the turnover process and discretionary behaviors at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Project Contract Management and a Theory of Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper attempts to develop concepts of project and contract organization to predict the selection of contract type on infrastructure projects. Conventional wisdom is that at low risk fixed price contracts are best, moving to remeasurement and then cost plus as risk increases. We

  17. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk

  18. Hyperfine coupling constants from internally contracted multireference perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We present an accurate method for calculating hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) based on the complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The HFCCs are computed as a first-order property using the relaxed CASPT2 spin-density matrix that takes into account orbital and configurational relaxation due to dynamical electron correlation. The first-order unrelaxed spin-density matrix is calculated from one- and two-body spin-free counterparts that are readily available in the CASPT2 nuclear gradient program [M. K. MacLeod and T. Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 051103 (2015)], whereas the second-order part is computed directly using the newly extended automatic code generator. The relaxation contribution is then calculated from the so-called Z-vectors that are available in the CASPT2 nuclear gradient program. Numerical results are presented for the CN and AlO radicals, for which the CASPT2 values are comparable (or, even superior in some cases) to the ones computed ...

  19. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  20. The effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts at an iron ore mining company in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human resource practices influence the psychological contract between employee and employer and, ultimately, organisational performance. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of human resource practices on the types of psychological contracts in an iron ore mining company in South Africa empirically. Motivation for the study: Although there have been a number of conceptual studies on the effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts, there has been no effort to synthesise the links between these contracts and various human resource practices systematically. This study endeavoured to provide quantitative evidence to verify or refute conceptual studies on this relationship. Its findings could inform human resource strategies and, ultimately, the prioritisation of human resource practices to improve the cost-effective allocation of resources.Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered two questionnaires. These were Rousseau’s Psychological Contract Inventory (2000 and the Human Resource Practices Scale of Geringer, Colette and Milliman (2002. The researchers conducted the study with 936 knowledge workers at an iron ore mining company in South Africa. They achieved a 32% response rate.Main findings: The findings showed that most participants have relational contracts with the organisation. Another 22% have balanced contracts, 8% have transitional contracts whilst only 1% have transactional contracts. The study suggests that there are relationships between these psychological contracts and specific human resource practices. The study found that training and development was the most important human resource practice for developing relational and balanced contracts. Employees thought that they contributed more than their employer did to the relationship. The researchers developed a model to illustrate the influence of the various human resource practices on

  1. Leader--member exchange, differentiation, and psychological contract fulfillment: a multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David J; Wayne, Sandy J; Shore, Lynn M; Bommer, William H; Tetrick, Lois E

    2008-11-01

    Prior integrations of the leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract literatures have not clarified how within-group LMX differentiation influences employees' attitudes and behaviors in the employment relationship. Therefore, using a sample of 278 members and managers of 31 intact work groups at 4 manufacturing plants, the authors examined how LMX operating at the within-group level (relative LMX, or RLMX) and the group level influenced perceptions of psychological contract fulfillment and employee-level outcomes. Controlling for individual-level perceptions of LMX quality, results indicated a positive relationship between RLMX and fulfillment, which was strengthened as group-level variability in LMX quality increased. Perceptions of fulfillment mediated the relationship between RLMX and performance and sportsmanship behaviors. The importance of conceptualizing LMX as simultaneously operating at multiple levels is highlighted.

  2. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Reimann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.

  3. The Commercialising of British Men’s Basketball: Psychological Contracts Between Coaches and Players in the Post-Bosman Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Owen-Pugh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the psychological contracts of male players and coaches in British commercial basketball, and the ways in which these might be shaped by the constraining and enabling pressures of athletic talent migration. It draws on qualitative interview data to argue that commercialising changes in the game’s recent history have led to the emergence of divergent forms of psychological contract between coaches and players. These have promoted the interests of the game’s migrant Americans at the expense of its indigenous athletes. In particular, while the Americans reap the benefits of a high social reputation, material rewards and career development, many indigenous athletes working in the top-flight clubs struggle to gain remuneration and court-time and must fall back on their own resources to build self-confidence and self-respect. It is argued that this marginalising process was intensified following the Bosman ruling of 1995, which led to the exodus of many skilled indigenous players from the UK and prompted the commercial league to make more extensive use of Americans. Interpretation of the study’s findings is informed by Elias’ theory of established-outsider relations.

  4. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Mareike; Guzy, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of ...

  5. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter

    2009-04-01

    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self.

  6. Psychological Contract Sebagai Alternatif dalam Meninjau Pemenuhan Harapan Akademik di Perguruan Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rezki ashriyana sulistiobudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Higher education, as an institution that generates the nation's next future leader, is no longer burdened with merely providing knowledge alone. Human resource competitiveness was being one of higher education responsibility to complete, to achieve a great quality of their graduates. Hope that emerged from the students on the fulfillment of obligations towards their university becomes something that can not be separated from the quality of the graduates. Psychological contract as a concept that can explain it, has not been widely studied in a higher education setting especially in Indonesia. The number of measuring instruments has its version on some theoretical models raises curiosity as to what is actually appropriate. Through the method of literature review, it was carried out a critical discussion of the components in the measurement of psychological contract at higher education institutions. The exposure in understanding the dynamics of inter-dimensional and determine the appropriate model based on the characteristics of each academic institution. At least, measurement of psychological contract used in higher education setting should be both of promissory (transactional and non-promissory (relational dimension. Surely, it always needs to adjust to the conditions and situations relevantly in each institution. Therefore, it would be possible to bring various indicators in each of dimension.

  7. Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

  8. Sketch of J. R. Kantor's Psychological Interbehavioral Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprato, Dennis J.; Smith, Noel W.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a sketch of J. R. Kantor's (1959, 1971) psychological interbehavioral field (IBF) theory by identifying 9 essential points and briefly discussing each. The main emphasis of this sketch is on the foundation of Kantor's thinking, the IBF. Suggestions for further study are provided.

  9. Film Theory and Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film": A Psychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study" is one of the earliest essays in the area of film theory. Unfortunately, it has remained relatively unknown since its publication in 1916. The author discusses two concepts raised by Munsterberg: the contrast between films in the theatrical mode and films in the cinematic mode.…

  10. W_\\infty and w_\\infty Gauge Theories and Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kavalov, An.; Sakita, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a general method of constructing Winf and winf gauge theories in terms of d+2 dimensional local fields. In this formulation the \\Winf gauge theory Lagrangians involve non-local interactions, but the winf theories are entirely local. We discuss the so-called classical contraction procedure by which we derive the Lagrangian of winf gauge theory from that of the corresponding Winf gauge theory. In order to discuss the relationship between quantum Winf and quantum winf gauge theory we ...

  11. Sociological and psychological theories of self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, William; Anderson, Isobel; Barclay, Aileen

    2002-11-01

    Self-neglect can be defined as the failure to engage in those self-care actions necessary to maintain a socially acceptable standard of personal and household hygiene and/or a failure to adequately care for one's own health. It is generally acknowledged that research and practice in the area of self-neglect has been hampered by a lack of theoretical development. Socio-psychological theories, such as 'social constructivism' and 'negotiated interactionism' can contribute to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and to the further development of self-neglect theory. This paper seeks to apply social and psychological theories to understanding self-neglect. Self-neglect is an underconceptualized phenomenon, which requires to be studied within a broader theoretical context than is at present the case. Sociological and psychological theories offer radically different ways of looking at self-neglect, as opposed to the medical model, as they seek to explain and understand, rather than simply classify it as a medical disorder caused by some form of underlying psychopathology. These theories emphasize the dynamic and interpretative nature of self-neglect and illustrate the arbitrary way in which this label is applied.

  12. On Convergence of the Unscented Kalman-Bucy Filter using Contraction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maree, J.P.; Imsland, Lars; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Contraction theory entails a theoretical framework in which convergence of a nonlinear system can be analysed differentially in an appropriate contraction metric. This paper is concerned with utilizing stochastic contraction theory to conclude on exponential convergence of the Unscented Kalman......-Bucy Filter. The underlying process and measurement models of interest are Itô-type stochastic differential equations. In particular, statistical linearisation techniques are employed in a virtual-actual systems framework to establish deterministic contraction of the estimated expected mean of process values...

  13. How change information influences attitude toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  14. How Change Information Influences Attitudes towards Change and Turnover Intention: The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd van den Heuvel; Charissa Freese; René Schalk; Marcel van Assen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  15. The Role of a Human Factor and Psychological Contract in Managing the Knowledge in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern business world is characterized by dynamic, changing markets and continuous technological advance. This article focuses on an issue related to a definition of the meaning of a man and his location in an organization that works in conditions of globalization. Certainly, the meaning of human as the source of knowledge in the development of organization is not a new subject. Knowledge is intrinsically linked to people and enables them to act. Modern organizations base their theory on the knowledge they can exploit to improve the competence of the employee, his loyalty and commitment to the company which aims at the competitive predominance. The identification of knowledge is necessary for the effective implementation of knowledge management system. Above all, presented theoretical analysis pinpoints mainly on discussing a mans role and psychological contract in managing the knowledge.

  16. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory : Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.

    Biosocial theory claims that evolution did not design human psychological sex differences. It argues that these are the result of the allocation of men and women into different sex roles, based on physical differences. This article argues, however, that biosocial theory is not an alternative to

  17. Strategic drivers of contract manufacturing: Part I, The theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Geoff; Geimer, Harald

    2002-12-01

    Medical device manufacturers and diagnostics companies have significantly increased their use of contract manufacturers to outsource production of components. This, the first of a two-part article, reviews strategic benefits and best practices in outsourcing.

  18. Psychological contracts in self-directed work teams : Development of a validated scale and its effect on team commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, F.; Schalk, R.; de Jong, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine reciprocal exchange in teams using a psychological contract (PC) framework. Adopting Rousseau’s conceptualization of the contract, the authors explore the extent to which the team members reciprocate perceived team obligations and fulfilment by adjusting their own

  19. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  20. Employee well-being, intention to leave and perceived employability: A psychological contract approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni van der Vaart

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employability emerged as a “new psychological contract” that may have beneficial effects on both individual and organisational outcomes. The study set out to investigate the relationship between perceived employability and employee well-being on the one hand and perceived employability and employees’ intention to leave on the other. The role of the state of the psychological contract, in terms of retaining employable employees while improving their well-being, was also investigated. Cross-sectional data were obtained from employees representing various organisations (N = 246. Contrary to expectations, structural equation modelling (SEM indicated no significant relationship between perceived employability and well-being. Perceived employability was a significant predictor of employees’ intention to leave the organisation. Results also indicated that the state of the psychological contract does not moderate the relationship between perceived employability and employee well-being and their intention to leave, respectively. The study stresses the importance of fulfilling promises made to employees ensuring that promises are fair and continuing to fulfil promises. The importance of interventions on individual-level, to enhance well-being in the workplace, is also emphasised.

  1. Psychological defenses against death anxiety: integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F

    2007-09-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing behaviors, addictive couple bonds, and adopting an anti-sexual approach to life. TMT offers a strong base of experimentally validated ideas and the experimental paradigms to test the broad array of defenses enumerated in Firestone's Separation Theory. Therefore, an integration of the two theories would be beneficial to a fuller understanding of psychological defenses against death anxiety.

  2. A simple extension of contraction theory to study incremental stability properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    Contraction theory is a recent tool enabling to study the stability of nonlinear systems trajectories with respect to one another, and therefore belongs to the class of incremental stability methods. In this paper, we extend the original definition of contraction theory to incorporate...... in an explicit manner the control input of the considered system. Such an extension, called universal contraction, is quite analogous in spirit to the well-known Input-to-State Stability (ISS). It serves as a simple formulation of incremental ISS, external stability, and detectability in a differential setting....... The hierarchical combination result of contraction theory is restated in this framework, and a differential small-gain theorem is derived from results already available in Lyapunov theory....

  3. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Oppong

    2014-01-01

    In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents) or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST). Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interd...

  4. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  5. The moderating role of overcommitment in the relationship between psychological contract breach and employee mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether the association between perceived psychological contract breach (PCB) and employee mental health is moderated by the cognitive-motivational pattern of overcommitment (OC). Linking the psychological contract approach to the effort-reward imbalance model, this study examines PCB as an imbalance in employment relationships that acts as a psychosocial stressor in the work environment and is associated with stress reactions that in turn negatively affect mental health. Methods: The analyses were based on a sample of 3,667 employees who participated in a longitudinal linked employer-employee survey representative of large organizations (with at least 500 employees who are subject so social security contributions) in Germany. Fixed-effects regression models, including PCB and OC, were estimated for employee mental health, and interaction effects between PCB and OC were assessed. Results: The multivariate fixed-effects regression analyses showed a significant negative association between PCB and employee mental health. The results also confirmed that OC does indeed significantly increase the negative effect of PCB on mental health and that OC itself has a significant and negative effect on mental health. Conclusions: The results suggest that employees characterized by the cognitive-motivational pattern of OC are at an increased risk of developing poor mental health if they experience PCB compared with employees who are not overly committed to their work. The results of this study support the assumption that psychosocial work stressors play an important role in employee mental health. PMID:27488041

  6. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Suicidality among immigrants: Application of the interpersonal-psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kene, Prachi; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kelly, Catherine; DiCicco, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Immigrants constitute a significant percentage of the total population living in the United States; however, there is a paucity of research unique to suicidality among immigrants. The present article examines the applicability of the three variables of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior-acquired capability for suicide, sense of thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness-to conceptualize, assess, and treat suicidality among immigrants. Risk and protective factors and mechanisms are discussed in the context of 2 case studies and immigrant paradox. Clinical implications include assessment and treatment of immigrant-specific experiences. Obstacles to treatment and future research directions are presented.

  8. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.

  9. The application of contraction theory to an iterative formulation of electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J. C.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Contraction theory is applied to an iterative formulation of electromagnetic scattering from periodic structures and a computational method for insuring convergence is developed. A short history of spectral (or k-space) formulation is presented with an emphasis on application to periodic surfaces. To insure a convergent solution of the iterative equation, a process called the contraction corrector method is developed. Convergence properties of previously presented iterative solutions to one-dimensional problems are examined utilizing contraction theory and the general conditions for achieving a convergent solution are explored. The contraction corrector method is then applied to several scattering problems including an infinite grating of thin wires with the solution data compared to previous works.

  10. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  11. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schalk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation, dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state. The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem

  12. One Big Happy Family? Unraveling the Relationship between Shared Perceptions of Team Psychological Contracts, Person-Team Fit and Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, Katherine; Griep, Yannick; De Cooman, Rein; Hoffart, Genevieve; Onen, Denis; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    With the knowledge that team work is not always associated with high(er) performance, we draw from the Multi-Level Theory of Psychological Contracts, Person-Environment Fit Theory, and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory to study shared perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach in relation to shared perceptions of complementary and supplementary fit to explain why some teams perform better than other teams. We collected three repeated survey measures in a sample of 128 respondents across 46 teams. After having made sure that we met all statistical criteria, we aggregated our focal variables to the team-level and analyzed our data by means of a longitudinal three-wave autoregressive moderated-mediation model in which each relationship was one-time lag apart. We found that shared perceptions of PC breach were directly negatively related to team output and negatively related to perceived team member effectiveness through a decrease in shared perceptions of supplementary fit. However, we also demonstrated a beneficial process in that shared perceptions of PC breach were positively related to shared perceptions of complementary fit, which in turn were positively related to team output. Moreover, best team output appeared in teams that could combine high shared perceptions of complementary fit with modest to high shared perceptions of supplementary fit. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that in terms of team output there may be a bright side to perceptions of PC breach and that perceived person-team fit may play an important role in this process.

  13. One Big Happy Family? Unraveling the Relationship between Shared Perceptions of Team Psychological Contracts, Person-Team Fit and Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, Katherine; Griep, Yannick; De Cooman, Rein; Hoffart, Genevieve; Onen, Denis; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    With the knowledge that team work is not always associated with high(er) performance, we draw from the Multi-Level Theory of Psychological Contracts, Person-Environment Fit Theory, and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory to study shared perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach in relation to shared perceptions of complementary and supplementary fit to explain why some teams perform better than other teams. We collected three repeated survey measures in a sample of 128 respondents across 46 teams. After having made sure that we met all statistical criteria, we aggregated our focal variables to the team-level and analyzed our data by means of a longitudinal three-wave autoregressive moderated-mediation model in which each relationship was one-time lag apart. We found that shared perceptions of PC breach were directly negatively related to team output and negatively related to perceived team member effectiveness through a decrease in shared perceptions of supplementary fit. However, we also demonstrated a beneficial process in that shared perceptions of PC breach were positively related to shared perceptions of complementary fit, which in turn were positively related to team output. Moreover, best team output appeared in teams that could combine high shared perceptions of complementary fit with modest to high shared perceptions of supplementary fit. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that in terms of team output there may be a bright side to perceptions of PC breach and that perceived person-team fit may play an important role in this process. PMID:29170648

  14. One Big Happy Family? Unraveling the Relationship between Shared Perceptions of Team Psychological Contracts, Person-Team Fit and Team Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gibbard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the knowledge that team work is not always associated with high(er performance, we draw from the Multi-Level Theory of Psychological Contracts, Person-Environment Fit Theory, and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory to study shared perceptions of psychological contract (PC breach in relation to shared perceptions of complementary and supplementary fit to explain why some teams perform better than other teams. We collected three repeated survey measures in a sample of 128 respondents across 46 teams. After having made sure that we met all statistical criteria, we aggregated our focal variables to the team-level and analyzed our data by means of a longitudinal three-wave autoregressive moderated-mediation model in which each relationship was one-time lag apart. We found that shared perceptions of PC breach were directly negatively related to team output and negatively related to perceived team member effectiveness through a decrease in shared perceptions of supplementary fit. However, we also demonstrated a beneficial process in that shared perceptions of PC breach were positively related to shared perceptions of complementary fit, which in turn were positively related to team output. Moreover, best team output appeared in teams that could combine high shared perceptions of complementary fit with modest to high shared perceptions of supplementary fit. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that in terms of team output there may be a bright side to perceptions of PC breach and that perceived person-team fit may play an important role in this process.

  15. Change management of mergers: the impact on NHS staff and their psychological contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortvriend, Penny

    2004-08-01

    The NHS has experienced a significant amount of organisational change and restructuring, which has included numerous mergers and de-mergers, since the Labour party came to power in the UK in 1997. However, to date there has been little in the way of evaluation of such changes, particularly the impact of organisational restructuring on the staff involved. This paper examines the human aspect of a merger, and subsequent de-merger, within a primary care trust (PCT) in the North of England, using a focus group methodology. The findings demonstrate that leadership and management styles have a significant impact on staff experiencing such changes. In addition, the psychological contract can be damaged due to the impact of several factors, inducing exit or intention to leave. Employees experienced a constant cycle of change with little time for stabilisation or adjustment, leading to negativity and lowered motivation at times.

  16. Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov, Vladimir D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced.

