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Sample records for psychological coherence principle

  1. On variational principles for coherent vortex structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Fliert, B.W.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Different approaches are discussed of variational principles characterizing coherent vortex structures in two-dimensional flows. Turbulent flows seem to form ordered structures in the large scales of the motion and the self-organization principle predicts asymptotic states realizing an extremal

  2. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  3. Teaching the foundational principles of rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William

    2016-02-01

    Wright (1983) described 20 "value-laden beliefs and principles" that form the foundational principles of rehabilitation psychology, and the education and training of rehabilitation psychologists necessitates that they acquire the specialty-specific knowledge and attitudes/values related to these principles. This article addresses 2 questions about how these principles can be taught in rehabilitation psychology training: (a) What are the core theories and evidence supporting these foundational principles, and what should be the content of a "core curriculum" for teaching these?; and (b) What is known about the most effective methods for teaching these foundational principles, including questions of how to teach values? The foundational principles were grouped into 3 categories: individual psychological processes, social psychological processes, and values related to social integration. A literature review was conducted in these 3 categories, and the results are summarized and discussed. A core curriculum is discussed for teaching about disability-specific individual psychological processes, social psychological processes, and values related to social integration, including methods to reduce group prejudice and promote values relevant to the foundational principles. Specific suggestions for training program content and methods are provided. It is hoped that effective teaching of Wright's (1983) value-laden beliefs and principles will help rehabilitation psychology trainers and trainees focus on the key knowledge and attitude-value competencies that are to be acquired in training. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Principles for Quality Undergraduate Education in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The principles for undergraduate education in psychology presented here are designed for creating a world-class educational system that provides students with the workplace skills needed in this information age; a solid academic background that prepares them for advanced study in a wide range of fields; and the knowledge, skills, and abilities…

  5. An integral, positive psychology paradigm for global coherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integral, positive psychology paradigm for global coherence, research, and health promotion. ... 0.1 Hz. This is associated with synchronisation between various physiological systems, positive emotions, athletes' “zone” experience, enhanced spirituality, effective prayer, personal, social and global coherence and health.

  6. Top 20 Psychological Principles for PK-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Dwyer, Carol; Skiba, Russell; DeMarie, Darlene; Anderman, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an initiative undertaken by a coalition of psychologists (Coalition for Psychology in Schools and Education) from the American Psychological Association (APA) to identify the top 20 principles from psychological science relevant to teaching and learning in the classroom. This article identifies these principles and their…

  7. “Stringy” coherent states inspired by generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Pinaki

    2012-05-01

    Coherent States with Fractional Revival property, that explicitly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), have been constructed in the context of Generalized Harmonic Oscillator. The existence of such states is essential in motivating the GUP based phenomenological results present in the literature which otherwise would be of purely academic interest. The effective phase space is Non-Canonical (or Non-Commutative in popular terminology). Our results have a smooth commutative limit, equivalent to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Fractional Revival time analysis yields an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds obtained here, we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissonian. Correspondence Principle is deformed in an interesting way. Our computational scheme is very simple as it requires only first order corrected energy values and undeformed basis states.

  8. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children's Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly…

  9. Findings in Experimental Psychology as Functioning Principles of Theatrical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, George

    A gestalt approach to theatrical design seems to provide some ready and stable explanations for a number of issues in the scenic arts. Gestalt serves as the theoretical base for a number of experiments in psychology whose findings appear to delineate the principles of art to be used in scene design. The fundamental notion of gestalt theory…

  10. The foundational principles as psychological lodestars: Theoretical inspiration and empirical direction in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, the Foundational Principles articulated by Wright (1983) and others guided theory development, research and scholarship, and practice in rehabilitation psychology. In recent decades, these principles have become more implicit and less explicit or expressive in the writings and work of rehabilitation professionals. We believe that the Foundational Principles are essential lodestars for working with people with disabilities that can guide inquiry, practice, and service. To introduce this special issues, this commentary identifies and defines key Foundational Principles, including, for example, Lewin's (1935) person-environment relation, adjustment to disability, the malleability of self-perceptions of bodily states, and the importance of promoting dignity for people with disabilities. We then consider the role the Foundational Principles play in the articles appearing in this special issue. We close by considering some new principles and their potential utility in rehabilitation settings. Readers in rehabilitation psychology and aligned areas (e.g., social-personality psychology, health psychology, rehabilitation therapist, psychiatry, and nursing) are encouraged to consider how the Foundational Principles underlie and can shape their research and practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Relations Between Narrative Coherence, Identity, and Psychological Well-being in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Fivush, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The hypothesis that the ability to construct a coherent account of personal experience is reflective, or predictive, of psychological adjustment cuts across numerous domains of psychological science. It has been argued that coherent accounts of identity are especially adaptive. We tested these hypotheses by examining relations between narrative coherence of personally significant autobiographical memories and three psychological well-being components (Purpose and Meaning; Positive Self View; Positive Relationships). We also examined the potential moderation of the relations between coherence and well-being by assessing the identity content of each narrative. Method We collected two autobiographical narratives of personally significant events from 103 undergraduate students and coded them for coherence and identity content. Two additional narratives about generic/recurring events were also collected and coded for coherence. Results We confirmed the prediction that constructing coherent autobiographical narratives is related to psychological well-being. Further, we found that this relation was moderated by the narratives’ relevance to identity and that this moderation held after controlling for narrative ability more generally (i.e. coherence of generic/recurring events). Conclusion These data lend strong support to the coherent narrative identity hypothesis and the prediction that unique events are a critical feature of identity construction in emerging adulthood. PMID:25110125

  12. AN INTERPRETATION ON CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY: SOME THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Esteban Guitart

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss a particular view on cultural psychology focusedon “lived experience” and “vital geography” terms. It is provided sometheoretical principles and applications of this perspective. According to this view,human development is the result of participation in educational practices throughwhich people appropriate the “signs”, “cultural technology” or explicit and implicitforms of shared life. It is postulated two assumptions and three features.The assumptions are: the lived experienced should be studied in the context orsituation where it is expressed and constructed, and the “cultural diet” is thefood of our psyche (our memories, fears, perceptions, feelings, thoughts. The featuresremind us to consider the human experience as the unit of analysis, bothsituated and distributed, and finally, as a product of participation in particularvital geographies. Applications are outlined in the field of clinical psychology andrehabilitation, socioeducative field and in the field of social psychology of organizations,as examples of practices according to a culturally oriented psychology.Finally, it is emphasized the need to take into account the subjective, social andpolitical sides of culture in order to develop an ecological understanding of mindand human behavior.

  13. Human rights, ethical principles, and standards in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony; Gannon, Theresa; Vess, Jim

    2009-04-01

    Human rights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between human rights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of human rights, their structure, and their justification. Second, it briefly describes the APA's most recent code of ethics and the principles and standards that compose it. Third, it concludes by explicitly examining the relationship between the present human rights model and the APA's code, demonstrating how it is able to provide an additional ethical resource for forensic practitioners in their clinical work and so deepen their ethical sensibilities and decision making. Finally, the article presents a case study and discusses the human rights issues confronting practitioners inherent in such situations.

  14. Sensing the coherence of biology in contrast to psychology: young children's use of causal relations to distinguish two foundational domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E; Keil, Frank C; Lockhart, Kristi L

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly cluster biological processes and separate them from psychological ones. Experiments 3 and 4 (N = 64) examine whether or not children make this distinction because they understand that biological and psychological processes operate according to fundamentally different causal mechanisms. The results suggest that 5-year-olds do possess this understanding, and furthermore, they have intuitions about the nature of these different mechanisms.

  15. Improving Otolaryngology Residency Selection Using Principles from Personnel Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M; Gray, Stacey T

    2017-06-01

    There has been a heightened focus on improving the resident selection process, particularly within highly competitive specialties. Previous research, however, has generally lacked a theoretical background, leading to inconsistent and biased results. Our recently published systematic review examining applicant characteristics and performance in residency can provide historical insight into the predictors (ie, constructs) and outcomes (ie, criteria) previously deemed pertinent by the otolaryngology community. Personnel psychology uses evidence-based practices to identify the most qualified candidates for employment using a variety of selection methods. Extensive research in this discipline has shown that integrity tests, structured interviews, work samples, and conscientiousness offer the greatest increase in validity when combined with general cognitive ability. Blending past research knowledge with the principles of personnel selection can provide the necessary foundation with which to engage in theory-driven, longitudinal studies on otolaryngology resident selection moving forward.

  16. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  17. Computational Principle and Performance Evaluation of Coherent Ising Machine Based on Degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillator Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Haribara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the operational principle of a coherent Ising machine (CIM based on a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO network. A quantum theory of CIM is formulated, and the computational ability of CIM is evaluated by numerical simulation based on c-number stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the advanced CIM with quantum measurement-feedback control and various problems which can be solved by CIM.

  18. Coherence and correspondence in the psychological analysis of numerical predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoav Ganzach

    2009-01-01

    Numerical predictions are of central interest for both coherence-based approaches to judgment and decisions --- the Heuristic and Biases (HB) program in particular --- and to correspondence-based approaches --- Social Judgment Theory (SJT). In this paper I examine the way these two approaches study numerical predictions by reviewing papers that use Cue Probability Learning (CPL), the central experimental paradigm for studying numerical predictions in the SJT tradition, while attempting to loo...

  19. Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: an argument for philosophical and practical ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.

  20. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, G.; D'Amico, G.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Zych, M.; Brukner, Č.; Tino, G. M.

    2017-06-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space-time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10-9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude.

  1. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, G; D'Amico, G; Cacciapuoti, L; Sorrentino, F; Prevedelli, M; Zych, M; Brukner, Č; Tino, G M

    2017-06-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space-time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10-9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude.

  2. Coherence and correspondence in the psychological analysis of numerical predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Ganzach

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical predictions are of central interest for both coherence-based approaches to judgment and decisions --- the Heuristic and Biases (HB program in particular --- and to correspondence-based approaches --- Social Judgment Theory (SJT. In this paper I examine the way these two approaches study numerical predictions by reviewing papers that use Cue Probability Learning (CPL, the central experimental paradigm for studying numerical predictions in the SJT tradition, while attempting to look for heuristics and biases. The theme underlying this review is that both bias-prone heuristics and adaptive heuristics govern subjects' predictions in CPL. When they have little experience to guide them, subjects fall prey to relying on bias-prone natural heuristics, such as representativeness and anchoring and adjustment, which are the only prediction strategies available to them. But, as they acquire experience with the prediction task, these heuristics are abandoned and replaced by ecologically valid heuristics.

  3. Optical coherence tomography angiography: Technical principles and clinical applications in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Ahmed M.; Gao, Simon S.; Jia, Yali; Huang, David

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a functional extension of OCT that provides information on retinal and choroidal circulations without the need for dye injections. With the recent development of high-speed OCT systems and efficient algorithms, OCTA has become clinically feasible. In this review article, we discuss the technical principles of OCTA, including image processing and artifacts, and its clinical applications in ophthalmology. We summarize recent studies which qualitatively or quantitatively assess disease presentation, progression, and/or response to treatment. PMID:28966909

  4. Giambattista Vico and the principles of cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico developed a theoretical framework for the study of human sciences that exerted a strong influence on psychology and other human sciences. He backed the unity of the knowledge about human mind and culture, including history, linguistics, philosophy......, philology, epistemology, psychology, and for the first time proposed a method for their study that he ambitiously called ‘new science’. The article presents an overview of Vico’s thought and discusses some of the main axioms of his theoretical system. His critique of Cartesianism as the alternative...... epistemology he outlined is put forward as a thoughtful tool for reflection on contemporary psychological science. This retrospective look at Vico’s idea would finally provide useful insights for a programmatic view on cultural psychology....

  5. Applying Cognitive Psychology Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, W.; Star, J.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue comprises contributions that address the breadth of current lines of recent research from cognitive psychology that appear promising for positively impacting students' learning of mathematics. More specifically, we included contributions (a) that refer to cognitive psychology based principles and techniques, such as explanatory…

  6. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children’s Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly cluster biological processes and separate them from psychological ones. Experiments 3 and 4 (N = 64) examine whether or not children make this distinction because they understand that biological and psychological processes operate according to fundamentally different causal mechanisms. The results suggest that 5-year-olds do possess this understanding, and furthermore, they have intuitions about the nature of these different mechanisms. PMID:20331675

  7. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coherence and decoherence in biological systems: principles of noise-assisted transport and the origin of long-lived coherences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A W; Huelga, S F; Plenio, M B

    2012-08-13

    The quantum dynamics of transport networks in the presence of noisy environments has recently received renewed attention with the discovery of long-lived coherences in different photosynthetic complexes. This experimental evidence has raised two fundamental questions: firstly, what are the mechanisms supporting long-lived coherences; and, secondly, how can we assess the possible functional role that the interplay of noise and quantum coherence might play in the seemingly optimal operation of biological systems under natural conditions? Here, we review recent results, illuminate them by means of two paradigmatic systems (the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex and the light-harvesting complex LHII) and present new progress on both questions.

  9. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The systems approach in developmental psychology: fundamental concepts and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tinajero

    Full Text Available Developmental Psychology seems to have come to an unifying theoretical framework which may make feasible to overcome the fragmentation so frequently referred to within the discipline. This is indicated by the widespread support being given to the systems approach, enriched by dialectic and contextual postulates. In this article, we briefly review the antecedents of this approach and explore its core concepts, indicating their roots and the precise way in which they are applied to developmental analyses today. We also examine the implications of the systems approach for developmental investigation, and its challenges.

  11. The relationship of hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender to perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, N

    2000-03-01

    This study addresses the issue of why under conditions of stress some people stay physically and psychologically healthy while others become ill. Being able to deal with stress, to cope with the pressures of daily life, and yet stay healthy, is seen as a function of such factors as physical health, psychological health, constitutional predisposition, social support, exercise habits, and personality. This study examined the moderating effects of the personality constructs of hardiness and sense of coherence, sports participation (college varsity athletes and college nonathletes), and gender on the relationship between perceived stress and psychological symptoms. College varsity athletes (n = 135) and college nonathletes (n = 135), all undergraduates at New York University, completed four questionnaires: Hardiness Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Daily Hassles Scale, and Profile of Mood States. Participants also completed a background questionnaire providing basic demographic data. Psychological symptoms and perceived stress were the criterion variables: hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender were the predictor variables. Correlational analyses were applied to the resulting data and used to answer and to test the research hypotheses. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. There was a significant positive correlation between the personality scales of Hardiness and Sense of Coherence for both college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. When controlling for gender, college varsity athletes scored significantly higher on hardiness, scored slightly higher on sense of coherence, and reported significantly less perceived stress and significantly fewer psychological symptoms than the college nonathletes. Comparing by gender, no statistically significant mean differences were found on the four main variables. A significant negative

  12. Proof-of-principle experiment for FEL-based coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Poelker, M.; Hutton, A.; Kraft, G.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.T.; Vobly, P.; Kholopov, M.; Shevchenko, O.; Mcintosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-08-21

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  13. Globalizing rehabilitation psychology: Application of foundational principles to global health and rehabilitation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jacob A; Bruyère, Susanne M; LeBlanc, Jeanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2016-02-01

    This article reviewed foundational principles in rehabilitation psychology and explored their application to global health imperatives as outlined in the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011). Historical theories and perspectives are used to assist with conceptual formulation as applied to emerging international rehabilitation psychology topics. According to the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011), there are approximately 1 billion individuals living with some form of disability globally. An estimated 80% of persons with disabilities live in low- to middle-income countries (WHO, 2006). The primary messages and recommendations of the World Report on Disability have been previously summarized as it relates to potential opportunities for contribution within the field of rehabilitation psychology (MacLachlan & Mannan, 2014). Yet, undeniable barriers remain to realizing the full potential for contributions in low- to middle-income country settings. A vision for engaging in international capacity building and public health efforts is needed within the field of rehabilitation psychology. Foundational rehabilitation psychology principles have application to the service of individuals with disabilities in areas of the world facing complex socioeconomic and sociopolitical challenges. Foundational principles of person-environment interaction, importance of social context, and need for involvement of persons with disabilities can provide guidance to the field as it relates to global health and rehabilitation efforts. The authors illustrate the application of rehabilitation psychology foundational principles through case examples and description of ongoing work, and link foundational principles to discreet domains of intervention going forward. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Flourishing in a Second Language (FL2): Integrating Positive Psychology, Transition Pedagogy and CLIL Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambi, Antonella; Luzeckyj, Ann; Rubino, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the "Flourishing in a Second Language" (FL2) project--a language curriculum for first-year university students which integrates Positive Psychology (Seligman, 2002), Transition Pedagogy (Kift, 2009a), and CLIL principles (Coyle, 2006). The project aims to create learning experiences that are personally…

  15. Cryogenic systems for proof of the principle experiment of coherent electron cooling at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuenian; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Brutus, Jean Clifford; Lederle, Dewey; Orfin, Paul; Skaritka, John; Soria, Victor; Tallerico, Thomas; Than, Roberto [Collider Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) Proof of Principle (PoP) experiment is proposed to be installed in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to demonstrate proton and ion beam cooling with this new technique that may increase the beam luminosity in certain cases, by as much as tenfold. Within the scope of this project, a 112 MHz, 2MeV Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) electron gun and a 704 MHz 20MeV 5-cell SRF cavity will be installed at IP2 in the RHIC ring. The superconducting RF electron gun will be cooled in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity will be cooled in a super-fluid helium bath at 2.0 K. This paper discusses the cryogenic systems designed for both cavities. For the 112 MHz cavity cryogenic system, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger is used to isolate the cavity helium bath from pressure pulses and microphonics noise sources. For the 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity, a heat exchanger is also used to isolate the SRF cavity helium bath from noise sources in the sub-atmospheric pumping system operating at room temperature. Detailed designs, thermal analyses and discussions for both systems will be presented in this paper.

  16. Associations of sense of coherence with psychological distress and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Thiago H; Andreoulakis, Elias; Alves, Gilberto S; Miranda, Hesley LL; Braga, Lúcia LBC; Hyphantis, Thomas; Carvalho, André F

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between sense of coherence, psychological distress and health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 147 IBD (aged 45.1 ± 14.1 years; 57.1% female) patients recruited from a tertiary gastroenterology service. Sixty-four participants met diagnostic criteria for Crohn’s disease, while eighty-three patients had ulcerative colitis. Socio-demographic data (education, age, race, gender, gross monthly income and marital status), disease-related variables (illness activity, relapse rate in past 2 years, history of surgery and time since diagnosis), sense of coherence (Antonovsky’s SOC scale), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; WHOQOL-Bref) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors that are independently associated with psychological distress and HRQoL in patients with IBD and to provide indications for possible moderating or mediating effects. In addition, formal moderation and mediation analyses (Sobel tests) were performed to confirm potential moderators/mediators of the relationship between SOC, psychological distress symptoms and HRQoL. RESULTS: Lower SOC scores (std beta= -0.504; P anxiety symptoms. A significant interaction between time since diagnosis and SOC was found with regard to the severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms, as the interaction term (time since diagnosis X SOC) had beta coefficients of -0.191 (P = 0.009) and -0.172 (P = 0.026), respectively. Lower levels of anxiety symptoms (std beta = -0.369; P Anxiety symptoms were the most potent independent correlate of most aspects of HRQoL. In addition, anxiety mediated the association between SOC and satisfaction with health, as well as its relationship with physical, mental, and social relations HRQoL. Depressive symptoms also mediated the

  17. The APA Ethical Principles as a foundational competency: application to rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Stephanie L; Kerkhoff, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    Competence is a core component of ethical conduct as reflected in its addition as an ethical standard in the 2002 APA Ethics Code. Successfully operationalizing and assessing competence provides psychologists a means to improve education and training, advance the field of practice, and create a framework for accountability to the public. Much of the recent competency discussion has been in response to a proposed Cube Model, with its three axes being foundational competencies (practice building blocks, such as scientific knowledge, ethical standards), functional competencies (attributes of providing services, such as assessment, intervention), and developmental progression (acquiring increasing competence over the course of one's education and career). Ethics is included on the foundational competency axis and has been operationalized to the extent that subcomponents and benchmarks have been promulgated. The competency model as proposed faces multiple challenges, including gaining consensus regarding its components, addressing reliable and valid assessment over time, and creating a culture of acceptance. We propose the Ethical Principles as an alternative framework for conceptualizing ethics as a foundational competency given the Ethics Code is already time tested and includes a serial review process for broad discipline input and adaptability. We apply the Ethical Principles as foundational components to rehabilitation psychology training at internship, postdoctoral, and specialty levels to illustrate the model. Rehabilitation psychology should engage in the competency movement at the predoctoral and postdoctoral level. The application of the Ethical Principles as a foundational competency to rehabilitation psychology represents a first step in this dialog.

  18. Reform and practice of optical coherence tomography (OCT) system-driven teaching for optoelectronic instrument principle and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; He, Youwu; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Optoelectronic instrument principle and design includes the optical, mechanical, electrical and count modules for one system. We change traditional mode of customary specialty course design for only taking the cell design ability into account. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide high-resolution 3D imaging system and wide application for tissue in vivo. In this work, we carry out OCT system- driven teaching into execution in the course design teaching, and decompose OCT system into four modules for teaching progress. The reform is not only cultivating student design ability based on OCT system exploitation, improving the engineering ability, but also help scientific research promote teaching process.

  19. Sense of coherence is associated with reduced psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urakawa Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.

  20. Interference microscopy in cell biophysics. 1. Principles and methodological aspects of coherent phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of our tandem publications is to review the applications of the coherent phase microscopy to cell biophysics. In this article, we briefly consider the fundamentals and methodological aspects of the coherent phase microscopy (CPM). One of important advantages of this method is a high sensitivity of CPM images to changes in physical-chemical properties of biological samples. The optical path length difference (OPLD), measured with CPM instruments in different domains of an object, serves as the informative optical parameter used for visualization of individual cells or intracellular organelles. Metabolically dependent variations of CPM images reflect changes in the functional state of biological objects. In the next article, we review results of CPM studies of different cells and intracellular energy-transducing organelles.

