WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological biological physical

  1. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2-3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  3. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  4. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Job G; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon J; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2014-05-02

    Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and response efficacy (OR = 0

  5. Physics in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneppen, Kim; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2005-08-01

    Tools developed by statistical physicists are of increasing importance in the analysis of complex biological systems. Physics in Molecular Biology discusses how physics can be used in modeling life. It begins by summarizing important biological concepts, emphasizing how they differ from the systems normally studied in physics. A variety of topics, ranging from the properties of single molecules to the dynamics of macro-evolution, are studied in terms of simple mathematical models. The main focus of the book is on genes and proteins and how they build systems that compute and respond. The discussion develops from simple to complex systems, and from small-scale to large-scale phenomena. This book will inspire advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics to approach biological subjects from a physicist's point of view. It is self-contained, requiring no background knowledge of biology, and only familiarity with basic concepts from physics, such as forces, energy, and entropy. Introduces important biological concepts from a physicist's point of view - no background knowledge of biology is required A wide range of subjects are studied using simple mathematical models; exercises are included Discussion develops from simple to complex phenomena and from small scale to large scale interactions

  6. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  7. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  8. System as metaphor in the psychology and biology of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, R

    1996-01-01

    Biological theories of brain and psychological theories of mind are two systems of explanation that seem related to one another. The nature of the relationship is problematic and constitutes the age-old mind-body problem. The most prominent solutions currently are variations of materialism. While psychological theories can be consistent with materialism, there remains a difficulty in comprehending nonphysical (social, psychological) causes of physical effects. This difficulty is an obstacle to integration in psychiatry, where we routinely assume that illnesses that include or depend on biological dysfunction are caused multifactorially by causal agents such as perceived parental warmth, parental loss, stressful life events, genetics, and personality (Hammen et al. 1992; Kendler et al. 1993). Unity theory adopts the stance that neurobiological theories and psychological theories are essentially disparate explanations of the same psychobiological events; thus the relationship of mind to brain is one of shared reference (Goodman 1991; Maunder 1995). In Goodman's model the gap between biological and psychological systems is not bridgeable. Different conceptual categories refer to the same referents but cannot interact with each other. Stepping into the breach, systems theory has been presented as offering a language that can bridge the gap between psychological and biological theories of causation (Schwartz 1981; Weiner 1989). Thus, there is a controversy about the applicability of systems theory for integration in psychiatry.

  9. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  10. Psychological and Biological Perspectives on Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the case for viewing altruism as an inherent part of human nature. Postulates an altruistic disposition or motive to act which is under the control of perceptual and cognitive processes. Presents psychological evidence complementing this view. Discusses social implications of a biological basis for human altruism. (RH)

  11. Examining the nature of retrocausal effects in biology and psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Multiple laboratories have reported physiological and psychological changes associated with future events that are designed to be unpredictable by normal sensory means. Such phenomena seem to be examples of retrocausality at the macroscopic level. Here I will discuss the characteristics of seemingly retrocausal effects in biology and psychology, specifically examining a biological and a psychological form of precognition, predictive anticipatory activity (PAA) and implicit precognition. The aim of this examination is to offer an analysis of the constraints posed by the characteristics of macroscopic retrocausal effects. Such constraints are critical to assessing any physical theory that purports to explain these effects. Following a brief introduction to recent research on PAA and implicit precognition, I will describe what I believe we have learned so far about the nature of these effects, and conclude with a testable, yet embryonic, model of macroscopic retrocausal phenomena.

  12. The Physics behind Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radde Nicole E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems Biology is a young and rapidly evolving research field, which combines experimental techniques and mathematical modeling in order to achieve a mechanistic understanding of processes underlying the regulation and evolution of living systems. Systems Biology is often associated with an Engineering approach: The purpose is to formulate a data-rich, detailed simulation model that allows to perform numerical (‘in silico’ experiments and then draw conclusions about the biological system. While methods from Engineering may be an appropriate approach to extending the scope of biological investigations to experimentally inaccessible realms and to supporting data-rich experimental work, it may not be the best strategy in a search for design principles of biological systems and the fundamental laws underlying Biology. Physics has a long tradition of characterizing and understanding emergent collective behaviors in systems of interacting units and searching for universal laws. Therefore, it is natural that many concepts used in Systems Biology have their roots in Physics. With an emphasis on Theoretical Physics, we will here review the ‘Physics core’ of Systems Biology, show how some success stories in Systems Biology can be traced back to concepts developed in Physics, and discuss how Systems Biology can further benefit from its Theoretical Physics foundation.

  13. Physical and psychological violence against infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of physical and psychological violence against women with female factor infertility.Materials and methods: A total of 400 women with primary infertility attending the Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran, were interviewed using the conflict tactics Scales (CTS2 questionnaire to investigate their experiences of physical and psychological violence.Results: The prevalence of psychological violence was 135 (33.8%, followed by physical 56 (14%. All women reported their husbands to be the perpetrators.Conclusion: Clinicians should identify the abused women and provide them with medical care and supportive counseling.

  14. Positive Psychology and Quality Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts of positive psychology related to quality physical education. Positive psychology and the scientific study of happiness refer to three paths or pursuits: the pleasant life (positive emotion), the engaged life (engagement), and the meaningful life (meaning). When individuals are aware of, pursue,…

  15. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  16. Teaching Physiological Psychology versus Teaching Biological Psychology: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Josephine F.

    1991-01-01

    Examines 539 undergraduate course catalogs to determine the percentage of institutions offering courses in physiological psychology, biological psychology, both, or neither. Finds 64.1 percent of the institutions studied offered physiological psychology, and 11.3 percent offer biological psychology. Finds catalog descriptions reveal confusion over…

  17. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  18. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kleiber scaling in the previous paragraph has the growth in Q kept smaller in spite of the high power dependence on R in eq. (1). 4. Conclusions. The arguments that have been advanced so far by pre- vious authors swing to extremes at either end. Thus, the rich variety and diversity in biology, including of scaling exponents ...

  19. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to ...

  20. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  1. [Physical methods and molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, I N

    2009-01-01

    The review is devoted to the description of the current state of physical and chemical methods used for studying the structural and functional bases of living processes. Special attention is focused on the physical methods that have opened a new page in the research of the structure of biological macromolecules. They include primarily the methods of detecting and manipulating single molecules using optical and magnetic traps. New physical methods, such as two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and magnetic resonance microscopy are also analyzed briefly in the review. The path that physics and biology have passed for the latest 55 years shows that there is no single method providing all necessary information on macromolecules and their interactions. Each method provides its space-time view of the system. All physical methods are complementary. It is just complementarity that is the fundamental idea justifying the existence in practice of all physical methods, whose description is the aim of the review.

  2. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of six months duration since diagnosis. Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Exercise Self-efficacy Scale were used to assess psychological factors while the Stage of Change for Exercise Behaviour scale assessed physical exercise behaviour. Information including age, gender, ...

  3. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hockey players perceived themselves as having more positive relations with others and sport competence than either health club members or runners. The relevance of these findings and further implications for health and sport psychological research and interventions were discussed. Keywords: physical activity ...

  4. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  5. The Psychology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Biological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mantosh J

    2016-08-01

    The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes. A coherent psychological model (the deficit model) based on object relations theory best explains all the biological, psychological, clinical, and sociocultural factors relevant to the understanding and treatment of persons with schizophrenia. A better understanding of a coherent psychology of persons with schizophrenia and provision of psychotherapies improves both the biological and psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with schizophrenia.

  6. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  7. Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2008-01-01

    Published as a chapter in Van Hezewijk, R. (2003). Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws. In N. Stephenson, L. Radtke, R. Jorna & H. J. Stam (Eds.), Theoretical psychology; Critical contributions (pp. 405-415). Concord, Ontario: Captus Press.

  8. Physical and psychological aspects of women selfperception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Fialová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research "Body image as a part of active life style" was to explore the meaning of several aspects of physical and psychological self and satisfaction with them. We are interested in the degree of meaning, satisfaction, control and chance for change. The article analyses the relation of 866 women (18-60 years old to their own body and health and to the own ideas and feelings. The monitored women feel considerable discrepancy between the importance of several items related to their body and psyche and between the satisfaction with them. The largest disproportion in the evaluation of importance and satisfaction was discovered at the life without fear, fright and tense (49 %. A big discrepancy was founded also at physical activities and fitness (32 %. The control over body and psyche perceive more than 60 % of the women, spirituality is a little more controlled than corporality. Contentment was evaluated less than control, opportunity and importance. More than 60 % of women showed dissatisfaction with the aspects of body and psyche. We have to learn to know the worth of our self and care of own progress in relation and limits of individual occasions. The satisfaction with the self is a ground of physical and psychological well - being.

  9. Time in physics and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO GÜNTHER

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with classical physics, particularly with Sir Isaac Newton, where time is a continuous function, generally valid, eternally and evenly flowing as an absolute time dimension, in the biological sciences, time is in essence of cyclical nature (physiological periodicities, where future passes to past through an infinitely thin boundary, the present. In addition, the duration of the present (DP leads to the so-called 'granulation of time' in living beings, so that by the fusion of two successive pictures of the world, which are not entirely similar, they attain the perception of 'movement,' both in the real world as well as in the sham-movement in the mass media (TV.

  10. Philosophy, Psychology, Physics and Practice of Ki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Ki (in Japanese) or Qi (in Chinese) is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are ‘non-linearity’ and ‘holistic’ approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a ‘Ki-beam’ carries ‘entropy’ (or information), which is different from ‘energy’. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week) of practice. PMID:18955316

  11. Philosophy, Psychology, Physics and Practice of Ki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ki (in Japanese or Qi (in Chinese is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are ‘non-linearity’ and ‘holistic’ approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a ‘Ki-beam’ carries ‘entropy’ (or information, which is different from ‘energy’. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week of practice.

  12. Dissociating intuitive physics from intuitive psychology: Evidence from Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Battaglia, Peter; Landau, Barbara; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2017-11-01

    Prior work suggests that our understanding of how things work ("intuitive physics") and how people work ("intuitive psychology") are distinct domains of human cognition. Here we directly test the dissociability of these two domains by investigating knowledge of intuitive physics and intuitive psychology in adults with Williams syndrome (WS) - a genetic developmental disorder characterized by severely impaired spatial cognition, but relatively spared social cognition. WS adults and mental-age matched (MA) controls completed an intuitive physics task and an intuitive psychology task. If intuitive physics is a distinct domain (from intuitive psychology), then we should observe differential impairment on the physics task for individuals with WS compared to MA controls. Indeed, adults with WS performed significantly worse on the intuitive physics than the intuitive psychology task, relative to controls. These results support the hypothesis that knowledge of the physical world can be disrupted independently from knowledge of the social world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical exercise and psychological wellness in health club members

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...

  14. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  15. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Fred; Bruggeman, Frank; Jonker, Catholijn; Looren de Jong, Huib; Tamminga, Allard; Treur, Jan; Westerhoff, Hans; Wijngaards, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an *empirical* turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on *a priori* discussions of inter-level relations between “completed” sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  16. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology, and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren de Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between 'completed' sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  17. Interlevel Relations in Computer Science, Biology, and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; de Jong, H. Looren; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  18. Inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Looren De Jong, H.; Tamminga, A.M.; Treur, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into inter-level relations in computer science, biology and psychology call for an empirical turn in the philosophy of mind. Rather than concentrate on a priori discussions of inter-level relations between "completed" sciences, a case is made for the actual study of the way

  19. Causal tapestries for psychology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, William H

    2012-04-01

    Archetypal dynamics is a formal approach to the modeling of information flow in complex systems used to study emergence. It is grounded in the Fundamental Triad of realisation (system), interpretation (archetype) and representation (formal model). Tapestries play a fundamental role in the framework of archetypal dynamics as a formal representational system. They represent information flow by means of multi layered, recursive, interlinked graphical structures that express both geometry (form or sign) and logic (semantics). This paper presents a detailed mathematical description of a specific tapestry model, the causal tapestry, selected for use in describing behaving systems such as appear in psychology and physics from the standpoint of Process Theory. Causal tapestries express an explicit Lorentz invariant transient now generated by means of a reality game. Observables are represented by tapestry informons while subjective or hidden components (for example intellectual and emotional processes) are incorporated into the reality game that determines the tapestry dynamics. As a specific example, we formulate a random graphical dynamical system using causal tapestries.

  20. Bridging Physics and Biology Teaching through Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Brian A. Couch; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hinko, Kathleen; Marcos D. Caballero

    2013-01-01

    As the frontiers of biology become increasingly interdisciplinary, the physics education community has engaged in ongoing efforts to make physics classes more relevant to life sciences majors. These efforts are complicated by the many apparent differences between these fields, including the types of systems that each studies, the behavior of those systems, the kinds of measurements that each makes, and the role of mathematics in each field. Nonetheless, physics and biology are both sciences t...

  1. Importing the homology concept from biology into developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David S

    2013-01-01

    To help introduce the idea of homology into developmental psychology, this article presents some of the concepts, distinctions, and guidelines biologists and philosophers of biology have devised to study homology. Some unresolved issues related to this idea are considered as well. Because homology reflects continuity across time, developmental scientists should find this concept to be useful in the study of psychological/behavioral development, just as biologists have found it essential in the study of the evolution and development of morphological and other characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intermediate physics for medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2015-01-01

    This classic text has been used in over 20 countries by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, neuroscience, and biomedical engineering. It bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and the application of physics to the life and biomedical sciences. Extensively revised and updated, the fifth edition incorporates new developments at the interface between physics and biomedicine. New coverage includes cyclotrons, photodynamic therapy, color vision, x-ray crystallography, the electron microscope, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, nanomedicine, and other topics highlighted in the National Research Council report BIO2010. As with the previous edition, the first half of the text is primarily biological physics, emphasizing the use of ideas from physics to understand biology and physiology, and the second half is primarily medical physics, describing the use of physics in medicine for diagnosis (mainly imaging) and therapy. Among the m...