  17. Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1 general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology; (2 explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations of the world. Explicit processing allows humans to regulate modular mechanisms in accordance with culturally constructed norms and culturally constructed cost/benefit payoff schedules. It also enables active attempts to construct culture in accordance with explicit perceptions of possible costs and benefits. Because people have different construals of the costs and benefits of particular forms of culture, there is conflict over the construction of culture. Social controls and ideologies are introduced as general cultural categories that are enabled by explicit processing and which are able to regulate and motivate behavior within particular historical contexts, at times in ways that conflict with evolved predispositions. Ideologies are often intimately intertwined with various social controls but are logically and psychologically independent from social controls. Ideologies typically rationalize extant social controls but they also benefit from the power of social controls to enforce ideological conformity in schools or in religious institutions. Because of the control of explicit processing over behavior, this theory predicts that conflicts over culture will often be intense. Discussion deals with the implications of this model for group selection, cultural transmission, gene-culture co-evolution, and the various types of conflicts of interest apparent in conflicts over the construction of culture.

  18. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Edna

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  19. Nonlinear observer design for a nonlinear string/cable FEM model using contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkyilmaz, Yilmaz; Jouffroy, Jerome; Egeland, Olav

    model is presented in the form of partial differential equations (PDE). Galerkin's method is then applied to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations such that the cable model is approximated by a FEM model. Based on the FEM model, a nonlinear observer is designed to estimate the cable......Contraction theory is a recently developed nonlinear analysis tool which may be useful for solving a variety of nonlinear control problems. In this paper, using Contraction theory, a nonlinear observer is designed for a general nonlinear cable/string FEM (Finite Element Method) model. The cable...

  20. Teacher Personality: A Review of Psychological Research and Guidelines for a More Comprehensive Theory in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncz, Lajos

    2017-01-01

    The current review aims to demonstrate that findings from personality theories can help educational psychology craft a more thorough explanation of the role of teacher personality in the educational process. This topic seemed to have been inadvertently omitted. The following five groups of studies in psychology and related fields (classified based…

  1. Psychological contract breach in the anticipatory stage of change : Employee responses and the moderating role of supervisory informational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.; Schalk, R.; Schaveling, Jaap; van Gelder, Daniel

    This study examined the impact of two types of psychological contract breach (organizational policies and social atmosphere breach) on resistance to change and engagement in the anticipatory phase of change and assessed whether supervisory informational justice mitigated the negative effects of

  2. Psychological contract breach in the anticipatory stage of change : Employee responses and the moderating role of supervisory informational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, M.; Schaveling, J.; Schalk, R.; Gelder, van D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of psychological contract breach (organizational policies and social atmosphere breach) on resistance to change and engagement in the anticipatory phase of change and assessed whether supervisory informational justice mitigated the negative effects of

  3. The Psychological Contract of Science Students: Social Exchange with Universities and University Staff from the Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Paddy; Prince, Nike

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been undertaken involving the student experience and depicting undergraduate students as consumers of education. This construction of the relationship between students and universities is based primarily on notions of economic exchange. In this paper, using the construct of the psychological contract, we show that social…

  4. What's in it for me? : A managerial perspective on the influence of the psychological contract on attitude towards change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; Timmerman, V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a model on how business managers perceive that an employee’s psychological contract influences his or her attitude toward an organizational change. More specifically, it aims to provide insight into the managerial views on: first, the affective,

  5. What ' s in it for me? A managerial perspective on the influence of the psychological contract on attitude towards change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd van den Heuvel; René Schalk; Charissa Freese; Volken Timmerman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a model on how business managers perceive that an employee’s psychological contract influences his or her attitude toward an organizational change. More specifically, it aims to provide insight into the managerial views on: first, the affective,

  6. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. On the use of contraction theory for the design of nonlinear observers for ocean vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Lottin, Jacques

    Guaranteeing that traditional concepts of stability like uniform global exponential or asymptotic stability (UGES or UGAS) are veri ed when using design tools based on new concepts of stability may be of signicant importance. It is especially so when attempting to bridge the gap between theory...... and practice. This paper addresses the question of the applicability of contraction theory to the design of UGES observers for ocean vehicles. A relation between the concept of exponential convergence of a contracting system and uniform global exponential stability (UGES) is rst given. Then two contraction......-based GES observers, respectively for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) and a class of ships, are constructed, and simulation results are provided....

  8. An integrative mechanistic account of psychological distress, therapeutic change and recovery: the Perceptual Control Theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Sally; Mansell, Warren; Wood, Alex M

    2011-03-01

    The exact nature and mechanisms of psychological change within psychological disorders remain unknown. This review aims to use a psychological framework known as Perceptual Control Theory (Powers, 1973, 2005; Powers, Clark, & McFarland, 1960) to integrate the diverse literature within psychotherapy research. The core principles of Perceptual Control Theory are explained, and key domains of psychotherapy are considered to explore how well they converge with these principles. The quantitative and qualitative empirical literature on the process of psychological change is reviewed to examine how it fits with predictions based on Perceptual Control Theory. Furthermore, the prerequisites for psychological change; client qualities, therapist qualities, the therapeutic alliance and the shifting of awareness, are also considered to examine their consistency within a Perceptual Control Theory account. Finally the strengths and limitations of a Perceptual Control Theory account in explaining the mechanism of psychological change are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A convergence result for the unscented Kalman-Bucy filter using contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maree, J. P.; Imsland, L.; Jouffroy, J.

    2013-01-01

    -type stochastic differential equations. By employing a virtual/actual system framework, a special relation is established between sigma-point dynamics, and observed process states, with respect to contraction and convergence. The proposed theory is illustrated on an isothermal, non-linear CSTR process. © 2013...

  10. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  11. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  12. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  13. Autism: A Critical Review of Psychological Theories with Particular Reference to the Development of Social Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Considers theoretical approaches to the origins, diagnosis, and etiology of autism and focuses on the research and development of the psychological theories concerned with the theory of mind in both normally developing and autistic children. (Author/KB)

  14. Pathway to psychological change from the structural stability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We show that a path not yet considered exists in the parameter space of the cusp catastrophe that constitutes a 'target-trajectory,' along which psychological change may be achieved in a variety of situations by taking advantage of the protagonists' resistance. The parameters Pathogen - the pathogenic agent - and Therapy, or Dissent and Remedy, are used depending on whether the theory is applied to psychotherapy or conflict, respectively. This proposed target-trajectory offers: (a) conditions optimised in therapy with regard to the intrinsic limitations for the reduction of a patient's pathogenic agent, and in conflict with regard to the 'red-lines' of the protagonists, and (b) the benefit of a step of rapid decrease in the potential barrier to change. Questions raised concern the benefit that a patient may obtain from performing his cognitive task in psychotherapy with minimal requirement for the reduction of his pathogen, and the role that a step of rapid decrease in a potential barrier may play in decision-making, in particular when it comes to end a conflict. The argument is developed in detail for psychoanalytic resistance, relying on principles and procedures described in numerous texts of psychoanalysis. The theory deals with scaling laws - power laws - rather than strict equalities.

  15. Theory-Driven Evaluation in School Psychology Intervention Research: 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Idler, Alyssa M.; Bartfai, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which school psychology intervention research is guided by theory and addresses theoretical implications of findings. Intervention studies published during 2007-2012 in four journals, "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology…

  16. Commitments of Psychological Contracts and Diagnostic Use of Management Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Canan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the commitments the Surveillance Agents from the National Telecommunications Agency (Anatel made in their psychological contracts and the diagnostic use of the management control system of the entity, this study tested the hypothesis that individuals tend to be more committed to aspects they are charged for within organizations. This is a theoretical and empirical study that assumed that the commitments comprise the part of the belief that individuals develop on reciprocal relations of exchange between themselves and their contractors, in line with the model by Rousseau (1989; 1995. It was also assumed that the extent to which aspects are charged from the members of an organization matches their perception of the diagnostic use of formal and informal control systems. Methodologically, the research was developed in two phases, the first qualitative, involving documentary analysis and content analysis of organizational documents; and the second quantitative, with the application of questionnaires answered by individuals who occupy the individual position referred to in the organization, who evaluated behavioral parameters that act on them and that were identified in the first phase. The data showed that 42 respondents tend to maintain high levels of commitment to the rules and standards proposed for their function. Statistical results also suggest that there is a significant positive correlation between the commitments assumed and the perceived diagnostic use of control systems for the surveillance agents who answered the questionnaire.

  17. Management practices and performance of mergers and acquisitions in Pakistan: mediating role of psychological contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Muhammad Waseem; Fanchen, Meng; Baloch, Muhammad Awais

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effect of management practices (procedural justice, coordination approach, communication system, integration strategy, and coping programs) on merger and acquisition (M&A) performance in the Pakistan banking industry. Psychological contract (PC) acts as a mediator between Management practices and M&A performance. The Present study distributes a structured questionnaire to 700 bank employees of different management cadres. The useful response rate is 76 % (536 employees). It uses PLS-SEM technique for data analysis. (1) procedural justice is a key strategy which has highly significant direct and indirect effect on M&A performance; however integration strategy and the communication system have an only direct effect. (2) PC performs partial mediation at different levels between management practices and M&A financial and non-financial performance. This study provides an effective solution to solve the soft issues during and post-M&A process. This is one of the few studies which effectively integrate the five constructs into a single framework to study their effects on M&A performance. Limitations and future research directions are presented in the last section of the study.

  18. Assessing Coverage of Maslow's Theory in Educational Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.

    2010-01-01

    Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…

  19. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  20. A deeper integration of Selfish Goal Theory and modern evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2014-04-01

    Conceptually integrating Selfish Goal Theory with modern evolutionary psychology amplifies theoretical power. Inconsistency, a key principle of Selfish Goal Theory, illustrates this insight. Conflicting goals of seeking sexual variety and successful mate retention furnish one example. Siblings have evolved goals to cooperate and compete, a second example. Integrating Selfish Goal Theory with evolutionary theory can explain much inconsistent goal-directed behavior.

  1. Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph E.

    This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…

  2. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  3. The Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices, Leader member exchange, Psychological contract Fulfillment, Trade Union and Employee Retention Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor; Norziani Dahalan

    2014-01-01

    Employee retention is an issue facing most of corporate leaders due to high turnover rate. Many researchers have found that retaining employees is a significant challenge for organization as different employees are motivated by different retention strategies. A good human resource management practices would be one of the retention strategies. Human resource practices are also proposed as one of the most potent factors determining the nature and state of the psychological contract and leader m...

  4. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... with private service providers. In order to address my claim, I provide an embedded case study based on qualitative data of motivations and motivational dynamics within a set of external contractual relations managed through a performance management scheme by a public contracting agency. I find...

  5. The relationships between perceived organizational support, affective commitment, psychological contract breach, organizational citizenship behaviour and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Agarwal, Upasna A; Khatri, Naresh

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the factors that mediate and moderate the relationships of perceived organizational support with work engagement and organization citizenship behaviour. Specifically, affective commitment is posited to mediate and psychological contract breach to moderate the above relationships. Nurses play a critical role in delivering exemplary health care. For nurses to perform at their best, they need to experience high engagement, which can be achieved by providing them necessary organizational support and proper working environment. Data were collected via a self-reported survey instrument. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 750 nurses in nine large hospitals in India during 2013-2014. Four hundred and seventy-five nurses (63%) responded to the survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis of the moderated-mediation model. Affective commitment was found to mediate the positive relationships between perceived organizational support and work outcomes (work engagement, organizational citizenship behaviour). The perception of unfulfilled expectations (psychological contract breach) was found to moderate the perceived organizational support-work outcome relationships adversely. The results of this study indicate that perceived organizational support exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlight the importance of taking organizational context, such as perceptions of psychological contract breach, into consideration when making sense of the influence of perceived organizational support on affective commitment, work engagement and citizenship behaviours of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Three Theories of Psychological Development; Implications for Children's Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)

  7. Cold and hot cognition: quantum probability theory and realistic psychological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Typically, human decision making is emotionally "hot" and does not conform to "cold" classical probability (CP) theory. As quantum probability (QP) theory emphasises order, context, superimposition states, and nonlinear dynamic effects, one of its major strengths may be its power to unify formal modeling and realistic psychological theory (e.g., information uncertainty, anxiety, and indecision, as seen in the Prisoner's Dilemma).

  8. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  9. The role of psychological contract on employee commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour: A study of Indonesian young entrepreneurs in management action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ade I Anggraeni; Christantius Dwiatmadja; Ahyar Yuniawan

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: This study aims to analyse the entrepreneurship-driven reasons and characteristics of employee management of the young generation, by analysing the role of psychological contract on employee...

  10. Classic Papers in Psychology: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Who are the most prestigious authors cited in today's psychology textbooks and journals? And where are (or where were) they based? This short note reports on the answers gained to such questions by using the Web of Science Core Collection to find the authors of the most highly cited papers in psychology published between 1927 and 2012. The…

  11. Psychological Theory and Pedagogical Effectiveness: The Learning Promotion Potential Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…

  12. Putting the Stress on Conspiracy Theories: Examining Associations between Psychological Stress, Anxiety, and Belief in Conspiracy Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Furnham, Adrian; Smyth, Nina; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Clow, Angela; Swami, Viren

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress and anxiety may be antecedents of belief in conspiracy theories, but tests of this hypothesis are piecemeal. Here, we examined the relationships between stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories in a sample of 420 U.S. adults. Participants completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories, perceived stress, stressful life events, trait and state anxiety, episodic tension, and demographic information. Regression analysis indicated that more stressful life events...

  13. Personas: the Jung's theory of psychological types and their utility for design

    OpenAIRE

    Senna, Carlos Eduardo; Fialho, Francisco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The present article provides a new perspective for the process of character construction through the knowledge of archetypal psychology. In order to do so, the methodological strategy used was the bibliographical review. Firstly, the text presents the principles of the Psychological Types Theory, the most known branch of Analytical Psychology by Carl Jung. Secondly, the article describes the typological classification of Myers-Briggs. One of the most challenges for the designer is to define p...

  14. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  15. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr., Ed.; Bullock-Yowell, Emily, Ed.; Dozier, V. Casey, Ed.; Osborn, Debra S., Ed.; Lenz, Janet G., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is based on the 2016 Society for Vocational Psychology (SVP) Biennial Conference, that was held at the Florida State University on May 16-17, 2016. The conference theme was "Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology." The conference content and the resulting edited book are based on the…

  16. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  17. Integrating Theory and Empirical Science in School Psychology: Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews progress made since Hughes (2000a) criticized intervention research in school psychology for insufficient consideration of theory. A review of contemporary intervention research published in journals specifically identified with the specialty of school psychology supports the conclusion that current school psychology…

  18. Applying Theories of Development: An Exercise for Teaching Adolescent Psychology. Faculty Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Donna M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of the film "Breakfast Club," in a college adolescent psychology course. Relates how students study and discuss theories of moral reasoning and psychological development prior to viewing the film. Provides an opportunity for students to integrate course content while enjoying the learning process. (CFR)

  19. Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named) theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement. PMID:28642728

  20. Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieghard Beller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating. The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement.

  1. Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named) theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement.

  2. Toward development of a middle-range theory of psychological adaptation in death and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a middle-range theory of psychological adaptation in death and dying that was abstracted from a series of quantitative and qualitative studies. The findings from these studies are described, a conceptual definition for end-of-life psychological adaptation is given, evidence is synthesized into a limited number of assumptions, testable hypotheses are derived, and the constructed middle-range theory is linked to the conceptual-theoretical framework of the Roy adaptation model.

  3. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  4. Physical activity and psychological health in breast cancer survivors: an application of basic psychological needs theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-11-01

    The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. What Information Theory Says About Best Response and About Binding Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is the information-theoretic extension of conventional full- rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here PD theory is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. This investigation illuminates how to determine the optimal organization chart for a corporation, or more generally how to order the sequence of moves of the players / employees so as to optimize an overall objective function. It is then shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. This variant is then investigated for team games, in which the players share the same utility function, by showing that such continuum- limit bounded rational best response is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function. Next PD theory is used to investigate changing the coordinate system of the game, i.e., changing the mapping from the joint move of the players to the arguments in the utility functions. Such a change couples those arguments, essentially by making each players move be an offered binding contract.

  7. Deontic Reasoning with Emotional Content: Evolutionary Psychology or Decision Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perham, Nick; Oaksford, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the contrasting predictions of the evolutionary and decision-theoretic approaches to deontic reasoning. Two experiments embedded a hazard management (HM) rule in a social contract scenario that should lead to competition between innate modules. A 3rd experiment used a pure HM task. Threatening material was also…

  8. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Quantum theory as a tool for the description of simple psychological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2011-01-01

    We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these stimuli corresponding operators and after that to write down the equation for evolution of density matrix of the relevant open system which allows one to find probabilities of all possible behavior alternatives. Using the method proposed we consider in detail simple model describing such interesting psychological phenomena as cognitive dissonance and the impact of competition among group members on its unity.

  10. Design of Digital Learning Material on Social-Psychological Theories for Nutrition Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busstra, Maria C.; De Graaf, Cees; Hartog, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component of the design challenge is to implement three…

  11. Design of digital learning material on social-psychological theories for nutrition behavior research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.; Graaf, de C.; Hartog, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component

  12. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  13. Psychological Adaptation to Disability: Perspectives From Chaos and Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Parker, Randall M.

    2005-01-01

    The process of psychological adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) has been extensively studied by rehabilitation professionals for more than 50 years, yet it is still fraught with misunderstanding and often contradictory views. In this paper, the authors seek to expand on earlier suggestions by Parker, Schaller, and Hansmann (2003)…

  14. On the Possibility of a Cultural Psychology Theory of Pedagogy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most viable paradigm for conducting research in a developing country is that of socio-historical-cultural psychology. To date this paradigm has been able to clarify how dissimilar people act differently in their own situated contexts. The effects of mediated learning in context, an important unit of analysis for the discipline, ...

  15. Preferential treatment of women and psychological reactance theory: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    187 male academic staff members read a low- or high-threat (freedom restricting) description of measures for the preferential treatment of women in job selection for academic staff functions. The high-threat condition evoked more psychological reactance than the low-threat condition. Ss with high

  16. When theory trumps ideology: Lessons from evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists are personally liberal, just as social psychologists are. Yet their research has rarely been perceived as liberally biased--if anything, it has been erroneously perceived as motivated by conservative political agendas. Taking a closer look at evolutionary psychologists might offer the broader social psychology community guidance in neutralizing some of the biases Duarte et al. discuss.

  17. Theory, Not Cultural Context, Will Advance American Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Kaschak, Michael P.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors agree with Arnett's call for greater attention to this issue. However, they fundamentally disagree with his position on issues related to generalizability…

  18. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    neoclassical theory to be classified as financial, physical, legal, human, organizational, informational, and relational. Each firm will have some...social science theories applicable to contracting research, identify a contracting paradigm (or paradigms) and potential contracting theories and...principles, examine the nature of contracting research and practice, and present thoughts and ideas toward a general theory of contracting which, hopefully

  19. New insights into old theories: contracting relationships and the separation of powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, L S

    1997-01-01

    The continual frustration expressed in the literature about contracting is usually placed in the frame of political economy, contract regimes or interorganizational behavior. This article proposes that two conceptual omissions in the literature, an understanding of the separation of powers and the acknowledgment of different types of contracting situations, can complement the contracting literature. The article describes the author's observation of the contracting process from a study of four federal contracting situations under the Circular A-76 process and compares these observations with examples of state contracting of social services. Recommendations include recognition of the value configurations surrounding governmental processes and types of contracting as an aid to improving contracting management techniques.

  20. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jacques

    2009-07-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions.