  1. Noise Decomposition Principle in a Coherent Feed-Forward Transcriptional Regulatory Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Rong; Liu, Quan; Yao, Yuangen; Deng, Haiyou; Ma, Chengzhang; Jia, Ya; Yi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Coherent feed-forward loops exist extensively in realistic biological regulatory systems, and are common signaling motifs. Here, we study the characteristics and the propagation mechanism of the output noise in a coherent feed-forward transcriptional regulatory loop that can be divided into a main road and branch. Using the linear noise approximation, we derive analytical formulae for the total noise of the full loop, the noise of the branch, and the noise of the main road, which are verified by the Gillespie algorithm. Importantly, we find that (i) compared with the branch motif or the main road motif, the full motif can effectively attenuate the output noise level; (ii) there is a transition point of system state such that the noise of the main road is dominated when the underlying system is below this point, whereas the noise of the branch is dominated when the system is beyond the point. The entire analysis reveals the mechanism of how the noise is generated and propagated in a simple yet representative signaling module.

  2. A reconfigurable all-fiber polarization-diversity coherent Doppler lidar: principles and numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abari, Cyrus F; Chu, Xinzhao; Michael Hardesty, R; Mann, Jakob

    2015-10-20

    This paper shows an efficient adaptation of a polarization diversity optical front-end, commonly used in high-speed fiber-optic communications, in a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). The adopted architecture can be employed in a modified transceiver design for an all-fiber micropulsed coherent Doppler wind lidar where the performance limits of such systems are pushed beyond the conventionally available wind CDLs. As a result, either a longer measurement range, crucial in clear-air environments with low concentration of aerosols, or a shorter integration time (resulting in a faster scanning) can be achieved. Alternatively, in certain aerosol loading conditions where the presence of nonspherical aerosols is considerable, the system can be reconfigured on the fly to analyze the cross polarization of the backscatter optical signal. The result is the capability to analyze the nature of aerosol particles for the detected range of interest. Due to full utilization of the backscatter signal, i.e., detection of co-polarization and cross polarization components, the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) as well as detection range is improved in this configuration. Moreover, the system is capable of providing a more reliable estimation of the aerosol backscatter coefficient when compared with the contemporary CDLs. This system employs robust and compact all-fiber subsystems, which are cost effective and widely available as off-the-shelf components.

  3. [Conditions and work process in the daily of the Family Health Program: coherency with health humanization principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Leny Alves Bomfim; Rocha, Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Meneses E

    2011-03-01

    This study analyzes humanization at work in the context of the Family Health Program (FHP), inquiring: what is the role that infrastructure assumes in the construction of humanized work in the FHP? Does the course of staff work reveal coherency with health humanization principles? In order to find out answers to these questions, it was explored the perception of FHP' professionals about their work routine, considering concrete conditions whereby it occurs besides involved relationships, practices and products. It is a multiple case study, both qualitative and quantitative (with primacy of the first approach), developed through questionnaires and focal-groups with FHP' teams of selected areas. The results indicate that infrastructure fragilities and low investment in training of staffs are factors that contribute for the persistence of work conditions and practices that are far away from health humanization principles. Despite of the difficulties, it was evidenced, by the staffs, in general way, great engagement to their work and great sensibility to population needs and problems.

  4. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  5. The Impact of Service-Learning-Type Experiences on Preservice Teachers' Integration of Principles of Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Beverly; He, Ye; Higgins, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this study, members (n = 48) of 2 sections of a required educational psychology course conducted 3 service-learning-type field experiences and wrote reflections on the experiences in relationship to the theories and principles addressed in the course. Participants also described their vision for teaching at the beginning and the end of the…

  6. Advancing gestation does not attenuate biobehavioural coherence between psychological distress and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, G.F.; Campbell, T.; Letourneau, N.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite little evidence to suggest that HPA axis responses to psychological provocation are attenuated during pregnancy, it is widely held that dampening of the HPA axis response to psychological distress serves a protective function for the mother and fetus. The current study was

  7. There is more variation within than across domains: an interview with Paul A. Kirschner about applying cognitive psychology based instructional design principles in mathematics teaching and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Verschaffel, Lieven; Star, Jon; Van Dooren, Wim

    2018-01-01

    In this interview we asked Paul A. Kirschner about his comments and reflections regarding the idea to apply cognitive psychology-based instructional design principles to mathematics education and some related issues. With a main focus on cognitive psychology, educational psychology, educational

  8. There Is More Variation "within" than "across" Domains: An Interview with Paul A. Kirschner about Applying Cognitive Psychology-Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Verschaffel, Lieven; Star, Jon; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-01-01

    In this interview we asked Paul A. Kirschner about his comments and reflections regarding the idea to apply cognitive psychology-based instructional design principles to mathematics education and some related issues. With a main focus on cognitive psychology, educational psychology, educational technology and instructional design, this…

  9. System Consolidation During Sleep - A Common Principle Underlying Psychological and Immunological Memory Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly

  10. System consolidation during sleep - a common principle underlying psychological and immunological memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, J.; Lange, T.; Textor, J.C.; Born, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly

  11. Simulation of Electron Beam Dynamics in the 22 MeV Accelerator for a Coherent Electron Cooling Proof of Principle Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Justin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Coherent electron cooling (CeC) offers a potential new method of cooling hadron beams in colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) or the future electron ion collider eRHIC. A 22 MeV linear accelerator is currently being built as part of a proof of principle experiment for CeC at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this thesis we present a simulation of electron beam dynamics including space charge in the 22 MeV CeC proof of principle experiment using the program ASTRA (A Space charge TRacking Algorithm).

  12. The impact of social constraints and sense of coherence on the psychological adjustment of adolescents and young adults with CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya L. Beinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the medical understanding of Cystic Fibrosis (CF has dramatically improved, however, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the psychological adjustment of families coping with CF. We examined the utility of the Social Cognitive Processing (SCP Model in understanding the interactions of parents and young people with CF. We also examined the relationship between social constraints, a key construct in the SCP model, sense of coherence (SOC and other psychological adjustment indicators for young people with CF. Participants comprised 49 individuals with CF, aged 16–25, recruited through state-based CF organisations in Australia. The results indicated that participant ratings of difficulties with communication (social constraints were positively associated with ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress and negatively related to ratings of positive affect and seeing life challenges as predictable, manageable and meaningful (SOC. Ratings of SOC were also positively related to ratings of positive affect and negatively related to ratings of depression, anxiety and stress. A significant mediating effect of SOC was also identified in the relationships between social constraints and positive affect and social constraints and stress. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. The Application of Social Justice Principles to Global School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In as much as school psychology practice is based on the goals of supporting the rights, access, and treatment of children as related to their education, social justice has the potential to be a moral framework for training, research, and practice in school psychology. Accordingly, this article seeks to achieve many objectives. First, a definition…

  14. Do attitude toward cancer, sense of coherence and family high risk predict more psychological distress in women referred for a breast cancer examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Ora

    2003-01-01

    The study focuses on the connection between attitude toward cancer, sense of coherence and family history of breast cancer, on the one hand, and psychological distress on the other among women who are referred for breast cancer examination following a medical examination prompted by a complaint of "feeling something in the breast." A sample of 314 women referred to a breast health clinic in northern Israel completed questionnaires that measured psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), personal resources (the Sense of Coherence Scale), and mindset (Attitude to Cancer Treatment Scale). A weak sense of coherence and a more negative attitude toward cancer (i.e., viewing victims of cancer with pity; viewing the illness as a death sentence; harboring a fear of death from cancer) predict a high level of psychological distress while awaiting an examination. A family history of breast cancer, or a first-time examination, were not found to be predictors of greater psychological distress. Learning cognitive behavioral coping skills, as well as access to information on cancer and treatment in order to change attitude toward cancer, are needed.

  15. Technology adds new principles to persuasive psychology : Evidence from health education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; IJsselsteijn, W; DeKort, Y; Midden, C; Eggen, B; VandenHoven, E

    2006-01-01

    Computer-technology has led to the use of new principles of persuasion. These new principles constitute the unique working mechanisms of persuasion by means of computer. In the present study, three tailored messages that each contained one potential working mechanism - personalization, adaptation or

  16. Heuristic Principles and Cognitive Bias in Decision Making: Implications for Assessment in School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Joseph; Levinson, Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes factors that may bias psychoeducational decision making and discusses three heuristic principles that affect decision making. Discusses means by which school psychologists can be made aware of these heuristic principles and encouraged to consider them when making psychoeducational decisions. Also discusses methods by which bias in…

  17. Principles and practical procedures for acute psychological first aid training for personnel without mental health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.

  18. Marketing, Technology, and Medicine: Recommendations on How to Incorporate Psychological Principles into New Technologies to Promote Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Dektor, Asha H; Young, Sean D

    2014-07-01

    Although technologies have provided new forms of entertainment and improved our work efficiency, they have also reduced our need to engage in healthy physical activities. We believe that the psychological principles that make sedentary entertainment technologies (such as television and video games) engaging can be incorporated into new technologies to make new technologies both engaging and promote healthy behaviors. This short report aims to 1) describe how technology has traditionally reduced motivation to engage in health behaviors, 2) discuss key elements that may make sedentary technology (in this case, television) engaging, and 3) provide examples of how these same elements can be incorporated into new technologies to increase engagement and promote health behaviors.

  19. Sense of Coherence as a Determinant of Psychological Well-Being Across Professional Groups of Aid Workers Exposed to War Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro

    2015-06-18

    The present study aims to test whether sense of coherence (SOC) acts as a determinant of positive psychological functioning in aid workers directly exposed to warfare. Specifically, we performed multiple regression analyses to compare different groups of aid workers in terms of the effects of SOC and cumulative trauma on their psychological distress. Palestinian helpers, both professional and non-professional (N = 159) completed three self-reported measures: the General Health questionnaire, Sense of Coherence Scale, and Impact of Events Scale. The findings bear out the predictive power of SOC and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to mental health across different professional groups. In particular, volunteers without a specific professional profile, psychiatrists, medical doctors, and less markedly counselors seemed to protect their mental health through a SOC. Clinical implications and recommendations for training and supervision are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. School Psychology: How Universal Are Ethical Principles Approved by International Associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, Jean L.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…

  1. Developmental psychology and mental retardation. Integrating scientific principles with treatment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman, S; Ramey, C

    1989-02-01

    The current debates about "best practices" within mental retardation reflect key unresolved issues about the nature of mental retardation and the goals of treatment programs. The central axiom proposed is that better integration of basic principles about human development with treatment practices for children will yield substantial benefits to individuals and society. To illustrate the format for this proposed integration, three principles have been abstracted from scientific inquiry in human development: (a) targeted environmental prevention, (b) metacognitive conveyance, and (c) ecological dominion. A contextual analysis, using special education as an example of a major treatment setting, indicates that application of these developmental principles is likely to reduce the prevalence of mild retardation (as currently defined), to minimize social and behavioral problems, and to foster improved levels of environmental mastery (adaptive success) for many children with low IQs and cognitive deficiencies. Consistent with these developmental principles, the current construct of mental retardation is judged inadequate, and an alternative diagnostic strategy is proposed. This strategy is based on repeated developmental profiling of a child and his or her biosocial environmental history.

  2. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  3. A Social Identity Approach to Sport Psychology: Principles, Practice, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tim; Alexander Haslam, S; Coffee, Pete; Lavallee, David

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, we outline an approach to sport psychology that understands groups not simply as features of sporting contexts but rather as elements that can be, and often are, incorporated into a person's sense of self and, through this, become powerful determinants of their sport-related behavior. The underpinnings of this social identity approach are outlined, and four key lessons for sport that are indicative of the analytical and practical power of the approach are presented. These suggest that social identity is the basis for sports group (1) behavior, (2) formation and development, (3) support and stress appraisal, and (4) leadership. Building on recent developments within sport science, we outline an agenda for future research by identifying a range of topics to which the social identity approach could fruitfully contribute.

  4. Supervision in rehabilitation psychology: Application of Beatrice Wright's value-laden beliefs and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, M Jan; Nash, Laurie; Stucky, Kirk Jeffrey; Nierenberg, Barry

    2016-02-01

    Clinical supervision is of critical importance for training subsequent generations of psychologists. Specialty training in rehabilitation psychology requires exposure to specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to disability and specialized supervision and mentorship. In the literature to date, minimal guidance exists regarding supervision training and methods specifically for rehabilitation psychologists. This article aims to provoke discussion regarding supervision practice and dissemination of the values fundamental to our specialty. The foundational wisdom of Dr. Beatrice Wright (1983) is applied for the purposes of this endeavor. Examples of clinical supervision scenarios are presented as teaching vignettes to demonstrate ways in which supervisors and mentors can incorporate this content, promote discussion, and apply it to real-world practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Impact of perceived racial discrimination and collective self-esteem on psychological distress among Vietnamese-American college students: sense of coherence as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brian Trung

    2007-07-01

    This study examined whether sense of coherence mediated relationships of perceived racial discrimination and of collective self-esteem to psychological distress (depression and anxiety) among 122 Vietnamese American college students. Higher levels of perceived racial discrimination (PRD) were associated with a reduced sense of coherence (SOC) and with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Path analysis found that SOC partially mediated the relationship of PRD to depression as well as to anxiety. Higher collective self-esteem (CSE) was associated with a stronger SOC, which in turn was associated with lower depression and anxiety. SOC mediated the relationship between CSE and depression, and part of the relationship between CSE and anxiety. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Statement of the American Psychological Association in response to the "joint principles: integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Belar, Cynthia D; Cubic, Barbara A; Garrison, Ellen G; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-06-01

    Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011), presented by the Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare. The American Psychological Association (APA) shares concerns about the lack of reference to behavioral health care in the original 2007 Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home for which this new document is intended to supplement but not replace. The decision to support the supplemental Joint Principles was not an easy one for APA, as there is one area of significant concern. That concern is related to the use of the term "physician-directed medical practice"

  7. Basic principles of renewal of sportsmen with myofascial by a pain syndrome taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko G.D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine and learn the fundamentals of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation. Material: the data analyzed and summarized the scientific and methodological literature; sites on the internet. Results: the analysis of specialized literature on development features myofascial pain syndrome in athletes. Myofascial pain syndrome is widespread in sports practice. It is characterized by muscle spasms and trigger points, palpation of which there is a growing pain. The basic principles of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome. The questions of the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, taking into account the influence of psychological factors on the recovery of athletes. Conclusions: the presented strategy is comprehensive physical rehabilitation. Recommended keeping the basic principles of the recovery of athletes and the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation.

  8. A recovery program to improve quality of life, sense of coherence and psychological health in ICU survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Egerod, Ingrid; Bestle, Morten H

    2016-01-01

    ). Primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were sense of coherence (SOC), anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed at 3 and 12 months after ICU discharge including utilization of healthcare services at 12 months. RESULTS...

  9. Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2017-07-01

    Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.

  10. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  11. [Organisational peculiarities and principles of medical-psychological rehabilitation of military personnel of special units of the Ministry of Defence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trishkin, D V; Titov, I G; Nechiporuk, S A

    2015-06-01

    The authors presented information about current state of organization of medical and psychological rehabilitation at sanatorium stage of military servicemen of special units of the Russian Defense Ministry, information about rehabilitation treatment techniques, and physical and psychological rehabilitation, natural and premature medicinal factors.

  12. Social Justice Training in School Psychology: Applying Principles of Organizational Consultation to Facilitate Change in Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, Sally L.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars and professional organizations have called for an increased emphasis on social justice training in applied psychology graduate programs, including school psychology programs (SPPs). During the past decade, emerging research has identified some features of high-quality social justice education, including a clear program mission statement…

  13. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  14. Can Excited State Electronic Coherence Be Tuned via Molecular Structural Modification? A First-Principles Quantum Electronic Dynamics Study of Pyrazolate-Bridged Pt(II) Dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingerfelt, David B.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Radler, Joseph J.; Brown-Xu, Samantha E.; Kim, Pyosang; Castellano, Felix N.; Chen, Lin X.; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-02-24

    Materials and molecular systems exhibiting long-lived electronic coherence can facilitate coherent transport, opening the door to efficient charge and energy transport beyond traditional methods. Recently, signatures of a possible coherent, recurrent electronic motion were identified in femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy experiments on a binuclear platinum complex, where a persistent periodic beating in the transient absorption signal’s anisotropy was observed. In this study, we investigate the excitonic dynamics that underlie the suspected electronic coherence for a series of binuclear platinum complexes exhibiting a range of interplatinum distances. Results suggest that the long-lived coherence can only result when competitive electronic couplings are in balance. At longer Pt-Pt distances, the electronic couplings between the two halves of the binuclear system weaken, and exciton localization and recombination is favored on short time scales. For short Pt-Pt distances, electronic couplings between the states in the coherent superposition are stronger than the coupling with other excitonic states, leading to long-lived coherence.

  15. Can Excited State Electronic Coherence Be Tuned via Molecular Structural Modification? A First-Principles Quantum Electronic Dynamics Study of Pyrazolate-Bridged Pt(II) Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingerfelt, David B; Lestrange, Patrick J; Radler, Joseph J; Brown-Xu, Samantha E; Kim, Pyosang; Castellano, Felix N; Chen, Lin X; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-03-09

    Materials and molecular systems exhibiting long-lived electronic coherence can facilitate coherent transport, opening the door to efficient charge and energy transport beyond traditional methods. Recently, signatures of a possible coherent, recurrent electronic motion were identified in femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy experiments on a binuclear platinum complex, where a persistent periodic beating in the transient absorption signal's anisotropy was observed. In this study, we investigate the excitonic dynamics that underlie the suspected electronic coherence for a series of binuclear platinum complexes exhibiting a range of interplatinum distances. Results suggest that the long-lived coherence can only result when competitive electronic couplings are in balance. At longer Pt-Pt distances, the electronic couplings between the two halves of the binuclear system weaken, and exciton localization and recombination is favored on short time scales. For short Pt-Pt distances, electronic couplings between the states in the coherent superposition are stronger than the coupling with other excitonic states, leading to long-lived coherence.

  16. Accessible coherence and coherence distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu

    2017-04-01

    The definition of accessible coherence is proposed. Through local measurement on the other subsystem and one-way classical communication, a subsystem can access more coherence than the coherence of its density matrix. Based on the local accessible coherence, the part that cannot be locally accessed is also studied, which we call it remaining coherence. We study how the bipartite coherence is distributed by partition for both l1 norm coherence and relative entropy coherence, and the expressions for local accessible coherence and remaining coherence are derived. We also study some examples to illustrate the distribution.

  17. Influence of physiological coherence training on sense of coherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of physiological coherence training, using the emWave2 apparatus on sense of coherence and zone perceptions. A within group, pre-test and post-test, outcome evaluative design was employed to assess changes in physiological and psychological variables.

  18. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  19. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Pirko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental feature of economy of postindustrial society is the knowledge that represents the basic source of competitive advantage. In the article the circle of didactic, psychological indicators in researches of problems of achievement of a high degree of quality of education and educational services is considered and described. The attention is paid to pedagogical requirements of the given period which are a standard substantiation in orientations for quality estimation of software tools for educational purpose of the general educational environment in Ukraine. The scheme of internal model of maintenance of quality of software tools for educational purpose is considered, the aspects integrated by internal model of quality of software for educational purpose are listed. The article describes the directions of researches in the conditions of formation of the global international educational environment and uniform information space of  education system taking into account the growth of availability of educational services. It is specified the main principles in the organization of pedagogical software tools.

  20. Perceived Stress, Mindfulness and Sense of Coherence: A Comparison between First Generation and Non-First Generation Clinical Psychology Doctoral Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Paige Amber

    2014-01-01

    This study compared first generation and non-first generation doctoral students' levels of perceived stress, sense of coherence, and mindfulness. These variables were assessed both separately for each trainee group and in hypothesized relationships with each other. In addition, moderator analyses were conducted to assess whether key relationships…

  1. Evolutionary psychology from a developmental systems perspective: comment on Lickliter and Honeycutt (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F

    2003-11-01

    Although agreeing with R. Lickliter and H. Honeycutt (2003) that evolutionary psychology lacks and should adopt a coherent developmental model to explain how evolved mechanisms become expressed in phenotypes, it is argued that adhering to the principles of developmental systems theory, despite enhancing evolutionary psychology, would not change appreciably its basic focus. The concepts of innateness and modularity, what is inherited and what evolves, as well as the possible role of developmental plasticity in the evolution of human cognition are discussed. It is proposed that evolutionary psychology can incorporate the developmental systems perspective into its theorizing, with the end result being a science that more closely reflects human nature.

  2. Digital behavioral and psychological principles

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga

  3. Coherence and correspondence in the psychological analysis of numerical predictions: How error-prone heuristics are replaced by ecologically valid heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoav Ganzach

    2009-01-01

    Numerical predictions are of central interest for both coherence-based approaches to judgment and decisions --- the Heuristic and Biases (HB) program in particular --- and to correspondence-based approaches --- Social Judgment Theory (SJT). In this paper I examine the way these two approaches study numerical predictions by reviewing papers that use Cue Probability Learning (CPL), the central experimental paradigm for studying numerical predictions in the SJT tradition, while attempting to loo...

  4. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanepoel, M

    2010-01-01

    ..., this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology...

  5. Coherent states, wavelets, and their generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Syed Twareque; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This second edition is fully updated, covering in particular new types of coherent states (the so-called Gazeau-Klauder coherent states, nonlinear coherent states, squeezed states, as used now routinely in quantum optics) and various generalizations of wavelets (wavelets on manifolds, curvelets, shearlets, etc.). In addition, it contains a new chapter on coherent state quantization and the related probabilistic aspects. As a survey of the theory of coherent states, wavelets, and some of their generalizations, it emphasizes mathematical principles, subsuming the theories of both wavelets and coherent states into a single analytic structure. The approach allows the user to take a classical-like view of quantum states in physics.   Starting from the standard theory of coherent states over Lie groups, the authors generalize the formalism by associating coherent states to group representations that are square integrable over a homogeneous space; a further step allows one to dispense with the group context altoget...