  3. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  4. Psychology of Physical Activity: What Should Students Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Penny; Wilson, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The assignment for the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education was to define the psychology subdiscipline of kinesiology. Ten undergraduate sport and exercise psychology textbooks, 27 undergraduate course syllabi, and three articles which examined the most popular contents of prominent journals were…

  5. Ambivalence over Expressing Emotion: Psychological and Physical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Robert A.; King, Laura

    Ambivalence about expressing emotion has been suggested as mediating the relationship between inhibition and psychological and psychosomatic distress. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of ambivalence over emotional expression to psychological and physical well-being through the "personal striving" framework. Measures of…

  6. Leisure-time physical activity and some psychological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is vital to ensure adequate physical work capacity for the demands of daily living and job performance. Due to work demand, most top and middle level (executive) managerial employees become physically inactive and experience psychological and other health problems ...

  7. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  8. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic modelling Part 1 – Anoxic-aerobic C and N removal in the activated sludge system. ... The biological processes in ASM1 were modified to take into account the effect of the interaction of the weak acid/base species of the ammonia, carbonate and phosphate ...

  9. Psychological, social and biological alterations in the climacteric woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Regina de Vasconcelos Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During a long time, the understanding and the treatment of the symptoms and upset of the climacteric were attributed to the modifications of physical order with emotional reflexes. This work tried to identify the most frequent psychological, social and biological alterations in the climacteric, seeking to the adaptation and effectiveness of the nursing interventions.It is a study of exploratory and descriptive character that tends, as main focus, to know and to contribute for the solution of the problems of the group of the climacteric women. The collection of data was accomplished through interviews, of the which took part in 36 women in the climacteric and post-climacteric phases that frequented the Center of Health, in Fortaleza–CE, selected in the consultations of nursing during the months of November of 2001 to January of 2002. We verified that 25 of the women said to feel irritability, 23, feel fatigues; 22, anxiety, 19, decrease of the libido; 21, stress, 20, insomnia and, 20, depression. On the other hand, we noticed that 24 women felt several changes related to the companion, indicating the couple’s sexual frigidity, abuse and the partner’s isolation and decrease of the libido, associated to the discomforts in the sexual act. Besides, we observed in the depositions that only 05 women understood that the climacteric is a phase of cares and treatments, while 24 demonstrated total ignorance on the subject. This in the group to end that there is deficiency of information in the services of health and that, in practice of nursing, prevention measures and attention should be implemented to the climacteric women, with base in their perceptions and experiences, for help them to overcome the difficulties of the situation.

  10. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura López Angulo; Yenisley Fundora Quintero; Anais Valladares González; Yamila Ramos Rangel; Yanet Blanco Fleites

    2015-01-01

    .... This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods...

  11. Physical Attractiveness Research. Toward a Developmental Social Psychology of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)

  12. Physics and Size in Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1989-01-01

    Described is the subject of biological scaling for physics teachers including examples and in-depth reading. Topics are elements of scaling, terminal velocities, Lilliputian and Brobdingnagian, brain evolution, dolphin echolocation, surface tension, gravity change, food and oxygen, and seeing. Ten references on physics and size, and ten questions…

  13. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-25

    Apr 25, 2005 ... mixed weak acid/base chemical physical (CP) model of Musvoto et al. (1997, 2000a), all the processes and compounds were cate- gorised into chemical (C), physical (P) and biological (B) groups and subgroups (Table 1). This was done for ease of discussion of the assembly of a particular integrated ...

  14. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-05

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. © 2014 Shekhar, Zhu, Mazutis, Sgro, Fai, and Podolski. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Mindfulness and its Role in Physical and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazak, Michael; Critelli, Joseph; Martin, Luci; Miranda, Vanessa; Purdum, Michael; Powers, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationships of mindfulness, a form of focused self-awareness, with physical and psychological health. Mindfulness was measured in terms of four stable forms of awareness: Observe, an awareness of internal and external stimuli; Describe, an ability to verbally express thoughts clearly and easily; Act with Awareness, the tendency to focus on present tasks with undivided attention; and Accept without Judgment, the tendency to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward one's own thoughts and emotions. These aspects of mindfulness were explored in relation to both physical health, which consisted of heart rate variability, a measure of overall cardiovascular health, and psychological health, which consisted of flourishing, existential well-being, negative affect, and social well-being in a sample of 506 undergraduate students. Individuals high in mindfulness showed better cardiovascular health and psychological health. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Developmental dynamics: toward a biologically plausible evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2003-11-01

    There has been a conceptual revolution in the biological sciences over the past several decades. Evidence from genetics, embryology, and developmental biology has converged to offer a more epigenetic, contingent, and dynamic view of how organisms develop. Despite these advances, arguments for the heuristic value of a gene-centered, predeterministic approach to the study of human behavior and development have become increasingly evident in the psychological sciences during this time. In this article, the authors review recent advances in genetics, embryology, and developmental biology that have transformed contemporary developmental and evolutionary theory and explore how these advances challenge gene-centered explanations of human behavior that ignore the complex, highly coordinated system of regulatory dynamics involved in development and evolution.

  17. Perspective: Reaches of chemical physics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebele, Martin; Thirumalai, D

    2013-09-28

    Chemical physics as a discipline contributes many experimental tools, algorithms, and fundamental theoretical models that can be applied to biological problems. This is especially true now as the molecular level and the systems level descriptions begin to connect, and multi-scale approaches are being developed to solve cutting edge problems in biology. In some cases, the concepts and tools got their start in non-biological fields, and migrated over, such as the idea of glassy landscapes, fluorescence spectroscopy, or master equation approaches. In other cases, the tools were specifically developed with biological physics applications in mind, such as modeling of single molecule trajectories or super-resolution laser techniques. In this introduction to the special topic section on chemical physics of biological systems, we consider a wide range of contributions, all the way from the molecular level, to molecular assemblies, chemical physics of the cell, and finally systems-level approaches, based on the contributions to this special issue. Chemical physicists can look forward to an exciting future where computational tools, analytical models, and new instrumentation will push the boundaries of biological inquiry.

  18. Gilbert Gottlieb: intermediator between psychology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jay S

    2007-12-01

    This article describes and evaluates Gilbert Gottlieb's role as an intermediator between psychology and evolutionary biology. He proposed that altered developmental conditions gave rise to new behavioral phenotypes (behavioral neophenotypes) that could provide the basis for initiating speciation. As an example, Gottlieb cited sympatric speciation of two species of fruit flies (Rhageletis pomella), which he believed was based on an ontogenetic shift in pupal feeding on apples or hawthorn fruit which determined their adult selection of apple or hawthorn trees for ovipositing. Recent evidence has provided additional links in the process of speciation of these fruit flies. Unlike other efforts to incorporate evolution in psychology, Gottlieb's theoretical contribution was based on actual evolutionary processes including recent developments in the field of evo-devo.

  19. Psychological and physical effects of pain on cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of pain and its psychological and physical effects on cancer patients. Method: We ... Sixty-eight (32.4%) subjects had breast cancer, 59 (28.1%) had cervical cancer, 40 (19.0%) had colon/rectal cancer while the remaining ..... physical treatments like radiotherapy and surgery. Sexual.

  20. Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2007-01-01

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, cell biology, and biomedical engineering, this wide-ranging text bridges the gap between introductory physics and its application to the life and biomedical sciences. This extensively revised and updated fourth edition reflects new developments at the burgeoning interface between physics and biomedicine. Among the many topics treated are: forces in the skeletal system; fluid flow, with examples from the circulatory system; the logistic equation; scaling; transport of neutral particles by diffusion and by solvent drag; membranes and osmosis; equipartition of energy in statistical mechanics; the chemical potential and free energy; biological magnetic fields; membranes and gated channels in membranes; linear and nonlinear feedback systems; nonlinear phenomena, including biological clocks and chaotic behavior; signal analysis, noise and stochastic resonance detection of weak signals; image formation and...

  1. Bridging physics and biology teaching through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Couch, Brian A.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hinko, Kathleen A.; Caballero, Marcos D.

    2014-05-01

    As the frontiers of biology become increasingly interdisciplinary, the physics education community has engaged in ongoing efforts to make physics classes more relevant to life science majors. These efforts are complicated by the many apparent differences between these fields, including the types of systems that each studies, the behavior of those systems, the kinds of measurements that each makes, and the role of mathematics in each field. Nonetheless, physics and biology are both sciences that rely on observations and measurements to construct models of the natural world. In this article, we propose that efforts to bridge the teaching of these two disciplines must emphasize shared scientific practices, particularly scientific modeling. We define modeling using language common to both disciplines and highlight how an understanding of the modeling process can help reconcile apparent differences between the teaching of physics and biology. We elaborate on how models can be used for explanatory, predictive, and functional purposes and present common models from each discipline demonstrating key modeling principles. By framing interdisciplinary teaching in the context of modeling, we aim to bridge physics and biology teaching and to equip students with modeling competencies applicable in any scientific discipline.

  2. Biology is more theoretical than physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2013-06-01

    The word "theory" is used in at least two senses--to denote a body of widely accepted laws or principles, as in "Darwinian theory" or "quantum theory," and to suggest a speculative hypothesis, often relying on mathematical analysis, that has not been experimentally confirmed. It is often said that there is no place for the second kind of theory in biology and that biology is not theoretical but based on interpretation of data. Here, ideas from a previous essay are expanded upon to suggest, to the contrary, that the second kind of theory has always played a critical role and that biology, therefore, is a good deal more theoretical than physics.

  3. Strange Bedfellows; Physical and Biological Oceanographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    When I started graduate study at Scripps in 1947, both the text, "The Oceans", and the curriculum - all students took the introductory courses in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology - conspired to create awareness of the interactions among these fields. In their preface, the authors spoke of the book as "an aid to the beginner and specialist alike in the coordination of the various fields of oceanography." Harald Sverdrup, perhaps the best known physical oceanographer of his day, introduced us to the interdisciplinary organization, ICES, wrote an important paper (1953) on "the vernal blooming of phytoplankton", and together with fishery biologist O.E.Sette, launched the world renowned CalCOFI program. Another noted physical oceanographer, Henry Stommel, 1949, teamed up with biologist Gordon Riley in a major study of the quantitative ecology of plankton. At the time, physical and biological oceanographers often seemed to be engaged in the same mission. The curriculum format, with its four basic courses, spread to most other graduate programs in oceanography, but the forces of specialization also spread. While the biological oceanographers have always seen the need to understand the milieu within which their creatures function, the physicists often seemed to chafe against wasting their time on squishy subjects like biology when there were so many more important and fascinating things to study. Interactions were further complicated by the confusion between "biological oceanography" and "marine biology", and by the status of "fishery biology" which was often disdained by oceanographers of all stripes. I propose to discuss the evolution of the relationship among these fields during the 60 years since "The Oceans" was first published, concluding with the present marriage of convenience, or at least amicable co-habitation, forced by the widespread concern over the threat of global warming and the need to understand its consequences. It has become clear that

  4. Social and Psychological Factors Associated With Adolescent Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.

  5. Thioctic Acid: Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1956-04-02

    This paper constitutes a review of the experimental events that led our laboratory to focus its attention on thioctic acid, a discussion of some of the purely chemical and physical properties of thioctic acid that this awakened interest prompted us to investigate, and a brief description of some of our recent biological investigations with thioctic acid.

  6. Physical activity and psychological health in breast cancer survivors: an application of basic psychological needs theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-11-01

    The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Physical and psychological effects from supervised aerobic music exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Paulin, Johan; Aasa, Ulrika

    2013-11-01

    To assess the physical and psychological effects across 11 weeks of music-exercise sessions, the participants' training experience, and attitudes towards physical activity. The effect of different music information was also investigated. Overall, 146 sedentary volunteers were randomized into 4 exercise groups and each group received different music information. Physical capacity and psychological measures were obtained. Increased performance in oxygen uptake and flexibility and decreased blood pressure was found. Participants reported increased wellbeing and body-awareness, and an intention to remain physically active. No differences between groups were found. Music-exercise can be recommended to promote physical activity among sedentary individuals. The amount of musical information in synchronous music seems not to have any effects on self-selected intensity or physiological benefits.

  8. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  9. Young Children's Physical and Psychological Well-Being through Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…

  10. Some physical and psychological aspects of noise attenuation by vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Aylor

    1977-01-01

    The physical mechanisms governing sound attenuation by foliage, stems, and ground are reviewed. Reflection of sound energy is found to be the primary mechanism. In addition, new experimental results are discussed that help to quantify the psychological effect of a plant barrier on perceived noise level. Listeners judged the loudness of noise transmitted through hemlock...

  11. Differential effects of physical and psychological stressors on electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, A S; Joy, Jose; Preejith, S P; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2017-07-01

    Stress being labelled by WHO as "the health epidemic of 21st century" need to be treated as a clarion call for devising strategies that aim at its early detection, for the reason that stress is the cause as well as the catalyst for several chronic human health disorders. The work reported here in is a progression towards the development of a stress detection system based on the electrodermal activity (EDA) in humans, which can further be incorporated into a wearable vital signs monitor. The utility of EDA as a potential physiological measure for classifying physical and psychological stressors is analyzed in this paper. A group of 12 subjects (8 males and 4 females, age: 25.4 ± 3.1 years, mean ± SD) volunteered to participate in a laboratory stress task that included a psychological stressor close to real life work stress scenario and a physical stressor. The capability of stressors to elicit persistent stress response was validated by assessing variations in salivary cortisol levels. EDA was monitored throughout the experiment sessions as a measure of sympathetic activation in subjects. Six classification models were investigated concerning their usability to distinguish physical and psychological stressors based on EDA. A maximum accuracy of 95.1% was achieved using linear discriminat analysis (LDA) based classifier which imply that EDA is indeed a potential discriminate measure to classify physical and psychological stress responses. Furthermore, the best feature combination for maximum classification accuracy was also determined.