  1. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Maessen, Mia; de Bruijn, Renske; Smets, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural

  2. Identity theory, functionalism and intentionality: three modes of psychological explanation used in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warme, G E

    1985-12-01

    It is argued that there are three modes of psychological explanation that are available and in wide use, but that the three are often unwittingly confounded. These are, identity theory, functionalism and intentionality. Identity theory explains by viewing psychological events as direct products of design, that is, manifestations of brain events. The stance of functionalism is to study psychological events and those past and current stimuli that evoke them. In other words, functionalism studies the way in which psychological events are programmed. Intentionality approaches psychic events as a product of both conscious and unconscious purposes, beliefs, wishes, reasons and meanings, and concludes that it is of considerable worth to treat persons as intentional systems. It is claimed that the demarcation between these explanatory modes is crucial in psychiatric, and especially psychotherapeutic practice and research.

  3. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  4. Complex Psychological Trauma and Self-Dysregulation: A Theory Synthesis for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R

    2016-01-01

    Complex psychological trauma is a phenomenon resulting from severe interpersonal trauma that can negatively affect how individuals experience health care. However, few theories conceptualizing complex trauma exist, and it has received only limited attention in the nursing literature. The purpose of this theory synthesis was to organize two theories of (a) self-regulation and (b) self-dysregulation following complex psychological trauma into a single conceptual framework for use in nursing practice. This article used the theory synthesis approach described by Walker and Avant. The theory has potential to advance nursing science by helping nurses and other health professionals understand how trauma can alter self-regulatory processes and result in unique challenges in care delivery. It also has potential to prevent retraumatization of trauma survivors at the hands of health care providers.

  5. Theory of imprevision from the economic and legal perspective of contract analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ştefan PĂTRU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The new realities of the 21st century ask for a revitalization of the economic and legal systems so as to overcome the effects of the economic crisis. The current economic crisis is at the same time a challenge for the scientific milieu which is called to find the best solutions for the reversal and adaptation of the main scientific institutions. For the legal system, the contract represents an essential factor both theoretically and practically so that the new legislative decisions appear to be as highly important. As a particular case study, we intend to analyse the theory of imprevision both from the theoretical viewpoint and the one of practical consequences that the regulation of this institution might generate in the domestic legislative environment through the provisions of the New Civil Code. Far from our affiliation to the opinions that vividly sustain or reject the regulation of this theory, this article intends to be an objective analysis of the theory of imprevision representing one of the greatest challenges for the New Civil Code.

  6. An Application of Max Lusher's Theory of Colour Psychology in Forogh Farrokhzad's Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    M Alavi Moghaddam; S Poorshahram

    2010-01-01

    Colour is recognized as one of the criteria for personality analysis in modern psychology. Colours are a kind of energy and visible sounds which play an important role in one's life. Their influences on human's soul and mind are undeniable. In other words, colour can be considered as a reflection of one's mental and physical situation since colours have special influence on soul and body equally. Max Lusher's study of colours is among the most recent theories which deal with psychological ana...

  7. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  9. Combining Internally Contracted States and Matrix Product States To Perform Multireference Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Knizia, Gerald; Guo, Sheng; Alavi, Ali

    2017-02-14

    We present two efficient and intruder-free methods for treating dynamic correlation on top of general multiconfiguration reference wave functions - including such as obtained by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) with large active spaces. The new methods are the second order variant of the recently proposed multireference linearized coupled cluster method (MRLCC) [ Sharma, S.; Alavi, A. J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 , 102815 ] and of N-electron valence perturbation theory (NEVPT2), with expected accuracies similar to MRCI+Q and (at least) CASPT2, respectively. Great efficiency gains are realized by representing the first order wave function with a combination of internal contraction (IC) and matrix product state perturbation theory (MPSPT). With this combination, only third order reduced density matrices (RDMs) are required. Thus, we obviate the need for calculating (or estimating) RDMs of fourth or higher order; these had so far posed a severe bottleneck for dynamic correlation treatments involving the large active spaces accessible to DMRG. Using several benchmark systems, including first and second row containing small molecules, Cr2, pentacene, and oxo-Mn(Salen), we show that active spaces containing at least 30 orbitals can be treated using this method. On a single node, MRLCC2 and NEVPT2 calculations can be performed with over 550 and 1100 virtual orbitals, respectively. We also critically examine the errors incurred due to the three sources of errors introduced in the present implementation - calculating second order instead of third order energy corrections, use of internal contraction, and approximations made in the reference wave function due to DMRG.

  10. The Influence of Traditional Culture and the Interpersonal Psychological Theory on Suicide Research in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonsoo; Baik, Seung Yeon; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Korea has the highest suicide rate amongst the OECD countries. Yet, its research on suicidal behaviors has been primitive. While the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide has gained global attention, there has only been a few researches, which examined its applicability in Korea. In this article, we review the previous studies on suicide and examine the association between the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide and traditional Korean culture, with an emphasis on Collectivism and Confucianism. We propose that pathways to suicide might vary depending on cultural influences. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

  11. Interpersonal-Psychological Theory, Alexithymia, and Personality Predict Suicide Ideation among Maladjusted Soldiers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2017-10-01

    This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events. Our study demonstrates the interaction of the interpersonal-psychological theory and other suicide risk factors in Taiwanese soldiers. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. The link between HR practices, psychological contract fulfilment, and organisational performance in Greece: An economic crisis perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Katou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the impact of HR practices on organizational performance through the mediating role of psychological contract (expressed by the influence of employer on employee promises fulfilment through employee attitudes and further examines whether this relationship remains stable during periods of external economic crisis. Methodology: The analysis is based on structural equation modelling using two national samples of a two time study of Greek private and public organizations in the manufacturing, services and trade sectors. The first data collection took place in 2008 (treated as a control period and the second in 2010 (treated as an economic crisis period. Findings: The study is providing proof that the employee attitudes of satisfaction, commitment and motivation, constitute a nested mediating epicentre of the HR practices – organizational performance relationship, meaning that employee attitudes are positively influencing employee promises fulfilment and organizational performance and being positively influenced by employer promises fulfilment and HR practices. Research limitations/implications: Although data was collected using the same questionnaire at the two time periods of 2008 and 2010, the design of the study is not longitudinal. As a result, the study does not allow for dynamic causal inferences. Value: The study supports the view that although the structure of the relationship between HR practices and organizational performance does not change in periods of economic crisis, the strength of this structure is weaker compared to normal economic periods. Additionally, this study provides a greater understanding of the process by which psychological contract mediates the relationship between HR practices and organizational performance, with special reference to economic crisis.

  13. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-03-03

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  14. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsi Jonna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  15. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Li, Wang On

    2014-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.

  16. Pragmatic nihilism: how a Theory of Nothing can help health psychology progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Crutzen, Rik

    2017-06-01

    Health psychology developed a plethora of theories to explain and change a wide variety of behaviours. Several attempts have been undertaken to build integrative theories, some even striving for a Theory of Everything. We argue against these efforts, arguing that instead a 'pragmatic nihilism' perspective may be more fruitful to understand and change health behaviours. The first tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that psychological variables are usefully considered as metaphors rather than referring to entities that exist in the mind. As a consequence, the second tenet emphasizes theories' definitions and guidelines for the operationalisation of those variables. The third tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that each operationalisation represents an intersection of a variety of dimensions, such as behavioural specificity and duration, and most importantly, psychological aggregation level. Any operationalisation thus represents a number of choices regarding these dimensions. Pragmatic nihilism has two implications. First, it provides a foundation that enables integrating theories in a more flexible and accurate manner than made possible by integrative theories. Second, it emphasizes the importance of operationalisations, underlining the importance of investing in the careful development of measurement instruments, thorough reporting of measurement instruments' specifics and performance, and full disclosure of the instruments themselves.

  17. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.

  18. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  19. Latent Semantic Analysis: A Theory of the Psychology of Language and Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to communication theory and research by adding to a discussion of a computational model called latent semantic analysis (LSA). Argues that LSA does not handle all aspects of language processing, but offers a biologically and psychologically plausible mechanistic explanation of the acquisition, induction, and representation of verbal…

  20. Roles for software technologies in advancing research and theory in educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Allyson F; Winne, Philip H; Nesbit, John C

    2005-03-01

    While reviews abound on theoretical topics in educational psychology, it is rare that we examine our field's instrumentation development, and what effects this has on educational psychology's evolution. To repair this gap, this paper investigates and reveals the implications of software technologies for researching and theorizing about core issues in educational psychology. From a set of approximately 1,500 articles published between 1999 and 2004, we sampled illustrative studies and organized them into four broad themes: (a) innovative ways to operationalize variables, (b) the changing nature of instructional interventions, (c) new fields of research in educational psychology, and (d) new constructs to be examined. In each area, we identify novel uses of these technologies and suggest how they may advance, and, in some instances, reshape theory and methodology. Overall, we demonstrate that software technologies hold significant potential to elaborate research in the field.

  1. Psychological motives and online games addiction: a test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-06-01

    Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.

  2. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  3. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by…

  4. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  5. The One and the Many: Translating Insights from Constitutional Pluralism to European Contract Law Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2013-01-01

    While freedom of contract has generally been recognized as a leading principle of European contract law, national contract laws as well as EU measures show remarkable differences with respect to the limits they impose on contractual freedom in light of the public interest or common good. Whereas

  6. Experiencing different generations in the hospitality workplace : An exploratory study into generational differences in the content of the psychological contract for workers in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Blomme, R.J.; Muijen, van J.J.

    2009-01-01

    High levels of turnover remain a challenge for the hospitality industry. Earlier research links turnover problems to psychological contract breach, and popular literature on generations suggests a new generation of workers is likely to further aggravate problems with turnover. This study explores

  7. Learning in a self-managed management career : the relation between managers' HRD-patterns, psychological career contracts and mobility perpectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhuijzen, E.S.K.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the significance of managers HRD-activities (learning activities) in modern career contexts. Based on literature study and several pre-studies, a conceptual research model was developed containing three main elements: HRD-pattern, psychological career contract and mobility

  8. What’s in it for me? A managerial perspective on the influence of the psychological contract on attitude towards change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; Freese, Charissa; Timmerman, Volken

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a model on how business managers perceive that an employee's psychological contract influences his or her attitude toward an organizational change. More specifically, it aims to provide insight into the managerial views on: first, the affective,

  9. ANTI-PSYCHOLOGISM IN WITTGENSTEIN’S PHILOSOPHY IN REFERENCE TO THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wendland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the validity of criticism of what is known as psychologist-transmission communication  theory. It is accepted that theories which support the idea that communication is a process of conveying  (transmitting psychological content of the mental states between participants (e.g. theories of Jakobson, Hovland, Newcomb et al. are examples of the approach. There are doubts about such views, which arise from the assumptions of anti-psychologism and anti-mentalism (such as Frege, Husserl, as well as the rejection of traditional notions of subjectivity in philosophy after the linguistic turn. In order to justify the criticism the position of the “late” Wittgenstein is invoked, according to which communication activities (as well as thinking, understanding etc. need not be considered as correlated to mental acts.

  10. Power and action in critical theory across disciplines: implications for critical community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Heather; Evans, Scot; Ganote, Cynthia; Henrickson, Jorie; Jacobs-Priebe, Lynette; Jones, Diana L; Prilleltensky, Isaac; Riemer, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Although critical scholarship and community psychology share similar aspirations, the links between them remain unexplored and under-theorized. In this article we explore the implications of critical scholarship in various specialties for the field of community psychology. To understand the contributions of critical scholarship to a theory of power and action for social change, we conducted a systematic analysis of a ten-year period of publications in seven journals associated with the critical scholarship tradition. We created precise criteria for the concepts of power and action and applied them to the publications. Results indicate an interesting paradox at play. Whereas community psychology is more action oriented than critical scholarship, its actions fall short of challenging institutionalized power structures and the status quo; and whereas critical scholarship is more challenging of the status quo than community psychology in theory, it has failed to produce viable actions that challenge the status quo. We discuss the implications of this state of affairs for the development of a more critical community psychology.

  11. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  12. Decision Support for Energy Contracts Negotiation with Game Theory and Adaptive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decision support methodology for electricity market players’ bilateral contract negotiations. The proposed model is based on the application of game theory, using artificial intelligence to enhance decision support method’s adaptive features. This model is integrated in AiD-EM (Adaptive Decision Support for Electricity Markets Negotiations, a multi-agent system that provides electricity market players with strategic behavior capabilities to improve their outcomes from energy contracts’ negotiations. Although a diversity of tools that enable the study and simulation of electricity markets has emerged during the past few years, these are mostly directed to the analysis of market models and power systems’ technical constraints, making them suitable tools to support decisions of market operators and regulators. However, the equally important support of market negotiating players’ decisions is being highly neglected. The proposed model contributes to overcome the existing gap concerning effective and realistic decision support for electricity market negotiating entities. The proposed method is validated by realistic electricity market simulations using real data from the Iberian market operator—MIBEL. Results show that the proposed adaptive decision support features enable electricity market players to improve their outcomes from bilateral contracts’ negotiations.

  13. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  14. Common prescriptions for psychology derived from dialectical materialism and chaos theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, A R

    2000-04-01

    During the entire Soviet period (1917-1991), Russian psychologists labored to create a psychology which would be consonant with Marxist-Leninist assumptions derived from dialectical materialism. Some of their early prescriptions, in particular those put forward by Konstantin N. Kornilov in the 1920s and early 1930s, are identical to strategies being advanced by contemporary American psychologists who propose that chaos theory and nonlinear meta-modeling techniques in general, given advances in computer and television technologies, can be designed for research capable of dealing with the complexities, nonlinearities, self-organizational processes, and abrupt transformations characteristic of human psychological functioning.

  15. Do theories of suicide play well together? Integrating components of the hopelessness and interpersonal psychological theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Law, Keyne C; Anestis, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Given that suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, there has been considerable research on theories of suicide risk. Despite the volume of such research, each theory is largely investigated in isolation and there has been little attempt to integrate them. Thus, the goal of the present study is to integrate two theories of suicide risk, Alloy and Abramson's hopelessness theory of suicide (HT) and Joiner's interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), into one mediational model where the effects of the risk associated with the HT variables (i.e., a negative cognitive style) on suicidal ideation are transmitted by the IPTS (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belonging) variables. Participants were 245 young adults with elevated levels of depressive symptoms who completed self-report measures of suicide risk at baseline and a measure of suicidal ideation eight weeks later. The results of a mediated model supported our hypothesis. The effects of the HT variables on suicidal ideation were mediated by the IPTS variables. Furthermore, results did not support the reverse model, suggesting specificity of the direction of our hypotheses. These findings imply that there may be merit in attempting to integrate theories of suicide risk rather than studying them in isolation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Addressing psychological aspects of physical problems through sandplay: a grounded theory study of therapists' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutina, Larissa; Sperlinger, David; Esterhuyzen, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to explore therapists' understanding of how people with a wide range of physical problems address the psychological aspects of these problems through sandplay, what happens for them in the process, what changes they experience and what sandplay can contribute to working with such people. This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to systematically analyse the data and construct a substantive theory of therapists' understanding of the processes and themes involved in sandplay therapy with people with physical problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine sandplay therapists with the participants asked about their experiences of using sandplay to address physical problems. The participants offered evidence of their clients' ability to address their physical problems and the corresponding psychological issues through symbolic expression in the sand. The emergent theory suggested that such symbolic expression could facilitate access to feelings and experiences that can be difficult to address through verbal therapy alone, thus facilitating the process of integration and recovery. The theory suggests how therapists thought that clients may address their physical problems through sandplay and what is important in that process. There was also a suggestion that the focus and themes unfolding in sandplay process may vary depending on whether the clients present with somatisation, chronic illness, or terminal illness. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  18. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    York eHagmayer; Neele eEngelmann

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  19. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  20. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  1. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single di...

  2. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Viren eSwami; Viren eSwami

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dim...

  3. The cultural lens approach to evaluating cultural validity of psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Erin E; Robitschek, Christine; Flores, Lisa Y; Navarro, Rachel L; Ashton, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we introduce the cultural lens approach (CLA), a novel approach to evaluating the extent to which a psychological theory applies across cultural groups. The CLA requires scholars to apply their accumulated knowledge about cultural influences and differences (e.g., independent and interdependent self-construals; Markus & Kitayama, 1991) to the ways in which theoretical propositions are interpreted and operationalized. First we highlight three limitations in existing approaches to cultural validity and the ways in which the CLA addresses these limitations. Next, we articulate the five steps involved in the CLA and apply it to three different theories from social, vocational, and positive psychology to demonstrate its broad utility. In all cases, we highlight how applying the CLA can generate multiple novel testable hypotheses to stimulate future research and to advance knowledge that is culturally sensitive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Examining the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide in an inpatient veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Lindsey L; Menefee, Deleene S; Pettit, Jeremy W; Leopoulos, Wendy L; Vincent, John P

    2013-08-01

    Suicide among veterans is a pressing public health concern. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide proposes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, whereas the acquired capability for suicide leads to suicide attempt in the presence of suicidal desire (Joiner, 2005). Two hypotheses derived from the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide were tested in 185 veterans (96 women) entering inpatient psychiatric treatment. Burdensomeness and its interaction with belongingness significantly predicted current suicidal ideation. The three-way interaction between burdensomeness, belongingness, and acquired capability did not significantly predict number of past suicide attempts. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  5. GENDER RELATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CRITICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dadico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some recent discussions raised by the feminist critical theory, which contribute to put in question the scientific objectivity of Psychology. It is alleged, first, a false neutrality of genre, built on the idea of a generic human being. This discussion leads to a necessary revision of supposedly universal concepts. One of these concepts is that of justice that pervades studies on moral in Psychology of Development. At the same time, it discusses the prevalence of a certain gender in universities, by establishing and legitimizing specific experiences in the construction of knowledge in the area. It explores works of feminist authors identified with the Critical Theory, focusing on the question of identity, as well as the political implications of language concepts involved in their positions. Finally, dialoguing with authors of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is proposed to consider the dialectic between concept and experience for building new knowledge and strategies for gender equality. It is expected to show that the feminist critique reached important pillars of psychology, which, like science, cannot remain inert in front of the new challenges. The various fields of psychology need to mobilize for construction of emancipatory strategies in order to ensure the very validity of the knowledge produced in the area.

  6. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Marsalek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ab initio ring polymer contraction (AI-RPC) scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive pro...

  8. The simultaneous collapse of both the swinging crossbridge theory of muscle contraction and the in vitro motility essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, A

    2005-12-16

    In the early seventies we discovered that isolated, active, myosin fragments can induce movement and tension generation by actin filaments in both in vitro and in vivo systems, employing a variety of techniques. It was not in line with the domineering swinging crossbridge theory of muscle contraction. We then proposed an hydrodynamic mechanism which explained our results and was applied to muscle contraction and to other biological engines. Our discovery has been ignored for a long time until the so-called "in vitro motility essays" appeared. By using this artifact--laden technique the mechanochemical reactivity of the active myosin fragments was re-discovered without giving us any credit. The essays gave continuously changing values for fundamental parameters of muscle contraction; the values were appreciably different in different laboratories and decreased in a continuous fashion in the hands of one scientist. By analyzing recent experiments which derived the rate of ATP hydrolysis of active muscles as function of the applied load I calculated the value of the sliding distance resulting from the breakdown of one ATP molecule by each of the myosin heads in contracting muscle. According to the contemporary theory this should be the same for all muscles under any environmental conditions and determined by length of the myosin head's neck. My examination led to the conclusion that the sliding distance varies from one muscle to another and with different temperatures for the same muscle. This again, contradicts the current theory and should give the final blow to both this theory and the "essays". Furthermore: it can be explained by a hydrodynamic mechanism such as that proposed by us more than 30 years ago.