  6. Coherent detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, C R [M/C 169-327, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Church, S [Room 324 Varian Physics Bldg, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gaier, T [M/C 168-314, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lai, R [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Ruf, C [1533 Space Research Building, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Wollack, E, E-mail: charles.lawrence@jpl.nasa.go [NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  7. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  8. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  9. Vaccination refusing and its ethical coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Bischofová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is named: Vaccination refusing and its ethical coherence. The work consists of several parts. The first part is formed by theoretical possibilities. In this part we focus on the question of ethics. The basic question of this issue is a matter of imaginary dispute which also the ethics describes in its basic principles and which is the principle of nonmaleficence (not to inflict harm intentionally) and principle of beneficence (act for the benefit of others); and also the principle...

  10. Coherence Properties of the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocko, Samuel

    2010-08-25

    The LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an X-Ray free-electron laser(FEL) based on the self amplified spontaneous emission principle, has recently come on-line. For many users it is desirable to have an idea of the level of transverse coherence of the X-Ray beam produced. In this paper, we analyze the output of GENESIS simulations of electrons traveling through the FEL. We first test the validity of an approach that ignores the details of how the beam was produced, and instead, by assuming a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, predicts the level of transverse coherence simply through looking at the beam radius at several longitudinal slices. We then develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to calculating the degree of transverse coherence, which offers a {approx}100-fold speedup compared to the brute-force algorithm previously in use. We find the beam highly coherent. Using a similar Markov chain Monte Carlo approach, we estimate the reasonability of assuming the beam to have a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, with inconclusive results.

  11. Autocorrelation low coherence interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Mark D.; Ryabukho, Vladimir; Lyakin, Dmitry; Lychagov, Vladislav; Vitkin, Edward; Itzkan, Irving; Perelman, Lev T.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a new modality of optical low coherence interferometry (LCI) that is called autocorrelation LCI (ALCI). The ALCI system employs a Michelson interferometer to measure longitudinal autocorrelation properties of the sample optical field and does not require a reference beam. As the result, there is no restrictions applied on the distance between the sample and the ALCI system, moreover, this distance can even change during the measurements. We report experiments using a proof-of-principle ALCI system on a multilayer phantom consisting of three surfaces defining two regions of different refractive indices. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  12. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  13. A recovery program to improve quality of life, sense of coherence and psychological health in ICU survivors: a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the RAPIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janet F; Egerod, Ingrid; Bestle, Morten H; Christensen, Doris F; Elklit, Ask; Hansen, Randi L; Knudsen, Heidi; Grode, Louise B; Overgaard, Dorthe

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to test the effectiveness of a post-ICU recovery program compared to standard care during the first year after ICU discharge. A pragmatic, non-blinded, multicenter, parallel-group RCT was conducted between December 2012 and December 2015, at ten intensive care units (ICUs) in Denmark. We randomly assigned 386 adult patients (≥18 years) after receiving mechanical ventilation (≥48 h) to standard care (SC) plus a nurse-led intensive care recovery program or standard care alone after ICU discharge (190 intervention, 196 SC). Primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were sense of coherence (SOC), anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed at 3 and 12 months after ICU discharge including utilization of healthcare services at 12 months. At 12 months, we found no differences in HRQOL between groups (mean difference in the Physical Component Summary score, 1.41 [95 % CI, -1.53 to 4.35; p = 0.35] (n = 235); and in the Mental Component Summary score, 1.92 [95 % CI, -1.06 to 4.90; p = 0.11] (n = 235). No differences were found on self-reported SOC (p = 0.63), anxiety (p = 0.68), depression (p = 0.67), PTSD (p = 0.27), or the utilization of healthcare services including rehabilitation. We found a difference on anxiety, when a cut-off point ≥11 was applied, in per protocol analysis of complete cases at 3 months favoring the intervention (8.8 % vs. 16.2 %, p = 0.04). The tested recovery program was not superior to standard care during the first 12 months post-ICU. The trial is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, identification no. NCT01721239.

  14. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  15. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...

  16. Basic principles of renewal of sportsmen with myofascial by a pain syndrome taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to examine and learn the fundamentals of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation. Material: the data analyzed and summarized the scientific and methodological literature; sites on the internet. Results: the analysis of specialized literature on development features myofascial pain syndrome in athletes. Myofascial pain syndrome is widespread in sports practice. It is characterized by muscle spasms and...

  17. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  18. Principles of Practical Training Organization in a Networking (Development of the Module "Psychological Prevention of Behavioral Disorders and Abnormalities in Development" as Example)

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovich N.V.,; Delibalt V.V.; Chernushevich V. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents principles of inserting study subjects and practices in educational modules running with network organizations (internship sites). We proposed a methodological basis of the modular organization of educational process in the framework of the master's program, combied the activity, competence and psychotechnical approaches. Networking of leading chair and specially selected organizations providing the base for practical training solves the problem of organizing activity-rel...

  19. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    examined is how activating of models of blended learning in undergraduate education for teacher and radiograph affects the knowledge development. This is approached by mixed methods. The empirical data consist of data from surveys as well as focus group interviews and some observation studies. These data...... are analyzed and interpreted through a critical hermeneutical process of prefiguration, configuration and re-figuration. The findings illustrate significantly importance of sense of coherence among participants as a condition for implementing new designs and new learning environments. It is revealed that sense...... of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...

  20. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms......Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question...... examined is how activating of models of blended learning in undergraduate education for teacher and radiograph affects the knowledge development. This is approached by mixed methods. The empirical data consist of data from surveys as well as focus group interviews and some observation studies. These data...

  1. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients...

  2. Principles of the organization of social and psychological support aimed at preventing the social risks of adolescence in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Tretyakova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the features of development and implementation of programs of social and psychological support of adolescents in domestic and foreign practice. The priority in the field of prevention of social risks among young people is to provide systematic, comprehensive, accurate information about the consequences of substance use, adolescent training in self-care and self-regulation, the use of health-care technology, the formation of stable personal negative attitude to the problem of substance abuse. The effectiveness of preventive anti-drug programs is caused by the identification of the target group (including psychophysiological age characteristics, development of a set of preventive measures based on interagency cooperation with involvement of the minors’ parents (legal representatives.

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T.

    2013-01-01

    - and multiple-scattering regimes is derived. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also derived, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images......Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single...

  4. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  5. Targeting Recovery in Persistent Persecutory Delusions: A Proof of Principle Study of a New Translational Psychological Treatment (the Feeling Safe Programme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Bradley, Jonathan; Waite, Felicity; Sheaves, Bryony; DeWeever, Natalie; Bourke, Emilie; McInerney, Josephine; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Garety, Philippa; Dunn, Graham

    2016-09-01

    Many patients do not respond adequately to current pharmacological or psychological treatments for psychosis. Persistent persecutory delusions are common in clinical services, and cause considerable patient distress and impairment. Our aim has been to build a new translational personalized treatment, with the potential for wide use, that leads to high rates of recovery in persistent persecutory delusions. We have been developing, and evaluating individually, brief modular interventions, each targeting a key causal factor identified from our cognitive model. These modules are now combined in "The Feeling Safe Programme". To test the feasibility of a new translational modular treatment for persistent persecutory delusions and provide initial efficacy data. 12 patients with persistent persecutory delusions in the context of non-affective psychosis were offered the 6-month Feeling Safe Programme. After assessment, patients chose from a personalized menu of treatment options. Four weekly baseline assessments were carried out, followed by monthly assessments. Recovery in the delusion was defined as conviction falling below 50% (greater doubt than certainty). 11 patients completed the intervention. One patient withdrew before the first monthly assessment due to physical health problems. An average of 20 sessions (SD = 4.4) were received. Posttreatment, 7 out of 11 (64%) patients had recovery in their persistent delusions. Satisfaction ratings were high. The Feeling Safe Programme is feasible to use and was associated with large clinical benefits. To our knowledge this is the first treatment report focused on delusion recovery. The treatment will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.

  6. Quantum theory of the coherently pumped micromaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, I.; Bergou, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Detailed theoretical and experimental study of the atom-field interaction starting from first principles was made possible by the realization of the single-atom micromaser. The situation realized in a micromaser is very close to the ideal case of a single two-level atom interacting with a single quantized mode of a superconducting cavity. This system's ability to coherently transfer quantum states between atoms and photons made it relevant in the context of quantum computation as well. Although considerable work, both theoretical and experimental, has been devoted to this system, with a few exceptions, most cases involved only non-coherent pumping. As a result, the density matrix describing the cavity field remained diagonal, preventing the appearance of coherences. Here, our goal is to provide a summary of the progress we made toward a comprehensive understanding of the features of the coherently pumped micromaser with special respect to coherences, which are central to quantum information processing.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  8. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  9. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  10. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  11. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive in vivo imaging technique with cellular resolution based on the principle of conventional optical coherence tomography. The objective of this study was to evaluate HD-OCT for its ability to identify architectural patterns and...

  12. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  13. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  14. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  15. Quantifying the Coherence between Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Chuan; Volkoff, Tyler; Kwon, Hyukjoon; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2017-11-01

    In this Letter, we detail an orthogonalization procedure that allows for the quantification of the amount of coherence present in an arbitrary superposition of coherent states. The present construction is based on the quantum coherence resource theory introduced by Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio and the coherence resource monotone that we identify is found to characterize the nonclassicality traditionally analyzed via the Glauber-Sudarshan P distribution. This suggests that identical quantum resources underlie both quantum coherence in the discrete finite dimensional case and the nonclassicality of quantum light. We show that our construction belongs to a family of resource monotones within the framework of a resource theory of linear optics, thus establishing deeper connections between the class of incoherent operations in the finite dimensional regime and linear optical operations in the continuous variable regime.

  16. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    developed by Buckingham. It supplements and extends this framework by offering a more detailed account of how visual principles and elements in games can be analysed. In developing this visual grammar we draw theoretically on existing approaches within: the arts, history, film study, semiotics, multimodal...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...... of this paper we emphasise the gamescape principles dimension, which focuses on the analysis of the visual elements and principles. The framework will open for new ways of conducting in-depth analysis of the basic elements of 3D games, as a means of better understanding visual digital media and game literacy...

  17. Cognitive Psychology Principles for Digital Systems Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, William

    2001-01-01

    As the Army transitions to modern digital technology it faces a major challenge in designing computer-implemented training to support the acquisition, retention, and transfer of skills required to operate these systems...

  18. The basic principles of research in neuroeducation studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nouri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The present paper assembles contributions from the areas of education, psychology, cognitive science, and of course, neuroeducation itself to introduce the basic principles of research in the field...

  19. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  20. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…

  1. COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA

  2. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  3. Laser principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely

    2011-01-01

    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Multiparty Session Types as Coherence Proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Curry-Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof...... normalisation to executing communications. Our key contribution is generalising duality, from CLL, to a new notion of n-ary compatibility, called coherence. Building on coherence as a principle of compositionality, we generalise the cut rule of CLL to a new rule for composing many processes communicating...

  5. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  6. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  7. Maximum Relative Entropy of Coherence: An Operational Coherence Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Fei, Shao-Ming; Pati, Arun Kumar; Wu, Junde

    2017-10-01

    The operational characterization of quantum coherence is the cornerstone in the development of the resource theory of coherence. We introduce a new coherence quantifier based on maximum relative entropy. We prove that the maximum relative entropy of coherence is directly related to the maximum overlap with maximally coherent states under a particular class of operations, which provides an operational interpretation of the maximum relative entropy of coherence. Moreover, we show that, for any coherent state, there are examples of subchannel discrimination problems such that this coherent state allows for a higher probability of successfully discriminating subchannels than that of all incoherent states. This advantage of coherent states in subchannel discrimination can be exactly characterized by the maximum relative entropy of coherence. By introducing a suitable smooth maximum relative entropy of coherence, we prove that the smooth maximum relative entropy of coherence provides a lower bound of one-shot coherence cost, and the maximum relative entropy of coherence is equivalent to the relative entropy of coherence in the asymptotic limit. Similar to the maximum relative entropy of coherence, the minimum relative entropy of coherence has also been investigated. We show that the minimum relative entropy of coherence provides an upper bound of one-shot coherence distillation, and in the asymptotic limit the minimum relative entropy of coherence is equivalent to the relative entropy of coherence.

  8. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  9. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Segregating complex sound sources through temporal coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Krishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the segregation of monaural sound mixtures is presented based on the principle of temporal coherence and using auditory cortical representations. Temporal coherence is the notion that perceived sources emit coherently modulated features that evoke highly-coincident neural response patterns. By clustering the feature channels with coincident responses and reconstructing their input, one may segregate the underlying source from the simultaneously interfering signals that are uncorrelated with it. The proposed algorithm requires no prior information or training on the sources. It can, however, gracefully incorporate cognitive functions and influences such as memories of a target source or attention to a specific set of its attributes so as to segregate it from its background. Aside from its unusual structure and computational innovations, the proposed model provides testable hypotheses of the physiological mechanisms of this ubiquitous and remarkable perceptual ability, and of its psychophysical manifestations in navigating complex sensory environments.

  11. Application Coherency Manager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...

  12. Psychology of a leader’s managerial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Romanovskyi, O. G.; Gren', L. M.; Knysh, A. Ye.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial aid deals with the subject, functions and principles, psychological laws of a leader’s managerial activity, leadership and management, a leader’s role in managerial activity, methods of psychological influence in management systems, individual-and-psychological peculiarities of leader’s personality and his/her role in improving a collective’s social-and-psychological and moral-and psychological climate. For students of all specialities studying psychology course of a leader’s ma...

  13. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be

  14. Sense of coherence and pain experience in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Ulrich; Dezutter, Jessie; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We investigate to what extent pain in older individuals is predicted by on the one hand chronic morbidity as a resistance deficit, and on the other hand psychological resistance resources and the sense of coherence. For the first time, we tested the salutogenic hypothesis that the sense of coherence mediates the relationship between resources/deficits and pain. In our questionnaire study, we assessed selected psychological resistance resources (self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, optimism, and social support), the number of self-reported medical diagnoses of chronic illness, the sense of coherence, and pain (SF-36 Bodily Pain subscale) in a sample of 387 older persons (at the mean age of 73.8 years). Using hierarchical regression, we found that morbidity and sense of coherence were the only significant predictors of pain, with morbidity showing the strongest effect. Using path analysis, the sense of coherence was a mediator of the relationship between resistance resources/deficits and pain. With respect to our analytical model, in which pain experience was the criterion variable, morbidity and the sense of coherence are important predictors of pain. Moreover, we found evidence for the salutogenic idea that the sense of coherence represents a mediator variable as it pools resistance/deficits influences on pain. We recommend a prospective design to explore these assumed causal chains in future research.

  15. Principles of e-learning systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Lester

    2008-01-01

    The book integrates the principles of software engineering with the principles of educational theory, and applies them to the problems of e-learning development, thus establishing the discipline of E-learning systems engineering. For the first time, these principles are collected and organised into the coherent framework that this book provides. Both newcomers to and established practitioners in the field are provided with integrated and grounded advice on theory and practice. The book presents strong practical and theoretical frameworks for the design and development of technology-based mater

  16. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  17. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  18. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédas, Jean-Luc; Sargent, Edward H.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder -- structural and energetic -- and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  19. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  20. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  1. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  2. Coherent Polariton Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Fischer, Julian; Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Deng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The semiconductor polariton laser promises a new source of coherent light, which, compared to conventional semiconductor photon lasers, has input-energy threshold orders of magnitude lower. However, intensity stability, a defining feature of a coherent state, has remained poor. Intensity noise many times the shot noise of a coherent state has persisted, attributed to multiple mechanisms that are difficult to separate in conventional polariton systems. The large intensity noise, in turn, limits the phase coherence. Thus, the capability of the polariton laser as a source of coherence light is limited. Here, we demonstrate a polariton laser with shot-noise-limited intensity stability, as expected from a fully coherent state. This stability is achieved by using an optical cavity with high mode selectivity to enforce single-mode lasing, suppress condensate depletion, and establish gain saturation. Moreover, the absence of spurious intensity fluctuations enables the measurement of a transition from exponential to Gaussian decay of the phase coherence of the polariton laser. It suggests large self-interaction energies in the polariton condensate, exceeding the laser bandwidth. Such strong interactions are unique to matter-wave lasers and important for nonlinear polariton devices. The results will guide future development of polariton lasers and nonlinear polariton devices.

  3. Coherent Polariton Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor polariton laser promises a new source of coherent light, which, compared to conventional semiconductor photon lasers, has input-energy threshold orders of magnitude lower. However, intensity stability, a defining feature of a coherent state, has remained poor. Intensity noise many times the shot noise of a coherent state has persisted, attributed to multiple mechanisms that are difficult to separate in conventional polariton systems. The large intensity noise, in turn, limits the phase coherence. Thus, the capability of the polariton laser as a source of coherence light is limited. Here, we demonstrate a polariton laser with shot-noise-limited intensity stability, as expected from a fully coherent state. This stability is achieved by using an optical cavity with high mode selectivity to enforce single-mode lasing, suppress condensate depletion, and establish gain saturation. Moreover, the absence of spurious intensity fluctuations enables the measurement of a transition from exponential to Gaussian decay of the phase coherence of the polariton laser. It suggests large self-interaction energies in the polariton condensate, exceeding the laser bandwidth. Such strong interactions are unique to matter-wave lasers and important for nonlinear polariton devices. The results will guide future development of polariton lasers and nonlinear polariton devices.

  4. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  5. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that is used to peer inside a body noninvasively. Tissue structure defined by tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, and the speed of blood flow, are derived from the characteristics of light remitted by the body. Singly backscattered light...... detected by partial coherence interferometry (PCI) is used to synthesize the tomographic image coded in false colors. A prerequisite of this technique is a low time-coherent but high space-coherent light source, for example, a superluminescent diode or a supercontinuum source. Alternatively, the imaging...... technique can be realized by using ultrafast wavelength scanning light sources. For tissue imaging, the light source wavelengths are restricted to the red and near-infrared (NIR) region from about 600 to 1300 nm, the so-called therapeutic window, where absorption (μa ≈ 0.01 mm−1) is small enough. Transverse...

  7. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2003-01-01

    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  8. VCSEL Based Coherent PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly...... modulated VCSEL transmitters at bit rates up to 10 Gbps in the C-band as well as in the O-band are presented. The broad linewidth and frequency chirp associated with directly modulated VCSELs are utilized in an envelope detection receiver scheme which is demonstrated digitally (off-line) as well as analog...... (real-time). Additionally, it is shown that in the optical front-end of a coherent receiver for access networks, the 90 ° hybrid can be replaced by a 3-dB coupler. The achieved results show that VCSELs are attractive light source candidates for transmitter as well as local oscillator for coherent...

  9. The cosmological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, K.

    The following topics were dealt with: the cosmological principles of Ancient India, Ancient Greece; the genuine Copernican and the generalized Copernican cosmological principles; the perfect, the anthropic and other cosmological principles; comparison of various cosmological principles; Goetheanism in science.

  10. Coherent structure coloring: identification of coherent structures from sparse data using graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy L

    2016-01-01

    We present a frame-invariant method for detecting coherent structures from Lagrangian flow trajectories that can be sparse in number, as is the case in many fluid mechanics applications of practical interest. The method, based on principles used in graph coloring and spectral graph drawing algorithms, examines a measure of the kinematic dissimilarity of all pairs of fluid trajectories, either measured experimentally, e.g. using particle tracking velocimetry; or numerically, by advecting fluid particles in the Eulerian velocity field. Coherence is assigned to groups of particles whose kinematics remain similar throughout the time interval for which trajectory data is available, regardless of their physical proximity to one another. Through the use of several analytical and experimental validation cases, this algorithm is shown to robustly detect coherent structures using significantly less flow data than is required by existing spectral graph theory methods.

  11. Coherence and chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1993-12-31

    The annihilation operator for harmonic oscillator is a weighted shift operator and can be realized on a family of over complete coherent states. Shift operators arise in dynamical maps of systems exhibiting deterministic chaos. Generalized coherent states, called harmonious states, realize these maps in a simple manner. By analytic continuation the spectral family can be altered, thus furnishing an alternative perspective on resonant scattering. Singular distributions are necessary to reproduce the rich structure of chaotic and scattering systems.

  12. Interferometric visibility and coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanmoy; García Díaz, María; Winter, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the basic concept of quantum coherence (or superposition) has gained a lot of renewed attention, after Baumgratz et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401)), following Åberg (http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612146), have proposed a resource theoretic approach to quantify it. This has resulted in a large number of papers and preprints exploring various coherence monotones, and debating possible forms for the resource theory. Here, we take the view that the operational foundation of coherence in a state, be it quantum or otherwise wave mechanical, lies in the observation of interference effects. Our approach here is to consider an idealized multi-path interferometer, with a suitable detector, in such a way that the visibility of the interference pattern provides a quantitative expression of the amount of coherence in a given probe state. We present a general framework of deriving coherence measures from visibility, and demonstrate it by analysing several concrete visibility parameters, recovering some known coherence measures and obtaining some new ones.

  13. Adolescent Psychology Viewed from the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Mimi

    1978-01-01

    A teacher of teachers who is alos the mother of teen-agers publicly renounces all theories of adolescent psychology learned from the literature and offers empirically based principles of her own. (Author)

  14. Educating the design stance: issues of coherence and transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Norman H; Allen, Melissa L

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) put forth a design stance to fuse psychological and art historical accounts of visual thinking into a single theory. We argue that this aspect of their proposal needs further fine-tuning. Issues of transgression and coherence are necessary to provide stability to the design stance. We advocate looking to Art Education for such fundamentals of picture understanding.