  12. Physical and Psychological Maltreatment: Relations among Types of Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Angelika H.; Crittenden, Patricia M.

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 175 maltreated children (mean age 51.9 months), 39 children in mental health treatment, and 176 normative children was assessed for type and severity of maltreatment. Results showed that psychological maltreatment was present in almost all cases of physical maltreatment and was more related to detrimental child outcome than was…

  13. of biological, physical and chemical impurities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    storage of fluoride water sample with 6 mg/l or fluoride in clay pot resulted in reduction to 4.22 mg/l, 243 mg/1 and 1.4 mg/1 ... can remove biological, physical and fluoride contaminants (fecal coliform, color and fluoride) up to a level recommended ..... complete elimination of organisms in the metal bucket could be due to the ...

  14. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, HP; Stone, JA; Churchill, SM; Wheat, JS; Brymer, E; Davids, K

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activ...

  15. Bridging Physics and Biology Using Resistance and Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    When teaching physics, it is often difficult to get biology-oriented students to see the relevance of physics. A complaint often heard is that biology students are required to take physics for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) as part of a "weeding out" process, but that they don't feel like they need physics for biology. Despite…

  16. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  17. Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M; Limber, Susan P

    2013-07-01

    To examine the relationship between children's and adolescents' experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying and psychological health, physical health, and academic performance. Nine hundred thirty-one students in grades 6 through 12 completed an anonymous survey examining their experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Also included were measures of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, physical well-being, school attendance, and academic performance. Participants were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: cyber victims, cyberbullies, cyber bully/victims, and those not involved in cyberbullying. A similar categorization was done with traditional bullying. Those in the bully/victim groups (and particularly the cyber bully/victim group) had the most negative scores on most measures of psychological health, physical, health, and academic performance. There appears to be a substantial, although not perfect, overlap between involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Additionally, the physical, psychological, and academic correlates of the two types of bullying resembled one another. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Biology : challenges for our second decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    It is quite an honor to be asked to become the third editor-in-chief of Physical Biology . I am following in the footsteps of Tim Newman, who served with energy and enthusiasm. Hopefully, the entire community fully appreciates his contributions to moving the field forward. Thank you, Tim! With the honor, however, goes a clear responsibility. Our journal has survived its birth pangs and emerged as a serious venue for publishing quality research papers using physical science to address the workings of living matter. With the support of scientists in this field and with the ongoing commitment of the IOP, we have successfully reached adolescence. Yet, there is clearly much room to grow and there are clear challenges in defining and maintaining our special niche in the publishing landscape. In this still-developing state, the journal very much mimics the state of the field of physical biology itself. Few scientists continue to question the relevance of physical science for the investigation of the living world. But, will our new perspective and the methods that come with it really lead to radically new principles of how life works? Or, will breakthroughs continue to come from experimental biology (perhaps aided by the traditional physicist-as-tool-builder paradigm), leaving us to put quantitative touches on established fundamentals? In thinking about these questions for the field and for the journal, I have tried to understand what is really unique about our joint endeavors. I have become convinced that living matter represents a new challenge to our physical-science based conceptual framework. Not only is it far from equilibrium, as has been generally recognized, but it violates our simple notions of the separability of constituents, their interactions and the resulting large-scale behavior. Unlike, say, atomic physicists who can do productive research while safely ignoring the latest developments in QCD (let alone particle physics at higher energies), we do not yet

  19. Physical Biology : challenges for our second decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    It is quite an honor to be asked to become the third editor-in-chief of Physical Biology . I am following in the footsteps of Tim Newman, who served with energy and enthusiasm. Hopefully, the entire community fully appreciates his contributions to moving the field forward. Thank you, Tim! With the honor, however, goes a clear responsibility. Our journal has survived its birth pangs and emerged as a serious venue for publishing quality research papers using physical science to address the workings of living matter. With the support of scientists in this field and with the ongoing commitment of the IOP, we have successfully reached adolescence. Yet, there is clearly much room to grow and there are clear challenges in defining and maintaining our special niche in the publishing landscape. In this still-developing state, the journal very much mimics the state of the field of physical biology itself. Few scientists continue to question the relevance of physical science for the investigation of the living world. But, will our new perspective and the methods that come with it really lead to radically new principles of how life works? Or, will breakthroughs continue to come from experimental biology (perhaps aided by the traditional physicist-as-tool-builder paradigm), leaving us to put quantitative touches on established fundamentals? In thinking about these questions for the field and for the journal, I have tried to understand what is really unique about our joint endeavors. I have become convinced that living matter represents a new challenge to our physical-science based conceptual framework. Not only is it far from equilibrium, as has been generally recognized, but it violates our simple notions of the separability of constituents, their interactions and the resulting large-scale behavior. Unlike, say, atomic physicists who can do productive research while safely ignoring the latest developments in QCD (let alone particle physics at higher energies), we do not yet

  20. Psychological and physical distress of cancer patients during radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    König, A

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: patients undergoing radiotherapy have physical and psychological symptoms related to the underlying disease and the treatment. In order to give the best possible support to the patients, more knowledge about the amount and the changing of distress in the course of radiotherapy is of essentially importance. Methods: The distress was measured in a consecutive sample of cancer patients (n=82) undergoing radiotherapy. Each patient was given the EORTC-QLQ-C30, the HADS and a special questionnaire which ascertain radiotherapy-specific items before starting the radiotherapy, at the onset of radiotherapy, in the third week of radiotherapy and 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: within the first week of treatment the psychological distress of the patients is increasing; 98.8 % of the patients are 'moderate distressed', 46 % 'severe distressed'. General physical symptoms seem not to be affected by the radiotherapy, there is no changing. The distress caused by the organization of the radiotherapy is...

  1. Traction force microscopy in physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; German, Guy K; Hyland, Callen; MacMinn, Christopher W; Mertz, Aaron F; Wilen, Larry A; Xu, Ye; Dufresne, Eric R

    2014-06-21

    Adherent cells, crawling slugs, peeling paint, sessile liquid drops, bearings and many other living and non-living systems apply forces to solid substrates. Traction force microscopy (TFM) provides spatially-resolved measurements of interfacial forces through the quantification and analysis of the deformation of an elastic substrate. Although originally developed for adherent cells, TFM has no inherent size or force scale, and can be applied to a much broader range of mechanical systems across physics and biology. In this paper, we showcase the wide range of applicability of TFM, describe the theory, and provide experimental details and code so that experimentalists can rapidly adopt this powerful technique.

  2. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  3. Body and Soul: Do Children Distinguish between Foods When Generalizing Biological and Psychological Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Nguyen, Simone P.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: In 2 experiments, we tested whether children generalize psychological and biological properties to novel foods. We used an induction task in which a property (either biological or psychological) was associated with a target food. Children were then asked whether a taxonomically related and a script-related food would also have…

  4. Customary physical activity and psychological wellbeing: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K; Bath, P A

    1998-12-01

    to assess longitudinal relationships between habitual levels of physical activity and indices of psychological wellbeing in older people. baseline assessment with 4- and 8-year follow-ups. 1042 people originally aged 65 and over randomly sampled from general practitioner lists in Nottingham, UK. logistic regression analysis of selected T1 (1985) and T2 (1989) variables, with depression at T2 as dependent; multiple regression analyses of selected T1, T2 and T3 (1993) variables, with life satisfaction at T2 (model 1) or T3 (model 2) as dependent. questionnaire-assessed levels of physical activity; 14-item Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression scale; 13-item Life Satisfaction Index; health, demographic and social activity variables. in the logistic regression model, depression at T2 was most strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 7.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.25-15.64; P physical health status (OR = 1.26 per unit change in score; 95% CI = 1.17-1.42; P activities at T1 were also associated with some increased risk of depression 4 years later (OR = 0.92 per hour of activity; 95% CI = 0.85-0.99; P physical activity (as walking and housework) did contribute significantly, although modestly, to longitudinal changes in morale. while the results provide some support for the conclusion that physical activity contributes independently to the promotion and maintenance of psychological wellbeing in later life, this contribution is, at best, extremely modest.

  5. The Cytoskeleton: Mechanical, Physical, and Biological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This workshop, entitled "The Cytoskeleton: Mechanical, Physical, and Biological Interactions," was sponsored by the Center for Advanced Studies in the Space Life Sciences at the Marine Biological Laboratory. This Center was established through a cooperative agreement between the MBL and the Life Sciences Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To achieve these goals, the Center sponsors a series of workshops on various topics in the life sciences. Elements of the cytoskeleton have been implicated in the effects of gravity on the growth of plants fungi. An intriguing finding in this regard is the report indicating that an integrin-like protein may be the gravireceptor in the internodal cells of Chara. Involvement of the cytoskeleton in cellular graviperception of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes has also been reported. Although the responses of mammalian cells to gravity are not well documented, it has been proposed that integrins can act as mechanochemical transducers in mammalian cells. Little is known about the integrated mechanical and physical properties of cytoplasm, this workshop would be the best place to begin developing interdisciplinary approaches to the effects of mechanical stresses on cells and their most likely responsive cytoplasmic elements- the fibrous proteins comprising the cytoskeleton.

  6. Biological, psychological and social processes in the conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews recent evidence on the causes and maintenance of aggressive and disruptive behaviours in childhood and adolescence. It considers the relative merits of several different ways of conceptualising such problems, in relation to the contribution of biological, psychological and social factors. It focuses on conduct problems appearing in young childhood, which greatly increase the likelihood of persistent antisocial behaviours in adolescence and adult life in association with wider interpersonal and social role impairments. It considers the contribution of individual factors, including impaired verbal skills, deficits in executive functions, and an imbalance between behavioural activation and inhibition systems. These are viewed in interaction with commonly associated environmental disadvantages such as hostile or intrusive parenting. The roles of attributional biases, unrealistic self-evaluations, and insecure attachment are considered in relation to affect regulation, and effective social action. The contributions of the wider social environments of peers, neighbourhood and socio-economic conditions are evaluated. The paper concludes that, although considerable progress has been made over the past ten years, there is a need to further refine our conceptualisation of the behaviours to be explained, to develop a coherent theory of the causal and maintaining processes, and to carry out prospective studies with adequate numbers of high risk children.

  7. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. © 2011 Cook et al.

  8. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Cook

    Full Text Available As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB, a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  9. Physical and psychological health in rare cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horick, Nora K; Manful, Adoma; Lowery, Jan; Domchek, Susan; Moorman, Patricia; Griffin, Constance; Visvanathan, Kala; Isaacs, Claudine; Kinney, Anita Y; Finkelstein, Dianne M

    2017-02-01

    Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness. Combining all patients into a single analysis, regression was used to evaluate the association between outcomes and socio-demographic and clinical factors. Median time since diagnosis was 3 years (range 0-9); 69 % were no longer in treatment. Poorer physical health was reported in registrants who were older at diagnosis, unmarried, and still in treatment. Poorer mental status was associated with younger diagnosis age and unmarried status. Psychological distress varied by cancer type and was higher among currently treated and unmarried registrants. Greater loneliness was reported in registrants with gynecological cancers, and those who were less educated or unmarried. The physical and mental health profile of rare cancer survivors is similar to what is reported for common cancers. Unmarried participants reported poorer outcomes on all measures of quality of life. Furthermore, physical and mental health were not significantly different by cancer type after adjustment for diagnosis age, whether currently in treatment and marital status. Thus, the combined analysis performed here is a useful way to analyze outcomes in less common diseases. Our findings could be valuable in guiding evaluation and intervention for issues impacting quality of life. Rare cancer survivors, particularly those without spousal support, should be monitored for challenges to the physical as well as psychological aspects of quality of life.

  10. Physics and Biology Collaborate to Color the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2013-01-01

    To understand how life works, it is essential to understand physics and chemistry. Most biologists have a clear notion of where chemistry fits into their life sciences research and teaching. Although we are physical beings, physics does not always find a place in the biology curriculum. Physics informs and enlightens biology in myriad dimensions,…

  11. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  12. Radiation Physics, Biophysics and Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, H. H.; Hall, E. J.

    1978-02-01

    Research under Contract EY-76-C-02-3243 has been carried out in the area of Radiation Physics, Biophysics and Radiation Biology. During the period of this contract the major accomplishments include, in Physics, the refinement of tissue equivalent dosimetry, the formulation of the concepts of microdosimetry, the development of apparatus used in microdosimetry, and the development of ionization chambers with internal gas multiplication. Principal contributions in Radiobiology have included the determination of RBE and OER as a function·of neutron energy, the study of combined effects of radiation and a variety of other agents, and the investigation of the transformation of cells in tissue culture. Theoretical research centered around the development of the theoretical framework of microdosimetry and the establishment of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action. In a cooperative effort with Brookhaven National Laboratory, a major accelerator facility dedicated exclusively to Radiobiology and Radiation Physics, has been developed. Members of the laboratory have performed extensive. service to national and international organizations.

  13. Biological Movement and Laws of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2017-07-01

    Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance. Stability of actions can be controlled independently of the actions (e.g., anticipatory synergy adjustments). Unintentional actions reflect relaxation processes leading to drifts of corresponding referent coordinates in the absence of changes in external load. Implications of this general framework for movement disorders, motor development, motor skill acquisition, and even philosophy are discussed.