  9. Meaning and impact of the notion of social contract in Rousseau and Kant. Scope and limitations in the democratic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Jaramillo Marín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the similarities and differences about the political and legal foundation given to the notion of social contract by two modern thinkers: Jean Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant. In the text, it is pointed the revolutionary part of the notion, from showing its principal meanings and impacts. Also, reflection is made on the scope and difficulties of the contractual proposal on the contemporary democratic theory.

  10. Social psychological theories of disordered eating in college women: review and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2011-11-01

    Because peer interaction, weight/shape, and self-concept formation are particularly salient to college women, the implications of social psychological theories may be especially far-reaching during the college years. College women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of social comparison, objectification, and uses and gratifications theories, which describe social-cognitive mechanisms that provide an individual with information regarding her own view of her body and how she perceives that others perceive her body. The current paper will review and integrate findings related to these three theories of disordered eating in college women in an effort to present a more comprehensive understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that play a role in the development and maintenance of such pathology for this group of young women. Limitations of and future directions for research on these theories will be discussed, as will their potential integration with other factors that contribute to disordered eating and implications for treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moving from theory to practice and back in social and health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-05-01

    Progressive advancement of interventions in health psychology requires improvements in underlying theory. The theoretical advances described in this special issue offer a number of possibilities for intervention development. These include advances in understanding the role of cognitive biases, priming effects, effective planning, the role of specific affective states, and the influence of attachment style on response to interventions. For these advances to translate into progressive improvements in interventions and realized gains in public health, we propose that the theories should: (a) be explicitly linked to the major theories from which they draw; (b) reflect the context sensitivity and dynamic nature of the intervention target; (c) show convincing evidence of improved effectiveness of interventions they spawn according to rigorous criteria; and (d) address the full translation process, including implementation by health care providers and engagement by the target population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  13. Contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov to the methodology, theory and experimental practice of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaeva, Yuliya D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov (1933-2001, his disciples and representatives of Tikhomirov’s school in psychology of thinking is analyzed. Tikhomirov was the initiator of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking, one of the leading schools of cognitive studies in Russia. Tikhomirov is known outside Russia as well: more than once, he presented his work at international congresses and conferences; his writings have been translated into several European languages. The paper includes brief biographical information about Tikhomirov. The main components of the Personal Meanings Theory are presented, such as the regulative function of (intellectual emotions during problem solving, the actual genesis of goal-setting, the formation of personal meanings during the processes involved in thinking, and the personality-related determinants of decision making. Tikhomirov’s pioneering ideas in the studies of creativity, including jointparticipation in creative activities, are discussed in the paper. In the last section of the paper, Tikhomirov’s studies of the impact of information and communication technology on the psychological transformations undergone by adepts of high technologies and technology’s effect on their intellectual and communicative activities are discussed; these studies accelerated a new field of research in Russia, namely cyberpsychology or Internet psychology.

  14. Application of a relational frame theory account of psychological flexibility in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Perete, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a contextual behavior therapy based on relational frame theory (RFT), a functional-contextual approach to human language and cognition. The main aim of ACT is to promote psychological flexibility, which has been defined in middle-level terms. The current study proposes that a recently developed RFT account of psychological flexibility might facilitate the adaptation of ACT to the work with young children. A case study with a 5-year-old boy presenting problematic anger is presented to illustrate the previous suggestion. The intervention consisted of a brief ACT protocol applied in four, 20-min sessions and a token economy at the service of promoting psychological flexibility. The ACT protocol involved a multiple-exemplar training in framing own ongoing experiences through deictic and hierarchical relations and transforming the discriminative functions of those experiences by relating them to rules that progressively specified longer term and symbolic, positive consequences. The intervention was shown to be highly effective in reducing the anger episodes, and the results were maintained during the one year of follow-up. This study supports the feasibility of the RFT account of psychological flexibility to adapt ACT to the work with young children.

  15. Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.

  16. Psychological tensions found in suicide notes: a test for the strain theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lester, David

    2008-01-01

    As a comprehensive and parsimonious theory explaining the socio-psychological mechanism prior to suicidal behavior, strain theory of suicide postulates that conflicting and competing pressures in an individual's life usually precede a suicide. The theory proposes four sources of strain leading to suicide: (1) value strain from conflicting values, (2) aspiration strain from the discrepancy between aspiration and reality, (3) deprivation strain from relative deprivation such as poverty, and (4) coping strain from deficient coping skills in the face of a crisis. This research has content-analyzed 40 suicide notes (20 by suicide completers and 20 by suicide attempters) and found strong support for the strain theory of suicide. Although little difference is found in the number and pattern of strains between the completers and attempters, both groups have many aspirations and coping strains and few value and deprivation strains. Also, the older a suicidal victim is, the more he/she feels deprived and lacks coping skills and feels less bothered with value conflicts. Although the study has offered some support for the new theory, future research with more rigorous quantitative data needs to be conducted to further test the theory on a more comprehensive level.

  17. Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Soyon; Uleman, James S; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-09-01

    Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others' behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors.

  18. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kelly; Saville, Naomi; Bhandari, Bishnu; Giri, Kalpana; Ghising, Mamita; Jha, Meena; Jha, Sonali; Magar, Jananee; Roy, Rinku; Shrestha, Bhim; Thakur, Bhawana; Tiwari, Rinku; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma; King, Michael; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥ 5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity

  19. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  20. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Contracting Functions on Generalized Ultrametric Semilattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Matsikoudis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of abstract structures, which we call generalized ultrametric semilattices, and in which the meet operation of the semilattice coexists with a generalized distance function in a tightly coordinated way. We prove a constructive fixed-point theorem for strictly contracting functions on directed-complete generalized ultrametric semilattices, and introduce a corresponding induction principle. We cite examples of application in the semantics of logic programming and timed computation, where, until now, the only tool available has been the non-constructive fixed-point theorem of Priess-Crampe and Ribenboim for strictly contracting functions on spherically complete generalized ultrametric semilattices.

  1. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in College Student Suicide Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    Suicide screening on campus is limited by effectiveness of existing questionnaires. This study tests whether Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) constructs may be more effective in screening than traditional risk factors measures like the Interactive Screening Protocol (ISP). Participants were 188 traditional-age students from three different campuses recruited through a subject pool and peer recruiters. IPTS risk variables as a set explained all likelihood of higher risk responses to suicidality questions that was otherwise explained by risk factors, plus additional likelihood besides. Current IPTS measures are no screening "magic bullet," but further inquiry into use of these constructs is warranted. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Traumatic brain injury and lifetime suicidality: Applying the interpersonal-psychological theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Claire N; Cramer, Robert J; Schmidt, Adam T

    2017-08-01

    The present article investigates the traumatic brain injury (TBI)-suicide link, assessing whether (a) TBI accounts for variance in suicide risk, and (b) the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide can be applied to TBI status. Matched case-control procedures applied to archival college student health data identified TBI and non-TBI subsamples (84 total). Individuals with a TBI possessed higher suicide risk than those without. Even accounting for the relative influence of strong suicide risk factors (i.e., depression, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability), TBI was robustly associated with suicide risk. TBI history would be valuable to ascertain in assessing suicide risk.

  3. Application of Psychological Theories in Agent-Based Modeling: The Case of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Andrea; Ceschi, Andrea; Sartori, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks. For this reason, the present work discusses the application case of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) in the context of agent-based modeling: It is argued that this framework might be helpful more than others to develop a valid representation of human behavior in computer simulations. Accordingly, the current contribution considers issues related with the application of the model proposed by the TPB inside computer simulations and suggests potential solutions with the hope to contribute to shorten the distance between the fields of psychology and computer science.

  4. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pannebakker (Ekaterina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and

  5. Fixed Point Theory for Cyclic Weak $phi-$contraction in Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce cyclic weak $phi-$contractions in fuzzy metric spaces and utilize the same to prove some results on existence and uniqueness of fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some related results are also proved besides furnishing illustrative examples.

  6. Oblique-Length Contraction Factor in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

  7. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  8. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-02-07

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Effect of Individualized Risk Communication Strategies on Screening Uptake and Its Psychological Predictors: The Role of Psychology Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Kathryn; Daly, Blanaid; Dunne, Stephen; Scott, Suzanne; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2016-12-09

    People might be more likely to attend for health screening if they are told their individual risk of an illness. The way this risk of ill-health is communicated might have an effect on screening uptake or its psychological proxies. It is possible that the format, presentation, and details of the information as well as the complexity of an intervention and use of psychological theory to inform the intervention may impact the effectiveness of individual risk communication. This systematic review collates, analyses and synthesizes the evidence for effectiveness of these aspects of individual risk communication. The synthesis indicated that written, individualized risk scores or categories are effective at supporting screening uptake and its psychological proxies. Complex, or theory-based interventions, surprisingly, are no more effective than simpler or atheoretical interventions.

  11. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  12. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  13. A reversal theory analysis of psychological responses during sports injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Joanne; Kerr, John; Amies, Kristy; Day, Melissa

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined psychological and emotional processes in injury rehabilitation from a longitudinal, theoretically framed perspective. This study explored the applicability of Reversal Theory to examine these processes. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. Three severely injured athletes; two were female (karate and judo) and one was male (hockey), aged 20 to 28. Fortnightly interviews after participant's initial consultation with a sports therapist, until complete physical rehabilitation. Supported the use of Reversal Theory in this context (eg, as a means of understanding the origins of athletes' emotional responses to injury and changes in these responses throughout rehabilitation). Suggestions for future research are made (eg, examining the consequences of emotional and metamotivational states for athlete behavior and recovery outcomes during rehabilitation).

  14. An Application of Max Lusher's Theory of Colour Psychology in Forogh Farrokhzad's Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alavi Moghaddam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is recognized as one of the criteria for personality analysis in modern psychology. Colours are a kind of energy and visible sounds which play an important role in one's life. Their influences on human's soul and mind are undeniable. In other words, colour can be considered as a reflection of one's mental and physical situation since colours have special influence on soul and body equally. Max Lusher's study of colours is among the most recent theories which deal with psychological analysis and character explication. In this method, colours are introduced as numbers. Those which are denied and those which are well- accepted are the reflection of one’s thoughts and feelings. Hence, word selection and colour choice can help us to analyze the poet's personality and mind. Among the modern poets, Forogh Farrokhzad has repeatedly manipulated colours in her poems among which "black" is a specific one. This paper aims at interpreting Forogh Farrokhzad poetry in terms of colour analysis on Max Lusher's theory.

  15. A test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide among arrested domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Brem, Meagan J; Elmquist, JoAnna; Florimbio, Autumn Rae; Smith, Phillip N; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about risk factors for suicide ideation and attempts among domestic violence offenders. Guided by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, this cross-sectional study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempts among 312 men and 84 women arrested for domestic violence and mandated to attend batterer intervention programs. Men reported greater capability for suicide, but no gender differences were found in perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. After controlling for correlates of suicide ideation, perceived burdensomeness-but not thwarted belongingness or its interaction with perceived burdensomeness-associated with suicide ideation. Suicide attempters exhibited greater perceived burdensomeness, drug use and problems, borderline personality disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation, but not capability for suicide, than nonattempters. Gender did not moderate the associations of the IPTS constructs with suicide ideation and attempts. These findings parallel tests of the interpersonal-psychological theory in other samples. Additional work is needed to identify factors that distinguish risk for suicide ideation from risk for suicide attempts among domestic violence offenders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interpersonal-psychological theory and parental bonding predict suicidal ideation among soldiers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is an important issue among military personnel, who have higher suicide rates compared with the general population. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) might provide an empirical explanation of this phenomenon, and parental bonding influences social adjustment and suicide. To investigate the relevance of IPTS and parental bonding for suicide among Taiwanese soldiers, a case-control study was conducted. Using a suicide-reporting system in a teaching general hospital in Southern Taiwan, 226 at-risk maladjusted soldiers and 229 well-adjusted controls were enrolled. We collected basic information, and participants answered four IPTS-based questions. Suicide risk was assessed using the Brief Symptom Rating Scale item 6. A four-factor model of the Parental Bonding Instrument assessed parental bonding. All participants were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for primary screening and to recheck the accuracy of the Brief Symptom Rating Scale item 6 score. A parsimonious model obtained by regression analysis of risk factors indicated that poor academic performance, conduct-related issues in childhood, and exposure to life-threatening situations are risk factors for suicide intention. Maladjusted suicidal soldiers showed a sense of thwarted belongingness (β = 0.145; P psychological theory of suicide, accompanied by an assessment of parental bonding, could be used for assessing suicide risk and preventing suicide attempts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. A systematic review of the predictions of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Han, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Since the development of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory (IPTS; Joiner, 2005), a growing body of literature has emerged testing different aspects of the theory across a range of populations. The aim of this review was to identify support for the IPTS, and critical gaps in the evidence base, by systematically reviewing current evidence testing the effects of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability on suicide ideation and attempt. PsycInfo and PubMed databases were electronically searched for articles published between January 2005 and July 2015. Articles were included if they directly assessed the IPTS constructs as predictors of suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Fifty-eight articles reporting on 66 studies were identified. Contrary to expectations, the studies provided mixed evidence across the theory's main predictions. The effect of perceived burdensomeness on suicide ideation was the most tested and supported relationship. The theory's other predictions, particularly in terms of critical interaction effects, were less strongly supported. Future research focused on expanding the availability of valid measurement approaches for the interpersonal risk factors, and further elaborating upon their mixed relationships with suicide ideation and attempt across multiple populations is important to advance theoretical and clinical progress in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding sport continuation: an integration of the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Fostering individuals' long-term participation in activities that promote positive development such as organised sport is an important agenda for research and practice. We integrated the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and basic psychological needs (BPN) to identify factors associated with young adults' continuation in organised sport over a 12-month period. Prospective study, including an online psycho-social assessment at Time 1 and an assessment of continuation in sport approximately 12 months later. Participants (N=292) aged between 17 and 21 years (M=18.03; SD=1.29) completed an online survey assessing the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs constructs. Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) was employed to test the hypothesised theoretical sequence, using informative priors for structural relations based on empirical and theoretical expectations. The analyses revealed support for the robustness of the hypothesised theoretical model in terms of the pattern of relations as well as the direction and strength of associations among the constructs derived from quantitative summaries of existing research and theoretical expectations. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs was associated with more positive attitudes, higher levels of perceived behavioural control, and more favourable subjective norms; positive attitudes and perceived behavioural control were associated with higher behavioural intentions; and both intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted sport continuation. This study demonstrated the utility of Bayesian structural equation modelling for testing the robustness of an integrated theoretical model, which is informed by empirical evidence from meta-analyses and theoretical expectations, for understanding sport continuation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Theory and Measurement of Interorganizational Collaborative Capacity in the Acquisition and Contracting Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    Collaborative Capacity (ICC) Our previous ICC literature review (cf. Bardach , 1998) revealed that a major stumbling block to advancing theory and practice...effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bardach , E. (1998). Getting agencies to work together: The practice and theory of managerial craftsmanship

  20. Contratos psicológicos nas organizações: bases de sua construção Psychological contracts in organizations: formulation fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia Carvalho Anbreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve e analisa a formação do contrato psicológico em uma grande empresa brasileira do setor de mineração. Primeiramente, faz-se revisão teórica a respeito do tema "contratos psicológicos", descrevendo e explicando o fenômeno e sua importância. Em seguida, serão abordadas algumas das suas conexões com outros elementos intrínsecos e extrínsecos existentes na organização, como a comunicação chefe-subordinado, a fim de facilitar a compreensão da dinâmica comportamental e organizacional. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas individuais em profundidade, realizadas na área operacional (mecânicos e eletricistas da gerência de manutenção de equipamentos de minas, localizada no Estado de Minas Gerais. O estudo caracteriza-se por realizar uma abordagem qualitativa e a análise utilizou o modelo proposto por Rousseau (1995, identificando 6 características da presença do contrato psicológico na organização. As conclusões do estudo apontam a existência de expectativas mútuas e de um pacto "invisível" entre indivíduo e organização, que chamamos de contrato psicológico e que tem correlação com o comportamento humano na organização.The preparation of a psychological contract at a large Brazilian mining company was described and analyzed. A theoretical review was made of "psychological contracts" including a description and explanation of the phenomenon and its importance. Relationships with intrinsic and extrinsic organizational elements, such as the communications subordinate - chief, were then addressed to facilitate an understanding of behavioral and organizational dynamics. Individual in depth interviews collected data from mechanics and electricians in the maintenance activity of mining equipment in the state of Minas Gerais. A qualitative approach and analysis used the model proposed by Rousseau (1995 to identify 6 characteristics of the presence of a psychological contract in this

  1. Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, David M

    2014-12-01

    Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  2. Artificial organisms as tools for the development of psychological theory: Tolman's lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, Orazio; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Cardaci, Maurizio; Ponticorvo, Michela

    2007-12-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, Edward Tolman developed a psychological theory of spatial orientation in rats and humans. He expressed his theory as an automaton (the "schematic sowbug") or what today we would call an "artificial organism." With the technology of the day, he could not implement his model. Nonetheless, he used it to develop empirical predictions which tested with animals in the laboratory. This way of proceeding was in line with scientific practice dating back to Galileo. The way psychologists use artificial organisms in their work today breaks with this tradition. Modern "artificial organisms" are constructed a posteriori, working from experimental or ethological observations. As a result, researchers can use them to confirm a theoretical model or to simulate its operation. But they make no contribution to the actual building of models. In this paper, we try to return to Tolman's original strategy: implementing his theory of "vicarious trial and error" in a simulated robot, forecasting the robot's behavior and conducting experiments that verify or falsify these predictions.

  3. Giving up on convergence and autonomy: Why the theories of psychology and neuroscience are codependent as well as irreconcilable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Eric

    2016-04-01

    There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological states). In this paper, I argue that progress in psychology and neuroscience is contingent on the fact that both of these positions are false. Contra the convergence position, I argue that the theories of psychology and the theories of neuroscience are scientifically valuable as representational tools precisely because they cannot be integrated into a single account. However, contra the autonomy position, I propose that the theories of psychology and neuroscience are deeply dependent on one another for further refinement and improvement. In this respect, there is an irreconcilable codependence between psychology and neuroscience that is necessary for both domains to improve and progress. The two domains are forever linked while simultaneously being unable to integrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. All the way up or all the way down?: Some historical reflections on theories of psychological continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, John D

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I chart the history of the development of theories of psychological continuity in the modern period, beginning with the contrasting positions of René Descartes and Julian Offrey de la Mettrie during the period of the scientific revolution in Europe. In providing the logical geography of competing positions, I distinguish between two forms of strong psychological continuity and discontinuity, between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes and between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between human and animal psychology and behavior. I note that both forms of strong continuity and discontinuity have tended to be affirmed or denied together, and have only rarely and recently been decoupled, opening up a new theoretical position in the debate, which affirms strong discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes but strong continuity between human psychology and some forms of animal psychology. Although the historical trend in the late 19th and early 20th century was to extend explanations in terms of association "all the way up" to the highest human cognitive processes, some contemporary theorists have tried to extend cognitive explanations "all the way down" to associative processes in both humans and nonhuman animals. I draw some tentative conclusions about the theoretical options in contemporary research on psychological continuity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Reason, Consent and Contract The Difficult Least Common Denominator of Contractualist Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Schwember Augier Felipe Schwember Augier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Contractualism” refers to the diverse theories that maintain that the obligatory nature of norms rests on the consent of those bound by them. However, this general characterization overlooks crucial differences among the different contractualist theories. The article analyzes diverse typologies in order to highlight these differences and reach a more precise characterization of contractualism. It concludes that the distinction between hypothetical and ideal consent made by some of these versions makes it impossible to formulate a univocal definition of contractualism.