  15. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-15

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  16. General formalism for partial spatial coherence in reflection Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Hingerl, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the first principles, we derive the expressions governing partially coherent Mueller matrix reflection polarimetry on spatially inhomogeneous samples. These are reported both in their general form and in the practically important specific form for two juxtaposed media.

  17. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2012-01-01

    QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...

  18. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  19. Construction of coherent 3D geological blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera, Cyril; Bennis, Chakib; Moretti, Isabelle; Mallet, Jean Laurent

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach and efficient methods to build directly coherent geological models honoring the most reliable data set and the assumed local deformation mode. A first set of methods, based on the simple shear model, allows one to build geological structures such as similar folds, rollovers and listric faults. A second set of methods, based on the flexural slip deformation mode, enables one to build structures such as concentric folds and ramp anticlines. The principle of the proposed methods is to construct new horizons and faults coherent with the better known ones. Thanks to these methods, it is straightforward to build quickly coherent 3D blocks based on the most reliable data (well, 2D or 3D seismic image, surface data). Horizons poorly imaged on seismic data can be completed simply. Eroded parts of the upper horizons can be easily extrapolated as well. Finally this provides a useful methodology to check the coherency between the fault and the horizon geometry.

  20. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  1. An introduction to comparative evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd K

    2013-07-18

    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of "comparative evolutionary psychology." This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  2. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  3. SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.

  4. Psychological Facilitation of Academic Achievement of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study habits and skills. Be that as it may, the current paper would remedy to some extent the oversight by offering the insights into some psychological principles and techniques that can facilitate academic achievement of Nigerian students. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology Vol.8(1) 2002: 1-14 ...

  5. Ecological Systems Theory in "School Psychology Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Warmbold-Brann, Kristy; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological systems theory (EST) has been suggested as a framework to provide effective school psychology services, but previous reviews of research found questionable consistency between methods and the principles of EST. The current article reviewed 349 articles published in "School Psychology Review" (SPR) between 2006 and 2015 and…

  6. Narratology, Cultural Psychology, and Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshmand, Lisa Tsoi

    2005-01-01

    Narratological research is defined in relation to narrative theory and a cultural psychology perspective. Narrative concepts and methodology are explained, including the configural mode of understanding and principles of narrative analysis. Examples of application in psychological and counseling research are presented, with a discussion of issues…

  7. Propagation of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam through oceanic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dajun; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan

    2017-11-01

    The partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam generated by a Schell-model source has been introduced. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the cross-spectral density function of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence is derived. The influences of coherence length, topological charge M, and oceanic turbulence on the spreading properties and position of the coherence vortex for a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam are analyzed in detail. The results show that a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into a Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases, and the number of coherent vortices will change.

  8. The Legacy of Gestalt Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Irvin; Palmer, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the principles of Gestalt psychology and the history and future of the movement. A comparison of Gestalt, Behaviorist, and Structuralist ideas is included. The study of perception, learning, memory, and thinking from the Gestaltist point of view is described. (KR)

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  11. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  12. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  13. Personal Construct Psychology Model of School Counselling Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truneckova, Deborah; Viney, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the mental health of young people by schools, greater attention is directed to the responsiveness and effectiveness of models of psychological practice in schools. A model will be presented with a coherent theoretical structure within which the school counsellor can understand the diverse psychological symptoms and…

  14. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  15. Embodied Language Learning and Cognitive Bootstrapping: Methods and Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lyon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction mutually scaffold and support each other within a virtuous feedback cycle in the development of human language in children. Within this framework, the purpose of this article is to bring together diverse but complementary accounts of research methods that jointly contribute to our understanding of cognitive development and in particular, language acquisition in robots. Thus, we include research pertaining to developmental robotics, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics and neuroscience, as well as practical computer science and engineering. The different studies are not at this stage all connected into a cohesive whole; rather, they are presented to illuminate the need for multiple different approaches that complement each other in the pursuit of understanding cognitive development in robots. Extensive experiments involving the humanoid robot iCub are reported, while human learning relevant to developmental robotics has also contributed useful results. Disparate approaches are brought together via common underlying design principles. Without claiming to model human language acquisition directly, we are nonetheless inspired by analogous development in humans and consequently, our investigations include the parallel co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction. Though these different approaches need to ultimately be integrated into a coherent, unified body of knowledge, progress is currently also being made by pursuing individual methods.

  16. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  17. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  18. The Psychology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Biological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mantosh J

    2016-08-01

    The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes. A coherent psychological model (the deficit model) based on object relations theory best explains all the biological, psychological, clinical, and sociocultural factors relevant to the understanding and treatment of persons with schizophrenia. A better understanding of a coherent psychology of persons with schizophrenia and provision of psychotherapies improves both the biological and psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with schizophrenia.

  19. Activity theories and the ontology of psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mammen, Jens Skaun; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key...... in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human...... psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain....

  20. Principles and Processes of Conflictology | OMOLUABI | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theme covers the concepts, scope, characteristics, principles and processes of conflictology as well as the processes, stages and strategies of conflict resolution. The need for evolving specific theories and research methodology of conflictology and expanding the scope of the discipline is suggested. IFE PsychologIA ...

  1. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Feng Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. Mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample, in real time or at video rate. In addition...

  3. Coherence in quantum estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele

    2018-01-01

    The geometry of quantum states provides a unifying framework for estimation processes based on quantum probes, and it establishes the ultimate bounds of the achievable precision. We show a relation between the statistical distance between infinitesimally close quantum states and the second order variation of the coherence of the optimal measurement basis with respect to the state of the probe. In quantum phase estimation protocols, this leads to propose coherence as the relevant resource that one has to engineer and control to optimize the estimation precision. Furthermore, the main object of the theory i.e. the symmetric logarithmic derivative, in many cases allows one to identify a proper factorization of the whole Hilbert space in two subsystems. The factorization allows one to discuss the role of coherence versus correlations in estimation protocols; to show how certain estimation processes can be completely or effectively described within a single-qubit subsystem; and to derive lower bounds for the scaling of the estimation precision with the number of probes used. We illustrate how the framework works for both noiseless and noisy estimation procedures, in particular those based on multi-qubit GHZ-states. Finally we succinctly analyze estimation protocols based on zero-temperature critical behavior. We identify the coherence that is at the heart of their efficiency, and we show how it exhibits the non-analyticities and scaling behavior proper of a large class of quantum phase transitions.

  4. Coherent x-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Paganin, David M

    2006-01-01

    'Coherent X-Ray Optics' gives a thorough treatment of the rapidly expanding field of coherent x-ray optics, which has recently experienced something of a renaissance with the availability of third-generation synchrotron sources.

  5. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D

    2001-01-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  6. Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counseling Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…

  7. A Tale of Two Minds: Psychology and Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George S.

    2010-01-01

    The American Psychological Association recently released its Presidential Task Force report on Psychology and Global Climate Change. Its principles and proposals would inaugurate a long and productive program of psychological research on climate change. But is it too little, too late? Climatologists have been growing progressively gloomier over…

  8. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  9. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, L.; Yura, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle valid both for the single...... and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally....... From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical...

  10. On the conceptual foundations of psychological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Andrew; Wilson, Mark; Torres Irribarra, David

    2013-09-01

    Measurement has long been an important element of epistemology in the physical sciences and natural philosophy. More recently, the psychological sciences have developed a variety of techniques that purport to be instances of measurement as well. However, it is not clear how the understanding of measurement invoked in psychological science applications accords with the understanding of measurement found in other scientific disciplines. A sharper focus on conceptual clarity and coherence across the psychological and physical sciences has the potential to add a great deal to efforts to improve such practices. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to formulate a philosophically coherent account of how measurement works in both the physical and the human sciences.

  11. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  12. Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.

  13. Is the Precautionary Principle Really Incoherent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The Precautionary Principle has been an increasingly important principle in international treaties since the 1980s. Through varying formulations, it states that when an activity can lead to a catastrophe for human health or the environment, measures should be taken to prevent it even if the cause-and-effect relationship is not fully established scientifically. The Precautionary Principle has been critically discussed from many sides. This article concentrates on a theoretical argument by Peterson (2006) according to which the Precautionary Principle is incoherent with other desiderata of rational decision making, and thus cannot be used as a decision rule that selects an action among several ones. I claim here that Peterson's argument fails to establish the incoherence of the Precautionary Principle, by attacking three of its premises. I argue (i) that Peterson's treatment of uncertainties lacks generality, (ii) that his Archimedian condition is problematic for incommensurability reasons, and (iii) that his explication of the Precautionary Principle is not adequate. This leads me to conjecture that the Precautionary Principle can be envisaged as a coherent decision rule, again. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Considering lesbian identity from a social-psychological perspective: two different models of "being a lesbian".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Charlotte Chuck

    2012-01-01

    One long-standing project within lesbian studies has been to develop a satisfactory working definition of "lesbian." This article proposes two new models of a definition using principles of social psychology. Each model (a) utilizes the premise that gender lacks a categorical essence and (b) separates behavioral adherence to cultural stereotypes of femininity and masculinity from one's gender self-categorization. From these premises, I generate and critique two internally coherent models of lesbian identity that are inclusive (to different degrees) of various gender identities. For each model, the potential inclusion of trans men, trans women, genderqueers, and lesbian-identified cisgender men is evaluated. The explanatory power of these models is twofold. One, the models can serve as theoretical perspectives for scholars who study the intersection of gender and sexual identity. Two, the models can also characterize the everyday experience of people who have tacit working definitions of lesbian identity.

  15. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  16. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

  17. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  18. Ultrafast coherent nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Wen; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Baradaran Ghasemi, Amir Hossein; Agio, Mario

    2013-10-01

    The dramatic advances of nanotechnology experienced in recent years enabled us to fabricate optical nanostructures or nano-antennas that greatly enhance the conversion of localised electromagnetic energy into radiation and vice versa. Nano-antennas offer the required improvements in terms of bandwidth, interaction strength and resolution for combining ultrafast spectroscopy, nano-optics and quantum optics to fundamentally push forward the possibility of the coherent optical access on individual nanostructures or even molecules above cryogenic temperatures, where dephasing processes typically occur at very short time scales. In this context, we discuss recent progress in the theoretical description of light-matter interaction at the nanoscale and related experimental findings. Moreover, we present concrete examples in support of our vision and propose a series of experiments that aim at exploring novel promising regimes of optical coherence and quantum optics in advanced spectroscopy. We envisage extensions to ultrafast and nonlinear phenomena, especially in the direction of multidimensional nanoscopy.

  19. Optical Coherence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Ksenofontov, Sergey U.; Morosov, Andrey N.; Myakov, Alexey V.; Potapov, Yury P.; Saposhnikova, Veronika V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Zagainova, Elena V.

    This chapter presents the practical embodiment of two types of optical coherence microscope (OCM) modality that differ by probing method. The development and creation of a compact OCM device for imaging internal structures of biological tissue at the cellular level is presented. Ultrahigh axial resolution of 3.4 μm and lateral resolution of 3.9 μm within tissue was attained by combining broadband radiations of two spectrally shifted SLDs and implementing the dynamic focus concept, which allows in-depth scanning of a coherence gate and beam waist synchronously. This OCM prototype is portable and easy to operate; creation of a remote optical probe was feasible due to use of polarization maintaining fiber. The chapter also discusses the results of a theoretical investigation of OCM axial and lateral resolution degradation caused by light scattering in biological tissue. We demonstrate the first OCM images of biological objects using examples of plant and human tissue ex vivo.

  20. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care...... to an acute care ward to discharge and later in meetings with healthcare providers in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations were conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Research design An explorative design based...

  2. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Esat Kondakci, Ayman F. Abouraddy & Bahaa E. A. Saleh The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a...measurement yields a real number Ilm (projection l for polarization and m for the spatial DoF) corresponding to the projection of a tomographic...hermiticity, and semi-positive-definiteness of G50. We portray the real and imaginary components of G using the standard visualization from quantum state

  3. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, politicians and health care providers have strived to create a coherent health care system across primary and secondary health care systems in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care and lack ...... both nationally and internationally in preparation of health agreements, implementation of new collaboration forms among health care providers, and in improvement of delegation and transfer of information and assignments across sectors in health care....

  4. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  5. Coherency Sensitive Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Simon; Avidan, Shai

    2016-06-01

    Coherency Sensitive Hashing (CSH) extends Locality Sensitivity Hashing (LSH) and PatchMatch to quickly find matching patches between two images. LSH relies on hashing, which maps similar patches to the same bin, in order to find matching patches. PatchMatch, on the other hand, relies on the observation that images are coherent, to propagate good matches to their neighbors in the image plane, using random patch assignment to seed the initial matching. CSH relies on hashing to seed the initial patch matching and on image coherence to propagate good matches. In addition, hashing lets it propagate information between patches with similar appearance (i.e., map to the same bin). This way, information is propagated much faster because it can use similarity in appearance space or neighborhood in the image plane. As a result, CSH is at least three to four times faster than PatchMatch and more accurate, especially in textured regions, where reconstruction artifacts are most noticeable to the human eye. We verified CSH on a new, large scale, data set of 133 image pairs and experimented on several extensions, including: k nearest neighbor search, the addition of rotation and matching three dimensional patches in videos.

  6. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  7. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  8. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  10. Quantum coherence versus quantum uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shunlong; Sun, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The notion of measurement is of both foundational and instrumental significance in quantum mechanics, and coherence destroyed by measurements (decoherence) lies at the very heart of quantum to classical transition. Qualitative aspects of this spirit have been widely recognized and analyzed ever since the inception of quantum theory. However, axiomatic and quantitative investigations of coherence are attracting great interest only recently with several figures of merit for coherence introduced [Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401]. While these resource theoretic approaches have many appealing and intuitive features, they rely crucially on various notions of incoherent operations which are sophisticated, subtle, and not uniquely defined, as have been critically assessed [Chitambar and Gour, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 030401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.030401]. In this paper, we elaborate on the idea that coherence and quantum uncertainty are dual viewpoints of the same quantum substrate, and address coherence quantification by identifying coherence of a state (with respect to a measurement) with quantum uncertainty of a measurement (with respect to a state). Consequently, coherence measures may be set into correspondence with measures of quantum uncertainty. In particular, we take average quantum Fisher information as a measure of quantum uncertainty, and introduce the corresponding measure of coherence, which is demonstrated to exhibit desirable properties. Implications for interpreting quantum purity as maximal coherence, and quantum discord as minimal coherence, are illustrated.

  11. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  12. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  13. The commerce of professional psychology and the new ethics code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koocher, G P

    1994-11-01

    The 1992 version of the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct brings some changes in requirements and new specificity to the practice of psychology. The impact of the new code on therapeutic contracts, informed consent to psychological services, advertising, financial aspects of psychological practice, and other topics related to the commerce of professional psychology are discussed. The genesis of many new thrusts in the code is reviewed from the perspective of psychological service provider. Specific recommendations for improved attention to ethical matters in professional practice are made.

  14. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  15. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  16. Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Sacchet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.

  17. Coherent orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celeghini, E., E-mail: celeghini@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze and INFN–Sezione di Firenze, I50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Olmo, M.A. del, E-mail: olmo@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005, Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    We discuss a fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials, like the existence of a Lie algebra behind them, which can be added to their other relevant aspects. At the basis of the complete framework for orthogonal polynomials we include thus–in addition to differential equations, recurrence relations, Hilbert spaces and square integrable functions–Lie algebra theory. We start here from the square integrable functions on the open connected subset of the real line whose bases are related to orthogonal polynomials. All these one-dimensional continuous spaces allow, besides the standard uncountable basis (|x〉), for an alternative countable basis (|n〉). The matrix elements that relate these two bases are essentially the orthogonal polynomials: Hermite polynomials for the line and Laguerre and Legendre polynomials for the half-line and the line interval, respectively. Differential recurrence relations of orthogonal polynomials allow us to realize that they determine an infinite-dimensional irreducible representation of a non-compact Lie algebra, whose second order Casimir C gives rise to the second order differential equation that defines the corresponding family of orthogonal polynomials. Thus, the Weyl–Heisenberg algebra h(1) with C=0 for Hermite polynomials and su(1,1) with C=−1/4 for Laguerre and Legendre polynomials are obtained. Starting from the orthogonal polynomials the Lie algebra is extended both to the whole space of the L{sup 2} functions and to the corresponding Universal Enveloping Algebra and transformation group. Generalized coherent states from each vector in the space L{sup 2} and, in particular, generalized coherent polynomials are thus obtained. -- Highlights: •Fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials (OP): existence of a Lie algebra. •Differential recurrence relations of OP determine a unitary representation of a non-compact Lie group. •2nd order Casimir originates a 2nd order differential equation that defines

  18. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  19. Optical coherence refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

  20. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, politicians and health care providers have strived to create a coherent health care system across primary and secondary health care systems in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care and lack...... in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations are conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Perspectives Knowledge about the practice of cross-sectorial collaboration is crucial to the future planning of collaborating...

  1. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  2. Optical noise and temporal coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavel, P.

    1980-08-01

    Previous articles have been devoted to the study of optical noise as a function of spatial coherence. The present one completes this study by considering temporal coherence. Noise arising from defects in the pupil plane and affecting the high spatial frequencies of an image is notably reduced by white-light illumination. Temporal coherence has little effect on noise arising from defects in the object plane. However, impulse noise due to small isolated defects is reduced in size. Physical arguments are presented to explain these phenomena and a mathematical study of partially coherent imaging in the presence of random defects is given.

  3. Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-07-10

    Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.

  4. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  5. Mach's Holographic Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2006-01-01

    Mach's principle is the concept that inertial frames are determined by matter. We propose and implement a precise formulation of Mach's principle in which matter and geometry are in one-to-one correspondence. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Speci...

  6. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  7. About the principle of dignity: philosophical foundations and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Staffen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2017v38n75p43 This paper, starting from deductive method, aims to analyze the coexistence mechanisms of the philosophical foundations of the principle of human dignity by the legal practice, both in legislative documents as judicial decisions. On the metaphysical aspects that keeps in its wake, the principle of human dignity opens spaces for criticism of the consistency and coherence of that principle in legislative works, notably, in judicial decisions. Finally, it is concluded that while the reputation based on dignity is a universal virtue, its content depends largely on social, religious and traditional of certain communities.

  8. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  9. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  10. Financial health and sense of coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Barnard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article reports on a quantitative-relational study addressing the impact of sense of coherence (SOC, which is a psychological-wellness construct, on the financial-health profile of employees in an insurance company.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between psychological wellness as operationalised in the SOC construct and in financial health.Motivation for the study: Financial pressure can be a major stressor in the workplace, affecting employees’ ability to function optimally. The debt crisis in South Africa is therefore necessitating employers to invest in the financial health of their employees. In light of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005, employers should, in fact, provide debt counselling to employees struggling with financial problems. In the South African context, however, studies investigating the potential influence of psychological-wellness constructs on financial health are lacking.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was applied and a quantitative-relational approach followed. From the 1 100 employees in a financial insurance company, 435 completed questionnaires were received.Main findings: The empirical results indicated a significant relationship between the variables, confirming that a stronger SOC impacts positively on employees’ financial health. A stronger SOC therefore relates positively to more effective debt management and retirement planning.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasised the importance of debt management and retirement planning being addressed and integrated into employee-assistance strategies and programmes.Contribution/value-add: This study is a significant step in addressing financial health from a psychological perspective.

  11. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  12. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive...

  13. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-12-20

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder-structural and energetic-and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  14. Optimal laser pulse design for transferring the coherent nuclear wave packet of H$_2^+$

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jun; He, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Within the Franck-Condon approximation, the single ionization of H$_2$ leaves H$_2^+$ in a coherent superposition of 19 nuclear vibrational states. We numerically design an optimal laser pulse train to transfer such a coherent nuclear wave packet to the ground vibrational state of H$_2^+$. The simulation results show that the population of the ground state after the transfer is more than 91%. Frequency analysis of the designed optimal pulse reveals that the transfer principle is mainly an ant...

  15. Evolution equation for quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2016-07-07

    The estimation of the decoherence process of an open quantum system is of both theoretical significance and experimental appealing. Practically, the decoherence can be easily estimated if the coherence evolution satisfies some simple relations. We introduce a framework for studying evolution equation of coherence. Based on this framework, we prove a simple factorization relation (FR) for the l1 norm of coherence, and identified the sets of quantum channels for which this FR holds. By using this FR, we further determine condition on the transformation matrix of the quantum channel which can support permanently freezing of the l1 norm of coherence. We finally reveal the universality of this FR by showing that it holds for many other related coherence and quantum correlation measures.

  16. Coherence and correspondence in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Tape

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many controversies in medical science can be framed as tension between a coherence approach (which seeks logic and explanation and a correspondence approach (which emphasizes empirical correctness. In many instances, a coherence-based theory leads to an understanding of disease that is not supported by empirical evidence. Physicians and patients alike tend to favor the coherence approach even in the face of strong, contradictory correspondence evidence. Examples include the management of atrial fibrillation, treatment of acute bronchitis, and the use of Vitamin E to prevent heart disease. Despite the frequent occurrence of controversy stemming from coherence-correspondence conflicts, medical professionals are generally unaware of these terms and the philosophical traditions that underlie them. Learning about the coherence-correspondence distinction and using the best of both approaches could not only help reconcile controversy but also lead to striking advances in medical science.

  17. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...... as the optical analogue to ultrasound. The inherent safety of the technology allows for in vivo use of OCT in patients. The main strength of OCT is the depth resolution. In dermatology, most OCT research has turned on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and non-invasive monitoring of morphological changes...... in a number of skin diseases based on pattern recognition, and studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT has shown high accuracy in distinguishing lesions from normal skin, which is of great importance in identifying tumour borders or residual neoplastic...

  18. Quantum information and coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Öhberg, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...