  14. Biological Physics : Poincaré seminar

    CERN Document Server

    Bio-physique : séminaire Poincaré

    2011-01-01

    This new volume in the Poincaré Seminar Series, describing recent developments at the interface between physics and biology, is directed towards a broad audience of physicists, biologists, and mathematicians. Both the theoretical and experimental aspects are covered, and particular care is devoted to the pedagogical nature of the presentations. The first survey article, by Jean-Francois Joanny and Jacques Prost, describes the theoretical advances made in the study of "active gels", with applications to liquid crystals and cell motility. Jasper van der Gucht and Cécile Sykes then report on recent advances made with biomimetic model systems in the understanding of cytokinesis. The next article, by Jonathon Howard, presents several molecular models for motor proteins, which are compared with experimental results for kinesin. David Lacoste and Kirone Mallick then show theoretically that similar ratchet models of motor proteins naturally satisfy a fundamental time-reversal symmetry, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuat...

  15. Bridging Evolutionary Biology and Developmental Psychology: Toward An Enduring Theoretical Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Tiokhin, Leonid

    2018-01-16

    Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. In evolutionary biology, formal mathematical models are the norm. In developmental psychology, verbal models are the norm. In order to reach its potential, evolutionary developmental psychology needs to embrace formal modeling. © 2018 The Authors. Child Development © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. The universal numbers. From Biology to Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    I will explain how the mathematicians have discovered the universal numbers, or abstract computer, and I will explain some abstract biology, mainly self-reproduction and embryogenesis. Then I will explain how and why, and in which sense, some of those numbers can dream and why their dreams can glue together and must, when we assume computationalism in cognitive science, generate a phenomenological physics, as part of a larger phenomenological theology (in the sense of the greek theologians). The title should have been "From Biology to Physics, through the Phenomenological Theology of the Universal Numbers", if that was not too long for a title. The theology will consist mainly, like in some (neo)platonist greek-indian-chinese tradition, in the truth about numbers' relative relations, with each others, and with themselves. The main difference between Aristotle and Plato is that Aristotle (especially in its common and modern christian interpretation) makes reality WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get: reality is what we observe, measure, i.e. the natural material physical science) where for Plato and the (rational) mystics, what we see might be only the shadow or the border of something else, which might be non physical (mathematical, arithmetical, theological, …). Since Gödel, we know that Truth, even just the Arithmetical Truth, is vastly bigger than what the machine can rationally justify. Yet, with Church's thesis, and the mechanizability of the diagonalizations involved, machines can apprehend this and can justify their limitations, and get some sense of what might be true beyond what they can prove or justify rationally. Indeed, the incompleteness phenomenon introduces a gap between what is provable by some machine and what is true about that machine, and, as Gödel saw already in 1931, the existence of that gap is accessible to the machine itself, once it is has enough provability abilities. Incompleteness separates truth and provable, and machines can

  17. Identifying Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in Childhood that Jeopardize Mental Health in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…

  18. The Physical and Psychological Health of Migrants in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Chen PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the health of migrants in 4 types of neighborhood in the city of Guangzhou in China. The research shows that the health of internal migrants in urban villages and private housing neighborhoods is much better than those living in older inner city neighborhoods (which are known as jiefang shequ and unit neighborhoods (which are known as danwei. The reasons behind this are the facts that the migrants in urban villages tend to be relatively young and there tend to be better social and economic conditions in the private housing neighborhood. Moreover, among the 4 kinds of neighborhood, the gap between psychological health and physical health is the largest in urban villages. In addition, migrants who are younger, have better working conditions, and have higher levels of education have better health scores, and they tend to have more friends in the city, larger houses, better insurance, and more satisfaction with their neighborhood relationships, and they tend to be better adapted to urban life. As for the determinants of health, individual characteristics, community factors, and insurance are the most important factors. Specifically, individual age and age of housing have negative influences on physical health while insurance has a positive effect. This study shows that the type of neighborhood that migrants live in has a great impact on their psychological health, which can be improved by promoting neighborhood environments. Last, we propose that it is necessary to implement different strategies in different communities.

  19. Psychology, biology and the market place: response to John Radford’s 'Psychology in its place'

    OpenAIRE

    Dickins, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    This article is a response to John Radford's 'Psychology in its place'. The author argues that psychologists should pay attention to those in the human evolutionary behavioural sciences because academic psychology must be allowed to pursue scientific methods and follow particular interests as the market of ideas dictates in the interests of intellectual progress.

  20. Understanding How Students Use Physical Ideas in Introductory Biology Courses

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Jessica; Redish, Edward; Cooke, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The University of Maryland (UMD) Biology Education and Physics Education Research Groups are investigating students' views on the role of physics in introductory biology courses. This paper presents data from an introductory course that addresses the fundamental principles of organismal biology and that incorporates several topics directly related to physics, including thermodynamics, diffusion, and fluid flow. We examine how the instructors use mathematics and physics in this introductory biology course and look at two students' responses to this use. Our preliminary observations are intended to start a discussion about the epistemological issues resulting from the integration of the science disciplines and to motivate the need for further research.

  1. Mission, physical, and war stressors' impact on aircrew psychological strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetz, Thomas A; Stetz, Melba C; Turner, David D

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the relative impact of the organization of missions on aircrew well-being. Using an occupational stress model we investigate a previously little studied concept of mission stressors and determine its relative impact in comparison to physical and war stressors in the prediction of four strains in deployed aircrews. Questionnaires were completed by 272 deployed in-aircraft crewmembers. Three new stressors were developed for this study: mission stressors, physical stressors, and war stressors. In addition, four strains were measured: PTSD, depression, sleepiness, and nervousness. Regression analyses were used to examine the relative impact of each stressor on the four strain measures while controlling for age and occupation. All three stressors played a significant role in the prediction strains with the total explained variance in the analyses ranging from 15% and 39%. Interestingly, mission stressors played the most important role in the prediction of strains possessing the largest partial eta squared in each analysis. The second most important stressor was physical stressors followed by war stressors. The importance of mission stressors may be because current training is designed to inoculate crewmembers to stressors such as the physical/environmental conditions and violent war actions, but there is no training or acknowledgment of the importance of dealing with mission stressors. Our findings suggest it might be beneficial for commanders to address these stressors, as it may improve short-term psychological well-being, which may ultimately impact mission success and safety.

  2. Physics with illustrative examples from medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Benedek, George B

    Physics: with illustrative examples from medicine and biology is a three-volume set of textbooks in introductory physics written at the calculus level and designed primarily for students with career objectives in the life sciences.

  3. Incest: the psychological problem and the biological contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, C H

    1989-01-01

    We have yet to map an "inbreeding avoider" gene or design a psychological test that can accurately diagnose incest transgressors. Until those events occur, sociobiology, nursing, and psychology must explain phenomena, such as the incest taboo, with a theoretical language of supposition. It is in this light that the etiology of taboo is analyzed. This article proposes that a propensity for sexual selection originates in the gene system, and what becomes taboo is acquired through the learning that accompanies the experiences of the individual and culture when sexual selection occurs. Influences of the genetic system and psychological culture on the existence of a taboo are contrasted. The conclusion posits an eclectic taboo hypothesis, derived from the congruencies found in the literature, and suggests how this hypothesis can guide nursing interventions with incestual families.

  4. Physical activity and mental health: relationships between depressiveness, psychological disorders and physical activity level in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kull

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with an objective to study relationships between physical activity and emotional wellbeing of women. The study involved 659 women aged 18–45. The following questionnaires were used: General Health Questionnaire, Health Questionnaire for Adults, Beck Depression Inventory. Physically active women experienced less stress disorders (P<0.05 and less depressiveness (P<0.05. Results showed that even a low level of physical activity (1-2 times per week can account for positive impact on women’s mental health (depressive feelings and psychological disorders.

  5. Biological and psychological interventions: trends in substance use disorders intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessell, Ryan; Edwards, Carla

    2010-12-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) cause serious medical, financial, and social problems for individuals and society. Thus, understanding the large body of research exploring biological and psychological intervention trends is important to researchers and clinicians. Historically, psychological interventions have dominated the literature, in spite of modest outcome data. Recently, a refocus on biological intervention research has led to results suggested as efficacious in treatment of SUDs with promising clinical potential. The current review indicates that there seems to be some incongruence between this growing body of physiological research and psychological clinical research and practice. The current review explores these trends and argues for more solid integration of biological and psychological research and treatment strategies for SUDs, as well as heightened efforts toward translation of research into practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Physical and psychological stress have similar effects on gastric acid and pepsin secretions in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Salimi; Soheila Adeli; Hedayat Sahraei; Mohammad Vahedian; Nabavizadeh Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Stress is one of the most important health and social problems. Previous studies have demonstrated stress influence on the clinical course of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, but its physical and psychological effects on gastric acid and pepsin secretions are largely unknown. 48 male wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were used in this study. Animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8); Control, Physical stress, Psychological stress, L-NAME+ Physical stress and L-NAME+ Psychological stress gr...

  7. Psychological factors that influence traumatic injury occurrence and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, R L; Banderet, L E; Reynolds, K L; Creedon, J F; Rice, V J

    2002-01-01

    This 9 month prospective study, conducted at the US Army Sergeants Major Academy (USASGMA), examined the association of selected psychological variables (e.g., measures of tension/anxiety, sleep disturbance, Type A behavior pattern) with injury occurrence and physical performance in 126 soldiers. ANOVA and logistic regression analyses revealed significant relationships between: 1) Traumatic injury occurrence and mean tension/anxiety scores, 2) Mean self-reported sleep disturbance scores and traumatic injury occurrence, 3) The Type A behavior pattern (abbreviated Jenkins Activity Survey) and number of sit-ups repetitions completed in 2 minutes, one component of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), 4) The Type A behavior pattern and total score APFT. No significant associations were found for mean tension/anxiety scores and overuse injuries, or Type A behavior pattern and two mile run time or number of push-up repetitions completed in 2 minutes. These data suggest traumatic injury occurrence is influenced by tension/anxiety and disturbances in sleep habits. Additionally, individuals with higher Jenkins Activity scores (characteristic of the Type A behavior pattern) perform better physically.

  8. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  9. Using health psychology techniques to manage chronic physical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-12-08

    Chest pain and palpitations, non-malignant pain, breathlessness and fatigue often endure despite the receipt of appropriate nursing and medical care. This is distressing for patients, impacts on their quality of life and ability to function and is associated with high healthcare usage and costs. The cognitive behavioural approach offers nurses a model to understand how people's perceptions and beliefs and their emotional, behavioural and physiological reactions are linked. Common 'thinking errors' which can exacerbate symptom severity and impact are highlighted. Understanding of this model may help nurses to help patients cope better with their symptoms by helping them to come up with alternative more helpful beliefs and practices. Many Improving Access to Psychological Therapy services offer support to people with chronic physical symptoms and nurses are encouraged to sign post patients to them.

  10. Studying the Physical and Psychological Symptoms of Patients With Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memnun Seven

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives; Aim of the descriptive study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of physical and psychological symptoms so as to determine palliative care needs of cancer patients. Methods; Total 142 patients who were treated in oncology clinic at an university hospital were enrolled in the cross sectional research. “Descriptive Information Questionnaire” was developed by the authors and the adapted “Beck Depression Inventory (BAI” and “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BDI”, “Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS” to evaluate psychological and physical symptoms were used to collect data. Results; The mean age was 49,35±36,61 years and 54.9% of them were out-patients. %16.2 of the patients were diagnosed with colon and 13.4% breast cancer. The mean BDI score was 8.59±6.36, and 88.7% the patients have depressive symptoms. The mean BAI score was 11.39±7.53. The three most frequent problems were fatigue (87.3%, breathlessness (76.1%, and insomnia (67.6%. The mean of the highest-ranking problems were anorexia (6.02+2.77, fatigue (5.33+2.09 and insomnia (0.04+2.42. Conclusion: The study shows that some symptoms might be experienced by majority of the cancer patients as well as some symptoms might be felt more severe by fewer patients. Therefore, It should be assessed that both the frequency and severity of symptoms that patients experienced associated with cancer and its’ treatment individually and focusing on primary care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 219-224

  11. The Interface between Physics and Biology: An Unexplored Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, George

    1980-01-01

    Discusses from the physicist's point of view the connection between biology and physics and the usefulness of physical laws for understanding biological processes. Discusses these fields of research in secondary school science: molecular science, regulation, statistics and information, corrosion and evolution, chance and necessity, and…

  12. Computing life: add Logos to Biology and Bios to Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolodkin, A.N.; Simeonidis, E.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations between physics and biology. Particularly, we analyse the approaches for reconstructing the emergent properties of physical or biological systems. We propose approaches to scale emergence according to the degree of state-dependency of the system's component

  13. Computing life: add logos to biology and bios to physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolodkin, A.; Simeonidis, E.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations between physics and biology. Particularly, we analyse the approaches for reconstructing the emergent properties of physical or biological systems. We propose approaches to scale emergence according to the degree of state-dependency of the system's component

  14. BOOK REVIEW Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Slavik

    2010-11-01

    This is a multi-author handbook (66 authors) aiming to describe various applications of physics to medicine and biology, from anatomy and physiology to medical equipment. This unusual reference book has 44 chapters organized in seven sections: 1. Anatomical physics; 2. Physics of perception; 3. Biomechanics; 4. Electrical physics; 5. Diagnostic physics; 6. Physics of accessory medicine; 7. Physics of bioengineering. Each chapter has separate page numbering, which is inconvenient but understandable with the number of authors. Similarly there is some variation in the emphasis of chapters: for some the emphasis is more technical and for others clinical. Each chapter has a separate list of references. The handbook includes hundreds of diagrams, images and tables, making it a useful tool for both medical physicists/engineers and other medical/biology specialists. The first section (about 40 pages) includes five chapters on physics of the cell membrane; protein signaling; cell biology and biophysics of the cell membrane; cellular thermodynamics; action potential transmission and volume conduction. The physics of these is well explained and illustrated with clear diagrams and formulae, so it could be a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapters on cellular thermodynamics and action potential transmission have a very good balance of technical/clinical content. The second section (about 85 pages) includes six chapters on medical decision making; senses; somatic senses: touch and pain; hearing; vision; electroreception. Again these are well illustrated and a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapter on hearing stands out with good balance and treatment of material, but some other chapters contain less physics and are close to typical physiological explanations. One could query the inclusion of the chapter on medical decision making, which also needs more detail. The third section (about 80 pages) includes eight chapters on biomechanics

  15. The Physics of Proteins An Introduction to Biological Physics and Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Hans; Chan, Winnie S

    2010-01-01

    Physics and the life sciences have established new connections within the past few decades, resulting in biological physics as an established subfield with strong groups working in many physics departments. These interactions between physics and biology form a two-way street with physics providing new tools and concepts for understanding life, while biological systems can yield new insights into the physics of complex systems. To address the challenges of this interdisciplinary area, The Physics of Proteins: An Introduction to Biological Physics and Molecular Biophysics is divided into three interconnected sections. In Parts I and II, early chapters introduce the terminology and describe the main biological systems that physicists will encounter. Similarities between biomolecules, glasses, and solids are stressed with an emphasis on the fundamental concepts of living systems. The central section (Parts III and IV) delves into the dynamics of complex systems. A main theme is the realization that biological sys...