  6. Health psychology and discourse: personal accounts as social texts in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, K C; Hewison, J

    1998-07-01

    Traditional social psychology has largely located the origins of the social in the mental and emotional processes of individuals. Interview and questionnaire approaches have focused on the personal account as a route to cognitive processes and personality structures. In contrast, qualitative approaches like grounded theory have highlighted the importance of discourse in the constitution of the social world, and the function of talk and text in the construction of meaning. It is argued here that the use of such approaches, informed by insights from discourse analysis and current thinking on textuality, can enable analysts to read the personal account as a socially constructed, and constructing, text. This article uses examples from psychosocial oncology and from original research on the treatment experiences of a group of cancer patients to discuss new ways of reading personal accounts as social texts.

  7. Parenting behavior and the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide: a mediated moderation analysis with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K

    2013-09-25

    Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, ptheory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transgender Youth and Suicidal Behaviors: Applying the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H; Park, Jung Yeon; Russell, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) was used to examine suicidal thoughts and behaviors among 129 transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. Youth were categorized according to their gender identities: female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), female-to-different-gender (FTDG), and male-to-different gender (MTDG). Higher percentages of suicidal ideation were reported by FTDG and FTM youth; and higher percentages of suicide attempts by FTDG and MTDG youth. Perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were significantly related to suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts. Experiences of painful, provocative and harmful events and acquired capability significantly predicted suicide attempts. The findings support IPTS in explaining suicidal behaviors among TGNC youth. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  9. An Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior in Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink-Miller, Erin L

    2015-08-01

    Physicians are commonly reported to die by suicide more frequently than individuals in the general population. Thus far, few reasons for this elevated suicide risk have been empirically investigated. Although the interpersonal psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) has been suggested as a fruitful means of explaining physician suicidality, it has yet to be examined quantitatively. Four hundred nineteen Pennsylvania physicians were assessed on a number of demographics, as well as all components of the IPTS. Findings indicated that physician scores on IPTS components are comparable to other groups displaying increased suicidality (e.g., military populations, prior attempters). Perceived burdensomeness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation, while thwarted belongingness predicted prior suicide attempts. Acquired capability did not distinguish between prior attempters and nonattempters. Preliminary findings indicate the IPTS may be a useful framework for understanding and predicting physician suicidality. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology ("theory of mind") in offspring of mothers with psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróthi, Rebeka; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or "theory of mind") and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  11. Bayesian models of cognition revisited: Setting optimality aside and letting data drive psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Sean; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Steyvers, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Recent debates in the psychological literature have raised questions about the assumptions that underpin Bayesian models of cognition and what inferences they license about human cognition. In this paper we revisit this topic, arguing that there are 2 qualitatively different ways in which a Bayesian model could be constructed. The most common approach uses a Bayesian model as a normative standard upon which to license a claim about optimality. In the alternative approach, a descriptive Bayesian model need not correspond to any claim that the underlying cognition is optimal or rational, and is used solely as a tool for instantiating a substantive psychological theory. We present 3 case studies in which these 2 perspectives lead to different computational models and license different conclusions about human cognition. We demonstrate how the descriptive Bayesian approach can be used to answer different sorts of questions than the optimal approach, especially when combined with principled tools for model evaluation and model selection. More generally we argue for the importance of making a clear distinction between the 2 perspectives. Considerable confusion results when descriptive models and optimal models are conflated, and if Bayesians are to avoid contributing to this confusion it is important to avoid making normative claims when none are intended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. An exploratory assessment of theory of mind and psychological impairment in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Cotugno, Armando; Cecere, Francesco; Sirolli, Arianna; Palazzoni, David; Bosco, Francesca M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate psychosocial functioning and different dimensions of theory of mind (ToM) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-BN type (EDNOS-BN). Psychosocial functioning and ToM were assessed in a sample of young adult females, 16 BN and 16 EDNOS-BN outpatients and 16 healthy controls (HCs). They were assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory-Symptom Checklist-2 (EDI-2 SC) for evaluating psychological traits associated with eating disorders; the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) for evaluating psychopathological status; and the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.), a semi-structured interview aimed at assessing a person's different dimensions of ToM. The BN and EDNOS-BN groups exhibited worse performance than the control group on all dimensions of the SCL-90-R, and on all dimensions of the EDI-2 SC. The only difference for perfectionism was that BN obtained higher scores than EDNOS-BN group. Our results also revealed an impairment of third-person and second-order ToM in patients with bulimia (BN and EDNOS-BN) with respect to control subjects. These preliminary data have important implications for future empirical work, in that they provide valuable information regarding the importance of investigating the various facets of ToM ability separately, in order to provide a more detailed profile of ToM functioning in the clinical samples. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert M; Urzua, Sergio S

    2009-09-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest.

  14. Decision-Making Theories and Models: A Discussion of Rational and Psychological Decision-Making Theories and Models: The Search for a Cultural-Ethical Decision-Making Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relationship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model.

  15. a longitudinal study of age-related differences in reactions to phsycological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs Bal; Mandy van der Velde; Paul Jansen; Annet de Lange

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age‐related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  16. A prospective examination of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior among psychiatric adolescent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A

    2015-04-01

    The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)--with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury--predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. Technologies of Virtual Reality in Psychology of Sports of Great Advance: Theory, Practice and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander E. Voyskunskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.

  18. Technologies of virtual reality in psychology of sport of great advance: theory, practice and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Yuri; Menshikova, Galina; Chernorizov, Aleksander; Voyskunskiy, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR) in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.

  19. Classification of pregnancy and labor contractions using a graph theory based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, N; Hassan, M; Falou, W; Diab, A; Al-Omar, S; Khalil, M; Marque, C

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new framework to characterize the electrohysterographic (EHG) signals recorded during pregnancy and labor. The approach is based on the analysis of the propagation of the uterine electrical activity. The processing pipeline includes i) the estimation of the statistical dependencies between the different recorded EHG signals, ii) the characterization of the obtained connectivity matrices using network measures and iii) the use of these measures in clinical application: the classification between pregnancy and labor. Due to its robustness to volume conductor, we used the imaginary part of coherence in order to produce the connectivity matrix which is then transformed into a graph. We evaluate the performance of several graph measures. We also compare the results with the parameter mostly used in the literature: the peak frequency combined with the propagation velocity (PV +PF). Our results show that the use of the network measures is a promising tool to classify labor and pregnancy contractions with a small superiority of the graph strength over PV+PF.

  20. Putting theory of mind in its place: psychological explanations of the socio-emotional-communicative impairments in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-05-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory power, but that explorations of the psychological precursors of impaired ToM have been fruitful in increasing understanding of mindreading impairments in ASD (where 'mindreading' refers those abilities that underlie triadic interaction as well as ToM). It is argued that early explanations of impaired mindreading are untenable for various reasons, but that impairments of dyadic interaction in ASD that could lead to impaired ability to represent others' mental states may be the critical psychological cause, or causes, of impaired ToM. The complexity of causal routes to impaired ToM is emphasized.

  1. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research.

  2. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  3. The Disillusionment of Students Denied Admission to a Preferred Major Viewed from the Perspective of a Psychological Theory of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…

  4. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  5. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  6. Understanding Postdisaster Substance Use and Psychological Distress Using Concepts from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Adam C; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-11-10

    This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals. These mechanisms lead to an increase in postdisaster substance use. Last, recommendations are offered to encourage disaster researchers to test more complex models in studies on postdisaster psychological distress and substance use.

  7. Analisis Fairness dan Incentive Contracting pada Kinerja Berbasis Anggaran: Pengujian Eksperimen Atas Referent Cognition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnaini Yusnaini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on referent cognition theory, this study examines the effects of fairness and incentive on individual performance in a nonparticipative budgeting setting. An experimental design 2x2 between subjects was conducted. Participants are as many as 88 student of accounting program in executive class. Two way ANOVA analyses are used to investigate hypothesis. The result show as predicted by referent cognition theory. Performance was lowest when an unfair budget target assigned using an unfair budgeting process. When the budget target assigned was fair, the fairness or unfairness of the budgeting process had no significant effect on performance. When an unfair budget target was determined using a fair budgeting process, performance was not significantly different from performance of the subjects assigned fair budget targets.Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini berdasarkan teori referent cognition. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji pengaruh keadilan dan insentif terhadap kinerja individu dalam konteks non partisipasi anggaran. Pengujian dilakukan dengan desain eksperimental 2x2 between subject. Partisipan adalah 88 orang mahasiswa program studi akuntansi pada kelas eksekutif. Pengujian hipotesis dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat analisis two way anova. Pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan hasil yang selaras dengan apa yang dikemukakan oleh teori referent cognition. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa, kinerja rendah ketika target dan proses penentuan anggaran dilakukan secara tidak adil. Kinerja pada target anggaran yang adil tidak berbeda meskipun proses penetapan anggaran tersebut dilakukan secara adil maupun tidak. Sedangkan kinerja pada target anggaran yang tidak adil tidak berbeda dengan kinerja pada target anggaran yang adil ketika proses dalam penetapan anggaran tersebut dilakukan secara adil. Kata kunci: Fairness, referent cognitions, anggaran, insentif

  8. Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: an exploratory investigation using psychological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluations of interventions to improve implementation of guidelines have failed to produce a clear pattern of results favouring a particular method. While implementation depends on clinicians and managers changing a variety of behaviours, psychological theories of behaviour and behaviour change are seldom used to try to understand difficulties in implementation or to develop interventions to overcome them. Objectives This study applied psychological theory to examine explanations for difficulties in implementation. It used a theoretical framework derived from an interdisciplinary consensus exercise to code interviews across 11 theoretical domains. The focus of the study was a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's Schizophrenia guideline recommendation that family intervention should be offered to the families of people with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were recruited from community mental health teams from three United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS Trusts; 20 members (social workers, nurses, team managers, psychologists, and psychiatrists participated. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Interview questions were based on the theoretical domains and addressed respondents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions regarding the guideline. Two researchers independently coded the transcript segments from each interview that were related to each theoretical domain. A score of 1 indicated that the transcript segments relating to the domain did not appear to contain description of difficulties in implementation of the family therapy guidelines; similarly a score of 0.5 indicated possible difficulties and a score of 0 indicated definite difficulties. Results Coding respondents' answers to questions related to the three domains 'beliefs about consequences,' 'social/professional role and identity,' and 'motivation' produced the three highest total scores indicating that factors relating

  9. Compassion and altruism in psychoanalytic theory: an evolutionary analysis of self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegman, D

    1990-01-01

    Freud's creation of psychoanalysis was, in part, a reaction to the societal, religious morality that denied the ubiquitous drivenness that repeatedly confronted him, the essential animal nature of homo sapiens as had been recently made clear by the theory of evolution. For example, Freud (1933) wrote an aggression, It is a general principle. . .that conflicts of interest between men are settled by the use of violence. This is true of the whole animal kingdom, from which men have no business to exclude themselves. Though evolutionary theory was in its infancy, incompletely understood even by its creator, Freud's commitment to facing its truths led to an unswerving stance in reaction to attempts to deny the narcissistic injury inherent in his psychoanalytic discoveries. He insisted on trying to reinterpret virtually all social behaviors in the light of his new theory, and he and his followers have stretched his drive/structure model to its limits. Yet, as we have seen, this evolutionary creation--the human psyche--cannot be fully accounted for utilizing the vicissitudes of Freud's two instincts. What we come to appreciate when we bring the perspective of the theory of evolution to the relational/structure versus drive/structure debate, is that the debate is about the two sides of the same coin. Like this metaphor, in the case of the selfish, yet social, human animal, you cannot have a one-sided coin. Both drives and relationships are biologically inherent and have their structuralizing effect upon the supraordinate self. A modern evolutionary biological, psychoanalytic conception of conflicts and drives may actually be closer to the adaptive/functional tone of aspects of the self psychological paradigm than to the traditional perspective. As human animals we are inherently in conflict over our irreducible biologically based driven, asocial needs (i.e., self-enhancing pleasure seeking and avoidance of unpleasure) and our irreducible biologically based needs for a self

  10. Modern application of evolutionary theory to psychology: key concepts and clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Aaron T; Shackelford, Todd K

    2006-01-01

    Darwinian selection has become the centerpiece of biology, and in the past few decades many psychologists and anthropologists have recognized the value of using an evolutionary perspective to guide their work. With a focus on evolved psychological mechanisms and associated information processing features, evolutionary psychology has risen as a compelling and fruitful approach to the study of human psychology and behavior. In this article we review the instrument of evolution: natural selection, the products of evolution, and the impact of evolutionary thinking on modern psychological science. We conclude that as prejudicial barriers are overcome, as more evolutionary psychological work is conducted, and as hypothesized psychological mechanisms are substantiated in other disciplines, evolutionary psychology will emerge as the metatheory for psychology.

  11. Psychological Type and Analysis of Preferred Negotiation Strategies and Tactics of United States Air Force Contract Negotiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    were noted in types ENFP , ENTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ, ESTP and ESFP. No statistically significant correlation was found between psychological types and...shown in Table 2. TABLE 2 THE 16 TYPES AND THEIR DOMINANT PROCESSES (35:16) ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ...satisfaction and governs whether an individual pre- fers " organized , systematic, and foreseeable" work patterns (such as S-J types) or flexibility (such

  12. Research quality and psychological theory in publications on school shooters with multiple victims - A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Grøndahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.

  13. Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

  14. Feedback revisited : Adding perspectives based on positive psychology implications for theory and classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Lia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835463; Korthagen, Fred A. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06936432X; Meijer, Paulien C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176063765; Simons, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Teacher feedback has mainly been described from the point of view of cognitive psychology. We aim to add to the body of knowledge on teacher feedback by considering the perspective of positive psychology. We describe possible consequences of two concerns of positive psychology: (1) the importance of

  15. Contract theories and partnership in health care. A philosophical inquiry to the philosophy of John Rawls and Seyla Benhabib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia; Lützén, Kim; Öresland, Stina

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, a paternalistic view in health care has been losing ground. The question about less asymmetrical positions in the healthcare professional-patient relationship is, for example, being addressed by the increased emphasis on person-centred care, promoted in disciplines such as medicine and nursing. Partnership is considered as a key component in person-centred care. Although the previous studies have addressed the attributes inherent in partnership, there is still potential for further discussion on how the various interpretations of partnership influence their use in healthcare literature. A vague understanding might also affect education and evaluation. As we see it, the philosophical underpinnings of the idea of partnership have not been sufficiently explored and discussed. The study reveals that partnership originates in the term "partener" defined as a relationship between individuals or groups characterized by cooperation and responsibility. Etymologically speaking, partnership is hence bound by a contract, which in this study is discussed in the frame of Rawls' contract theory, which in turn intersects with Benhabib and her distinction between "the abstract" and "the concrete Other." Further, the expression "equal partnership," which often appears in the context of person-centredness, is explored in relation to the philosophies of Rawls and Benhabib. The opportunity for partnership, as well as the risk of partnership becoming a tempting magnet with a vague and imprecise meaning, is discussed. Without exploration, reflection and discussion of the philosophical underpinnings, partnership carries a substantial risk of becoming an indistinct idea used in health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of psychological contract on employee commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour: A study of Indonesian young entrepreneurs in management action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade I. Anggraeni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study aims to analyse the entrepreneurship-driven reasons and characteristics of employee management of the young generation, by analysing the role of psychological contract on employee commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour in the light of the characteristics of the millennial generation as the owners of small and medium-sized enterprises.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to empirically analyse the effect of the psychological contract and organisational support on the organisational commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour of the employees of small-scale enterprises run by young entrepreneurs, especially in the cohort generation.Motivation for the study: This study attempts to analyse the characteristics of the millennial generation as the owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in running the business by examining their managerial characteristics in managing workplace relationship that aims to achieve the stakeholder expectations and improve both commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour of employees.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected in the SMEs owned by young entrepreneurs in a city in Indonesia involving 150 respondents. The research model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling with analysis of moment structure (AMOS.Main findings: The results showed that the employee citizenship behaviour is influenced by the organisational commitment. The commitment of employees was formed by the ability of business owners to understand the needs and expectations of employees regarding opportunities of self-development, pleasant working environment, the benefit as the workload and the work challenge.Practical and managerial implications: This study implies the need for academic institutions and policy makers to get involved in addressing the rising phenomenon of entrepreneurship among the young generation.Contribution and added-value: This

  17. A close examination of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of psychological reactance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Scott, Allison M; Ledbetter, Andrew M

    2011-07-01

    This study used psychological reactance theory (PRT) to investigate (a) the effectiveness of 2 message features (freedom-threatening language and character frame) and (b) the role of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of a perceived freedom threat. Within the context of organ donation, the results indicated no differences for character frame among the donor, recipient, or waiting list narratives. However, freedom-threatening language was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. In turn, a perceived freedom threat was positively associated with state reactance, which was inversely, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with organ donation attitudes. Attitudes predicted intentions to be an organ donor. Results also revealed that trait reactance was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. Although not associated with a freedom threat, issue involvement was positively associated with organ donation attitudes and intent to be a donor. Additionally, a trait reactance by issue involvement by freedom-threatening language interaction predicted a perceived freedom threat. Results are discussed with an emphasis on these moderators in PRT.

  18. Clinical holistic medicine: a psychological theory of dependency to improve quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Soren; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2004-08-13

    In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern.