  19. Search and Coherence-Building in Intuition and Insight Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öllinger, Michael; von Müller, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Coherence-building is a key concept for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight problem solving. There are several accounts that address certain aspects of coherence-building. However, there is still no proper framework defining the general principles of coherence-building. We propose a four-stage model of coherence-building. The first stage starts with spreading activation restricted by constraints. This dynamic is a well-defined rule based process. The second stage is characterized by detecting a coherent state. We adopted a fluency account assuming that the ease of information processing indicates the realization of a coherent state. The third stage is designated to evaluate the result of the coherence-building process and assess whether the given problem is solved or not. If the coherent state does not fit the requirements of the task, the process re-enters at stage 1. These three stages characterize intuition. For insight problem solving a fourth stage is necessary, which restructures the given representation after repeated failure, so that a new search space results. The new search space enables new coherent states. We provide a review of the most important findings, outline our model, present a large number of examples, deduce potential new paradigms and measures that might help to decipher the underlying cognitive processes.

  20. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: A quantum heat engine picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Huelga, S F; Plenio, M B

    2015-10-21

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system's power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle's relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures.

  1. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  2. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  3. The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Presents evidence that the psychological principles that govern the perception of decision problems and evaluation of probabilities and outcomes produce predictable shifts of preference when the same problem is framed in different ways. (Author/SK)

  4. Quantum Nonadiabatic Cloning of Entangled Coherent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmaylov, Artur F; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc

    2017-04-20

    We propose a systematic approach to the basis set extension for nonadiabatic dynamics of entangled combination of nuclear coherent states (CSs) evolving according to the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). The TDVP provides a rigorous framework for fully quantum nonadiabatic dynamics of closed systems; however, the quality of results strongly depends on available basis functions. Starting with a single nuclear CS replicated vertically on all electronic states, our approach clones this function when replicas of the CS on different electronic states experience increasingly different forces. Created clones move away from each other (decohere), extending the basis set. To determine a moment for cloning, we introduce generalized forces based on derivatives that maximally contribute to a variation of the total quantum action and thus account for entanglement of all basis functions.

  5. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  6. Two-mode Nonlinear Coherent States

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Guang

    2000-01-01

    Two-mode nonlinear coherent states are introduced in this paper. The pair coherent states and the two-mode Perelomov coherent states are special cases of the two-mode nonlinear coherent states. The exponential form of the two-mode nonlinear coherent states is given. The photon-added or photon-subtracted two-mode nonlinear coherent states are found to be two-mode nonlinear coherent states with different nonlinear functions. The parity coherent states are introduced as examples of two-mode nonl...

  7. Performance simulation of heterodyne synchronous receiving system in coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, BaiChao; Tong, ShouFeng

    2015-03-01

    Coherent optical communication technology is currently a hotpot research of communication. Coherent optical communication heterodyne synchronous receiving system is researched. The basic principle of coherent optical communication is introduced in briefly, the heterodyne synchronous receiving system is established in the basis of the principle. A simulation model, charactered as Synchronous receiving system of Coherent Heterodyne, was rightly set up. In addition, with regarding actual device parameters as reference, and under the situation of 2.5Gbps communication rate and 10km as communication distance, Optisystem was operating to accomplish simulation analysis for capacity of this system in different signal-radiation rate and distinguish weather condition. The consequence of simulation demonstrated: as the receiving sensitivity is relatively high when compared communication system of coherent heterodyne to that of IM/DD, the coherent optical communication system has lower requirement to signal rate of radiated laser in the same condition. Consequently, it can be concluded that coherent heterodyne system has high receiving sensitivity, and strong capacity of resisting disturbance, moreover it is appropriately communicated in channel with relatively high disturbance, it possesses great advantages to IM/DD method in atmosphere channel which has strong disturbance.

  8. Minimum magnetizability principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Akhilesh; Pal, Sourav; Ranjan Roy, Debesh; Kumar Chattaraj, Pratim

    2006-08-01

    A new electronic structure principle, viz., the minimum magnetizability principle, has been proposed and also has been verified through ab initio calculations, to extend the domain of applicability of the conceptual density functional theory in explaining the magnetic interactions and magnetochemistry. This principle may be stated as "a stable configuration/conformation of a molecule or a favorable chemical process is associated with a minimum value of the magnetizability." The behavior of paramagnetic and diamagnetic components has been separately studied.

  9. Minimum Magnetizability Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Tanwar, Akhilesh; Roy, Debesh Ranjan; Pal, Sourav; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A new electronic structure principle, viz. the minimum magnetizability principle (MMP) has been proposed and also has been verified through ab initio calculations, to extend the domain of applicability of the conceptual density functional theory (DFT) in explaining the magnetic interactions and magnetochemistry. This principle may be stated as, "A stable configuration/conformation of a molecule or a favorable chemical process is associated with a minimum value of the magnetizability". It has ...

  10. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  11. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  12. Planck scale corrections to the harmonic oscillator, coherent, and squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Pasquale; Das, Saurya; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) is a modification of Heisenberg's Principle predicted by several theories of quantum gravity. It consists of a modified commutator between the position and momentum. In this work, we compute potentially observable effects that GUP implies for the harmonic oscillator, coherent, and squeezed states in quantum mechanics. In particular, we rigorously analyze the GUP-perturbed harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, defining new operators that act as ladder operators on the perturbed states. We use these operators to define the new coherent and squeezed states. We comment on potential applications.

  13. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  14. International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B

    2005-07-01

    The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.

  15. n-X-Coherent Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Bennis, Driss

    2010-01-01

    This paper unifies several generalizations of coherent rings in one notion. Namely, we introduce $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings, where $\\mathscr{X}$ is a class of modules and $n$ is a positive integer, as those rings for which the subclass $\\mathscr{X}_n$ of $n$-presented modules of $\\mathscr{X}$ is not empty, and every module in $\\mathscr{X}_n$ is $n+1$-presented. Then, for each particular class $\\mathscr{X}$ of modules, we find correspondent relative coherent rings. Our main aim is to sho...

  16. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  17. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    The developments with coherent control (CC) techniques in optical spectroscopy have recently demonstrated population control and coherence manipulations when the induced optical phase is explored with phase-locked laser pulses. These and other developments have been guiding the new research field...... of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase-locked...

  18. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  19. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science

    2015-01-01

    The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...

  20. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  1. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  2. Quality Assurance in Psychology Programmes across Europe: Survey and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J. Frederico

    2013-01-01

    The present article examines how different institutions that offer psychology study cycles across Europe have adopted quality principles and have taken up particular quality assurance initiatives to raise standards and enhance quality. Thirty-eight different institutions from 32 countries who were members of a European psychology network responded…

  3. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically, yet the CHPS recognises the importance of exposing girls to the principles and skills of Sport Psychology and has a leadership curriculum for girls participating in sport to this end. This paper reports on a qualitative and exploratory ...

  4. A Libertarian Psychology: Self Ownership - A Condition for Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breggin, Peter R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes system of libertarian psychology which is an analysis of human conduct consistent with the principles of maximum personal freedom. The author identifies the concept of voluntary exchange by which individuals relate to each other as they choose as the basis for his psychology of self-determination. Journal availability: see SO 507 190.…

  5. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  6. Quantum coherence of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the degrees of quantum coherence of cosmological perturbations of different spins are computed in the large-scale limit and compared with the standard results holding for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in an optical cavity. The degree of second-order coherence of curvature inhomogeneities (and, more generally, of the scalar modes of the geometry) reproduces faithfully the optical limit. For the vector and tensor fluctuations, the numerical values of the normalized degrees of second-order coherence in the zero time-delay limit are always larger than unity (which is the Poisson benchmark value) but differ from the corresponding expressions obtainable in the framework of the single-mode approximation. General lessons are drawn on the quantum coherence of large-scale cosmological fluctuations.

  7. Coherent Control of Bond Making

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Liat; Rybak, Leonid; Kosloff, Ronnie; Koch, Christiane P; Amitay, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time coherent control of bond making, a milestone on the way to coherent control of photo-induced bimolecular chemical reactions. In strong-field multiphoton femtosecond photoassociation experiments, we find the yield of detected magnesium dimer molecules to be enhanced for positively chirped pulses and suppressed for negatively chirped pulses. Our ab initio model shows that control is achieved by purification via Franck-Condon filtering combined with chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Experimental closed-loop phase optimization using a learning algorithm yields an improved pulse that utilizes vibrational coherent dynamics in addition to chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Our results show that coherent control of binary photo-reactions is feasible even under thermal conditions.

  8. Coherent exciton-polariton devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Michael D.

    2017-09-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton-polaritons has emerged as a unique, coherent system for the study of non-equilibrium, macroscopically coherent Bose gases, while the full confinement of this coherent state to a semiconductor chip has also generated considerable interest in developing novel applications employing the polariton condensate, possibly even at room temperature. Such devices include low-threshold lasers, precision inertial sensors, and circuits based on superfluidity with ultra-fast non-linear elements. While the demonstration and development of such devices are at an early stage, rapid progress is being made. In this review, an overview of the exciton-polariton condensate system and the established and emerging material systems and fabrication techniques are presented, followed by a critical, in-depth assessment of the ability of the coherent polariton system to deliver on its promise of devices offering either new functionality and/or room-temperature operation.

  9. FUNCTIONAL DETERMINATION AND COMPLEMENTARITY AS PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOKS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with specific principles for creating and using e-learning tools presented in the modern pedagogical literature. The author has analyzed which of these principles could be applied to electronic textbooks (in particular, the validity of such principles as individualization, interactivity, structurization was proved. Based on critical analysis of psychological and pedagogical sources the mechanical spread of completeness (integrity and continuity of the didactic cycle principle to all electronic educational editions has been stated. The invalidation of absolute and imperative application of this principle to the electronic textbooks was proved. New specific principles of electronic textbooks development — functional determination and complementarity – are proposed and theoretically grounded.

  10. The Ecological Psychology of the Small Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Duane I.

    1989-01-01

    Uses principles of ecological theory to predict architectural needs of a small town. Examines Barker's concept of undermanning which led to six hypotheses regarding small-town behavior and corresponding design recommendations. Concludes that psychology of small-town resident is unique because of special ecological demands placed on the people.…

  11. Critical Contributions of Piaget to Humanistic Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    Humanistic psychologists now embrace many of the same principles which served as the basis for Piaget's theory. These same theories were described earlier by John Locke and Immanuel Kant, and were the basis of the new "Humanism" movement in Germany in the 18th century. If one considers humanistic psychology as a kind of culmination of…

  12. Positive Psychology and War: An Oxymoron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The author was deeply disturbed by the January 2011 issue of the "American Psychologist," which engendered a series of emotions in the author: first dismay, then anger, and finally a sense of shame about the current state of the profession. This was ostensibly an exposition of "positive psychology" principles and how they are to be applied in a…

  13. Principles of environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersema, J.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Principles of Environmental Sciences provides a comprehensive picture of the principles, concepts and methods that are applicable to problems originating from the interaction between the living and non-living environment and mankind. Both the analysis of such problems and the way solutions to

  14. The Principles of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gerald P.

    The primary but not exclusive concern in this monograph is the principles and qualities of dynamic leaders of people rather than of ideas or cultural and artistic pursuits. Theories of leadership in the past, present, and future are discussed, as are the principles, rewards, exercise, and philosophy of leadership. A bibliography is included. (MSE)

  15. Fractals, Coherence and Brain Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    I show that the self-similarity property of deterministic fractals provides a direct connection with the space of the entire analytical functions. Fractals are thus described in terms of coherent states in the Fock-Bargmann representation. Conversely, my discussion also provides insights on the geometrical properties of coherent states: it allows to recognize, in some specific sense, fractal properties of coherent states. In particular, the relation is exhibited between fractals and q-deformed coherent states. The connection with the squeezed coherent states is also displayed. In this connection, the non-commutative geometry arising from the fractal relation with squeezed coherent states is discussed and the fractal spectral properties are identified. I also briefly discuss the description of neuro-phenomenological data in terms of squeezed coherent states provided by the dissipative model of brain and consider the fact that laboratory observations have shown evidence that self-similarity characterizes the brain background activity. This suggests that a connection can be established between brain dynamics and the fractal self-similarity properties on the basis of the relation discussed in this report between fractals and squeezed coherent states. Finally, I do not consider in this paper the so-called random fractals, namely those fractals obtained by randomization processes introduced in their iterative generation. Since self-similarity is still a characterizing property in many of such random fractals, my conjecture is that also in such cases there must exist a connection with the coherent state algebraic structure. In condensed matter physics, in many cases the generation by the microscopic dynamics of some kind of coherent states is involved in the process of the emergence of mesoscopic/macroscopic patterns. The discussion presented in this paper suggests that also fractal generation may provide an example of emergence of global features, namely long range

  16. Coherent states with elliptical polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Coherent states of the two dimensional harmonic oscillator are constructed as superpositions of energy and angular momentum eigenstates. It is shown that these states are Gaussian wave-packets moving along a classical trajectory, with a well defined elliptical polarization. They are coherent correlated states with respect to the usual cartesian position and momentum operators. A set of creation and annihilation operators is defined in polar coordinates, and it is shown that these same states ...

  17. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  18. Acquisition Order of Coherence Relations in Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirgunes, Sercan

    2015-01-01

    Coherence as one of the criteria for textuality is the main element of a well-produced text. In the literature, there are many studies on the classification of coherence relations. Although there are different classifications on coherence relations, similar findings are reported regarding the acquisition order of coherence relations in different…

  19. Relationships among Abuse Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Abused Women's Psychological Health: A Path Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…

  20. Narrating Psychological Distress: Associations between Cross-Clausal Integration and Mental Health Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…

  1. Sense of coherence, self-regulated learning and academic performance in first year nursing students: A cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie M; van den Nieuwenhuizen, Simon; Metcalfe, Lauren; Chang, Sungwon; Everett, Bronwyn

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between nursing students' sense of coherence, self-regulated learning and academic performance in bioscience. While there is increasing recognition of a need to foster students' self-regulated learning, little is known about the relationship of psychological strengths, particularly sense of coherence and academic performance. Using a prospective, correlational design, 563 first year nursing students completed the three dimensions of sense of coherence scale - comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness, and five components of self-regulated learning strategy - elaboration, organisation, rehearsal, self-efficacy and task value. Cluster analysis was used to group respondents into three clusters, based on their sense of coherence subscale scores. Although there were no sociodemographic differences in sense of coherence subscale scores, those with higher sense of coherence were more likely to adopt self-regulated learning strategies. Furthermore, academic grades collected at the end of semester revealed that higher sense of coherence was consistently related to achieving higher academic grades across all four units of study. Students with higher sense of coherence were more self-regulated in their learning approach. More importantly, the study suggests that sense of coherence may be an explanatory factor for students' successful adaptation and transition in higher education, as indicated by the positive relationship of sense of coherence to academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological Seduction: Effective Organization of the Introductory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenthall, Gerard; Andrews, David

    1983-01-01

    The order of presentation of topics is an important factor in the success of introductory psychology courses. Criteria for judging the efficacy of a course sequence should include use of students' entry level skills as a foundation, sections following each other coherently, and motivation for students to learn "hard" material. (CS)

  3. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  4. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  6. Bullying Victimization Prevalence and Its Effects on Psychosomatic Complaints: Can Sense of Coherence Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. Methods: A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N =…

  7. Work Stressors, Health and Sense of Coherence in UK Academic Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships between job-specific stressors and psychological and physical health symptoms in academic employees working in UK universities. The study also tests the main and moderating role played by sense of coherence (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987 in work stress process). SOC is described as a generalised resistance…

  8. Astronautics and psychology: recommendations for the psychological training of astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, G F

    1991-11-01

    The methods presently applied in the psychological training of astronauts are based on the principle of ensuring maximum performance of astronauts during missions. The shortcomings are obvious since those undergoing training provide nothing but the best ability to cope with Earth problem situations and add simply an experience of space problem situations as they are presently conceived. Earth attitudes and Earth behaviour remain and are simply modified. Through the utilization of interdisciplinary space knowledge a much higher degree of problem anticipation could be achieved and the astronaut be psychologically transformed into a space-being. This would at the same time stimulate interdisciplinary space research. The interdisciplinary space knowledge already available suggests that space requires not only physical and mental adjustments, but a profoundly new relationship with life.

  9. Coherent states and applications in mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Combescure, Monique

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the various types of coherent states introduced and studied in the physics and mathematics literature and describes their properties together with application to quantum physics problems. It is intended to serve as a compendium on coherent states and their applications for physicists and mathematicians, stretching from the basic mathematical structures of generalized coherent states in the sense of Perelomov via the semiclassical evolution of coherent states to various specific examples of coherent states (hydrogen atom, quantum oscillator, ...).

  10. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.

  11. The Coherent Heart Heart–Brain Interactions, Psychophysiological Coherence, and the Emergence of System-Wide Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Trevor Bradley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents theory and research on the scientific study of emotion thatemphasizes the importance of coherence as an optimal psychophysiological state. Adynamic systems view of the interrelations between psychological, cognitive andemotional systems and neural communication networks in the human organism providesa foundation for the view presented. These communication networks are examined froman information processing perspective and reveal a fundamental order in heart-braininteractions and a harmonious synchronization of physiological systems associated withpositive emotions. The concept of coherence is drawn on to understand optimalfunctioning which is naturally reflected in the heart’s rhythmic patterns. Research ispresented identifying various psychophysiological states linked to these patterns, withneurocardiological coherence emerging as having significant impacts on well being.These include psychophysiological as well as improved cognitive performance. Fromthis, the central role of the heart is explored in terms of biochemical, biophysical andenergetic interactions. Appendices provide further details and research on;psychophysiological functioning, reference previous research in this area, details onresearch linking coherence with optimal cognitive performance, heart brainsynchronization and the energetic signature of the various psychophysiological modes.

  12. The Coherent Heart: Heart–Brain Interactions, Psychophysiological Coherence, and the Emergence of System-Wide Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollin McCraty

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents theory and research on the scientific study of emotion that emphasizes the importance of coherence as an optimal psychophysiological state. A dynamic systems view of the interrelations between psychological, cognitive and emotional systems and neural communication networks in the human organism provides a foundation for the view presented. These communication networks are examined from an information processing perspective and reveal a fundamental order in heart-brain interactions and a harmonious synchronization of physiological systems associated with positive emotions. The concept of coherence is drawn on to understand optimal functioning which is naturally reflected in the heart’s rhythmic patterns. Research is presented identifying various psychophysiological states linked to these patterns, with neurocardiological coherence emerging as having significant impacts on well being. These include psychophysiological as well as improved cognitive performance. From this, the central role of the heart is explored in terms of biochemical, biophysical and energetic interactions. Appendices provide further details and research on; psychophysiological functioning, reference previous research in this area, details on research linking coherence with optimal cognitive performance, heart brain synchronization and the energetic signature of the various psychophysiological modes.

  13. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  14. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided. PMID:26831383

  15. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  16. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  17. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  18. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  19. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  20. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  1. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  2. Wavespace-Based Coherent Deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2012-01-01

    Array deconvolution is commonly used in aeroacoustic analysis to remove the influence of a microphone array's point spread function from a conventional beamforming map. Unfortunately, the majority of deconvolution algorithms assume that the acoustic sources in a measurement are incoherent, which can be problematic for some aeroacoustic phenomena with coherent, spatially-distributed characteristics. While several algorithms have been proposed to handle coherent sources, some are computationally intractable for many problems while others require restrictive assumptions about the source field. Newer generalized inverse techniques hold promise, but are still under investigation for general use. An alternate coherent deconvolution method is proposed based on a wavespace transformation of the array data. Wavespace analysis offers advantages over curved-wave array processing, such as providing an explicit shift-invariance in the convolution of the array sampling function with the acoustic wave field. However, usage of the wavespace transformation assumes the acoustic wave field is accurately approximated as a superposition of plane wave fields, regardless of true wavefront curvature. The wavespace technique leverages Fourier transforms to quickly evaluate a shift-invariant convolution. The method is derived for and applied to ideal incoherent and coherent plane wave fields to demonstrate its ability to determine magnitude and relative phase of multiple coherent sources. Multi-scale processing is explored as a means of accelerating solution convergence. A case with a spherical wave front is evaluated. Finally, a trailing edge noise experiment case is considered. Results show the method successfully deconvolves incoherent, partially-coherent, and coherent plane wave fields to a degree necessary for quantitative evaluation. Curved wave front cases warrant further investigation. A potential extension to nearfield beamforming is proposed.

  3. The "fashion-form" of modern society and its relationship to psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Bautista; Quiroga, Ernesto

    2009-05-01

    In this work, we present a new way of understanding psychology, which emerges as a result of relating it to the three principles of the theory of fashion of Gilles Lipovetsky: "the principle of the ephemeral," "the principle of the marginal differentiation of individuals," and "the principle of seduction." We relate the first principle to the plurality of the diverse and changing "schools and systems" that have existed throughout the history of psychology. We apply the second to the figure of the psychologist, considered individually, revealing his or her leading role in the generation of the changing plurality of the systems. By means of the third principle, we point up that the diverse psychologies are forms of seduction. We conclude by stating that psychology has the form of fashion and we analyze how this form can help us to better understand it.

  4. Reduced Sense of Coherence Due to Neuroticism: Are Transcendent Beliefs Protective Among Catholic Pastoral Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerksieck, Philipp; Büssing, Arndt; Frick, Eckhard; Jacobs, Christoph; Baumann, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we examined a third variable effect on the relationship of personality traits, especially neuroticism and the salutogenetic concept sense of coherence. Specifically, we were interested in the moderating role of religious trust (RT) and transcendence perception operationalized as daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on the aforementioned relationship among religious individuals. We applied a cross-sectional study among a sample of 8594 pastoral workers using standardized questionnaires. Multiple regression and moderator analysis displayed the relationships between big five personality variables and sense of coherence. Neuroticism was identified as a negative predictor to sense of coherence, indicating impairment on this psychological resource. RT and DSE appear to function as moderators that buffer the negative effects of neuroticism on sense of coherence among religious persons. This is an interesting finding because people with expressions of neurotic personality tendencies often struggle to find helpful methods of coping and may find a helpful resource in the concepts studied here.