  16. Designing an Introductory Physics Course for Biological Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    For the past four years the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Minnesota has been revising its Introductory Physics Course specifically targeted to biological science and pre-medical students. The course design process includes determining the reasons that introductory physics is required by the biology faculty and determining how or if to satisfy their goals. The resulting course must substantially satisfy the goals of the biology faculty, be an introductory physics course that stresses the application of fundamental principles and relates them to complex situations typical in biology, be of interest to beginning biology students, and be teachable by ordinary physics professors. The design process for the content and the pedagogy of the course will be described as will the resulting course structure. Student performance measures for the revised course will also be given.

  17. Physical Activity Counseling Promotes Physical and Psychological Resilience in Older Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine S; Gregg, Jeffrey; Bosworth, Hayden B; Beckham, Jean C; Hoerster, Katherine D; Sloane, Richard; Morey, Miriam C

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have elevated rates of morbidity, and a sedentary lifestyle can cause and aggravate the physical health needs of adults with PTSD. The primary aim of this paper was to explore the impact of physical activity (PA) counseling (vs. usual care) on physical and psychological outcomes among individuals with PTSD. A secondary aim was to compare these arm effects between those with and without PTSD. Older (>60 years) overweight veterans with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to an intervention or a usual care control arm. Of the 302 participants who underwent randomization, 67 (22%) had PTSD. Participants in the intervention arm received one in-person activity counseling session followed by regular PA telephone counseling over 12 months. Physical and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Primary Aim (intervention vs. usual care among those with PTSD): PA increased on average from 80 minutes/week to 161 minutes/week among participants in the intervention arm (p=0.01). Large, clinically meaningful improvements in six-minute walk test and psychological health were observed over the course of the intervention (p<0.01). Secondary Aim (PTSD/No PTSD, intervention/usual care): participants with PTSD responded equally well to the intervention compared to participants without PTSD, though we observed significantly greater improvements in vitality and six-minute walk compared to participants without PTSD (p<0.05). Given the epidemic of comorbid psychological illness and lifestyle-related disease among persons with PTSD, our findings support development and implementation of targeted PA interventions in this high-risk population.

  18. Place of physical training in the task psychological training of servicemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gysak O.D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article exposed the use of forms of physical training for the formation of psychological readiness to act in military training and battlefield. Analysis of pedagogical, psychological and special literature, the analysis features of professional military airborne troops, and suggested areas of application of lessons on overcoming obstacles to the formation of the psychological readiness of military personnel.

  19. Applying Learning Psychology and Philosophy of Science to Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses applications of Ausubelian learning theory to the teaching of biology. The use of concept maps and Gowin's Epistemological V are described. Scoring methods and evaluation techniques are also discussed. (CS)

  20. Entropy, a Unifying Concept: from Physics to Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Tsallis, Alexandra C.

    Together with classical, relativistic and quantum mechanics, as well as Maxwell electromagnetism, Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical mechanics constitutes one of the main theories of contemporary physics. This theory primarily concerns inanimate matter, and at its generic foundation we find nonlinear dynamical systems satisfying the ergodic hypothesis. This hypothesis is typically guaranteed for systems whose maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive. What happens when this crucial quantity is zero instead? We suggest here that, in what concerns thermostatistical properties, we typically enter what in some sense may be considered as a new world — the world of living systems — . The need emerges, at least for many systems, for generalizing the basis of BG statistical mechanics, namely the Boltzmann-Gibbs-von Neumann-Shannon en-tropic functional form, which connects the oscopic, thermodynamic quantity, with the occurrence probabilities of microscopic configurations. This unifying approach is briefly reviewed here, and its widespread applications — from physics to cognitive psychology — are overviewed. Special attention is dedicated to the learning/memorizing process in humans and computers. The present observations might be related to the gestalt theory of visual perceptions and the actor-network theory.

  1. The impact of anticipated stigma on psychological and physical health problems in the unemployed group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling T. O'Donnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE MANAGERS IN THE SPHERE OF PHYSICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Veniaminovna Suvorova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of psychological competence of students. Psychological competence is a holistic integrative professional and personal education, the structure of which includes a system of components (cognitive, motivational and valuable and subsystems (psycho-pedagogical, communicative, autopsychological, socio-psychological, socio-perceptual. Ascertaining experiment showed the necessity of development of psychological competence of a future Manager in the field of physical culture as a meta-subject competence.

  3. Psychological and physical activity training for older persons : Who does not attend?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Hochstenbach, J.BH; Brouwer, W.H.; de Greef, M.H.G.; Scherder, E

    2006-01-01

    Background: Interventions to promote successful aging include psychological and physical activity programs. Identification of determinants of attendance of older persons may be useful to develop strategies to improve attendance. For physical activity programs determinants of attendance have been

  4. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L

    2009-12-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.

  5. The Role of Depression in the Relationship Between Psychological and Physical Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Gomes, Patrícia; Kimmes, Jonathan; Smith, Erika; Cafferky, Bryan; Stith, Sandra; Durtschi, Jared; McCollum, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant public health concerns often associated with negative consequences for individuals, families, and society. Because IPV occurs within an interpersonal relationship, it is important to better understand how each partner's depressive symptoms, marital satisfaction, and psychological and physical IPV are interlinked. The purpose of this study was to identify actor and partner effects in a dyadic data analysis association between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, its links to psychological IPV, and then to physical IPV. Guided by the social information processing model, this study has implications for understanding the processes leading to various types of IPV in people seeking couples therapy. Using cross-sectional data from 126 heterosexual couples, we conducted an actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to test actor and partner effects. Indirect actor and partner effects were also assessed. More depressive symptoms were associated with lower marital satisfaction. More depressive symptoms were generally linked with increased perpetration of psychological and physical IPV. Psychological IPV was associated with an individual's use of physical IPV. Effect sizes were moderate to large in magnitude. Four specific indirect effects were identified from depressive symptoms to psychological IPV to physical IPV. Depressive symptoms may be an important factor related to psychological and physical IPV for males and females. Implications include assessing for and treating depression in both partners, and discussing preferred ways of supporting each other that do not include psychological or physical IPV.

  6. Can strenuous leisure time physical activity prevent psychological complaints in a working population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Jans, M.P.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Hendriksen, I.J.; Houtman, I.L.; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between strenuous leisure time physical activity and psychological complaints (depression and emotional exhaustion) in a Dutch working population in order to find evidence For the preventive role of physical activity in the development of psychological

  7. Acts of Psychological Aggression against a Partner and Their Relation to Physical Assault and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Sherry L; Sugarman, David B.

    1999-01-01

    Male and female undergraduates completed the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales to assess whether specific acts of psychological aggression are more closely associated with physical assault than others. Results indicated that all psychological items were associated with physical assault. Only certain items reflected malicious intent and some…

  8. Multilevel models from biology to psychology: mission impossible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M; Howe, Andrew G; Howe, Andrew S; Sabb, Fred W

    2013-08-01

    Systematic efforts are underway to address major flaws in the current diagnostic taxonomy of mental disorders, fostering hope that a new nosology might be based on brain biology. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domains Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to redefine mental illness leveraging information that spans molecular to behavioral levels of analysis. Major effort is still needed to forge multilevel conceptual and measurement models capable of representing knowledge within and across these levels. The development of such models may help refine and share complex hypotheses, and reduce the risk of replacing the current taxonomy with dimensions and/or categories that manifest little incremental biological validity. To create useful models we need to define concepts, relations among concepts, and links to supporting evidence. Some methods already enable representation of concepts and measures at the levels of behavioral and basic biological processes, but a major gap at the level of neural circuitry must be bridged to link basic biological and behavioral levels. We provide a schematic framework, using as an example the representation of selected "working memory" concepts and evidence across multiple levels of analysis as these have been described in the RDoC Workshops. This example illustrates multiple challenges and some possible solutions that may help clarify the aims of individual research projects and enable integration of diverse efforts on RDoC and related initiatives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.

    Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…

  10. An Integrated Review of Psychological Stress in Parkinson's Disease: Biological Mechanisms and Symptom and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by complex symptoms and medication-induced motor complications that fluctuate in onset, severity, responsiveness to treatment, and disability. The unpredictable and debilitating nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in psychological stress. Psychological stress may exacerbate biological mechanisms believed to contribute to neuronal loss in PD and lead to poorer symptom and health outcomes. The purpose of this integrated review is to summarize and appraise animal and human research studies focused on biological mechanisms, symptom, and health outcomes of psychological stress in PD. A search of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and CINAHL from 1980 to the present using the key words Parkinson's disease and stress, psychological stress, mental stress, and chronic stress resulted in 11 articles that met inclusion criteria. The results revealed significant associations between psychological stress and increased motor symptom severity and loss of dopamine-producing neurons in animal models of PD and between psychological stress and increased symptom severity and poorer health outcomes in human subjects with PD. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for these relationships, for the ultimate purpose of designing targeted interventions that may modify the disease trajectory. PMID:28058129

  11. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  12. Psychological and physical dating violence perpetrated by pregnant and parenting Latina adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michelle L; Yazedjian, Ani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of psychological and physical dating violence perpetratedby 126 pregnant and parenting Latina adolescents. We found 85.7% had perpetrated at least one act of psychological abuse and 47.6% had perpetrated at least one act of physical abuse against the father of their child in the past 3 months. When examining predictors of psychological dating violence, we found that Latina adolescents who engaged in less positive communication patterns with their parents as well as those who were both the victim and perpetrator of physical abuse within their dating relationships were more likely to perpetrate psychological abuse. When examining predictors of physical dating violence, we found that Latina adolescents who perpetrated psychological abuse against the father of their child were also more likely to perpetrate physical abuse.

  13. Prevalence of psychological and physical intimate partner aggression in Madrid (Spain): a dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña Gómez, José Luis; Cuenca Montesino, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to analyze the prevalence of bidirectional psychological and physical aggression in intimate partner relationships using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2), and to determine the influence of the variables age and relationship duration. The participants were 3,578 heterosexual couples from the Region of Madrid. Bidirectional aggression was the most frequent pattern in the dyadic types of aggression examined; we analyzed the prevalences of mutual psychological (46%) and physical aggression (4%), reciprocal psychological (41%) and physical aggression (3%), and bidirectional psychological (80%) and physical aggression (25%). The variables age and relationship duration were significant predictors of bidirectional physical and psychological aggression. Younger couples and couples with less than a one-year relationship duration assaulted each other the most. These data provide an objective view of bidirectional aggression in Spanish community samples and serve as a reference point for prevention and intervention programs and forensic reports.

  14. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-25

    Apr 25, 2005 ... validation, because, despite their inclusion, the weak acid/bases and pH do not have a significant effect on the biological proc- ... for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ..... the chemical ion pairing (CIP) processes (C20-C41), because.

  15. Physical sports activity, physical self-concept and psychological wellbeing in adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez Ruiz de Mier, Rocío

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between experience in physical sports activity in adolescence and various self-evaluations such as physical self-concept, perceptions of health and life satisfaction. Participants are 1504 adolescents from the city of Malaga (Spain, aged between 14 and 16 years. The instruments used to assess the constructs are the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (CAF, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS. The study has a cross-sectional, correlational design, in which surveys are used to collect data. The statistical analyses show that physical activity is associated with significant differences in the study variables, favouring those who do physical activity. The frequency of the activity, however, has a significant difference between the groups only in the case of physical self-concept. On the other hand, years of experience in physical activity affects the outcomes, with better results for those who have been doing exercise for a longer period of time. This study contributes to the literature that emphasises the importance of creating an active lifestyle to boost psychological wellbeing

  16. Psychological and physical pain as predictors of suicide risk: evidence from clinical and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Iskric, Adam; Calati, Raffaella; Courtet, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a multidimensional clinical phenomenon with complex biological, social and psychological risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative for studies to focus on developing a unified understanding of suicide risk that integrates current clinical and neurobiological findings. A recent line of research has implicated different classifications of pain in understanding suicide risk, including the concepts of psychache and pain tolerance. Although psychache is defined as the experience of unbearable psychological pain, pain tolerance refers to the greatest duration or intensity of painful stimuli that one is able to bear. This review will focus on integrating current clinical and neurobiological findings by which psychache and pain tolerance confer suicide risk. Results indicate that psychache has been identified as a significant risk factor for suicide and that psychache may be associated with the neurocircuitry involved in the modulation of physical pain. Converging evidence has also been found linking pain tolerance to self-injurious behaviours and suicide risk. The experience of psychache and physical pain in relation to other predictors of suicide, including reward processing, hopelessness and depression, are further discussed. Future research examining the pain-suicide connection is required to understand the mechanism behind clinically relevant risk factors for suicide, which can ultimately inform the construction of empirically supported suicide risk assessment and intervention techniques.