  19. Race, Offense Type, and Suicide Ideation: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory in Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Zuromski, Kelly L; Witte, Tracy K; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry

    2017-08-22

    This study evaluated the synergy hypothesis of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are positively interactive in their association with suicide ideation, in a group of juvenile offenders. It also examined whether this prediction is differentially applicable across race/ethnicity or offense type. Participants included 590 adjudicated and confined male juveniles. Regression was used to test the association between suicide ideation and thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and their interaction term. Subsequent analyses included tests of group interactions related to race/ethnicity and offense type. No interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was observed, despite adequate power. No significant group interactions were observed for race/ethnicity or offense type. However, results did show significant linear relationships between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and ideation, highlighting their potential utility as intervention targets in this at-risk population. Thus, although the current results are the first to show the basic IPTS risk factors generalize across race/ethnicity and offense type, they also failed to support that those factors were interactive, a primary IPTS claim. The absence of an interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness suggests their role in suicide ideation for juvenile offenders may be more parsimonious than the IPTS proposes. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Sleep disorders and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide: independent pathways to suicidality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R; Anestis, Michael D; Nazem, Sarra; Claire Harris, H; Samuel Winer, E

    2014-01-01

    Although sleep disorders are a risk factor for suicidal behavior little research has examined why sleep disorders confer suicide risk. The present study examined the relation between two sleep disorders, insomnia symptoms and nightmares, and suicide risk in the context of Joiner's interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS). The present study utilized two large samples (N=747 and 604) recruited from two large public universities in the Southeast. Both studies included measures of insomnia symptoms, nightmares, depressive symptoms, and prior suicide attempts. In addition, study one contained a measure of suicide risk. In study 1, the relations between insomnia symptoms and both suicide risk and prior attempts were not significant after controlling for the IPTS. However, nightmares were related to both suicide risk and suicide attempts independent of the IPTS. Furthermore, nightmares nearly missed significance in the prediction of suicide risk (p=0.054) and significantly predicted suicide attempts even after controlling for depressive symptoms. In study 2, both insomnia and nightmares were found to be significantly associated with prior suicide attempts after controlling for the IPTS and depressive symptoms. The study is limited by its use of a college sample and cross-sectional design. These studies suggest that the IPTS may not explain the relation between sleep problems and suicidality. More research is needed to understand the mechanism by which sleep disorders confer suicide risk, which is clinically relevant as it may inform specific interventions to reduce the adverse effects of sleep disorders. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community.

  2. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróthi, Rebeka

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

  3. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Psychological Theory of Dependency to Improve Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern.

  4. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  5. Speeding for fun? Exploring the speeding behavior of riders of heavy motorcycles using the theory of planned behavior and psychological flow theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Wen

    2011-05-01

    This paper focuses on a special segment of motorcyclists in Taiwan--riders of heavy motorcycles--and investigates their speeding behavior and its affecting factors. It extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore motorcyclist speeding behavior by including the variables of psychological flow theory. The levels of sensation-seeking and riding experience are also used as grouping variables to investigate group differences from the influences of their affecting factors on speeding behavior. The results reveal that the psychological flow variables have greater predictive power in explaining speeding behavior than the TPB variables, providing useful insights into the unique nature of this group of motorcyclists, who are more prone to engage in speeding. Group differences with regard to both sensation-seeking and rider experience in speeding behavior are highlighted, and the implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

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    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  7. A Test of Basic Psychological Needs Theory in a Physical-Activity-Based Program for Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Blankenship, Bonnie T; LeBreton, James M

    2017-02-01

    This study used a randomized controlled design to test the pathways in basic psychological needs theory, where social relationships characterized by autonomy support, involvement, and structure foster psychological need satisfaction and well-being. Participants were recruited from a physical-activity-based youth program. A new staff training was implemented to manipulate the use of each interpersonal characteristic by program staff (N = 24 observed) and perceptions of each interpersonal characteristic, psychological needs, hope, and self-worth in youth (N = 379 surveyed pre- and postprogram). Staff in the intervention condition used greater overall observed autonomy support, involvement, and structure. Condition assignment did not lead to differences in youth perceptions, but observed staff behaviors positively predicted youth perceptions of staff and perceptions of staff positively predicted change in well-being. Findings indicate that the training manipulated how staff engaged youth, and autonomy support, involvement, and structure are useful strategies to foster well-being in youth.

  8. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  9. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  10. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  11. A century of psychology and psychotherapy: is an understanding of 'control' the missing link between theory, research, and practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Carey, Timothy A

    2009-09-01

    'Control' can be defined as the maintenance of a variable within fixed limits despite external disturbances. There is substantial evidence that the experience of loss of control characterizes psychological disorders. Therefore, we take a historical perspective on how modern psychology as a science has attempted to explain the process of control over the last century, beginning with William James's (1890) proposal of the 'pursuance of fixed ends by variable means' as the essence of mentality. We conclude that, after a long diversion from this perspective during the 20th century, recent approaches within psychology are again considering the importance of understanding control. We propose that Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) presents the most focused and applicable account, as characterized by its relevance for psychological therapy in the form of the Method of Levels (MOL). This is a therapeutic technique directed at guiding the client's awareness to the higher level (or meta-) control processes that maintain their current problem of conflict between their personal goals. We cover the emerging evidence base for PCT and MOL and propose that an understanding of control through PCT has the capacity to link theory, research, and practice within the field of psychotherapy.

  12. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

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    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  13. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  14. "Free butterflies will come out of these deep wounds": A grounded theory of how endometriosis affects women's psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Federica; Saita, Emanuela; Barbara, Giussy; Dridi, Dhouha; Vercellini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how endometriosis affects psychological health. Open interviews were conducted with 74 patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to all women, who were divided into distressed versus non-distressed. At the core of our grounded theory was the notion of disruption due to the common features of living with endometriosis. Experiencing disruption (vs restoring continuity) involved higher distress and was associated with a long pathway to diagnosis, bad doctor-patient relationships, poor physical health, lack of support, negative sense of female identity, and identification of life with endometriosis.

  15. Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuška, M.; Trnka, R.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Růžička, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 981. ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : psycholinguistics * world * personal construct theory * free association * association network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kubena-0464017.pdf

  16. What Psychological Theories of Behavior Change Can Teach Us about Improving Hand Hygiene Adherence: Do We Mean What We Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Corace, Kimberly; Smith, Jeffrey; Macdonald, Tara; Fabrigar, Leandre; Saedi, Arezou; Quirk, Jacquelyn; MacFarlane, Sam; Valickis, Debbie; Garber, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care worker (HCW) hand hygiene is effective in reducing healthcare associated infections, yet hand hygiene rates are suboptimal. Psychological theories of behavior change can be used to improve and sustain hand hygiene adherence. While past research has examined HCW explicit attitudes towards hand hygiene (ie., self-reported attitudes), it is unclear if these explicit attitudes are consistent with implicit attitudes (ie., attitudes outside of one’s awareness). Under...

  17. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R; Lee, Jae H; Jaglal, Susan B

    2012-08-28

    benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses' behaviour associated with HH.

  18. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  19. Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory

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    Carlos David Navarrete

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We suggest that increases in adherence to ingroup ideology in response to adaptive challenges are manifestations of normative mental representations emanating from psychological systems designed to enhance coordination and membership in social groups. In providing an alternative to TMT, we (1 explain why the theory is inconsistent with contemporary evolutionary biology, (2 demonstrate that mortality-salience does not have the unique evocative powers ascribed to it by TMT advocates, and (3 discuss our approach to coalitional psychology, a framework consistent with modern evolutionary theory and informed by a broad understanding of cultural variation, can be employed to help account for both the corpus of results in TMT research and the growing body of findings inconsistent with TMT's predictions.

  20. Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B

    2008-04-01

    This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology.

  1. Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semrau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

  2. Psychological growth and well-being in individuals born with cleft: An application of self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Aidan; Neville, Patricia; Waylen, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Many studies of individuals born with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) address the psychological impact of CLP in terms of stigma and/or 'resilience'. The present study challenges the usefulness of resilience in CLP research with the application of self-determination theory (SDT). It is proposed that SDT can serve to better understand how individuals born with CLP can achieve psychological growth and well-being. Interviews were conducted with 15 individuals born with CLP in the UK. A thematic analysis was conducted and four main themes emerged: (1) personal challenges, (2) support and strategies for social interaction, (3) experience of treatment and outcomes, and (4) personal development. The thematic analysis and the interpretation in the context of SDT leads to a greater understanding of the development of psychological growth and well-being in individuals born with CLP. Interpreting the life experiences of individuals with CLP through the theoretical lens of SDT allows the conceptualisation of individuals with CLP as a positive psychological resource when faced with the exclusionary practice of stigma. This resourcefulness is primarily nurtured by a supportive family and social environment that leads to the development of positive psychological growth and well-being. A new direction in CLP research is proposed that seeks to inform and implement change in professional practice to support individuals with CLP and their families.

  3. Tests of Multiplicative Models in Psychology: A Case Study Using the Unified Theory of Implicit Attitudes, Stereotypes, Self-Esteem, and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable.…

  4. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  5. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  6. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  7. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.

  8. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  9. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C

    2015-04-01

    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  11. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscart Veronique M

    2012-08-01

    administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH.

  12. Re-conceptualizing Neurosis as a Degree of Egocentricity: Ethical Issues in Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Segura, M; Echavarria, M F; Vitz, P C

    2015-10-01

    Psychology's historical rejection of ethics has led to an oversimplification of the origins and treatments of mental disorders. In this article, we present an analysis of how classical neurosis can be reformulated from an ethical and psychological interaction. We focus on the crucial role that egocentricity plays and argue that this term can help to clarify how ego defensive ethical decisions can undermine psychological capacities and contribute to a progressive depersonalization that can result in typical clinical disorders. In Christian anthropology, the virtues, especially humility and love have a crucial role in the positive growth of human affective and cognitive capacities. In addition, the person in his/her nature is endowed with the capacity to transcend the self and to escape egocentricity through self-giving love of God and of others. This capacity of self-giving is diametrically opposed to egocentricity and opens a new way for possible psychological recovery.

  13. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  14. Efficacy of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingmin; Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Chuan; Lin, Yixuan; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effects of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy (PPTBCT) on suicide among depressed patients, compared with a control group who received usual psychological care (UPC). The sample consisted of 32 depressed patients and 32 healthy control subjects. All participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), Beck Depression Inventory, Three-Dimensional Psychological Pain Scale (TDPPS), and Problem Solving Inventory(PSI), and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ). All measures differed significantly between depressed patients and healthy controls. Then clinical participants were assigned randomly to the PPTBCT (n=19) and control (n=13) groups. During the 8-week intervention, scores related to depression, suicidal ideation, psychological pain, and automatic thoughts were decreased in both groups at the post-intervention and 4-week follow-up time points, compared with pre-intervention scores. BSI scores remained low at follow up and did not differ significantly from post-intervention scores in the PPTBCT group, but were significantly higher at follow up than at post-intervention in the control group. PPTBCT may effectively reduce suicide risk in patients with major depressive disorder, although the effects of its application need to be confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "The casual cruelty of our prejudices": on Walter Lippmann's theory of stereotype and its "obliteration" in psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "What about building 7?" A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J; Douglas, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the "conspiracy theory" label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations.

  17. What about Building 7? A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Wood

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations versus rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the conspiracy theory label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations.

  18. An Evaluation of an Intervention to Change First-Year Psychology Students' Theory of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Some people hold an entity theory of intelligence: they think of intelligence as innate. In contrast, others hold an incremental theory, believing that intelligence can be changed. Previous research has shown that an incremental theory is associated with positive outcomes. The aim of this paper was to evaluate an intervention which promoted an…

  19. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  20. Attention Deficits in Hyperactive Children: Connecting Psychological Theory with Classroom Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, D. J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews issues associated with the education of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It offers a definition of this population and compares practical classroom applications of commonsense attribution theory and information processing theory. It proposes a pragmatic learning theory that takes into account cognitive,…

  1. On the construction of a psychologically based, general theory of observation: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nyman, Göte

    2013-01-01

    The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.

  2. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  3. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  4. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  5. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  6. [Psychological support for cancer care professionals: contemporary theory and practice within the Czech Healthcare System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlák, M; Suchý, A

    2011-01-01

    Health care professionals, especially those working in cancer care, represent a subgroup of helping professions that requires special psychological care. Recent findings clearly show that a lack of regular psychological care for oncologists and oncology nurses leads to higher rate of psychiatric and physical illness, poorer quality of life, higher employee fluctuation rates and lower quality of provided medical care. In spite of this, the special psychological care for cancer care professionals is still lacking and theoretical and practical level of their undergraduate and postgraduate education in psychology does not satisfy the demands of clinical practice. Regular group meetings seem to be an effective way of psychological care. They provide an opportunity for the participants to view own problems from a distance and to seek new options. It allows them to gain new insights from the discussed situations and to get support or feedback from colleagues. Regular group meetings also represent a key component of self-care and it is an important preventive factor of exhaustion that has been shown to cause medical or personal misconducts. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to describe the basic theoretical background for regular group meetings of oncologists and oncology nurses and to refer about the current practice within the Czech health care system.

  7. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  8. Comparisons of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide Constructs Among Individuals Without Suicidality, Ideators, Planners, and Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R

    2017-10-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that combinations of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability lead to suicide ideation, planning, and attempting. We compared individuals with and without suicidality on thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and compared a combined group of planners and attempters to ideators on fearlessness about death (one component of acquired capability). Individuals with suicidality had higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness than individuals without suicidality. Planners and attempters did not have higher fearlessness about death than ideators. These findings partially support IPTS hypotheses. Assessing thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness may improve suicide risk determination. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  9. The Specificity of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior for Identifying Suicidal Ideation in an Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; van Spijker, Bregje A J

    2015-08-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior suggests that the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness predicts suicidal ideation. However, the specificity of this prediction to suicidal ideation has not been tested. This study examined whether these constructs were consistently associated with different characteristics of suicidal ideation, and whether they were associated with mental health problems more broadly, in an online sample of 1,352 Australian adults. Findings indicated that the interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was associated only with suicidal ideation and consistent across multiple characteristics of ideation. The study broadly supported the specificity of the IPTS. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  11. A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

  12. Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

  13. Anti-homosexual prejudice . . . as opposed to what? Queer theory and the social psychology of anti-homosexual attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter; Massey, Sean

    2006-01-01

    This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics.

  14. Clinical Supervision and Psychological Functions: A New Direction for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Relates Carl Jung's concept of psychological functions to four families of clinical supervision: the original clinical models, the humanistic/artistic models, the technical/didactic models, and the developmental/reflective models. Differences among clinical supervision models within these families are clarified as representing "communication…

  15. Where to from here for the psychology of social change? Future directions for theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subasic, E.; Reynolds, K.; Reicher, S.; Klandermans, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    For a vibrant and viable psychology of social change it is necessary to examine its place and contribution to the societal processes it seeks to understand, explain, and (potentially) affect. In this article, we first consider the impact that research and theorizing on social change (should) have

  16. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  17. Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and…

  18. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  19. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  20. [Gestalt theory of V. v. Weizsäcker from the viewpoint of the psychology emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, S

    2001-07-01

    The "Gestaltkreis" represents an important part in the psychosomatic theory-discussion, which can be understood as an incomplete contribution towards a general theory of emotions. Especially the relationship between perception and motion requires further consideration. Instead of a causal attribution, cyclic complementaries are important. Furthermore different degrees of organisation within the body-scheme and the affect-apparatus are mentioned.

  1. Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and the American Humanistic Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differences and similarities between Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration and the theories of the American humanistic psychologists. Stresses the suffering associated with attaining higher levels of spiritual development. Suggests that Dabrowski and humanists followed different theodicies. (Author/ABL)

  2. Objectification Theory and Psychology of Women: A Decade of Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory as an integrative framework for understanding how women's socialization and experiences of sexual objectification are translated into mental health problems. This article reviews the past decade of research grounded in objectification theory and highlights needed directions for future…

  3. Practical Applications of Generalizability Theory for Designing, Evaluating, and Improving Psychological Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we illustrate how generalizability theory (G-theory) can extend traditional assessment methods for designing, improving, and evaluating results from both objectively and subjectively scored measures of individual differences. Our illustrations include quantification of multiple sources of measurement error, derivation of unique indexes of consistency for norm- and criterion-referenced interpretations of scores, estimation of score consistency when changing a measurement procedure, and disattenuation of correlation coefficients for measurement error. We also expand G-theory analyses beyond the item level to include parcels and split measures and highlight linkages among G-theory, classical test theory, and structural equation modeling. Computer code and sample data are provided in online supplements to help readers apply the demonstrated techniques to their own assessments.

  4. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. “I Can Only Work So Hard Before I Burn Out.” A Time Sensitive Conceptual Integration of Ideological Psychological Contract Breach, Work Effort, and Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K. Jones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee’s well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this “double edged” role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs, which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential “dark side” of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees’ reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes.

  6. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  7. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: applying psychological theory to practical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R; Mark Williams, A

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies observed during control of posture, including observations of eye and head movements. Second, we present a framework illustrating the interactions between increased age, FOF, and altered attentional processes, which in turn influence balance performance and fall-risk. Psychological theory predicts that anxiety can cause attentional bias for threatening and task-irrelevant stimuli and compromise the efficiency of working memory resources. We argue that while the adoption of stiffening strategies is likely to be beneficial in avoiding a loss of balance during simple postural tasks, it will ultimately compromise performance in dynamic and highly demanding functional tasks. The adoption of stiffening strategies leads to inadequate acquisition of the sensory information necessary to plan and execute dynamic and interactive movements. We conclude with some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamical Systems Theory in Quantitative Psychology and Cognitive Science: A Fair Discrimination between Deterministic and Statistical Counterparts is Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Adam; Ausloos, Marcel; Casey, Tahlia

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems.' It also considers whether the exponential (Malthus-type) or the algebraic (Pareto-type) statistical distribution ought to be effectively considered in practical interpretations. The role of repetitive specific behaviors by patients seeking treatment is examined within the NDS frame. The significance of these behaviors, involving a certain memory effect seems crucial in determining a patient's progression or regression. With this perspective, it is discussed how a sensitively applied hazardous or triggering factor can be helpful for well-controlled psychological strategic treatments; those attributable to obsessive-compulsive disorders or self-injurious behaviors are recalled in particular. There are both inherent criticality- and complexity-exploiting (reduced-variance based) relations between a therapist and a patient that can be intrinsically included in NDS theory.

  9. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  10. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-09-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals' internalized homophobia and their friend's sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities ( N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend's sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities' resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research.

  11. From osp(1|32)⊕osp(1|32) to the M-theory superalgebra: a contraction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, J. J., E-mail: julio.j.fernandez@hotmail.es; Izquierdo, J. M., E-mail: izquierd@fta.uva.es; Olmo, M. A. del, E-mail: olmo@fta.uva.es [Universidad de Valladolid, Departamento de Física Teórica and IMUVA (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    We show the impossibility to obtain the D’auria–Fré-type superalgebras that allow for an underlying gauge theoretical structure of D = 11 supergravity from the superalgebra osp(1|32)⊕osp(1|32)−, by means of aWeimar-Woods contraction.

  12. Essays on behavioral aspects of the design and disclosure of compensation contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Grasser, Robert Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays on the design and disclosure of compensation contracts. Essays 1, 2 and 3 focus on behavioral aspects of mandatory compensation disclosure rules and of contract negotiations in agency relationships. The three experimental studies develop psychology- based theory and present results that deviate from standard economic predictions. Furthermore, the results of Essay 1 and 2 also have implications for firms’ discretion in how to communicate their top managem...