  5. Logarithmic coherence: Operational interpretation of ℓ1-norm coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti; Winter, Andreas; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    We show that the distillable coherence—which is equal to the relative entropy of coherence—is, up to a constant factor, always bounded by the ℓ1-norm measure of coherence (defined as the sum of absolute values of off diagonals). Thus the latter plays a similar role as logarithmic negativity plays in entanglement theory and this is the best operational interpretation from a resource-theoretic viewpoint. Consequently the two measures are intimately connected to another operational measure, the robustness of coherence. We find also relationships between these measures, which are tight for general states, and the tightest possible for pure and qubit states. For a given robustness, we construct a state having minimum distillable coherence.

  6. Principles Scientifiques, Principes Philosophiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Gaston Granger

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A principle is a starting point of departure as well as a rule. In science principles are either alleged evident rules or generalizations of already accepted laws, or formal determinations for objects in a given domain. Thus two problems arise: first, does their nature have a conventional character? and sencond, what kind of truth is to be assigned to them. In philosophy principles are taken as a method of thinking as well as fundamental experiences. Even though they are points of departure, their true meaning is known only after a philosophical job is done. Thus, paradoxically enough, we can say that in both science and philosophy a principle is at the same time in the begining and in the end.

  7. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  8. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  9. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  10. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  11. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Daniel eLakens

    2014-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977 Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived sim...

  12. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  13. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  14. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  15. Coherent states in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gazeau, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:

  16. Single-atom based coherent quantum interference device structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Borislav; Rungger, Ivan; Mantega, Mauro; Sanvito, Stefano; Boland, John J

    2015-05-13

    We describe the fabrication, operation principles, and simulation of a coherent single-atom quantum interference device (QID) structure on Si(100) controlled by the properties of single atoms. The energy and spatial distribution of the wave functions associated with the device are visualized by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and the amplitude and phase of the evanescent wave functions that couple into the quantum well states are directly measured, including the action of an electrostatic gate. Density functional theory simulations were employed to simulate the electronic structure of the device structure, which is in excellent agreement with the measurements. Simulations of device transmission demonstrate that our coherent single-atom QID can have ON-OFF ratios in excess of 10(3) with potentially minimal power dissipation.

  17. Modeling coherent cherenkov radio emissions from high energy electromagnetic showers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.

    1998-04-24

    A technique currently under study for the detection of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray neutrinos involves the measurement of radio emissions from the electromagnetic shower generated by the neutrino in a large volume of naturally occurring dielectric such as the Antarctic ice cap or salt domes. The formation of an electron excess in the shower leads to the emission of coherent Cherenkov radiation, an effect similar to the generation of wakefields in dielectric loaded structures. We have used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) wakefield code ARRAKIS to model coherent Cherenkov radiation fields from high energy showers; we present as an example calculations of expected signals in a proof of principle experiment proposed for the Fermilab Main Injector.

  18. Analyzing generalized coherent states for a free particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamache, Mustapha; Khatir, Abderrezak; Lakehal, Halim; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-08-01

    Despite the didactic importance of a free particle in quantum mechanics, its coherent state analysis has long been untouched. It is only recently that it has been noticed and studied in the semiclassical domain. While the previously known solutions, reported by Bagrov et al. for a free particle, are described using the linear non-Hermitian invariant operator, we show in this work that the general solution of the Schrödinger equation can also be naturally derived using a simpler method based on an Hermitian linear invariant operator. According to this, an exact Gaussian wave function that corresponds to a coherent state solution is obtained. An interpretation for such general quantum solution designated within the Lewis-Riesenfeld framework is provided and, further, quantum-classical correspondence principle for the system is reexamined.

  19. Analyzing generalized coherent states for a free particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamache, Mustapha; Khatir, Abderrezak; Lakehal, Halim; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-08-11

    Despite the didactic importance of a free particle in quantum mechanics, its coherent state analysis has long been untouched. It is only recently that it has been noticed and studied in the semiclassical domain. While the previously known solutions, reported by Bagrov et al. for a free particle, are described using the linear non-Hermitian invariant operator, we show in this work that the general solution of the Schrödinger equation can also be naturally derived using a simpler method based on an Hermitian linear invariant operator. According to this, an exact Gaussian wave function that corresponds to a coherent state solution is obtained. An interpretation for such general quantum solution designated within the Lewis-Riesenfeld framework is provided and, further, quantum-classical correspondence principle for the system is reexamined.

  20. Imaging at the X-ray Frontier: Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) for Nano and Bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jianwei (John)

    2013-03-01

    For centuries, lens-based microscopy, such as light, phase-contrast, fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy, has played an important role in the evolution of modern sciences and technologies. In 1999, a novel form of microscopy, i.e. coherent diffraction imaging (also termed coherent diffraction microscopy or lensless imaging) was developed and transformed our traditional view of microscopy, in which the diffraction pattern of a noncrystalline object or a nanocrystal is first measured and then directly phased to obtain a high resolution image. The well-known phase problem is solved by the oversampling method in combination with iterative algorithms whose principle can be traced back to the Shannon sampling theorem. In this talk, I will briefly discuss the principle of coherent diffraction imaging and illustrate its broad application in nano and bioscience by using synchrotron radiation, high harmonic generation and X-ray free electron lasers.

  1. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: A quantum heat engine picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killoran, N.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-10-21

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system’s power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle’s relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures.

  2. Does the Coherent Lidar System Corroborate Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Roychoudhari, Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    The NIW (non-interaction of waves) property has been proposed by one of the coauthors. The NIW property states that in the absence of any "obstructing" detectors, all the Huygens-Fresnel secondary wavelets will continue to propagate unhindered and without interacting (interfering) with each other. Since a coherent lidar system incorporates complex behaviors of optical components with different polarizations including circular polarization for the transmitted radiation, then the question arises whether the NIW principle accommodate elliptical polarization of light. Elliptical polarization presumes the summation of orthogonally polarized electric field vectors which contradicts the NIW principle. In this paper, we present working of a coherent lidar system using Jones matrix formulation. The Jones matrix elements represent the anisotropic dipolar properties of molecules of optical components. Accordingly, when we use the Jones matrix methodology to analyze the coherent lidar system, we find that the system behavior is congruent with the NIW property.

  3. Clinical experiences with optical coherence tomography in epithelial (pre)malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Ronni; Wessels, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate between normal tissue and (pre)malignant tissue in epithelial cancers. It can be divided in research performed in the genital area and the field of melanoma. Chapter 2 describes the principles of the

  4. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  5. Quantum entanglement and coherence in molecular magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiddiq, Muhandis

    Quantum computers are predicted to outperform classical computers in certain tasks, such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. The construction of a computer whose operation is based on the principles of quantum mechanics appears extremely challenging. Solid state approaches offer the potential to answer this challenge by tailor-making novel nanomaterials for quantum information processing (QIP). Molecular magnets, which are materials whose energy levels and magnetic quantum states are well defined at the molecular level, have been identified as a class of material with properties that make them attractive for quantum computing purpose. In this dissertation, I explore the possibilities and challenges for molecular magnets to be used in quantum computing architecture. The properties of molecular magnets that are critical for applications in quantum computing, i.e., quantum entanglement and coherence, are comprehensively investigated to probe the feasibility of molecular magnets to be used as quantum bits (qubits). Interactions of qubits with photons are at the core of QIP. Photons can be used to detect and manipulate qubits, after which information can then be transferred over long distances. As a potential candidate for qubits, the interactions between Fe8 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and cavity photons were studied. An earlier report described that a cavity mode splitting was observed in a spectrum of a cavity filled with a single-crystal of Fe8 SMMs. This splitting was interpreted as a vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), which is a signature of an entanglement between a large number of SMMs and a cavity photon. However, find that large absorption and dispersion of the magnetic susceptibility are the reasons for this splitting. This finding highlights the fact that an observation of a peak splitting in a cavity transmission spectrum neither represents an unambiguous indication of quantum coherence in a large number of spins, nor a signature of

  6. Compression as a Universal Principle of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni; Lusseau, David; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J.; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A key aim in biology and psychology is to identify fundamental principles underpinning the behavior of animals, including humans. Analyses of human language and the behavior of a range of non-human animal species have provided evidence for a common pattern underlying diverse behavioral phenomena: Words follow Zipf's law of brevity (the…

  7. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  8. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  9. Independence of scientific publishing. Reaffirming the principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, R A

    2000-09-01

    Historically, the American Psychological Association (APA), as part of its contract with the editors of APA journals, has granted to the editors sole responsibility to accept or reject manuscripts for publication, without such actions being open for review by APA. Such a policy fosters the freedom of inquiry and expression so necessary for a healthy science. It also serves to protect the Association because publication of an article in an APA journal does not represent endorsement by APA itself. The lessons of history are clear: When political or other pressures interfere with the autonomy of science, the societal and scientific consequences are grim. APA should reaffirm the principle that a healthy science of psychology requires an open exchange of ideas and findings.

  10. Ética na pesquisa em Psicologia: princípios, aplicações e contradições normativas Ética en la investigación en Psicología: principios, aplicaciones y contradicciones normativas Ethics in research in Psychology: principles, applications and normative contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Oliveira Borges

    2013-01-01

    tica realizado en el XIII Simposio de Investigación e Intercambio Científico en Psicología, promocionado por la Asociación Nacional de investigación y Posgrado en Psicología, el texto se vale del análisis interpretativo de documentos, que es confrontada con la experiencia de las autoras en investigación y con referencias bibliográficas. En síntesis, el texto sitúa la cuestión de la ética en la investigación ante el cuadro normativo existente en el País, desarrolla el análisis de los documentos normativos y sugiere algunas alternativas de acción teniendo en vista el perfeccionamiento del cuadro regulatorio.The controversies among researchers about the ethical and moral principles that guide the planning and the development of their activities with human beings have become more frequent. This article was elaborated with the objective of presenting reflections that might contribute to enlighten the contradictions of the ethical principles supported by psychologist researchers and which are related to the application of CNS Resolution nº 196/96 and to the content of Law Project nº 78/2006. This is an attempt to understand the meanings of such contradictions in the development of psychological research. The text was developed initially to contribute with the discussions of the Forum on Ethics held at the XIII Symposium of Research and Scientific Exchange in Psychology, sponsored by the National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology, and it consists in an interpretative analysis of documents, compared with the research experience of one of the authors and the review of literature. In short, the text deals with the question of ethics in research in relation to the norms set in the country, develops the analysis of institutional documents and suggests some alternatives of action aimed at improving the regulatory framework.

  11. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  13. Is psychological science a-cultural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2011-07-01

    The history of psychological science, as it has intersected with ethnoracial, cultural, and other marginalized domains of group difference, is replete with disinterest, dismissal, or denigration of these diverse forms of psychological experience. This has led some to wonder whether psychological science is a-cultural, or even anti-cultural in orientation. Assessment of this provocative proposition first requires exploration of three composite questions: (1) What is culture?, (2) What is science?, and (3) What is psychological science? Based on brief consideration of these composite questions--which are remarkably complex in their own right--I argue that psychological science is not, has never been, and indeed cannot in principle be a-cultural. Instead, like all forms of knowing, psychological science emerges at particular historical moments to achieve particular goals that are motivated by particular interests. Throughout much of the history of psychological science, these goals and interests were tied to ideologically suspect agendas that contemporary psychologists are right to repudiate. The interesting question becomes whether psychology's knowledge practices can be disentangled from this earlier ideological contamination to furnish the discipline with viable methods. I propose that psychological science can in fact be so disentangled; nevertheless, the resulting methods are never adopted or deployed outside of culturally constituted interests, objectives, and motivations, thereby requiring ongoing critical engagement with the subtexts of disciplinary knowledge production. In fact, there seem to be important ways in which psychology's scientific aspirations hobble disciplinary inquiry into the human condition that has motivated multicultural psychologists to consider alternative paradigms of inquiry.

  14. Reinforcement of genetic coherence in a two-locus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, H R; Steiner, W

    2001-01-01

    In order to maintain populations as units of reproduction and thus enable anagenetic evolution, genetic factors must exist which prevent continuing reproductive separation or enhance reproductive contact. This evolutionary principle is called genetic coherence and it marks the often ignored counterpart of cladistic evolution. Possibilities of the evolution of genetic coherence are studied with the help of a two-locus model with two alleles at each locus. The locus at which viability selection takes place is also the one that controls the fusion of gametes. The second locus acts on the first by modifying the control of the fusion probabilities. It thus acts as a mating modifier whereas the first locus plays the role of the object of selection and mating. Genetic coherence is enhanced by modifications which confer higher probabilities of fusion to heterotypic gametic combinations (resulting in heterozygous zygotes) at the object locus. It is shown that mutants at the mating modifier locus, which increase heterotypic fusions but do not lower the homotpyic fusions relative to the resident allele at the object locus, generally replace the resident allele. Since heterozygote advantage at the object locus is a necessary condition for this result to hold true, reinforcement of genetic coherence can be claimed for this case. If the homotypic fusions are lowered, complex situations may arise which may favor or disfavor the mutant depending on initial frequencies and recombination rates. To allow for a generalized analysis including alternative models of genetic coherence as well as the estimation of its degrees in real populations, an operational concept for the measurement of this degree is developed. The resulting index is applied to the interpretation of data from crossing experiments in Alnus species designed to detect incompatibility relations.

  15. Reinforcement of genetic coherence in a two-locus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Wilfried

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to maintain populations as units of reproduction and thus enable anagenetic evolution, genetic factors must exist which prevent continuing reproductive separation or enhance reproductive contact. This evolutionary principle is called genetic coherence and it marks the often ignored counterpart of cladistic evolution. Possibilities of the evolution of genetic coherence are studied with the help of a two-locus model with two alleles at each locus. The locus at which viability selection takes place is also the one that controls the fusion of gametes. The second locus acts on the first by modifying the control of the fusion probabilities. It thus acts as a mating modifier whereas the first locus plays the role of the object of selection and mating. Genetic coherence is enhanced by modifications which confer higher probabilities of fusion to heterotypic gametic combinations (resulting in heterozygous zygotes at the object locus. Results It is shown that mutants at the mating modifier locus, which increase heterotypic fusions but do not lower the homotpyic fusions relative to the resident allele at the object locus, generally replace the resident allele. Since heterozygote advantage at the object locus is a necessary condition for this result to hold true, reinforcement of genetic coherence can be claimed for this case. If the homotypic fusions are lowered, complex situations may arise which may favor or disfavor the mutant depending on initial frequencies and recombination rates. To allow for a generalized analysis including alternative models of genetic coherence as well as the estimation of its degrees in real populations, an operational concept for the measurement of this degree is developed. The resulting index is applied to the interpretation of data from crossing experiments in Alnus species designed to detect incompatibility relations.

  16. Coherent Lensless imaging with Ultra-Broadband Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikema K. S. E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method for efficient lensless imaging using ultra-broadband light sources. By using a pair of time-delayed, coherent pulses in a Fourier-transform scheme, spectrally resolved diffraction patterns are obtained throughout the entire spectrum of the incident light source. We perform a proof-of-principle experiment using an octave-spanning visible light source, and obtain images of a holographic test sample with near-diffraction limited resolution. Our approach provides a promising route towards efficient high-resolution imaging using table-top high-harmonic soft-X-ray sources.

  17. Interference due to coherence swapping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In quantum interference (first order) the important requirement is the coherence of a quantum state, which usually we tend to associate with a particle if it has come from a single source and made to pass through a double slit or through a suit- able device such as a beam splitter (as in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer).

  18. Coherent state quantization of quaternions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraleetharan, B., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Jaffna, Thirunelveli (Sri Lanka); Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.

  19. Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the form...

  20. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Leonard; Wolf, Emil

    1995-09-01

    The advent of lasers in the 1960s led to the development of many new fields in optical physics. This book is a systematic treatment of one of these fields--the broad area that deals with the coherence and fluctuation of light. The authors begin with a review of probability theory and random processes, and follow this with a thorough discussion of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics. They next treat the theory of photoelectric detection of light and photoelectric correlation. They then discuss in some detail quantum systems and effects. The book closes with two chapters devoted to laser theory and one on the quantum theory of nonlinear optics. The sound introduction to coherence theory and the quantum nature of light and the chapter-end exercises will appeal to graduate students and newcomers to the field. Researchers will find much of interest in the new results on coherence-induced spectral line shifts, nonclassical states of light, higher-order squeezing, and quantum effects of down-conversion. Written by two of the world's most highly regarded optical physicists, this book is required reading of all physicists and engineers working in optics.

  1. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  2. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  3. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  4. Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2011-03-01

    What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.

  5. Coherent source radius in ppbar collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Q. H.; Li, X. Q.

    1997-01-01

    We use a recently derived result to extract from two-pion interferometry data from $p\\bar{p}$ collisions the radius of the coherent component in the source. We find a coherent source radius of about $2 fm$.

  6. Coherence for vectorial waves and majorization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We show that majorization provides a powerful approach to the coherence conveyed by partially polarized transversal electromagnetic waves. Here we present the formalism, provide some examples and compare with standard measures of polarization and coherence of vectorial waves.

  7. Teaching/learning principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  8. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  9. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  10. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  11. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  12. Statistics As Principled Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Abelson, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    In this illuminating volume, Robert P. Abelson delves into the too-often dismissed problems of interpreting quantitative data and then presenting them in the context of a coherent story about one's research. Unlike too many books on statistics, this is a remarkably engaging read, filled with fascinating real-life (and real-research) examples rather than with recipes for analysis. It will be of true interest and lasting value to beginning graduate students and seasoned researchers alike. The focus of the book is that the purpose of statistics is to organize a useful argument from quantitative

  13. Sense of Coherence and Physical Health. The Emotional Sense of Coherence (SOC-E was Found to be the Best-Known Predictor of Physical Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Flensborg-Madsen

    2006-01-01

    health (r = 0.266; p < 0.05, while it was not significantly associated with psychological health (r = 0.006; NS. Based on a correlation matrix, we constructed a new scale, the SOC-E II, which was even better associated with physical health (r = 0.362 and also associated with psychological health (r = 0.259; p < 0.01. Our results showed that SOC-E and SOC-E II were better predictors of physical health than the SOC scales developed by Aaron Antonovsky (1923–1994 (SOC-29 and SOC-13. We conclude that emotional coherence is important for physical health, but it is not important in the same way for psychological health. In a previous study, we found that a mental operationalization of Antonovsky's sense of coherence was highly associated with psychological health and not associated with physical health. Based on these two studies, we conclude that physical health is primarily associated with emotions, while psychological health is primarily associated with mentality.

  14. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE SEMANTIC READING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE WITH A DIFFERENT OF SUCCESS OF THE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vitalevna Atrokhova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The paper regards the problem of the psychological structure of the semantic reading with different of success of the activity during elementary school study. Reading is activity. Activity has got of the psychological structure. The psychological structure of the semantic reading during elementary school study  develops in accordance with the laws of development activities.Methodology The research is based constitute the fundamental principles of the national psychology, psychological theory of activity, basic approaches and principles of system organization activities, the theoretical principles and methodology approach of the sistemoges,  i activities of research on the psychology of reading. Results The components of the psychological structure are identified. Some of the components are associated with successful execution of the semantic reading activities.Practical implicationsPsychologist can adjust development of the components are associated with successful execution of the psychological structure activities.

  15. On P-coherent endomorphism rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...

  16. Positive psychology and its contribution to the development of positive victimology

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljević-Prodanović Danica

    2015-01-01

    The development of positive psychology, a new direction in psychology, marked the beginning of a positive movement in the social sciences, having an impact on the development of criminology and victimology thought. This article presents basic principles of positive psychology, the study of positive emotions, positive character and institutions that make this possible. Additionally, the aim is to analyse the contribution of positive psychology to positive vi...

  17. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  18. METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION IN MODERN PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Кравець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been substantiated in this research, that alternative in pedagogy lies in the sources of its methodological basis – Philosophy and Psychology. The considered ideas of humanistic psychology have become a psychological basis for alternative education. A general classification of new alternatives of humanist pedagogy, and author’s model of alternative education have been introduced in the article. The methodological principles of formation and development of alternative education in Poland have been defined in this research.

  19. Design principles of photosynthetic light-harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Graham R; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S; Amarnath, Kapil; Zaks, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms are capable of harvesting solar energy with near unity quantum efficiency. Even more impressively, this efficiency can be regulated in response to the demands of photosynthetic reactions and the fluctuating light-levels of natural environments. We discuss the distinctive design principles through which photosynthetic light-harvesting functions. These emergent properties of photosynthesis appear both within individual pigment-protein complexes and in how these complexes integrate to produce a functional, regulated apparatus that drives downstream photochemistry. One important property is how the strong interactions and resultant quantum coherence, produced by the dense packing of photosynthetic pigments, provide a tool to optimize for ultrafast, directed energy transfer. We also describe how excess energy is quenched to prevent photodamage under high-light conditions, which we investigate through theory and experiment. We conclude with comments on the potential of using these features to improve solar energy devices.

  20. On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.

  1. Operator properties of generalized coherent state systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main properties of standard quantum mechanical coherent states and the two generalizations of Klauder and of Perelomov are reviewed. For a system of generalized coherent states in the latter sense, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a diagonal coherent stable representation for all Hilbert-Schmidt ...

  2. Zp-graded charge coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2014-06-01

    A new kind of charge coherent state called a Zp-graded charge coherent state is constructed by using the complex solution of the equation qp = 1. The p-1 charge operators are also explicitly constructed. We explicitly investigate some nonclassical properties for the Z3-graded charge coherent state.

  3. Coherent states for the Legendre oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.

    2003-01-01

    A new oscillator-like system called by the Legendre oscillator is introduced in this note. The two families of coherent states (coherent states as eigenvectors of the annihilation operator and the Klauder-Gazeau temporally stable coherent states) are defined and investigated for this oscillator.