  17. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  18. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  19. Physics and the origins of molecular biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the wave/particle paradox of light propagation, or even new physical laws. This stimulated several physicists ... tinuous propagation of electromagnetic waves, or as individ- ual quanta of energy: the two expressions of ... Brain Research as part of a scientific exchange programme between the Soviet Union and Germany ...

  20. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  1. Poor sleep quality in Australian adults with comorbid psychological distress and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Paterson, Jessica L; Happell, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    A population-based questionnaire study of 1,818 Australian adults investigated associations of sleep quality with psychological distress and comorbid physical health disorders. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System assessed psychological distress and physical health. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index assessed sleep quality. Participants with physical illness or psychological distress had increased odds for reporting poor sleep quality, compared to those with no illness (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.22, for both; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 1.53-3.23 and 3.54-10.36, respectively), but those with comorbid illness had markedly higher odds for poor sleep quality (OR = 11.99, 95% CI = 7.90-18.20). Adults with comorbid psychological distress and physical health disorders are at substantially increased risk of poor sleep quality.

  2. Bridging Physics and Biology Using Resistance and Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Joshua M.

    2014-11-01

    When teaching physics, it is often difficult to get biology-oriented students to see the relevance of physics.1 A complaint often heard is that biology students are required to take physics for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) as part of a "weeding out" process, but that they don't feel like they need physics for biology. Despite this impression held by students, there have been calls for better physics education for future physicians and life scientists.2,3 Research is being performed to improve physics classes and labs by linking topics in biology and physics.4,5 Described here is a laboratory experiment covering the topics of resistance of materials and circuits/Kirchhoff's laws in a biology context with their direct application to neurons, axons, and electrical impulse transmission within animals. This experiment will also demonstrate the mechanism believed to cause multiple sclerosis. The apparatus was designed with low-cost and readily available materials in mind.

  3. Commentary for Health Psychology special issue: theoretical advances in diet and physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Health Psychology includes original contributions for advancing research on theoretical issues such as mediation and moderation effects in promoting healthy diet and physical activity behavior change. This special issue was developed to highlight some of the fundamental issues from a biological, cognitive, social, and environmental perspective for understanding the impact of intervention effects on behavior change processes and ultimate health. Given the increasing prevalence of health-related problems, such as the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States, the perspective presented in this issue should be very useful to researchers, scientists, scholars, and a wide range of health professionals who hope to curb these critical public health problems. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  4. Biological and psychological responses to two rapid shiftwork schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, G; Chamoux, A

    2004-10-10

    This study presents the biological responses to shiftwork in two groups of workers with different shiftwork rotas. Biological responses were studied by recording the heart rate and the changes in the circadian profile of salivary cortisol over 24 h (RIA assays). Various items were recorded through questionnaires aimed at determining self appreciation of sleep quantity, stress, health, satisfaction at work and in private lives. Thirty two male subjects aged from 23 to 56, working for the same company, having given their informed consent, took part in the study. The study was carried out under realistic conditions (at the work place) under the control of an occupational physician. Sixteen day-workers (8 am-6 pm) served as a reference group. Eight shiftworkers included in alternate schedules (morning M 4 am-12 am, evening E 12 am-8 pm, night N 8 pm-4 am) according to a system M, S, N 3/2, (3 work, 2 rest) and eight according to a system 7/5 (3M/2S/2N/5R, 2/3/2/5, 2/2/3/5) constituted the groups of shiftworkers respectively named 3/2 and 7/5. All subjects had comparable ages and BMIs. Shiftworkers expressed a higher stress level and frequency of health problems and a lower satisfaction at work than the control. Among the three groups, the 7/5 group had the best health and fitness score and was in need of less sleep. Heart rate was not affected by shift work. Conversely, consistent changes appeared in cortisol circadian profiles, the greatest changes appearing for the night shift and among the two groups of shiftworkers, more particularly for the 7/5 group. These changes correlated with self-perceived constraints of work and showed the difficulties of adaptation to shiftwork.

  5. Dental anxiety: a comparison of students of dentistry, biology, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storjord, Helene Persen; Teodorsen, Mari Mjønes; Bergdahl, Jan; Wynn, Rolf; Johnsen, Jan-Are Kolset

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students' own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (Pbiology students (Ppsychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to the differences in anxiety levels between new and experienced dentistry students.

  6. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  7. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  8. [Adaptation and Neurosciences II: Biological, Psychological and Social Adaptation, and Psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin

    In this article, we address adaptation in relation to the neurosciences. Adaptation is examined at the individual as well as various environmental levels: biological, psychological, and social. We then briefly discuss, from a neuroscientific perspective, the concept of adaptation in relation to psychopathology, including attachment theory and the third wave of cognitive-behavioral therapies.

  9. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  10. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  11. Psychological Effects towards Humans Living in the Environment Made of Biological Concrete in Malaysia at 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In day-to-day life concrete become a compulsory material in the construction field as to make it a real concern among researchers for producing concrete with improved properties. Biological method is one of the new methods to improve concrete properties. Although, much research about biological concrete has been carried out, but till now nobody has not studied for the psychological effects of using a house or offices made up of biological concrete. The aim of this study is to investigate and find out the person's opinion about staying in a house or offices made up of biological concrete. In this study, a questionnaire containing eight questions was prepared and distributed among 21 persons in Malaysia University of Technology including students, academic and non-academic staffs among which few of them was an expert in the field of biological concrete and others did not have any knowledge about the bioconcrete. Finally, the results obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that 81% of participants in this study would like to stay in a house or office made up of biological concrete. However, 38% of participants believe that staying in a house or office made of biological concrete can cause health related problems. The current research paper can be considered significant for architects and civil engineers to have the insight to look into the psychological aspects of using biological concrete for various applications in the field of construction.

  12. Biological and psychological predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder onset and chronicity. A one-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gandubert

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This prospective study shows that peritraumatic psychological and biological markers are independent predictors of PTSD onset with specificities according to the stage of PTSD development; the psychological diathesis, i.e. peritraumatic distress and dissociation, being a better predictor of short-term dysfunction whereas biological diathesis was also predictive of development and maintenance of PTSD.

  13. Toward University Modeling Instruction—Biology: Adapting Curricular Frameworks from Physics to Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric

    2013-01-01

    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence. PMID:23737628

  14. Toward university modeling instruction--biology: adapting curricular frameworks from physics to biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric

    2013-06-01

    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence.

  15. Hypertension and appraisal of physical and psychological stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In the operant conditioning of hypertension hypothesis, it is assumed that the frequently found diminished sensitivity to painful stimuli in hypertensives can be generalized to sensitivity to other stressors, including psychological stressors. The validity of this assumption is examined

  16. Biological physics in México: Review and new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2011-03-01

    Biological and physical sciences possess a long-standing tradition of cooperativity as separate but related subfields of science. For some time, this cooperativity has been limited by their obvious differences in methods and views. Biological physics has recently experienced a kind of revival (or better a rebirth) due to the growth of molecular research on animate matter. New avenues for research have been opened for both theoretical and experimental physicists. Nevertheless, in order to better travel for such paths, the contemporary biological physicist should be armed with a set of specialized tools and methods but also with a new attitude toward multidisciplinarity. In this review article, we intend to somehow summarize what has been done in the past (in particular, as an example we will take a closer look at the Mexican case), to show some examples of fruitful investigations in the biological physics area and also to set a proposal of new curricula for physics students and professionals interested in applying their science to get a better understanding of the physical basis of biological function.

  17. Fractal landscapes in physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene Stanley, H.

    1992-07-01

    This article is based upon the Thirtieth Saha Memorial Lecture (delivered on 4 January 1992) and the Fourth Bose Memorial Lecture (delivered on 5 January 1992). I felt deeply touched to have been so honored by invitations to deliver these lectures, especially in view of the list of illustrious predecessors who have held this honor. At the outset I wish to acknowledge that almost all of my work is connected in one way or another to random walks, a topic about which I learned most from the classic 1943 review of the great Indian physicist S. Chandrasekar. I also wish to acknowledge my personal debt to the great culture and music of India, and to the many Indian scholars who have taught me their unique insights into the mysteries of physics. In particular, I wish to dedicate this work to the late Bengali genius Satyajit Ray, whose recent passing has left the world immeasurably poorer. It was my dream while in Calcutta to have the opportunity of meeting this hero of mine, but his ill health at that time prevented our meeting.

  18. A report on psychological well-being and physical self-perception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research compared psychological well-being and physical self-perceptions of convenience samples of health club members, hockey players, runners, soccer players, surfers and a control group of non-sports persons. All sports groups perceived themselves to be significantly more psychologically well than the control ...

  19. Physics Envy: Psychologists' Perceptions of Psychology and Agreement about Core Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Collisson, Brian; King, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the nature of psychology and its consensus regarding core content. We hypothesized that psychology possesses little agreement regarding its core content areas and thus may "envy" more canonical sciences, such as physics. Using a global sample, we compared psychologists' and physicists' perceptions regarding…

  20. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  1. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  2. Advantage of biological over physical optimization in prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, Thomas; Alvarez-Moret, Judith; Bogner, Ludwig

    2011-09-01

    The biological effects of an applied dose can be accounted for by using biological objective functions with IMRT. A commonly used concept is the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD), developed by Niemierko. Unlike the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) which is defined for tumor only, the gEUD can be used for both target volume and organs-at-risk (OAR). In this study, the gEUD has been integrated in our in-house inverse treatment planning system DMCO. DMCO is based on an inverse kernel concept and maintains full Monte-Carlo precision. The system applies direct aperture optimization by means of simulated annealing. Thereby DMCO is per se predestined for the optimization of non-quadratic biological objective functions. In this work, the feasibility of gEUD-based optimization with DMCO is investigated and compared to modified physical optimization. A 'pseudo' Pareto study is performed in order to derive the gEUD-parameters 'a' for the volumes-of-interest of a prostate case. The best biological plan is compared to a physically optimized plan, based on dose-volume objectives (DVO). Furthermore, a hybrid objective function (OF) was developed. It consists of both a biological OF for the OARs and a physical OF for the PTV. The plans are compared to another physically optimized plan, which includes additional zero-DVOs in order to further improve OAR-sparing. As a result of the comparisons it turns out, that the biological OF may improve plan quality with regard to the OARs, but at the price of a degradation of the PTV. This disadvantage can be overcome by a hybrid OF, by which the advantages of both biological and physical OF can be combined. With the application of the physical OF with properly set zero-DVOs, a similar or even superior plan quality may be achieved. The physical OFs do not need the time consuming stochastic optimization, which is mandatory in biological optimization and which is included in DMCO. Furthermore, biological evaluation leaves plan quality

  3. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Antinienė

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed that the factors such as subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being were reliable predictors of certain EI indexes.

  4. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    .... Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored...

  5. Beyond quantum probability: another formalism shared by quantum physics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2013-06-01

    There is another meeting place for quantum physics and psychology, both within and outside of cognitive modeling. In physics it is known as the issue of classical (probabilistic) determinism, and in psychology it is known as the issue of selective influences. The formalisms independently developed in the two areas for dealing with these issues turn out to be identical, opening ways for mutually beneficial interactions.

  6. PREFACE: Nanobiology: from physics and engineering to biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Alemán, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Biological systems are inherently nano in scale. Unlike nanotechnology, nanobiology is characterized by the interplay between physics, materials science, synthetic organic chemistry, engineering and biology. Nanobiology is a new discipline, with the potential of revolutionizing medicine: it combines the tools, ideas and materials of nanoscience and biology; it addresses biological problems that can be studied and solved by nanotechnology; it devises ways to construct molecular devices using biomacromolecules; and it attempts to build molecular machines utilizing concepts seen in nature. Its ultimate aim is to be able to predictably manipulate these, tailoring them to specified needs. Nanobiology targets biological systems and uses biomacromolecules. Hence, on the one hand, nanobiology is seemingly constrained in its scope as compared to general nanotechnology. Yet the amazing intricacy of biological systems, their complexity, and the richness of the shapes and properties provided by the biological polymers, enrich nanobiology. Targeting biological systems entails comprehension of how they work and the ability to use their components in design. From the physical standpoint, ultimately, if we are to understand biology we need to learn how to apply physical principles to figure out how these systems actually work. The goal of nanobiology is to assist in probing these systems at the appropriate length scale, heralding a new era in the biological, physical and chemical sciences. Biology is increasingly asking quantitative questions. Quantitation is essential if we are to understand how the cell works, and the details of its regulation. The physical sciences provide tools and strategies to obtain accurate measurements and simulate the information to allow comprehension of the processes. Nanobiology is at the interface of the physical and the biological sciences. Biology offers to the physical sciences fascinating problems, sophisticated systems and a rich repertoire of

  7. Positive discipline, harsh physical discipline, physical discipline and psychological aggression in five Caribbean countries: Associations with preschoolers' early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede Yildirim, Elif; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2017-11-02

    Physical punishment has received worldwide attention because of its negative impact on children's cognitive and social development and its implications for children's rights. Using UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 4 and 5 data, we assessed the associations between positive discipline, harsh physical punishment, physical punishment and psychological aggression and preschoolers' literacy skills in 5628 preschool-aged children and their caregivers in the developing nations of Belize, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica and Suriname. Caregivers across countries used high levels of explanations and psychological aggression. There were significant country differences in the use of the four disciplinary practices. In the Dominican Republic and Guyana, physical punishment had negative associations with children's literacy skills, and in the Dominican Republic, positive discipline had a positive association with children's literacy skills. Findings are discussed with respect to the negative consequences of harsh disciplinary practices on preschoolers' early literacy skills in the developing world. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  9. Expressive writing promotes self-reported physical, social and psychological health among Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-03-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Anthropometrical, physical, motor and sport psychological profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general talent identification (TID) protocol and a sport psychological questionnaire were completed. The 40m-sprint test was used to categorise the subjects into two groups. Those in the top 10% were assigned to the talented group (TG) (n=8, mean age=13.79), and the remaining subjects were assigned to the less ...