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  14. Perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide ideation: Re-examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Zuromski, Kelly L; Witte, Tracy K; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2015-08-30

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide ideation is caused by the interaction of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, in which each predictor amplifies the harm of the other. Though several studies support this synergy hypothesis, research has not considered potential quadratic effects of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, which can distort the sign, size, and significance of interactions, if mistakenly neglected in a model. This investigation examined the synergy hypothesis in samples of university undergraduates and psychiatric inpatients, this time controlling for quadratic effects. Despite adequate power, results showed no interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in either sample, regardless of the presence of quadratic effects. Additionally, no quadratic effects were observed. The lower-order, linear perceived burdensomeness term was positively associated with suicide ideation in both samples, but the thwarted belongingness term was not associated with suicide ideation in either sample. The discussion considers implications of current findings for the IPTS, highlighting a need to formally test the impact of sample characteristics on the estimation of theory parameters. Recommendations for systematic evaluation of such sample and theory parameters are offered and their clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide Risk across Latent Class Subgroups: A Test of the Generalizability of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Han, Jin

    2018-01-06

    It remains unclear whether the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, ) is generalizable to the population or holds more explanatory power for certain subgroups compared to others. The aim of this study was to (1) identify subgroups of individuals who endorsed suicide ideation in the past month based on a range of mental health and demographic variables, (2) compare levels of the IPTS constructs within these subgroups, and (3) test the IPTS predictions for suicide ideation and suicide attempt for each group. Latent class, negative binomial, linear, and logistic regression analyses were conducted on population-based data obtained from 1,321 adults recruited from Facebook. Among participants reporting suicide ideation, four distinct patterns of risk factors emerged based on age and severity of mental health symptoms. Groups with highly elevated mental health symptoms reported the highest levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Tests of the IPTS interactions provided partial support for the theory, primarily in young adults with elevated mental health symptoms. Lack of support found for the IPTS predictions across the subgroups and full sample in this study raise some questions around the broad applicability of the theory. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in Adolescents: A Preliminary Report of Changes Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jessica D; Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; Eaddy, Michael; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Stewart, Sunita M

    2017-03-31

    This study investigated change in suicide risk in the framework of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Fifty-four adolescents completed measures of interpersonal needs, acquired capability, depressive symptoms, and suicide risk at entry and exit from treatment. There was a significant drop following treatment in unmet interpersonal needs but not in acquired capability, consistent with the theory. Both change in the interaction between interpersonal needs and in depressive symptoms contributed unique prediction to change in suicide risk. These findings extend the research in understanding changes in suicide risk and inform treatment by suggesting cognitive targets for intervention. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. Assessment of left ventricular contraction by parametric analysis of main motion (PAMM): theory and application for echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Dominguez, C.; Kachenoura, N.; DeCesare, A.; Delouche, A.; Lim, P.; Gérard, O.; Herment, A.; Diebold, B.; Frouin, F.

    2005-07-01

    The computerized study of the regional contraction of the left ventricle has undergone numerous developments, particularly in relation to echocardiography. A new method, parametric analysis of main motion (PAMM), is proposed in order to synthesize the information contained in a cine loop of images in parametric images. PAMM determines, for the intensity variation time curves (IVTC) observed in each pixel, two amplitude coefficients characterizing the continuous component and the alternating component; the variable component is generated from a mother curve by introducing a time shift coefficient and a scale coefficient. Two approaches, a PAMM data driven and a PAMM model driven (simpler and faster), are proposed. On the basis of the four coefficients, an amplitude image and an image of mean contraction time are synthesized and interpreted by a cardiologist. In all cases, both PAMM methods allow better IVTC adjustment than the other methods of parametric imaging used in echocardiography. A preliminary database comprising 70 segments is scored and compared with the visual analysis, taken from a consensus of two expert interpreters. The levels of absolute and relative concordance are 79% and 97%. PAMM model driven is a promising method for the rapid detection of abnormalities in left ventricle contraction.

  18. A SELF–DETERMINATION THEORY APPROACH TO MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATİONS, BASIC NEEDS SATISFACTION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL–BEING IN EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Ersöz, Gözde; Murat ÖZŞAKER; Selman SASUR

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine motivational orientations, basic need satisfaction in exercise and psychological well-beingin in the Self–Determination Theory approach. 387 university students who exercise regularly (nmale=206; age=25.01±5.82 and nfemale=181; age=28.38±7.48) participated to this study. Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2), Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Questionnaire (PNSE), Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS) and Physical Activi...

  19. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  1. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  2. Feminist Theory, Feminist Psychology: A Bibliography of Epistemology, Critical Analysis, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mary; Marecek, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    Contains a selection of works on feminist theory and method. Presents a description of types of articles contained in each of the following sections of the bibliography: (1) "Epistemology and Metatheory"; (2) "Critical Analysis and Reformulations"; (3) "Applications"; and (4) "Further Resources." A total of…

  3. Applications of Generalizability Theory to Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the…

  4. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  5. Paradigms, Praxis, Problems, and Promise: Grounded Theory in Counseling Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures…

  6. On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…

  7. Cognitive dissonance. 1: An overview of the literature and its integration into theory and practice in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, S; Dabbs, A

    1998-09-01

    Clinical psychology may not be making full use of the experimental psychological research available to it. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on cognitive dissonance in order to assess its usefulness in developing and deconstructing clinical psychological therapies and practice. Experimental, theoretical and review articles were examined in relation to their possible clinical implications, and included in this review if they related to the arousal, maintenance and reduction of the state termed cognitive dissonance. Well replicated findings based on experimentally sound paradigms were integrated to produce an overall view of the evidence in favour of the existence of these processes, and of the principles behind them. It is concluded that there is an effect on attitudes and behaviour of creating inconsistency in individuals, and that this is not explained away by alternative theories, which in many cases refer to special conditions which maximally arouse dissonance. The dissonant state lasts for a few minutes, but its effects can last for up to two weeks, and might be reinstated by reintroducing the original inconsistency. Individuals can react to dissonance through a variety of cognitive alterations which reinstate consistency. The choice of response is a function of its salience and the difficulty in its execution. The literature supports the existence of the phenomenon termed cognitive dissonance, and one can distil the principles underlying its production, maintenance and reduction. This body of literature may provide insights into the conduct of therapy generally, as well as into the mechanisms of specific therapies which may guide modifications or development of alternative interventions.

  8. Understanding the Relationship Between Suicidality and Psychopathy: An Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-07-02

    A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples.

  9. Dark traits and suicide: Associations between psychopathy, narcissism, and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Tiffany M; Preston, Olivia C; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Michael D; Junearick, Regis; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-10-01

    Studies have identified independent relationships between psychopathy, narcissism, and suicidality. The current study expands upon the extant literature by exploring psychopathic and narcissistic personality traits and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, utilizing a 3-factor model of psychopathy and 2-factor model of pathological narcissism in community, undergraduate, and military individuals. We hypothesized that the impulsive-antisocial facets of psychopathy would be related to suicidal desire, whereas all facets of psychopathy would relate to the capability for suicide. We anticipated an association between pathological narcissism, thwarted belongingness, and capability for suicide, but not perceived burdensomeness. We further hypothesized a relationship between physical pain tolerance and persistence and the affective (i.e., callousness) facet of psychopathy. Results partially supported these hypotheses and underscore the need for further examination of these associations utilizing contemporary models of psychopathy and narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  11. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  12. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  13. Cannabis use and suicidal ideation: Test of the utility of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lemke, Austin W; Walukevich, Katherine A

    2017-07-01

    Despite a documented relationship between cannabis use and suicidality, little is known about psychological vulnerability factors that may increase suicidality among this high-risk group. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) proposes that people are vulnerable to wanting to die by suicide if they experience both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Daily cannabis users may be especially vulnerable to these factors. The current study used moderated mediation to test whether the relation between daily cannabis use status and suicidal ideation (SI) occurred indirectly via higher levels of both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness among 209 (76.1% female) current cannabis using undergraduates who used cannabis daily (n=39) or less frequently (n=160). The direct effect of cannabis use status on SI was no longer significant after controlling for thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and the thwarted belongingness X perceived burdensomeness interaction. Cannabis use status was predictive of greater SI indirectly through perceived burdensomeness only at higher levels of thwarted belongingness. Findings support the utility of the IPTS in regard to SI among daily cannabis users, indicating that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which daily cannabis use may lead to greater suicide risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  15. Using psychological theory and qualitative methods to develop a new evidence-based website about acupuncture for back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L; Greville-Harris, Maddy; Bostock, Jennifer; Din, Amy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; Liossi, Christina; O'Riordan, Tim; Ryves, Rachel; White, Peter; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-08-01

    Potential acupuncture patients seek out information about acupuncture from various sources including websites, many of which are unreliable. We aimed to create an informative, scientifically accurate and engaging website to educate patients about acupuncture for back pain and modify their beliefs in a way that might enhance its clinical effects. We used psychological theory and techniques to design an evidence-based website, incorporating multimedia elements. We conducted qualitative "think aloud" audio-recorded interviews to elicit user views of the website. A convenience sample of ten participants (4 male; aged 21-64 years from the local community) looked at the website in the presence of a researcher and spoke their thoughts out loud. Comments were categorised by topic. The website comprises 11 main pages and addresses key topics of interest to potential acupuncture patients, including beneficial and adverse effects, mechanisms of action, safety, practicalities, and patients' experiences of acupuncture. It provides information through text, evidence summaries and audio-clips of four patients' stories and two acupuncturists' descriptions of their practice, and three short films. Evidence from the think aloud study was used to identify opportunities to make the website more informative, engaging, and user-friendly. Using a combination of psychological theory and qualitative interviews enabled us to produce a user-friendly, evidence-based website that is likely to change patients' beliefs about acupuncture for back pain. Before using the website in clinical settings it is necessary to test its effects on key outcomes including patients' beliefs and capacity for making informed choices about acupuncture.

  16. Psychological Trait Resilience Within Ecological Systems Theory: The Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Flowe, Heather D; Vostanis, Panos; Chivers, Sally

    2017-07-14

    This project describes the development of the Resilient Systems Scales, created to address conceptual and methodological ambiguities in assessing the ecological systems model of resilience. Across a number of samples (total N = 986), our findings suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales show equivalence to a previously reported assessment (Maltby, Day, & Hall, 2015 ) in demonstrating the same factor structure, adequate intercorrelation between the 2 measures of resilience, and equivalent associations with personality and well-being. The findings also suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability, compare well with other extant measures of resilience in predicting well-being, and map, to varying degrees, onto positive expression of several cognitive, social, and emotional traits. The findings suggest that the new measure can be used alongside existing measures of resilience, or singly, to assess positive life outcomes within psychology research.

  17. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored.

  18. Childhood Abuse, the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, and the Mediating Role of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noelle B; Monteith, Lindsey L; Rozek, David C; Meuret, Alicia E

    2017-10-25

    Although childhood abuse is a well-known risk factor for suicide, no studies have investigated the role of interpersonal-psychological (Joiner, 2005), constructs in this association. This study examined whether childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse were associated with IPTS constructs, and whether depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Ninety-one participants completed self-report measures. Emotional abuse predicted perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Physical abuse predicted the acquired capability for suicide, although depression did not mediate this association. These findings suggest that specific types of abuse differentially predict IPTS components and underscore depression as a potential mechanism. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  19. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.

  20. Integrating psychological theory into the design of an online intervention for sexual health: the sexunzipped website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Kenneth; McCarthy, Ona; Murray, Elizabeth; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-11-19

    The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people's views on website content and design. Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users' interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.

  1. A Bibliography on the Use of Information Theory in Psychology (1967- 1981)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    309. 40. Bazhin, E. F., Meerson, Y. A.and Tonkonogh, I. M. On distin- guishing a visual signal from noise by patients with visual agnosia and visual...Donaldson, R. W. Communication via the auditory, tactile , and kinesthetic senses. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 1967, IT-13, 11-21. K 122...behavior in the tactile modality. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1980, 50, 1179-1191. 480. Rosch, E., Simpson, C. and Miller, R. S. Structural bases of

  2. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  3. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  4. Integrating the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide into the depression/suicidal ideation relationship: a short-term prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Liu, Richard T; Riskind, John H

    2014-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with increased beliefs about perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness identified in the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide and that these beliefs are associated with changes in suicidal ideation. Participants with clinical levels of depressive symptoms (n=299) were selected from a larger group (n=508) and completed measures of depressive symptoms, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation twice over a period of 2 months. Results of a structural equation model found that depressive symptoms were associated with increases in burdensomeness and lack of belonging, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, this hypothesized integrated model demonstrated a significantly better fit than an alternative model that assumed burdensomeness and lack of belonging were associated with changes in depressive symptoms, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that the well-established relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation is associated with changes in beliefs that one is a burden on others and lacks belonging. More generally, these results suggest that it may be fruitful to integrate theories of suicide risk to form a comprehensive model that can inform future research and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Burdensomeness, Belongingness, and Capability: Assessing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide With MMPI-2-RF Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C; Finn, Jacob A; Gottfried, Emily D; Hames, Jennifer L; Bodell, Lindsay P; Hagan, Christopher R; Arnau, Randolph C; Anestis, Michael D; Arbisi, Paul A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-01

    Given the emerging body of literature demonstrating the validity of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), and the importance of increasing our understanding of the development of risk factors associated with suicidal behavior, it seems worthwhile both to expand IPTS research via Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) correlates and to expand the availability of methods by which to assess the constructs of the IPTS. The present study attempted to do so in a large adult outpatient mental health sample by (a) inspecting associations between the IPTS constructs and the substantive scales of the MMPI-2-RF and (b) exploring the utility of MMPI-2-RF scale-based algorithms of the IPTS constructs. Correlates between the IPTS constructs and the MMPI-2-RF scales scores largely followed a pattern consistent with theory-based predictions, and we provide preliminary evidence that the IPTS constructs can be reasonably approximated using theoretically based MMPI-2-RF substantive scales. Implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Measurement in health psychology: combining theory, qualitative, and quantitative methods to do it right : 6th Methods in Health Psychology Symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid

  7. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy.

  8. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  9. Neurologizing the Psychology of Affects: How Appraisal-Based Constructivism and Basic Emotion Theory Can Coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2007-09-01

    Abundant neurobehavioral data, not discussed by Lisa Feldman Barrett (2006), support the existence of a variety of core emotional operating systems in ancient subneocortical regions of the brain (Panksepp, 1998a, 2005a). Such brain systems are the primary-process ancestral birthrights of all mammals. There may be as many genetically and neurochemically coded subcortical affect systems in emotionally rich medial regions of the brain as there are "natural" emotional action systems in the brain. When emotional primes are aroused directly, as with local electrical or chemical stimulation, the affective changes sustain conditioned place preferences and place aversions, which are the premier secondary-process indices of affective states in animals. Humans are not immune to such brain manipulations; they typically exhibit strong emotional feelings. Human emotion researchers should not ignore these systems and simply look at the complex and highly variable culturally molded manifestations of emotions in humans if they wish to determine what kinds of "natural" emotional processes exist within all mammalian brain. Basic emotion science has generated workable epistemological strategies for under-standing the primal sources of human emotional feelings by detailed study of emotional circuits in our fellow animals. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. The Impact of a Brief Training on Suicide for Graduate Students in Psychology, Incorporating Thomas Joiner's Theory of Why People Die by Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherbee, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a lack of formal training in suicide for mental health professionals in graduate psychology programs (Bongar & Harmatz, 1991; Batista, 2007). Suicide is a public health issue, with one suicide occurring approximately every 16 minutes in the United States (www.cdc.gov). A recently developed theory on why people die…

  11. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  12. Fully Internally Contracted Multireference Configuration Interaction Theory Using Density Matrix Renormalization Group: A Reduced-Scaling Implementation Derived by Computer-Aided Tensor Factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Masaaki; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2015-11-10

    We present an extended implementation of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method combined with the quantum-chemical density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). In the previous study, we introduced the combined theory, referred to as DMRGMRCI, as a method to calculate high-level dynamic electron correlation on top of the DMRG wave function that accounts for active-space (or strong) correlation using a large number of active orbitals. The DMRG-MRCI method is built on the full internal-contraction scheme for the compact reference treatment and on the cumulant approximation for the treatment of the four-particle rank reduced density matrix (4-RDM). The previous implementation achieved the MRCI calculations with the active space (24e,24o), which are deemed the record largest, whereas the inherent Nact 8 × N complexity of computation was found a hindrance to using further large active space. In this study, an extended optimization of the tensor contractions is developed by explicitly incorporating the rank reduction of the decomposed form of the cumulant-approximated 4-RDM into the factorization. It reduces the computational scaling (to Nact7 × N) as well as the cache-miss penalty associated with direct evaluation of complex cumulant reconstruction. The present scheme, however, faces the increased complexity of factorization patterns for optimally implementing the tensor contraction terms involving the decomposed 4-RDM objects. We address this complexity using the enhanced symbolic manipulation computer program for deriving and coding programmable equations. The new DMRG-MRCI implementation is applied to the determination of the stability of the iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin relative to the iron(V) electronic isomer (electromer) using the active space (29e,29o) (including four second d-shell orbitals of iron) with triple-ζ-quality atomic orbital basis sets. The DMRG-cu(4)-MRCI+Q model is shown to favor the triradicaloid iron(IV)-oxo state as the lowest

  13. Use of measurement theory for operationalization and quantification of psychological constructs in systems dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitkov-Norris, Elena; Yeghiazarian, Ara

    2016-11-01

    The analytical tools available to social scientists have traditionally been adapted from tools originally designed for analysis of natural science phenomena. This article discusses the applicability of systems dynamics - a qualitative based modelling approach, as a possible analysis and simulation tool that bridges the gap between social and natural sciences. After a brief overview of the systems dynamics modelling methodology, the advantages as well as limiting factors of systems dynamics to the potential applications in the field of social sciences and human interactions are discussed. The issues arise with regards to operationalization and quantification of latent constructs at the simulation building stage of the systems dynamics methodology and measurement theory is proposed as a ready and waiting solution to the problem of dynamic model calibration, with a view of improving simulation model reliability and validity and encouraging the development of standardised, modular system dynamics models that can be used in social science research.

  14. The Motivational Outcomes of Psychological Need Support among Pre-Service Teachers: Multicultural and Self-determination Theory Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya Kaplan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless

  15. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  16. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  17. Theory of Mind and embedding of perspective: A psychological test of a literary "sweet spot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D H; Zunshine, Lisa; Holquist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) has been proposed to explain social interactions, with real people but also with fictional characters, by interpreting their mind as well as our own. "Perspective embedding" exploits ToM by placing events in characters' minds (e.g., "he remembered she was home"). Three levels of embedment, common in literature, may be a "sweet spot" that provides enough information about a character's motivation, but not a confusing over-abundance. Here, we use short vignettes with 1 or 3 characters and 0-5 levels of perspective embedding in two reading studies to see whether these preferences might be related to processing ease. Self-paced readers were fastest with one level of embedment, increasingly slower as embedment increased; vignettes without embedment were approximately as slow as level 4. With both self-paced and imposed timing, error rates on probe questions increased only at the fifth level. Readers seem to prefer literary texts in which ToM operations are obvious due to embedding of perspectives within the narrative but still somewhat challenging.