  4. Principles of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Melvin

    1972-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.

  5. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that this commutator equals in which gave birth to quantum mechanics! We thus have a real quadratic expression ill a which can never be negative. So the discriminant '(b2 -4ac)' of the quadratic is negative or zero. This gives,. (3). Equation (3) looks like the uncertainty principle after taking the square root on both sides.

  6. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  8. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Uncertainty Principle? - Lilies can be Painted. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 24-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Spintronics-Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Spintronics - Principles. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 53-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/09/0053-0062. Keywords.

  10. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  11. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  12. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  13. Matters of Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    1999-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II.…

  14. The Handicap Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Handicap Principle is an idea proposed by the husband and wife scientist team of Amotz and Avishag Zahavi from. Israel in the 1970's. It is among the most innovative ideas of the 20th century in the field of behavioural biology and attempts to explain several long-standing puzzles that have baffled naturalists since the ...

  15. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  16. Reprographic Principles Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. B.

    Means for reproducing graphic materials are explained. There are several types of processes: those using light sensitive material, those using heat sensitive material, those using photo conductive materials (electrophotography), and duplicating processes using ink. For each of these, the principles behind them are explained, the necessary…

  17. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...

  18. On Rayleigh's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kurt Munk

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh's principle expresses that the smallest eigenvalue of a regular Sturm-Liouville problem with regular boundary conditions is the minimum value of a certain functional, the so called Rayleigh's quotient, and that this value is attained at the corresponding eigenfunctions only. This can...

  19. Ethical Principles and Standards: A Racial-Ethnic Minority Research Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. Manuel; Thompson, Chalmer E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses American Psychological Association's (APA, 1990) "Ethical Principles" and American Association for Counseling and Development's (AACD, 1988) "Ethical Standards" as they relate to racial-ethnic minorities. Contends that philosophical premises that underlie these principles and standards reflect solely majority culture…

  20. The Use of Informational Formats to Implement APA Ethical Principles in Collecting Classroom Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Providing more information about experimental studies than required under the ethical principles formulated by the American Psychological Association can result in data bias on a specific task; overall, however, the implementation of ethical principles has little effect on data collected in classroom settings. (RL)

  1. CυBE: Coherent υ Beam Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vivian Amos; Richardson, M.

    2017-03-01

    Holography has advanced rapidly over the years due to technical melioration in the field of optics. Three-dimensional imaging has gained importance to upgrade the existing imaging and display system. Holography has become one of the branches of optics gaining significant importance with a vast number of technical and industrial applications. When we address holography the first thing that comes to mind is projecting a three dimensional object on thin air. The word holography has always been confused between peppers ghost effect. The famous English phrase "A picture is worth a thousand words", means a complex idea can be conveyed by a single picture. The basic principle of holography sounds complex with all its technical terms. This paper aims to explain the concept of the CυBE: Coherent υ Beam Educator that contains a transmission hologram illuminated with a laser diode. This paper summarizes the construction details of the CυBE and the optical setup to record the transmission hologram. It also briefs the circuit connections for the laser diode that's works with an aid of a push button. When viewer presses the push button the original scene is reconstructed. It provides details regarding the angle of reference beam at recording and how the reference beam is compensated at reconstruction. Also this paper highlights how the magnification of the recorded image is affected with respect to the path length of the laser diode inside the box during reconstruction of the recorded hologram.

  2. Psychological adjustment to chronic disease and rehabilitation - an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Psychological adjustment has a major impact on chronic disease health outcomes. However, the classification of psychological adjustment is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We aim (i) to characterize the process of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, and (ii) to analyze how various categories of the psychological adjustment process could be incorporated into the ICF. We provide a summary of models of psychological adjustment to chronic disease. We also evaluate various options for incorporating categories of psychological adjustment into the ICF. Acute and ongoing illness stressors; emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses; personal background; and social and environmental background are major categories in the adjustment process. These categories could, in principle, be integrated with various components of the ICF. Any future revision of the ICF should explicitly incorporate psychological adjustment and its (sub)categories. The ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications will be required. Implications for Rehabilitation In the context of an ageing society and large numbers of people living with chronic diseases, it is essential to understand psychological adjustment to chronic disease. However, the classification of psychological adjustment to chronic disease is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We demonstrate that the ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications would first be required. We suggest that these adaptations and clarifications should be considered in any future revision of the ICF.

  3. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  4. The beauty of physics patterns, principles, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, A R P

    2014-01-01

    The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, t...

  5. Equivalence principle and quantum mechanics: quantum simulation with entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S.

    2018-01-01

    Einstein`s equivalence principle states the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and corresponding inertial field in an accelerated reference frame. However, to what extent the equivalence principle remains valid in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is a controversial issue. To avoid violation of the equivalence principle, Bargmann`s superselection rule forbids a coherent superposition of states with different masses. Here we suggest a quantum simulation of non-relativistic Schr\\"odinger particle dynamics in non-inertial reference frames, which is based on propagation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in curved and birefringent optical waveguides and Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference measurement. The photonic simulator can emulate superposition of mass states, which would lead to violation of the EP.

  6. Characterisation of dispersive systems using a coherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Pantelija M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of characterization of aluminium powders using a horizontal coherer has been considered. Al powders of known dimension were treated with a high frequency electromagnetic field or with a DC electric field, which were increased until a dielectric breakdown occurred. Using a multifunctional card PC-428 Electronic Design and a suitable interface between the coherer and PC, the activation time of the coherer was measured as a function of powder dimension and the distance between the coherer electrodes. It was also shown that the average dimension of powders of unknown size could be determined using the coherer.

  7. Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795

  8. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Gropp

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI, Locus of Control Inventory (LOC, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200 employees of a financial services company. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups on several of the wellness variables with the manager and White groups obtaining higher scores on these variables than their comparison groups. However, in respect of External Locus of Control, the non-manager and Black groups obtained the higher scores. Factor analytic results demonstrated that the wellness variables clustered in two correlated factors (r = 0,43 labeled psychological wellness and self-actualisation.

  9. Regulating Emotions during Difficult Multiattribute Decision Making: The Role of Pre-Decisional Coherence Shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephanie M; Yates, J Frank; Preston, Stephanie D; Chen, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Almost all real-life decisions entail attribute conflict; every serious choice alternative is better than its competitors on some attribute dimensions but worse on others. In pre-decisional "coherence shifting," the decision maker gradually softens that conflict psychologically to the point where one alternative is seen as dominant over its competitors, or nearly so. Specifically, weaknesses of the eventually chosen alternative come to be perceived as less severe and less important while its strengths seem more desirable and significant. The research described here demonstrates that difficult multiattribute decision problems are aversive and that pre-decisional coherence shifting aids individuals in regulating that emotional discomfort. Across three studies, attribute conflict was confirmed to be aversive (Study 1), and skin conductance responses and ratings of decision difficulty both decreased in participants who coherence shifted (Study 2). Coherence shifting was also diminished among decision makers who were depleted of regulatory resources, known to be required for common emotion regulation mechanisms. Further, coherence shifting was shown to be relatively common among people who reported strong suppression tendencies in everyday emotion regulation (Study 3). Overall, the data suggest that, at least in part, coherence shifting serves as a tool that helps decision makers manage the pre-decisional discomfort generated by attribute conflict. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  11. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  12. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  13. Coherence number as a discrete quantum resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Seungbeom

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a discrete coherence monotone named the coherence number, which is a generalization of the coherence rank to mixed states. After defining the coherence number in a manner similar to that of the Schmidt number in entanglement theory, we present a necessary and sufficient condition of the coherence number for a coherent state to be converted to an entangled state of nonzero k concurrence (a member of the generalized concurrence family with 2 ≤k ≤d ). As an application of the coherence number to a practical quantum system, Grover's search algorithm of N items is considered. We show that the coherence number remains N and falls abruptly when the success probability of a searching process becomes maximal. This phenomenon motivates us to analyze the depletion pattern of Cc(N ) (the last member of the generalized coherence concurrence, nonzero when the coherence number is N ), which turns out to be an optimal resource for the process since it is completely consumed to finish the searching task. The generalization of the original Grover algorithm with arbitrary (mixed) initial states is also discussed, which reveals the boundary condition for the coherence to be monotonically decreasing under the process.

  14. Operational resource theory of total quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-ren; Yu, Chang-shui

    2018-01-01

    Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics and is an important physical resource in quantum information. Recently, the resource theory of quantum coherence has been established parallel with that of entanglement. In the resource theory, a resource can be well defined if given three ingredients: the free states, the resource, the (restricted) free operations. In this paper, we study the resource theory of coherence in a different light, that is, we consider the total coherence defined by the basis-free coherence maximized among all potential basis. We define the distillable total coherence and the total coherence cost and in both the asymptotic regime and the single-copy regime show the reversible transformation between a state with certain total coherence and the state with the unit reference total coherence. Extensively, we demonstrate that the total coherence can also be completely converted to the total correlation with the equal amount by the free operations. We also provide the alternative understanding of the total coherence, respectively, based on the entanglement and the total correlation in a different way.

  15. The global coherence initiative: creating a coherent planetary standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Deyhle, Annette; Childre, Doc

    2012-03-01

    The much anticipated year of 2012 is now here. Amidst the predictions and cosmic alignments that many are aware of, one thing is for sure: it will be an interesting and exciting year as the speed of change continues to increase, bringing both chaos and great opportunity. One benchmark of these times is a shift in many people from a paradigm of competition to one of greater cooperation. All across the planet, increasing numbers of people are practicing heart-based living, and more groups are forming activities that support positive change and creative solutions for manifesting a better world. The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) is a science-based, co-creative project to unite people in heart-focused care and intention. GCI is working in concert with other initiatives to realize the increased power of collective intention and consciousness. The convergence of several independent lines of evidence provides strong support for the existence of a global information field that connects all living systems and consciousness. Every cell in our bodies is bathed in an external and internal environment of fluctuating invisible magnetic forces that can affect virtually every cell and circuit in biological systems. Therefore, it should not be surprising that numerous physiological rhythms in humans and global collective behaviors are not only synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity, but disruptions in these fields can create adverse effects on human health and behavior. The most likely mechanism for explaining how solar and geomagnetic influences affect human health and behavior are a coupling between the human nervous system and resonating geomagnetic frequencies, called Schumann resonances, which occur in the earth-ionosphere resonant cavity and Alfvén waves. It is well established that these resonant frequencies directly overlap with those of the human brain and cardiovascular system. If all living systems are indeed interconnected and communicate with each other

  16. Quantum coherences of indistinguishable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Jan; Perez-Leija, Armando; Busch, Kurt; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2017-09-01

    We study different notions of quantum correlations in multipartite systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles. Based on the definition of quantum coherence for a single particle, we consider two possible extensions of this concept to the many-particle scenario and determine the influence of the exchange symmetry. Moreover, we characterize the relation of multiparticle coherence to the entanglement of the compound quantum system. To support our general treatment with examples, we consider the quantum correlations of a collection of qudits. The impact of local and global quantum superpositions on the different forms of quantum correlations is discussed. For differently correlated states in the bipartite and multipartite scenarios, we provide a comprehensive characterization of the various forms and origins of quantum correlations.

  17. Entropic cohering power in quantum operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Hu, Ming-Liang; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Coherence is a basic feature of quantum systems and a common necessary condition for quantum correlations. It is also an important physical resource in quantum information processing. In this paper, using relative entropy, we consider a more general definition of the cohering power of quantum operations. First, we calculate the cohering power of unitary quantum operations and show that the amount of distributed coherence caused by non-unitary quantum operations cannot exceed the quantum-incoherent relative entropy between system of interest and its environment. We then find that the difference between the distributed coherence and the cohering power is larger than the quantum-incoherent relative entropy. As an application, we consider the distributed coherence caused by purification.

  18. Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels in consulting psychology/organizational consulting psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of these "Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Levels in Consulting Psychology/Organizational Consulting Psychology" is to provide a common framework for use in the development, evaluation, and review of education and training in consulting psychology/organizational consulting psychology (CP/OCP). The intent of these guidelines is to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the area of the practice of CP, especially OCP, within the scientific discipline and profession of psychology. Towards these ends, this document is intended as guidance for psychologists who teach or plan curricula for teaching CP/OCP at doctoral or postdoctoral levels of professional education and training in psychology. The guidelines are structured in the form of overarching principles, general competencies, and domain-specific competencies that are ideally obtained by persons receiving training at the doctoral or postdoctoral level in CP/OCP. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  19. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  20. Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappaerts, E; Baker, K; Gavel, D; Wilks, S; Olivier, S; Brase, J; Olivier, S; Brase, J

    2003-10-03

    Laboratory and field demonstration results obtained as part of the DARPA-sponsored Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting (CCIT) program are reviewed. The CCIT concept uses a Phase Conjugation Engine based on a quadrature receiver array, a hologram processor and a spatial light modulator (SLM) for high-speed, digital beam control. Progress on the enabling MEMS SLM, being developed by a consortium consisting of LLNL, academic institutions and small businesses, is presented.

  1. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  2. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  3. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  4. Hydrogeology: principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, K.

    2004-12-15

    Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology and the significance of groundwater in the terrestrial aquatic environment. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques and contaminant hydrogeology. A unique feature of the book is a chapter on the application of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including the possible impacts of climate change. Throughout the text, boxes are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies. The appendices provide useful reference material and include review questions and exercises to develop the reader's knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology. (author)

  5. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  6. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  7. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  8. Instantaneous coherence length measurement of a swept laser source using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Niederhäusern, Tim; Meier, Christoph; Duelk, Marcus; Vorreau, Philipp

    2011-03-01

    We present a measurement method which is capable of measuring the instantaneous coherence length as a function of the wavelength while the source is working at its full sweep rate. The measurement principle is based on the dynamic decrease of fringe contrast as a function of the optical path difference. The measurement setup consists of a free-space Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a variable optical path difference. We present results for instantaneous coherence lengths in a range from 0 mm to 50 mm with a mean standard deviation of 0.42 mm at sweep rates of up to 120 kHz.

  9. Experimental studies on coherent synchrotron radiation at an emittance exchange beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. T. Thangaraj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate experimentally the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy-chirped beam.

  10. Squeezed coherent states of motion for ions confined in quadrupole and octupole ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M.

    2018-01-01

    Quasiclassical dynamics of trapped ions is characterized by applying the time dependent variational principle (TDVP) on coherent state orbits, in case of quadrupole and octupole combined (Paul and Penning) or radiofrequency (RF) traps. A dequantization algorithm is proposed, by which the classical Hamilton (energy) function associated to the system results as the expectation value of the quantum Hamiltonian on squeezed coherent states. We develop such method and particularize the quantum Hamiltonian for both combined and RF nonlinear traps, that exhibit axial symmetry. We also build the classical Hamiltonian functions for the particular traps we considered, and find the classical equations of motion.

  11. Neuronal avalanches and coherence potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenz, D.

    2012-05-01

    The mammalian cortex consists of a vast network of weakly interacting excitable cells called neurons. Neurons must synchronize their activities in order to trigger activity in neighboring neurons. Moreover, interactions must be carefully regulated to remain weak (but not too weak) such that cascades of active neuronal groups avoid explosive growth yet allow for activity propagation over long-distances. Such a balance is robustly realized for neuronal avalanches, which are defined as cortical activity cascades that follow precise power laws. In experiments, scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics have been observed during spontaneous cortical activity in isolated preparations in vitro as well as in the ongoing cortical activity of awake animals and in humans. Theory, models, and experiments suggest that neuronal avalanches are the signature of brain function near criticality at which the cortex optimally responds to inputs and maximizes its information capacity. Importantly, avalanche dynamics allow for the emergence of a subset of avalanches, the coherence potentials. They emerge when the synchronization of a local neuronal group exceeds a local threshold, at which the system spawns replicas of the local group activity at distant network sites. The functional importance of coherence potentials will be discussed in the context of propagating structures, such as gliders in balanced cellular automata. Gliders constitute local population dynamics that replicate in space after a finite number of generations and are thought to provide cellular automata with universal computation. Avalanches and coherence potentials are proposed to constitute a modern framework of cortical synchronization dynamics that underlies brain function.

  12. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  13. Economic uncertainty principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.

  14. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  15. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  17. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  18. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  19. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  20. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  1. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  2. Industrial psychology aspects of power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peche, D.

    1980-08-01

    The paper gives a survey of the development of the negotiationes that have taken place from the beginning 1976 between representatives of BMI and VDWE to examine whether psychological qualification examinations for the shift personal of nuclear power plants will be appropriate. As a result it is shown that first- and reexaminations shall be carried out according principle 25, the psychological part of this examination should, however, be renounced to a still pending standardisation and testing. The more detailed examination of the sense organs, proposed on this occasion, will be defined by the representatives of VDEW by a new proposal. The routine psychological judgement along with a documentation of the superiors is, however, not considered suitable.

  3. [Co-therapy in intercultural clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocreau, Jean-Bernard; Martins-Borges, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Numerous clinicians practicing systemic psychotherapy have recognized the relevance of co-therapy, an intervention model involving at least two clinicians. Intercultural psychology and ethnopsychiatry have been inspired by the principles of co-therapy and have adapted it to the intercultural context. Our objective is to illustrate how co-therapy works in intercultural psychology, as it has been developed by the Specialized Psychological Services for Immigrants and for Refugees (SAPSIR). This intervention model facilitates the working through processes of mourning and of identity, important issues with migrant individuals. Finally, this practice cannot be reduced to the mere application of techniques including some cultural elements; it implies a special way of being in relationship with others, with oneself and with one's knowledge.

  4. Principles and Virtues: A Foundation for Ethical Decisions, Policies, and Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Naomi M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that integrating both principle ethics and virtue ethics into the professional standards of the counseling profession will provide a coherent structure for enhancing the ethical competence of psychologists and counselors. Virtue ethics, rooted in the narratives and aspirations of specific communities, can be particularly helpful to…

  5. Psychological Correlates of a Model of the Human Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model of the human visual system is investigated for psychological correlates. A priori hypotheses from the model concerned with human...identification of defocused letters as well as identification of rotated letters have been validated with the computer model. Gestalt principles of similarity...is also psychologically correlated. It is further postulated that the human perceptual space is the image domain from spatially filtered transforms of

  6. Quantitative coherence witness for finite dimensional states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huizhong; Lin, Anni; He, Siying; Hu, Xueyuan

    2017-12-01

    We define the stringent coherence witness as an observable whose mean value vanishes for all incoherent states but nonzero for some coherent states. Such witnesses are proved to exist for any finite-dimension states. Not only is the witness efficient in testing whether a state is coherent, but also its mean value can quantitatively reveal the amount of coherence. For an unknown state, the modulus of the mean value of a normalized witness provides a tight lower bound to the l1-norm of coherence. When we have some previous knowledge of a state, the optimal witness which has the maximal mean value is derived. It is proved that for any finite dimension state, the mean value of the optimal witness, which we call the witnessed coherence, equals the l1-norm of coherence. In the case that the witness is fixed and the incoherent operations are allowed, the maximal mean value can reach the witnessed coherence if and only if certain relations between the fixed witness and the initial state are satisfied. Our results provide a way to directly measure the coherence in arbitrary finite dimension states and an operational interpretation of the l1-norm of coherence.

  7. Examining the acceptance of and resistance to evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Carey J; Whitaker, Mitchell B

    2010-06-07

    The field of psychology remains a divided one. Several different sub-disciplines (e.g., developmental, cognitive, behaviorism, social, etc.) form what could be a unified scientific area. However, there is no widely accepted theory of unification. Charles Darwin once theorized that evolutionary theory would change the foundation of psychology; but over the years, evolutionary psychology has been met with hostile resistance from some of the prominent psychologists within the other sub-disciplines. Yet in recent years, all of the divided sub-disciplines of psychology have been slowly implementing evolutionary principles into their literature and research. This slow integration of evolutionary psychology into the other sub-disciplines indicates the possibility of a unified psychology with evolution as its foundation. This paper briefly reviews the literature within each major sub-discipline of psychology to show their implementation of evolutionary psychological theories, indicating the possibility of evolutionary psychology becoming the unifying paradigm upon which the entire field of psychology can be based. A call for action to continue this process is also discussed.

  8. Sense of coherence and hardiness as predictors of the mental health of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Kanekar, Amar; Atri, Ashutosh

    Psychological distress has a deleterious impact on the mental health of college students. The purpose of this study was to specify a theoretical, sense of coherence, and hardiness-based regression model to predict the mental health of college students. The instruments employed to build the model included the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale K-6, the Sense of Coherence-29, and the College Student Hardiness Measure. Data were collected from a sample of college students (n = 220) attending a Midwestern university. Each of the theoretical predictors regressed on mental health was deemed significant. Collectively, the significant predictors produced an R2 adjusted value of 0.434 (p mental health in the sample of participants. Qualitative cut-points were developed for each scale to aid in measurement of health promotion and education interventions designed to improve the mental health of college students.

  9. Sense of coherence: A distinct perspective on financial well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Barnard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the ongoing financial challenges being faced in the economic environment, research exploring financial and psychological well-being is of significant value because employees’ socio-economic behaviour affects productivity. Research emphasises mainly the effect of income level on psychological well-being, and its orientation to psychological well-being is narrowly derived from a focus on subjective well-being constructs. This study addresses the research gap by exploring the relationship dynamics between sense of coherence, income level and financial well-being. Secondary data were obtained from a cross-sectional online employee-wellness survey (n=7 185. The sample distribution included 66 per cent females and 34 per cent males from various age groups, with 46 per cent of the sample comprising single-household earners and 54 per cent sharing household income. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the relationship dynamics between sense of coherence, level of income and financial well-being. Demographic variables that formed part of the survey results were included in the analysis. The relationships between sense of coherence and identified significant income level, financial well-being and demographic effects were further explored in Bonferroni multiple comparisons of means test and cross reference frequency tables that included Pearson’s chi-square and/or Cochran–Armitage trend tests. Detail results indicate that high-income employees exhibit a significantly stronger sense of coherence than low-income employees, and that, despite level of income, financial wellbeing is nevertheless positively related to sense of coherence. Results indicate important implications for managing a financially healthy workforce. Limitations are discussed and recommendations for future research are highlighted.