  11. The psychology of the heart: Implications for health, physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the centuries, the heart has been recognized as a centre for spiritual, intellectual and emotional life in diverse cultures. This paper introduces a psychology of the heart with specific reference to the time honoured, transcultural applications of a local, African, Zulu, breath based, heart focussed, psychotherapeutic ...

  12. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  13. The Social Psychology of Physical Disability: 1948 and 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Lee

    1988-01-01

    Recalls the publication of the 1948 special issue of "Journal of Social Issues" on the social psychology of disability, speculates on the magazine's influence on changes in the field between 1948 and 1988, and discusses possible future developments. (Author/BJV)

  14. The influence of behavioural and psychological factors on medication adherence over time in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a study in the biologics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catharine; McBeth, John; Cordingley, Lis; Watson, Kath; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah P M; Bruce, Ian N

    2015-10-01

    To investigate levels of self-reported adherence to biologic treatment and establish the contribution of demographic, physical and psychological factors to biologic medication adherence in an RA cohort. Adalimumab-treated patients were recruited through the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA between May 2007 and April 2009. Demographic and baseline psychological measures including illness and medication beliefs were collected. Disease activity (28-item DAS), physical function (HAQ) and quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) were also measured at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence was assessed at each follow-up using the patient self-completed Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR). Multilevel mixed effects modelling analysis was performed to investigate predictors of adherence. Of the 329 Adalimumab-treated patients included, low adherence (CQR score psychological factors, particularly medication beliefs, in driving medication adherence could have substantial clinical and health economic benefits in RA. The psychological factors we have identified are putative targets for strategies to improve adherence in RA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  15. Exposure to Domestic Violence and Abuse: Evidence of Distinct Physical and Psychological Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2017-05-01

    Recent literature on exposure to domestic violence (DV) highlights the need for increased understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). The current aims were to explore whether two separate dimensions, physical and psychological DVA, were evident in adult children's reports of their exposure to DVA in their family of origin, and whether these dimensions affected psychological well-being and perceived satisfaction with emotional support (hereafter referred to as social support satisfaction). Young adults ( N = 465, aged 17-25, 70% female) reported their experiences of DVA as perpetrated by their parents/caregivers, as well as psychological well-being and social support satisfaction, in an online survey. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we verified the presence of a two-factor model (physical and psychological DVA). Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated the differing impact of these two factors: Specifically, although exposure to psychological DVA (domestic abuse [DA]) was related to reduced psychological well-being, there was no significant effect of exposure to physical DVA (DV). However, mediation analysis suggested the presence of a suppression effect; there was a magnification of the negative relationship between exposure to psychological DA and social support satisfaction when exposure to physical DV was accounted for. Although findings are preliminary, they provide strong evidence to support theoretical arguments regarding the need for future research to conceptualize exposure to DVA in terms of both physical and psychological dimensions. Our findings also highlight that to improve service response and provide effective interventions, it is essential to include exposure to psychological DA in risk assessments of such young adults.

  16. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802

  17. Prevalence and correlates of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing awareness that domestic violence is a major public health problem, existing studies focus on physical and sexual violence and give little attention to psychological violence. This study uses data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) to examine the prevalence and correlates of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence in Bolivia. The results show that psychological intimate partner violence is extremely common (affecting nearly one in two women) and often occurs in addition to physical violence. While physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence have several common predictors, there are factors that only affect some types of violence. Common risk factors include urban residence, respondent's employment status and having witnessed interparental violence in childhood. Although marital status is not a risk factor for physical violence, unmarried cohabitation is a strong risk factor for psychological intimate partner violence. Our findings highlight the need for research to assess the potential consequences of psychological intimate partner violence, particularly for women's mental health.

  18. PREFACE: Physics and biology of neurodegenerative diseases Physics and biology of neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    , about 15 years after the original reports, it is clear that amyloids are special structures that occur in nature under several different guises, some good, some evil [3]. The number of diseases associated with misfolding and fibrillogenesis has steadily increased. Examples of fairly common pathologies associated with fibre formation include Alzheimer's disease (currently one of the major threats for human health in our increasingly aging world), Parkinson's disease and several rare, but not less severe, pathologies. On the other hand, it is also clear that amyloid formation is a convenient mechanism for storing peptides and/or proteins in a compact and resistant way. The number of organisms/tissues in which amyloid deposits are found is thus increasing. It is also not too far-fetched to expect that the mechanical properties of amyloids could be used in biotechnology to design new materials. Because of the importance of this topic in so many scientific fields, we have dedicated this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter to the topic of protein aggregation and disease. In the following pages we have collected two reviews and five articles that explore new and interesting developments in the field. References [1] Olby R 1994 The Path of the Double Helix: The Discovery of DNA (New York: Dover) [2] Dobson C M 2004 Principles of protein folding, misfolding and aggregation Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 3-16 [3] Hammer N D, Wang X, McGuffie B A, Chapman M R 2008 Amyloids: friend or foe? J. Alzheimers Dis. 13 407-19 Physics and biology of neurodegenerative diseases contents Protein aggregation and misfolding: good or evil?Annalisa Pastore and Pierandrea Temussi Alzheimer's disease: biological aspects, therapeutic perspectives and diagnostic toolsM Di Carlo, D Giacomazza and P L San Biagio Entrapment of Aβ1-40 peptide in unstructured aggregatesC Corsale, R Carrotta, M R Mangione, S Vilasi, A Provenzano, G Cavallaro, D Bulone and P L San Biagio Elemental micro

  19. Influence of Physical Raking and Biological Process in the Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment was conducted in the laboratory using radioactive 32P for ascertaining the dynamics and quantifying the exchangeable amount of P between sediment and water phase under the influence of physical raking and biological processes. Collected sediment (100 g) was dispensed in a glass beaker and treated with ...

  20. Integrated Ph. D. Programme in Biological, Chemical and Physical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Integrated Ph. D. Programme in Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences at Indian Institute of Sciences Introductory Summer School on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Information and Announcements Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 121- ...

  1. Optimization of physical and biological parameters for transient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The effects of different physical, biological and DNA parameters were evaluated by comparing the number of blue spots obtained from the histochemical GUS assay. Optimal ... The highest number of blue spots obtained in this protocol was 1500 blue spots per 1 cm2 of bombarded tissue.

  2. Optimization of physical and biological parameters for transient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Optimization of physical and biological parameters for transient .... removal of the liquid, the pellet was washed twice (without vortexing) with 140 µl of 70 and 100% ethanol, ..... et al., 1999), cassava (Schopk et al., 1997), coffee. (Gatica-Arias et al., 2008) and Alstromeria (Kim, ...

  3. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  4. Analysing hierarchy in the organization of biological and physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A structured approach is discussed for analysing hierarchy in the organization of biological and physical systems. The need for a structured approach follows from the observation that many hierarchies in the literature apply conflicting hierarchy rules and include ill-defined systems. As an

  5. Perspectives on theory at the interface of physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, William

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical physics is the search for simple and universal mathematical descriptions of the natural world. In contrast, much of modern biology is an exploration of the complexity and diversity of life. For many, this contrast is prima facie evidence that theory, in the sense that physicists use the word, is impossible in a biological context. For others, this contrast serves to highlight a grand challenge. I am an optimist, and believe (along with many colleagues) that the time is ripe for the emergence of a more unified theoretical physics of biological systems, building on successes in thinking about particular phenomena. In this essay I try to explain the reasons for my optimism, through a combination of historical and modern examples.

  6. Perspectives on theory at the interface of physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, William

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical physics is the search for simple and universal mathematical descriptions of the natural world. In contrast, much of modern biology is an exploration of the complexity and diversity of life. For many, this contrast is prima facie evidence that theory, in the sense that physicists use the word, is impossible in a biological context. For others, this contrast serves to highlight a grand challenge. I am an optimist, and believe (along with many colleagues) that the time is ripe for the emergence of a more unified theoretical physics of biological systems, building on successes in thinking about particular phenomena. In this essay I try to explain the reasons for my optimism, through a combination of historical and modern examples.

  7. Biological Physics major as a means to stimulate an undergraduate physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert; Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to stress the cross-disciplinary nature of modern physics we added a Biological Physics major. Drawing from coursework in physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and related disciplines, it combines a broad curriculum with physical and mathematical rigor in preparation for careers in biophysics, medical physics, and biomedical engineering. Biological Physics offers a new path of studies to a large pool of life science students. We hope to grow our physics majors from 70-80 to more than 100 students and boost our graduation rate from the mid-teens to the mid-twenties. The new major brought about a revision of our sophomore curriculum to make room for modern topics without sidelining fundamentals. As a result, we split our 1-semester long Contemporary Physics course (4 cr hrs) into a year-long sequence Contemporary Physics Foundations and Contemporary Physics Frontiers (both 3 cr hrs). Foundations starts with relativity, then focuses on 4 quantum mechanics topics: wells, spin 1/2, oscillators, and hydrogen. Throughout the course applications are woven in whenever the opportunity arises, e.g. magnetism and NMR with spin 1/2. The following semester Frontiers explores scientific principles and technological advances that make quantum science and resulting technologies different from the large scale. Frontiers covers enabling techniques from atomic, molecular, condensed matter, and particle physics, as well as advances in nanotechnology, quantum optics, and biophysics.

  8. Nuclear, biological, and chemical training in the U.S. Army Reserves: mitigating psychological consequences of weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, G B

    2001-12-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their associated delivery systems pose a major threat to the national security of the United States. The Department of Defense is pursuing a number of activities to counter paramilitary and terrorist threats from nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) agents. These efforts include supporting, training, and equipping the U.S. Army Reserves (USAR) for the medical management of physical injuries and psychological trauma resulting from the use of NBC weapons both in the United States and overseas. The USAR will play an important role in responding to a WMD incident because most of the Army's support assets are in the USAR. The USAR is training to perform its mission in an NBC-contaminated environment by engaging in realistic WMD exercises using state-of-the-art protective equipment and medical support. Realistic training builds confidence in medical defenses and in NBC protective equipment. This translates into accomplishing the mission while minimizing the psychological and physical casualties in an NBC-contaminated battlefield or in support of a WMD terrorist incident.

  9. Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander

    Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather has been widely considered during the recent decades. Such modelling includes interactions of atmospheric physics and chemical/biological aerosol concentrations. Emitted aerosols are subject to atmospheric transport, dispersion...... and deposition, but in turn they impact the radiation as well as cloud and precipitation formation. The present study focuses on birch pollen modelling as well as on physical and chemical weather with emphasis on black carbon (BC) aerosol modelling. The Enviro-HIRLAM model has been used for the study....... This is an online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model where chemical constituents and different types of aerosols are an integrated part of the dynamical model, i.e., these constituents are transported in the same way as, e.g., water vapor and cloud water, and, at the same time, the aerosols can interactively...

  10. Extended physics as a theoretical framework for systems biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Paul-Antoine

    2011-08-01

    In this essay we examine whether a theoretical and conceptual framework for systems biology could be built from the Bailly and Longo (2008, 2009) proposal. These authors aim to understand life as a coherent critical structure, and propose to develop an extended physical approach of evolution, as a diffusion of biomass in a space of complexity. Their attempt leads to a simple mathematical reconstruction of Gould's assumption (1989) concerning the bacterial world as a "left wall of least complexity" that we will examine. Extended physical systems are characterized by their constructive properties. Time is acting and new properties emerge by their history that can open the list of their initial properties. This conceptual and theoretical framework is nothing more than a philosophical assumption, but as such it provides a new and exciting approach concerning the evolution of life, and the transition between physics and biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  12. Physical exercise and psychological well being: a critical review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scully, D; Kremer, J; Meade, M M; Graham, R; Dudgeon, K

    1998-01-01

    .... The paper outlines the research evidence, focusing on the relation between physical exercise and depression, anxiety, stress responsivity, mood state, self esteem, premenstrual syndrome, and body image...

  13. Dental anxiety: a comparison of students of dentistry, biology, and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storjord HP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helene Persen Storjord,1 Mari Mjønes Teodorsen,1 Jan Bergdahl,1 Rolf Wynn,2,3 Jan-Are Kolset Johnsen1 1Department of Clinical Dentistry, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 3Division of Addictions and Specialized Psychiatric Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway Introduction: Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students' own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods: A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results: The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001 and biology students (P<0.001. A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001. Discussion: The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion: Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to

  14. Betrayal Trauma: Associations with Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…

  15. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel o f mind/brain interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.; Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-06-01

    Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human beings about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual structure for describing neural processes.