  18. The Goldilocks contract: The synergistic benefits of combining structure and autonomy for persistence, creativity, and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Eileen Y; Halevy, Nir; Galinsky, Adam D; Murnighan, J Keith

    2017-09-01

    Contracts are commonly used to regulate a wide range of interactions and relationships. Yet relying on contracts as a mechanism of control often comes at a cost to motivation. Integrating theoretical perspectives from psychology, economics, and organizational theory, we explore this control-motivation dilemma inherent in contracts and present the Contract-Autonomy-Motivation-Performance-Structure (CAMPS) model, which highlights the synergistic benefits of combining structure and autonomy. The model proposes that subtle reductions in the specificity of a contract's language can boost autonomy, which increases intrinsic motivation and improves a range of desirable behaviors. Nine field and laboratory experiments found that less specific contracts increased task persistence, creativity, and cooperation, both immediately and longitudinally, because they boosted autonomy and intrinsic motivation. These positive effects, however, only occurred when contracts provided sufficient structure. Furthermore, the effects were limited to control-oriented clauses (i.e., legal clauses), and did not extend to coordination-oriented clauses (i.e., technical clauses). That is, there were synergistic benefits when a contract served as a scaffold that combined structure with general clauses. Overall, the current model and experiments identify a low-cost solution to the common problem of regulating social relationships: finding the right amount of contract specificity promotes desirable outcomes, including behaviors that are notoriously difficult to contract. The CAMPS model and the current set of empirical findings explain why, when, and how contracts can be used as an effective motivational tool. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Exploring application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour to self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners: Proposing a new model of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; York, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the application of capacity, psychological distress, coping and personality to an understanding of self-injurious behaviour, with a specific focus on testing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour (IPTSB). One hundred and ninety women prisoners took part, completing a history questionnaire and measures of personality, coping styles and psychological distress. It was expected that self-injurious behaviour would be predicted by higher levels of emotional functioning difficulties, by an increased capacity to engage in such behaviours, by previous self-injurious behaviour, decreased levels of emotional stability and increased levels of emotional coping behaviour. Results supported the capacity component of the IPTSB, indicating that an increased history of self-injurious behaviour and of engagement in reckless behaviour were particular predictors. Increased psychological distress in some domains was also a predictor although the exact domain varied across the type of self-injurious engagement Increased levels of extraversion and decreased emotional coping predicted increased self-injurious engagement, although emotional coping only related to threats and cognition. The results point to the applicability of Interpersonal-Psychological Theory to understanding self-injurious behaviour and the importance of developing a revised model. The paper presents this in the form of the Integrated Model of Self-Injurious Activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizational Change in Distance Higher Education: the Re-negotiation of Employee's Psychological Contract Cambio Organizacional en la Educación Superior a Distancia: la Re-negociación del Contrato Psicológico de los Empleados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Topa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore empirical relationships of employees' attitudes towards organizational change, the perceived breach of the psychological contract and outcomes such as burnout, job satisfaction and OCB. The proposed model suggests that organizational identification will be a mediator variable in these relationships. Results of an empirical study conducted among university staff (N =150 showed that the model was an adequate fit to the data. Organizational identification mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and outcomes while attitudes towards organizational change had a direct impact on outcomes. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es explorar las relaciones empíricas entre las actitudes ante el cambio organizacional, la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados tales como burnout, satisfacción laboral y conductas de ciudadanía organizacional. El modelo propuesto sugería que la identificación organizacional sería una variable mediadora en estas relaciones. Los resultados de un estudio empírico llevado a cabo con personal universitario (N=150 mostraron que el modelo ajustaba adecuadamente a los datos. La identificación organizacional mediaba la relación entre la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados, mientras que las actitudes ante el cambio tenían un impacto directo en los resultados.

  1. A Psychological Map of Love. Alain de Botton’s Love Stories as Reflections of Sternberg’s Theory on Love

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Unk

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to give a psychological interpretation to Alain de Botton’s novels On Love and The Course of Love, doubling the philosophical take on love that runs in the background of the novels. Robert Sternberg’s triangular theory of love will be applied to de Botton’s two novels, in an attempt to reach an understanding of love by means of psychological deconstruction, following the dynamic of the three components of the love triangle: passion, intimacy and decision \\ commitment. Refere...

  2. Social anxiety and suicidal ideation: Test of the utility of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lemke, Austin W; Jeffries, Emily R; Shah, Sonia M

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety is related to greater suicidality, even after controlling for depression and other psychopathology. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) proposes that people are vulnerable to wanting to die by suicide if they experience both perceived burdensomeness (sense that one is a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a greater sense of alienation from others). Socially anxious persons may be especially vulnerable to these interpersonal factors. The current study tested whether interpersonal IPTS components independently and additively mediate the social anxiety-suicidal ideation (SI) relation among 780 (80.5% female) undergraduates. Social anxiety was significantly, robustly related to SI and to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Social anxiety was indirectly related to SI via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. The sum of these indirect effects was significant. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that perceived burdensomeness only mediated the relation between social anxiety and SI at higher levels of thwarted belongingness. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An item response theory analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: comparing male and female probationers and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-09-01

    An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A Preliminary Test of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior in Young People With a First Episode of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelis, Rebecca; Graham, Hermine; Jackson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory (IPT) of suicidal behavior suggests that an individual who does not feel they belong and believes they are a burden combined with the capability to attempt suicide is more likely to attempt suicide. The study aimed to investigate this hypothesis in the context of psychosis. Young people with a first episode of psychosis (N = 45) who considered suicide, attempted suicide, and had no history of suicide or attempt were compared on self-report measures of suicidal desire, capability for suicide, and substance use. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of suicidal desire or capability. All participants perceived they were a burden, did not feel they belonged, and had the capability for suicide. Poisoning (n = 22) was the most frequently reported method of a suicide attempt. Of those who had attempted suicide, 50% (n = 7) reported that it had been related to a psychotic episode. Of the participants, 30 reported previous suicidal ideation mainly to completely end or stop the distress they were experiencing. Levels of depression were significantly different between groups; moderate levels of depression were reported in the suicidal ideation and attempt groups. The concepts of IPT appear to resonate with the experience of psychosis, regardless of suicidality. Specific features of psychosis and their influence on suicidality are worth further exploration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Predictors of the risk factors for suicide identified by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip James; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Donker, Tara; Soubelet, Andrea

    2014-10-30

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has been supported by recent research. However, the nature of the models׳ three major constructs--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability - requires further investigation. In this paper, we test a number of hypotheses about the predictors and correlates of the IPTS constructs. Participants aged 32-38 from an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1167) were assessed. IPTS constructs were measured by items from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS), alongside demographic and additional measures, measured concurrently or approximately 8 years earlier. Cross-sectional analyses evaluating the IPTS supported earlier work. Mental health was significantly related to all three IPTS constructs, but depression and anxiety caseness were associated only with perceived burdensomeness. Various social support measures were differentially associated with the three constructs. Stressful events and lifetime traumas had robust independent associations with acquired capability for suicide only. The IPTS model provides a useful framework for conceptualising suicide risk. The findings highlight the importance of perceived social support in suicide risk, identify the importance of personality and other factors as new avenues of research, and provide some validation for the independence of the constructs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fasting and acquired capability for suicide: a test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide in an undergraduate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuromski, Kelly L; Witte, Tracy K

    2015-03-30

    Though some preliminary research within the framework of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) has postulated that restrictive eating may contribute to increased risk for suicide through its effect on the acquired capability for suicide (ACS; i.e., increased fearlessness about death and heightened physical pain tolerance), existing studies have not conducted direct tests of this relationship. To enhance understanding of this relationship, we compared undergraduates who endorsed one form of restrictive eating, fasting, (n = 99) to controls endorsing no forms of eating pathology over the lifetime (n = 94). We hypothesized that the fasting group would have higher ACS and higher likelihood of suicide attempt history. Contrary to hypotheses, no differences emerged between groups on ACS, and frequency of fasting within the fasting group was not significantly associated with ACS. Consistent with hypotheses, the fasting group was more likely to have suicide attempt history. Though results were not entirely consistent with hypotheses, the current study represents the first attempt at isolating and examining one form of restrictive eating (i.e., fasting) within the context of the IPTS. Results suggest that, in isolation, fasting may not be directly contributing to increases in ACS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

    2014-08-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.

  9. The Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Babanin P.A.

    2017-01-01

    The present report contains the report on the work of the Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in Memory of M.Y. Kondratyev «Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice». The conference was attended by the undergraduate and graduate students of MSUPE who submitted the reports, which reflected modern trends in the study of socialization of the individual, optimization of motivation in learning and professional activity, harmonization of interpersonal and intergroup relati...

  10. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  11. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp......Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when...... there is an incomplete contract or reduces transaction costs for renegotiation of complete contracts when new information arises. Design - The study is a cross-sectional design comprising document analysis and interviews. Findings - Firstly that partnering does not necessarily entail more incomplete contracts, which...... contradicts the incomplete contracting theory. Secondly, in complete contract setting partnering can be motivated when seen as a willingness to renegotiate complete contracts i.e. partnering lowers transaction costs for renegotiation. Partnering can make it rational for one party to accept disadvantageous...

  12. The linkages between cultural differences, psychological states, and performance in international mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2008-01-01

    A model focusing on the role of the individual in national and corporate culture clash situations, during post-merger integration, is presented. The theory of psychological contract is adapted to explain different individual expectations in domestic versus international mergers and acquisitions

  13. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  14. Maternal psychological absence and toddlers' social-emotional development: interpretations from the perspective of boundary ambiguity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocknek, Erika L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Burns-Jager, Kathleen; Carolan, Marsha T

    2012-12-01

    The current study tests a novel latent construct reflecting psychological absence and examines its relations with maternal depression, mother-toddler interactions, and toddlers' social-emotional outcomes in a low-income sample (N = 2,632). Structural equation modeling confirmed a psychological absence construct and revealed that psychological absence, measured at the child's 36-month birthday-related assessment, is a significant predictor of children's social-emotional development at 36 months, mediated by mother-child interaction. Results are interpreted within a boundary ambiguity framework. © FPI, Inc.

  15. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  16. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA] was designed to measure three EI domains: 1 emotional appraisal, 2 emotional recognition, and 3 emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA and item response theory (IRT were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF was 3.414 (ability level = 0 for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2, and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2. It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. Keywords: categorical confirmatory factor analysis, emotional intelligence, item response theory 

  17. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  18. Reciprocal relationships between resource loss and psychological distress following exposure to political violence: an empirical investigation of COR theory's loss spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Hall, Brian J; Russ, Eric U; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a four-wave prospective study of Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, interviewed between 2007 and 2009 at 6-month interval to explore transactional relationships between resource loss (i.e., intra and interpersonal resource loss) and psychological distress (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms). Initially, 1196 Palestinians completed the first wave interview and 752 of these participants completed all four interviews. A cross-lagged panel design was constructed to model the effects of trauma exposure on both resource loss and psychological distress and the subsequent reciprocal effects of resource loss and psychological distress across four time waves. Specifically, resource loss was modeled to predict distress, which in turn was expected to predict further resource loss. Structural equation modeling was used to test this design. We found that psychological distress significantly predicts resource loss across shorter, 6-month time waves, but that resource loss predicts distress across longer, 12-month intervals. These findings support the Conservation of Resources theory's corollary of loss spirals.

  19. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  20. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: Truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as

  1. Psychological theory in an interdisciplinary context: psychological, demographic, health-related, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in a representative cohort of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniehotta, Falko F; Gellert, Paul; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T; Crombie, Iain K; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2013-09-08

    Physical activity (PA) in older adults is influenced by a range of environmental, demographic, health-related, social, and psychological variables. Social cognitive psychological models assume that all influences on behaviour operate indirectly through the models constructs, i.e., via intention and self-efficacy. We evaluated direct, indirect, and moderating relationships of a broad range of external variables with physical activity levels alongside intention and self-efficacy. We performed a cross-sectional survey of a representative and stratified (65-80 and 80+ years; deprived and affluent) sample of 584 community-dwelling people, resident in Scotland. Objectively measured physical activity and questionnaire data were collected. Self-efficacy showed unique relationships with physical activity, controlling for demographic, mental health, social, environmental, and weather variables separately, but the relationship was not significant when controlling for physical health. Overall, results indicating support for a mediation hypothesis, intention and self-efficacy statistically mediate the relationship of most domain variables with physical activity. Moderation analyses show that the relationship between social cognitions and physical activity was stronger for individuals with better physical health and lower levels of socio-economic deprivation. Social cognitive variables reflect a range of known environmental, demographic, health-related and social correlates of physical activity, they mediate the relationships of those correlates with physical activity and account for additional variance in physical activity when external correlates are controlled for, except for the physical health domain. The finding that the social cognition-physical activity relationship is higher for participants with better health and higher levels of affluence raises issues for the applicability of social cognitive models to the most disadvantaged older people.

  2. Contract out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S. (Independent Editorial and Technical Services, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1999-05-01

    Mining companies opt to offer all or part of their operations out to contract mainly to reduce risk. Contract mining has been most popular in the Southern Hemisphere over the last 15 years, with some exceptions - contractors were often employed in the UK's opencast coal sector and some US coal operators have made extensive use of contract mining. The article discusses the pros and cons of outsourcing, giving examples of contracted out work in Australia (by Thiess Contractors) the USA (Morrison Knudsen), and the UK (Kie Mining). The author comments that successful contracting can only be achieved where both parties know where they stand and have a good working relationship. 2 photos.

  3. Linking dispositional mindfulness and positive psychological processes in cancer survivorship: a multivariate path analytic test of the mindfulness-to-meaning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Thielking, Paul; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Coombs, Mary; White, Shelley; Lombardi, Joy; Beck, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that dispositional mindfulness is associated with positive psychological functioning. Although this disposition has been linked with beneficial outcomes in the broader mental health literature, less is known about dispositional mindfulness in cancer survivors and how it may be linked with indices of psychological and physical health relevant to cancer survivorship. We conducted a multivariate path analysis of data from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (N = 97) to test the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, an extended process model of emotion regulation linking dispositional mindfulness with cancer-related quality of life via positive psychological processes. We found that patients endorsing higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were more likely to pay attention to positive experiences (β = .56), a tendency which was associated with positive reappraisal of stressful life events (β = .51). Patients who engaged in more frequent positive reappraisal had a greater sense of meaning in life (β = .43) and tended to savor rewarding or life affirming events (β = .50). In turn, those who engaged in high levels of savoring had better quality of life (β = .33) and suffered less from emotional distress (β = -.54). Findings provide support for the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory and help explicate the processes by which mindfulness promotes psychological flourishing in the face of cancer. Cancer survivors may benefit from enhancing mindfulness, reappraisal, and savoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  5. Theory-informed design of values clarification methods: a cognitive psychological perspective on patient health-related decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke; Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Feldman-Stewart, Deb

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have been developed. VCM intend to help patients to determine the aspects of the choices that are important to their selection of a preferred option. Several types of VCM exist. However, they are often designed without clear reference to theory, which makes it difficult for their development to be systematic and internally coherent. Our goal was to provide theory-informed recommendations for the design of VCM. Process theories of decision making specify components of decision processes, thus, identify particular processes that VCM could aim to facilitate. We conducted a review of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and of references to theories included in retrieved papers, to identify process theories of decision making. We selected a theory if (a) it fulfilled criteria for a process theory; (b) provided a coherent description of the whole process of decision making; and (c) empirical evidence supports at least some of its postulates. Four theories met our criteria: Image Theory, Differentiation and Consolidation theory, Parallel Constraint Satisfaction theory, and Fuzzy-trace Theory. Based on these, we propose that VCM should: help optimize mental representations; encourage considering all potentially appropriate options; delay selection of an initially favoured option; facilitate the retrieval of relevant values from memory; facilitate the comparison of options and their attributes; and offer time to decide. In conclusion, our theory-based design recommendations are explicit and transparent, providing an opportunity to test each in a systematic manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, ppsychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  7. The Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanin P.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present report contains the report on the work of the Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in Memory of M.Y. Kondratyev «Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice». The conference was attended by the undergraduate and graduate students of MSUPE who submitted the reports, which reflected modern trends in the study of socialization of the individual, optimization of motivation in learning and professional activity, harmonization of interpersonal and intergroup relations in various spheres of life of a modern man.

  8. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  9. Rethinking the transmission gap: What behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology mean for attachment theory: A comment on Verhage et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Shackelford, Todd K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional attachment theory posits that attachment in infancy and early childhood is the result of intergenerational transmission of attachment from parents to offspring. Verhage et al. (2016) present meta-analytic evidence addressing the intergenerational transmission of attachment between caregivers and young children. In this commentary, we argue that their appraisal of the behavioral genetics literature is incomplete. The suggested research focus on shared environmental effects may dissuade the pursuit of profitable avenues of research and may hinder progress in attachment theory. Specifically, further research on the "transmission gap" will continue to limit our understanding of attachment etiology. We discuss recent theoretical developments from an evolutionary psychological perspective that can provide a valuable framework to account for the existing behavioral genetic data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  11. Finding "Meaning" in Psychology: A Lay Theories Approach to Self-Regulation, Social Perception, and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molden, Daniel C.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2006-01-01

    Much of psychology focuses on universal principles of thought and action. Although an extremely productive pursuit, this approach, by describing only the "average person," risks describing no one in particular. This article discusses an alternate approach that complements interests in universal principles with analyses of the unique psychological…

  12. The Importance of Evolutionary Theory for Developmental Science--And Vice Versa: The Case of Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The empirical and conceptual interrelations of phylogeny (evolution) and ontogeny (development) may prove to be more important than previously acknowledged. It is argued that this holds particularly for evolutionary psychology. For instance, an evolutionary point of view will add to the explanation of (the shape of) pre- and post-reductive phases…

  13. Psychological Science and Religious Education in a Devout University: The Case of Pain Overlap Theory and the Talmud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Educators employed in devoutly religious institutions often teach students who view even their secular higher education through a uniquely religious lens. Based on his own experiences teaching psychological science at a Jewish university, the author suggests enhancing student interest and enthusiasm by wedding secular curricula with religious…

  14. Learning contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There are four different expressions to describe the method of learning, which increases the efficiency of adult learning. The article explains the translation of »learning contract« into Slovene as a method in adult learning area, which came in use in USA in 1970, also in organizations offering formal education. In the period of lifelong learning, when everyone is supposed to be able to learn efficiently from different sources it is even more important to have the skills to plan our learning. Learning contract develops these competencies and has already become established in organizations, which support learning processes. Learning contract is slowly gaining ground also to the area of formal education. Learning contract is an agreement in writing between two people, where one of them offers advice, the other undertakes the learning process. How do we prepare the agreement, who is responsible for its preparation and execution? Learning contract in writing explains objectives, techniques, strategies and how the learning process will be assessed. At the same time, learning is also limited in time. It is a strong motivational took, since it comprises needs of an individual and is adapted to the interests and learning style of a particular individual. This is especially suitable method for acquiring competencies, for field work and experiential learning at work. Learning contract is very suitable and efficient also for independent academical studies, especially when combined with the method of discussion.

  15. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  16. Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Semin, Gun R.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These…

  17. Critical reflections on evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory as explanatory account of emergence of sex differences in psychopathology: comment on Martel (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-11-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a metatheory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. In this comment, I first enumerate several strengths and then offer 2 primary critiques about Martel's proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the metatheoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary--nor does it provide unique explanatory power-to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel's EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  18. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  19. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  20. Reflexion of the Archetype Concept in Carl Gustav Jung’s Theory of Analytical Psychology to the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    SERRİCAN, Ece

    2015-01-01

    Today, each discipline constitutes a coherent whole itself and interacts with the different areas. It is seen that information and method exchanges are occurred along different disciplines. Each material used by any art is different. The literature that is one of these arts and uses the language as a material is originated to the very old times. At the beginning of the discipline of psychology gives a new perspective to the literature based on people. Methods that are used by both disciplines...