  10. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  11. Transient hypofrontality as a mechanism for the psychological effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2006-11-29

    Although exercise is known to promote mental health, a satisfactory understanding of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been achieved. A new mechanism is proposed that is based on established concepts in cognitive psychology and the neurosciences as well as recent empirical work on the functional neuroanatomy of higher mental processes. Building on the fundamental principle that processing in the brain is competitive and the fact that the brain has finite metabolic resources, the transient hypofrontality hypothesis suggests that during exercise the extensive neural activation required to run motor patterns, assimilate sensory inputs, and coordinate autonomic regulation results in a concomitant transient decrease of neural activity in brain structures, such as the prefrontal cortex, that are not pertinent to performing the exercise. An exercise-induced state of frontal hypofunction can provide a coherent account of the influences of exercise on emotion and cognition. The new hypothesis is proposed primarily on the strength of its heuristic value, as it suggests several new avenues of research.

  12. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  13. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises......Although it has been widely recognized that the growth of women-owned businesses is central to wealth creation, innovation and economic development; limited attention has been devoted to understanding small business growth from a female perspective.This research seeks to develop an understanding...

  14. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  15. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  16. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  17. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  18. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  19. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  20. The psychology of Kant's aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to both his own intentions and the views of both older and more recent commentators. I argue that Kant's aesthetics remains within the confines of eighteenth-century aesthetics as a branch of empirical psychology, as it was then practiced. Kant established a plausible connection between aesthetic experience and judgment on the one hand and cognition in general on the other, through his explanatory concept of the free play of our cognitive powers. However, there is nothing distinctly 'a priori' or 'transcendental' in his claim that this state of mind is what causes our pleasure in beauty or other aesthetic properties. Nor did Kant establish a genuinely a priori or transcendental principle that all human beings have the same disposition to experience a free play of their cognitive powers, let alone in response to the same objects. This failure, however, in no way limits the continuing significance of Kant's aesthetic theory.

  1. Colloquium: Quantum coherence as a resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, Alexander; Adesso, Gerardo; Plenio, Martin B.

    2017-10-01

    The coherent superposition of states, in combination with the quantization of observables, represents one of the most fundamental features that mark the departure of quantum mechanics from the classical realm. Quantum coherence in many-body systems embodies the essence of entanglement and is an essential ingredient for a plethora of physical phenomena in quantum optics, quantum information, solid state physics, and nanoscale thermodynamics. In recent years, research on the presence and functional role of quantum coherence in biological systems has also attracted considerable interest. Despite the fundamental importance of quantum coherence, the development of a rigorous theory of quantum coherence as a physical resource has been initiated only recently. This Colloquium discusses and reviews the development of this rapidly growing research field that encompasses the characterization, quantification, manipulation, dynamical evolution, and operational application of quantum coherence.

  2. Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...

  3. Optimal switching using coherent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework for the analysis of coherent control in coupled optical cavity-waveguide systems. Within this framework, we use an analytically solvable model, which is validated by independent numerical calculations, to investigate switching in a micro cavity and demonstrate...... that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy....

  4. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ellen R K; Lakens, Daniël

    2014-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity.

  6. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  7. COHERENCE QUANTIQUE, DIFUSION MAGNETIQUE ET EFFETS TOPOLOGIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, François

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis are reported experimental results centered on the thematic of the electronic quantum coherence at very low temperatures, obtained by very precise measurements of the quantum correction to the classical electronic transport in metallic nanostructures. We have first studied the coherence effects in network of metallic one-dimensional wires. We have shown the influence on the coherence itself of the diffusion dimensionality. By going from a macroscopic conductor to a purely mesosc...

  8. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Leehwa

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a Hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states is investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  9. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  10. Isotopological Relaxation, Coherent Structures, and Gaussian Turbulence in Two-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isichenko, M B

    1994-01-01

    The long-time relaxation of ideal two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence subject to the conservation of two infinite families of constants of motion---the magnetic and the "cross" topology invariants--is examined. The analysis of the Gibbs ensemble, where all integrals of motion are respected, predicts the initial state to evolve into an equilibrium, stable coherent structure (the most probable state) and decaying Gaussian turbulence (fluctuations) with a vanishing, but always positive temperature. The non-dissipative turbulence decay is accompanied by decrease in both the amplitude and the length scale of the fluctuations, so that the fluctuation energy remains finite. The coherent structure represents a set of singular magnetic islands with plasma flow whose magnetic topology is identical to that of the initial state, while the energy and the cross topology invariants are shared between the coherent structure and the Gaussian turbulence. These conservation laws suggest the variational principle of i...

  11. Perceived social support and the sense of coherence in patient-caregiver dyad versus acceptance of illness in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Małgorzata; Dębska, Grażyna; Wojtyna, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Acceptance of illness is a significant determinant of further coping with a disease. Development of illness acceptance may be associated with the sense of coherence and perception of social support. Cancer is an example of a crisis situation, which affects both the patient and his/her close relatives. Consequently, acceptance of illness may be influenced by factors originating from both sides of caregiver-patient dyad. The aim of this study was to analyse direct and indirect interrelationships between perceived support and the sense of coherence in patient-caregiver dyad, and acceptance of illness in cancer patients. Cross-sectional study. The study included 80 dyads composed of cancer patients and their caregivers. Only cancer patients undergoing oncological treatment at the time of the study, for at least 3 months but no longer than 12 months, were enrolled. All subjects completed perceived support subscale included in the Berlin Social Support Scales, sense of coherence-29 questionnaire to determine the sense of coherence and Acceptance of Illness Scale. Compared to cancer patients, their caregivers presented with significantly lower levels of perceived social support and weaker sense of coherence. The sense of coherence in caregivers and patients was determined by their perceived support levels. The sense of coherence in caregivers turned out to be a key resource influencing acceptance of illness in cancer patients, both directly and indirectly, via their perceived social support and their sense of coherence. The sense of coherence, an intrinsic psychological factor determined by social support, is an important determinant of illness acceptance. Functioning of cancer patients is also modulated by psychosocial characteristics of their caregivers. Greater support offered to caregivers may substantially strengthen the sense of coherence in caregivers and cancer patients and, therefore, may improve the functioning of patient-caregiver dyad in a situation of

  12. The relationship between Counseling Psychology and Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...

  13. Coherently combining short data segments for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, Evan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments. For misaligned detectors, however, thi...

  14. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping

    2016-05-18

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  15. Electromagnetic theory of optical coherence [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-12-01

    The coherence theory of random, vector-valued optical fields has been of great research interest in recent years. In this work we formulate the foundations of electromagnetic coherence theory both in the space-time and space-frequency domains, with particular emphasis on various types of optical interferometry. Analyzing statistically stationary, two-component (paraxial) electric fields in the classical and quantum-optical contexts we show fundamental connections between the conventional (polarization) Stokes parameters and the associated two-point (coherence) Stokes parameters. Measurement of the coherence and polarization properties of random vector beams by nanoparticle scattering and two-photon absorption is also addressed.

  16. Operational Approach to Generalized Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    Generalized coherent states for general potentials, constructed through a controlling mechanism, can also be obtained applying on a reference state suitable operators. An explicit example is supplied.

  17. Coaching and The Sense of Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iwona Worsztynowicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to explain the idea of using coaching as a method of improving the level of the sense of coherence in the group of adult people. The sense of coherence is the central construct of Aaron Antonovsky`s Salutogenic Model. According to this model, the sense of coherence is the key determinant of health. Most relevant research supports Antonovsky`s idea, but there is still another important problem to solve: how to improve the strength of the sense of coherence in the group of adult people. Is it reasonable to consider using coaching as a forceful method of improving the SOC?

  18. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  19. Evolutionary psychology: A how-to guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David M G; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Asao, Kelly; Buss, David M

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in the social and behavioral sciences are increasingly using evolutionary insights to test novel hypotheses about human psychology. Because evolutionary perspectives are relatively new to psychology and most researchers do not receive formal training in this endeavor, there remains ambiguity about "best practices" for implementing evolutionary principles. This article provides researchers with a practical guide for using evolutionary perspectives in their research programs and for avoiding common pitfalls in doing so. We outline essential elements of an evolutionarily informed research program at 3 central phases: (a) generating testable hypotheses, (b) testing empirical predictions, and (c) interpreting results. We elaborate key conceptual tools, including task analysis, psychological mechanisms, design features, universality, and cost-benefit analysis. Researchers can use these tools to generate hypotheses about universal psychological mechanisms, social and cultural inputs that amplify or attenuate the activation of these mechanisms, and cross-culturally variable behavior that these mechanisms can produce. We hope that this guide inspires theoretically and methodologically rigorous research that more cogently integrates knowledge from the psychological and life sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Brazilian contributions to Community Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Jodelet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research current that has spread over Brazil: the Community Psychology that is now recognized as an autonomous subject and that is supported by Anglo-Saxon and European countries where national and international associations are being multiplied. The analysis of some aspects of this subject allows for outlining some relevant remarks to subsidize our discussion: values, principles and models of action that are common or specific in this discipline; aspects of social dimension to the approaches of Community Psychology and its places of observation and application.Este artigo apresenta uma tendência de pesquisa cuja radiação do Brasil é inegável: a Psicologia Comunitária, hoje reconhecida como uma disciplina autônoma e encontra eco nos países anglo-saxões e europeus, onde se multiplicam as associações nacionais e internacionais. O exame de alguns aspectos desta disciplina permite esboçar algumas observações relevantes para subsidiar nossa discussão: valores, princípios e modelos de ação que lhe são comuns ou específicos; aspectos relevantes para integrar a dimensão social nas abordagens de psicologia comunitária e seus lugares de observação e de aplicação.

  1. Optical coherence elastography in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Mitchell A; Pelivanov, Ivan; Song, Shaozhen; Ambrozinski, Łukasz; Yoon, Soon Joon; Gao, Liang; Li, David; Shen, Tueng T; Wang, Ruikang K; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) can provide clinically valuable information based on local measurements of tissue stiffness. Improved light sources and scanning methods in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have led to rapid growth in systems for high-resolution, quantitative elastography using imaged displacements and strains within soft tissue to infer local mechanical properties. We describe in some detail the physical processes underlying tissue mechanical response based on static and dynamic displacement methods. Namely, the assumptions commonly used to interpret displacement and strain measurements in terms of tissue elasticity for static OCE and propagating wave modes in dynamic OCE are discussed with the ultimate focus on OCT system design for ophthalmic applications. Practical OCT motion-tracking methods used to map tissue elasticity are also presented to fully describe technical developments in OCE, particularly noting those focused on the anterior segment of the eye. Clinical issues and future directions are discussed in the hope that OCE techniques will rapidly move forward to translational studies and clinical applications. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND REHABILITATION OF RECIPIENTS OF DONOR ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the nature of psychological adaptation and rehabilitation of patients, recipients of solid organs. The results of the clinical and psychological work with patients, recipients of donor organs, carried out in theSverdlovskRegionalClinicalHospital№ 1 are shown. Special attention has been paid to the study of motivation as the main psychological factor in the process of adaptation and rehabilitation. We have also shown the infl uence of body image and self-evaluation on the emotional state of patients after the operation. Special stress is laid on the significance of psychological factors which improve the quality of the patient’s life. The main principles and the system of psychological rehabilitation are presented. 

  3. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  4. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  5. Coherent states: a contemporary panorama Coherent states: a contemporary panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twareque Ali, S.; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bagarello, Fabio; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Coherent states (CS) of the harmonic oscillator (also called canonical CS) were introduced in 1926 by Schrödinger in answer to a remark by Lorentz on the classical interpretation of the wave function. They were rediscovered in the early 1960s, first (somewhat implicitly) by Klauder in the context of a novel representation of quantum states, then by Glauber and Sudarshan for the description of coherence in lasers. Since then, CS have grown into an extremely rich domain that pervades almost every corner of physics and have also led to the development of several flourishing topics in mathematics. Along the way, a number of review articles have appeared in the literature, devoted to CS, notably the 1985 reprint volume of Klauder and Skagerstam [1], the 1990 review paper by Zhang et al [2], the 1993 Oak Ridge Conference [3] and the 1995 review paper by Ali et al [4]. Textbooks also have been published, among which one might mention the ground breaking text of Perelomov [5] focusing on the group-theoretical aspects, that of Ali et al [6]1 analyzing systematically the mathematical structure beyond the group-theoretical approach and also the relation to wavelet analysis, that of Dodonov and Man'ko [7] mostly devoted to quantum optics, that of Gazeau [8] more oriented towards the physical, probabilistic and quantization aspects, and finally the very recent one by Combescure and Robert [9]. In retrospect, one can see that the development of CS has gone through a two-phase transition. First, the (simultaneous) discovery in 1972 by Gilmore and Perelomov that CS were rooted in group theory, then the realization that CS can be defined in a purely algebraic way, as an eigenvalue problem or by a series expansion (Malkin and Man'ko 1969, Barut and Girardello 1971, Gazeau and Klauder 1999; references to the original articles may be found in the textbooks quoted above). Both facts resulted in an explosive expansion of the CS literature. We thought, therefore, that the time was ripe

  6. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH IN NEUROEDUCATION STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nouri

    2016-01-01

    The present paper assembles contributions from the areas of education, psychology, cognitive science, and of course, neuroeducation itself to introduce the basic principles of research in the field of neuroeducation studies. It is particularly important, as such it is a useful way to justify researchers about what neuroeducation as a specific domain do that no other field can do as well or cannot do at all. Based on the literature reviewed, neuroeducational research can be understood as an inte...

  7. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Lane

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...

  8. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  9. No-Hypersignaling Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Tosini, Alessandro; Buscemi, Francesco; Vedral, Vlatko

    2017-07-14

    A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.

  10. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  11. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  12. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  13. System level electrochemical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-07-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  14. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  15. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  16. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  17. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    by analyzing the use of instruments to separate ownership from control across legal regimes in a sample of over 4,000 publicly traded firms from 14 Western European countries. First, we confirm the negative impact on firm value from disproportional ownership structures previously established in a sample......Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... of Asian firms by Claessens et al. (2002). Second, we show that dual class shares have a larger and more significant negative effect on firm value than pyramids and cross holdings. Third, we find that the impact of disproportionality and the underlying instruments is inversely related to the level...

  18. Psychological Intervention of Murophobia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yihun, A; Anand, P; Abebe, F

    2011-01-01

    .... Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders...

  19. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  20. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  2. Principles of rockbolting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie C. Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the principles of underground rockbolting design. The items discussed include underground loading conditions, natural pressure zone around an underground opening, design methodologies, selection of rockbolt types, determination of bolt length and spacing, factor of safety, and compatibility between support elements. Different types of rockbolting used in engineering practise are also presented. The traditional principle of selecting strong rockbolts is valid only in conditions of low in situ stresses in the rock mass. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are preferred in the case of high in situ stresses. A natural pressure arch is formed in the rock at a certain distance behind the tunnel wall. Rockbolts should be long enough to reach the natural pressure arch when the failure zone is small. The bolt length should be at least 1 m beyond the failure zone. In the case of a vast failure zone, tightly spaced short rockbolts are installed to establish an artificial pressure arch within the failure zone and long cables are anchored on the natural pressure arch. In this case, the rockbolts are usually less than 3 m long in mine drifts, but can be up to 7 m in large-scale rock caverns. Bolt spacing is more important than bolt length in the case of establishing an artificial pressure arch. In addition to the factor of safety, the maximum allowable displacement in the tunnel and the ultimate displacement capacity of rockbolts must be also taken into account in the design. Finally, rockbolts should be compatible with other support elements in the same support system in terms of displacement and energy absorption capacities.

  3. Independent component analysis based digital signal processing in coherent optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Ming; Qiu, Ying; Alphones, Arokiaswami; Zhong, Wen-De; Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Qi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, channel equalization techniques for coherent optical fiber transmission systems based on independent component analysis (ICA) are reviewed. The principle of ICA for blind source separation is introduced. The ICA based channel equalization after both single-mode fiber and few-mode fiber transmission for single-carrier and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation formats are investigated, respectively. The performance comparisons with conventional channel equalization techniques are discussed.

  4. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  5. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  6. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  7. Transforming Principles: Modern Irrelevance of the Principle of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-14

    strategist Carl von Clausewitz —an avid admirer of Napoleon’s military art. In fact, of all the principles of warfare, Clausewitz held mass as...Principles of War (Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Inst. of Tech., 2000), 88. 4 Carl von Clausewitz , Principles of War (Harrisburg, PA: The...Military Service Publishing Co., 1942), 12. 5 Carl von Clausewitz , On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 197. 3 the

  8. An integrative mechanistic account of psychological distress, therapeutic change and recovery: the Perceptual Control Theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Sally; Mansell, Warren; Wood, Alex M

    2011-03-01

    The exact nature and mechanisms of psychological change within psychological disorders remain unknown. This review aims to use a psychological framework known as Perceptual Control Theory (Powers, 1973, 2005; Powers, Clark, & McFarland, 1960) to integrate the diverse literature within psychotherapy research. The core principles of Perceptual Control Theory are explained, and key domains of psychotherapy are considered to explore how well they converge with these principles. The quantitative and qualitative empirical literature on the process of psychological change is reviewed to examine how it fits with predictions based on Perceptual Control Theory. Furthermore, the prerequisites for psychological change; client qualities, therapist qualities, the therapeutic alliance and the shifting of awareness, are also considered to examine their consistency within a Perceptual Control Theory account. Finally the strengths and limitations of a Perceptual Control Theory account in explaining the mechanism of psychological change are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review article Psychological aspects of heart failure – beyond depression, anxiety and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Siennicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The progression of heart failure (HF, similarly to other chronic and/or terminal diseases, affects the psychological status of the patients, with consequences for general well-being. The changes in psychological features can be measured and quantified using numerous psychological questionnaires, which do not establish any diagnosis of pathology, although they may be important for the effectiveness of applied treatment of patients with HF. In this paper, we summarize and discuss available evidence on psychological phenomena occurring in the course of HF, such as: ‘Type D’ personality, anxiety, psychological distress, coping strategies, sense of coherence, affectivity, sense of self-efficacy, sense of control and health perception, along with the presentation of available and validated measures of psychological features.

  10. The Development of an Undergraduate Study Abroad Program: Nicaragua and the Psychology of Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    In its recent report outlining principles for teaching undergraduate students in psychology, the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs recommended including experiential learning in the curriculum and identified study abroad opportunities as being particularly valuable. Unfortunately, although American universities offer…

  11. A brief history of Social Psychology and its contribution to health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of social psychology has been dogged by crises based on different approaches to understanding ... Akin-Ogundeji argued that the history of psychology in. Africa is synonymous with the history of colonialism. .... equity principles, with the result that the sustainability of the development project is compromised.

  12. Positive Psychology in Cross-Cultural Narratives: Mexican Students Discover Themselves While Learning Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.; Cuéllar, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Using the principles of positive psychology and the tools of narrative research, this article focuses on the psychology of five language learners who crossed cultural and linguistic borders. All five were university students learning Chinese in Mexico, and two of them also studied Chinese in China. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze…

  13. Investigating Positive Psychology Approaches in Case Management and Residential Programming with Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Lara E.; Morrison, William; Peterson, Patricia; Domene, Jose F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how a rural Canadian secure custody facility for youth implemented positive psychology principles in its case management protocols and residential programming. A directed content analysis design was utilized to identify specific factors of positive psychology in the facility's policy and programming manual, as well as in…

  14. Dendrite coherency point: determination and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldman, N.L.M.; St John, D.H. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); Dahle, A.K.; Arnberg, L. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the rheological properties of solidifying alloys have shown that the fraction solid at which dendrite coherency is reached varies systematically as a function of both alloy and solidification parameters. The coherency point of the alloys under investigation was determined in two different ways. Each method is based on indirect measurements of a physical property of the material which is assumed to undergo a significant liquid-solid transition at the dendrite coherency point. The coherency fraction solid for Al-Cu-Si alloys was found to decrease with increasing solute concentration. AA601 was found to have a higher coherency fraction solid than binary Al-7 wt%Si. Increasing the cooling rate was found to increase the coherency fraction solid of the alloys, as measured with the thermal analysis technique. Variation between the coherency fraction solids determined by rheological and thermal analysis methods are considered to be related to the different coherency criterion used in each experimental method. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Perception Coherence Zones in Vehicle Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    A perception coherence zone (PCZ) designates the range of inertial motion levels that, although not being a one-to-one match with the visual motion levels, are still considered by the subjects as being part of a coherent movement. Two types of PCZs were studied: amplitude PCZs and phase PCZs.

  16. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent states it is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state.

  17. Contrast in coherent raman scattering microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbacik, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is becoming a widely used technique for sub-micron, chemically-selective imaging at high rates of speed In this thesis I discuss three methods for increasing the specificity and selectivity of coherent Raman experiments. The first method is the

  18. Quantum Processes Which Do Not Use Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yadin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence, the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory of quantum coherence allows the formalization of incoherent operations—those operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these operations can always be constructed by the system interacting, in an incoherent way, with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the incoherent operations; thus, our results lead to a physically well-motivated resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two quantities in the operations that we study and suggest implications for the theory of quantum discord by relating these operations to those which cannot create discord.

  19. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...

  20. Martingale characterizations of coherent acceptability measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend

    2002-01-01

    The coherent risk framework is linked to martingale valuation by adding hedgeinvariance as a fifth axiom, motivated by the concept of consistent hedging. The resulting subclass, called coherent pre-hedge (CoPr) measures, is characterized by a martingale condition on the test set that underlies a