  16. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  17. The relationship between physical and psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C C H M; van Son, M A C; de Jongh, M A C; Lansink, K W W; de Vries, J; Verhofstad, M H J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first goal was to investigate which variables were associated with the remaining physical limitations of severely injured patients after the initial rehabilitation phase. Second, we investigated whether physical limitations were attributable to the association between psychological complaints and quality of life in this patient group. Patients who were 18 years or older and who had an injury severity score (ISS)>15 completed a set of questionnaires at one time-point after their rehabilitation phase (15-53 months after their trauma). The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire was used to determine physical limitations. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dutch Impact of Event Scale and the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were used to determine psychological complaints, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument-BREF was used to measure general Quality of Life (QOL). Differences in physical limitations were investigated for several trauma- and patient-related variables using non-parametric independent-sample Mann-Whitney U tests. Multiple linear regression was performed to investigate whether the decreased QOL of severely injured patients with psychological complaints could be explained by their physical limitations. Older patients, patients with physical complaints before the injury, patients with higher ISS scores, and patients who had an injury of the spine or of the lower extremities reported significantly more physical problems. Additionally, patients with a low education level, patients who were living alone, and those who were unemployed reported significantly more long-term physical problems. Severely injured patients without psychological complaints reported significantly less physical limitations than those with psychological complaints. The SMFA factor of Lower extremity dysfunction was a confounder of the association between psychological complaints

  18. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suemaru, Katsuya; Li, Bingjin; Cui,Ranji; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  19. Quantum Physics in Living Matter: From Quantum Biology to Quantum Neurobiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sultan Tarlaci

    2011-01-01

      For years, quantum physics was seen as the physics of non-living matter. Thus, when biological living things were discussed, this sequence always came to the fore: biology > organism> organs> tissue> biochemistry> physics...

  20. The physical characteristics of human proteins in different biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tengjiao; Tang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of gene products are the foundation of their biological functions. In this study, we systematically explored relationships between physical properties and biological functions. The physical properties including origin time, evolution pressure, mRNA and protein stability, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, acidity/alkaline, amino acid compositions, and chromosome location. The biological functions are defined from 4 aspects: biological process, molecular function, cellular component and cell/tissue/organ expression. We found that the proteins associated with basic material and energy metabolism process originated earlier, while the proteins associated with immune, neurological system process etc. originated later. Tissues may have a strong influence on evolution pressure. The proteins associated with energy metabolism are double-stable. Immune and peripheral cell proteins tend to be mRNA stable/protein unstable. There are very few function items with double-unstable of mRNA and protein. The proteins involved in the cell adhesion tend to consist of large proteins with high proportion of small amino acids. The proteins of organic acid transport, neurological system process and amine transport have significantly high hydrophobicity. Interestingly, the proteins involved in olfactory receptor activity tend to have high frequency of aromatic, sulfuric and hydroxyl amino acids.

  1. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males. Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63. The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender. This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.

  2. Pilot study comparing physical and psychological responses in medical qigong and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Victoria; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2006-07-01

    Identifying alternative exercise modalities in an effort to stimulate and promote participation in physical activity, especially among older adults, is a critical health consideration. The purpose of this study was to compare physiological and psychological responses to medical qigong with self-paced brisk walking. Older women (55-79 years) performed 22 min of either qigong or walking on two separate days. During exercise performance, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were assessed. Psychological affect, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed before and after the exercise bouts. Heart-rate data indicated that both forms of exercise were at a moderate level of intensity. In addition, similar values were found for the physiological and psychological variables as a function of the two forms of exercise. Therefore, it was concluded that this form of medical qigong can be considered a moderate-intensity physical activity that should have both physiological and psychological benefits for older women.

  3. Psychological and physical stress induce differential effects on human colonic motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S; Hatfield, R A; Suls, J M; Chamberlain, M J

    1998-06-01

    Stress modulates gut function, but whether the type of stressor influences colonic motor activity is unclear. The motor patterns and regional variations are also poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on colonic motility. Ambulatory colonic manometry was performed by placing a six-sensor probe up to the mid-transverse colon, without sedation, in 12 healthy subjects. Five hours later, a dichotomous listening test (psychological stress) was performed, which was preceded by listening to a narrative passage (control); recovery entailed listening to relaxing music (1 h each). Subsequently, intermittent hand immersion in cold (4 degrees C) water (physical stress) was performed, preceded by hand immersion in warm (37 degrees C) water (1/2-h each). Colonic pressure activity and cardiovascular responses were measured throughout the study. When compared with the control period, both stressors induced a greater number of pressure waves (p physical stress increased (p rate and blood pressure. There were no regional differences in colonic motility. During recovery, the motor activity returned to baseline after physical stress, but remained high after psychological stress. Psychological stress induced more (p physical stress induced more (p activity, but psychological stress induced a prolonged response with propagated activity and without appreciable autonomic response. Thus, colonic motor responses may vary depending on the stressor.

  4. Associations between problematic internet use and adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms: possible role of sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xi; Tao, Fangbiao

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 4 cities in China. The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and demographic variables were used to measure adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms and sleep quality, respectively, in 13,723 students (aged 12-20 years). Problematic Internet use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of sleep quality and PIU on physical and psychological symptoms, and to identify the mediating effect of sleep quality in adolescents. Prevalence rates of PIU, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and poor sleep quality were 11.7%, 24.9%, 19.8%, and 26.7%, respectively. Poor sleep quality was found to be an independent risk factor for both physical and psychological symptoms. The effects of PIU on the 2 health outcomes were partially mediated by sleep quality. Problematic Internet use is becoming a significant public health issue among Chinese adolescents that requires urgent attention. Excessive Internet use may not only have direct adverse health consequences but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation.

  5. A neural systems-based neurobiology and neuropsychiatry course: integrating biology, psychodynamics, and psychology in the psychiatric curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D

    2006-01-01

    Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based neuroscience course they teach at the National Capital Consortium Psychiatry Residency Program. They review course assessment reports and classroom observations. Self-report measures and teacher observations are encouraging. By the end of the course, residents are able to discuss both neurobiological and psychodynamic/psychological concepts of distributed biological neural networks. They verbalize an understanding that psychology is biology, that any distinction is artificial, and that both are valuable. A neuroscience curriculum founded on the underlying principles of behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry is inherently anti-reductionistic and facilitates the acquisition of detailed information as well as critical thinking and cross-disciplinary correlations with psychological theories and psychotherapy.

  6. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Biological and psychological factors associated with learning performance in adult distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these

  7. Teleology in biology, chemistry and physics education: what primary teachers should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSTAS KAMPOURAKIS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in cognitive psychology suggests that children develop intuitions that may clash with what is accepted by scientists, thus making certain scientific concepts difficult to understand. Children possess intuitions about design and purpose that make them provide teleological explanations to many different sorts of tasks. One possible explanation for the origin of the bias to view objects as made for something derives from an early sensitivity to intentional agents and to their behavior as intentional object users and object makers. What is important is that teleological explanations may not be exclusively restricted in biological phenomena, as commonly assumed. Consequently, primary school teachers should take that into account when teaching biology, chemistry or physics concepts and try to refrain from enforcing students’ teleological intuitions.

  8. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...

  9. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  10. Psychological and physical features of teachers' labour activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolumbet A.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to educe professionally important physical internalss, personal properties and requirements to motive preparedness of teachers. It is set that implementation of professional duties requires from teachers of high schools of display of general endurance, force of muscles of back, neck, stomach and hands (especially brushes. It allows to count the indicated internalss professionally important. The terms of enhanceable nervously - emotional excitation foresee requirements to adaptation possibilities of workers, their psychical firmness and physical capacity. It is necessary to distinguish from a number psychophysical functions attention (distribution, volume, memory, even temper, communicability and firmness to stresses. It is set that insufficient physical preparedness of teachers straight influences on fatigueability in the process of work. It is educed, that most teachers see a benefit in the specialized physical preparation of students to the future profession.

  11. Charge Migration in DNA Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Tapash

    2007-01-01

    Charge migration through DNA has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. A deeper understanding of the nature of charge transfer and transport along the double helix is important in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. It has also important implications in biology, in particular in DNA damage and repair. This book presents contributions from an international team of researchers active in this field. It contains a wide range of topics that includes the mathematical background of the quantum processes involved, the role of charge transfer in DNA radiation damage, a new approach to DNA sequencing, DNA photonics, and many others. This book should be of value to researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, physical chemistry, and nanoscale sciences.

  12. Adaptation and Validation of the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale in Spanish Physical Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Ricardo; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2015-07-20

    Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2002), the aim of the study was to adapt and validate a Spanish version of the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale (PNTS; Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, Ryan, & Thørgersen-Ntoumani, 2011) in the educational domain. Psychological need thwarting and burnout were assessed in 619 physical education teachers from several high schools in Spain. Overall, the adapted measure demonstrated good content, factorial (χ2/gl = 4.87, p psychological need thwarting in teachers.

  13. EDUCATION PACKAGE REDUCE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPLAINT IN CERVICAL CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Patient with cervix cancer who receives chemotherapy experience problems in physical or psychological. Physical complaints such as nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Psychological responses such as anxiety and depression can be reduced by providing education about the care package for themselves at home. The education package at the gynecology ward RSU Dr. Soetomo Surabaya has been developed which contains about nutrition, activity, psychological aspects and progressive muscle relaxation exercise. The objective of this study explore the relationship of the educational package with physical and psychological complaints of cervical cancer patients with chemotherapy. Method :  This research use cross-sectional design. The sampling technique used total population. The sample was taken from those suitable with  inclusion criteria, with the total sample 25 patients. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. Data analysis using the T test and chi-squere. Result : Results showed that there are differences level of nausea, vomiting, fatigue and the entry psychological response to the respondents before and after intervention (p<0.05. The results showed that there is relationship between age with anxiety (p=0,032, relationship between the status of work with fatigue (p=0,003 and relationship between the frequency of chemotherapy with fatigue (p=0,015. Analysis : It can be concluded that education package can reduce physical and psychological complaint in serviks cancer patient with chemoteraphy. Discussion : Implications the results of this research is the educational package can be developed as part of the nursing care of cervical cancer patients with chemotherapy to reduce physical and psychological complaints.

  14. Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.

  15. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Nature of Bias Crime Injuries: A Comparative Analysis of Physical and Psychological Victimization Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Matthew D; Pezzella, Frank S

    2016-10-13

    The core justification of bias crime statutes concerns whether bias-motivated crimes are qualitatively different from otherwise motivated crimes. We test the hypothesis that bias crimes are more detrimental than non-bias crimes by testing for multi-dimensional injuries to victims of bias and non-bias-motivated criminal conduct. Using National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Extract 2013 Collection Year Incident-level Extract File, we analyzed physical injuries and psychological trauma to NCVS victims during 2013. We found a range of covariates consistent with the likelihood of physical injury and psychological trauma. These included whether the incident was bias motivated, whether weapons (firearms, knives, other or unknown type of weapons) were involved, whether the incident involved multiple offenders or strangers, or whether drugs or alcohol were involved. Our findings reinforce previous studies that detected empirical evidence of multi-dimensional physical and psychological injuries to bias crime victims. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael H; Owen, Christopher G; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship between physical activity levels and broad-based measures of psychological wellbeing in adolescents have been limited by not controlling for potentially confounding variables. The present study examined the relationship between adolescents' self-reported physical activity level, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing; while controlling for a broad range of sociodemographic, health and developmental factors. The study entailed a cross-sectional school-based survey in ten British towns. Two thousand six hundred and twenty three adolescents (aged 13-16 years) reported physical activity levels, patterns of sedentary behaviour (TV/computer/video usage) and completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Lower levels of self-reported physical activity and higher levels of sedentary behaviour showed graded associations with higher SDQ total difficulties scores, both for boys (P physical activity are independently associated with diminished psychological wellbeing among adolescents. Longitudinal studies may provide further insights into the relationship between wellbeing and activity levels in this population. Ultimately, randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effects of increasing physical activity on psychological wellbeing among adolescents.

  18. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Afzali,Hamideh; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Karimian,Seyed Morteza; Sohanaki, Hamid; Vahedian, Jalal; Mohamadi, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6); 1 - Control, 2 - physical stress, 3 - psychological stress, 4 - sham, 5 - lidocaine, 6 - lidocaine + physical stress and 7 - lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induc...

  19. Physical and psychological stress for nurses in intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Hroudová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    A profession as a nurse is one of the most responsible and the most hazardous jobs. According to the statistic data a discipline of health care has the great number of "occupational diseases" cases and they are caused by overdone physical load and mental stress. The thesis targets are the assessments of the load related to the type of work, the awareness of nurses about the prevention against the undue physical load and the mental stress, the motivation and the satisfaction for the nurses at ...

  20. Physical and psychological discomfort in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Veitch, J.A.; Newsham, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Office employees spend a lot of time inside buildings, where the physical conditions influence their well-being and indirectþ influence their employers' business performance. With data from a field study conducted in the Netherlands in April-May 2003, we used path analysis to further elucidate the

  1. The Psychological and Social Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)

  2. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  3. Optimizing Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences: Placing Physics in Biological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Physics is a critical foundation for today's life sciences and medicine. However, the physics content and ways of thinking identified by life scientists as most important for their fields are often not taught, or underemphasized, in traditional introductory physics courses. Furthermore, such courses rarely give students practice using physics to understand living systems in a substantial way. Consequently, students are unlikely to recognize the value of physics to their chosen fields, or to develop facility in applying physics to biological systems. At Swarthmore, as at several other institutions engaged in reforming this course, we have reorganized the introductory course for life science students around touchstone biological examples, in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding biological phenomena or research techniques, in order to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. We have also focused on the physics topics and approaches most relevant to biology while seeking to develop rigorous qualitative reasoning and quantitative problem solving skills, using established pedagogical best practices. Each unit is motivated by and culminates with students analyzing one or more touchstone examples. For example, in the second semester we emphasize electric potential and potential difference more than electric field, and start from students' typically superficial understanding of the cell membrane potential and of electrical interactions in biochemistry to help them develop a more sophisticated understanding of electric forces, field, and potential, including in the salt water environment of life. Other second semester touchstones include optics of vision and microscopes, circuit models for neural signaling, and magnetotactic bacteria. When possible, we have adapted existing research-based curricular materials to support these examples. This talk will describe the design and development process for this course, give examples of

  4. Computing life: Add logos to biology and bios to physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin, Alexey; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations between physics and biology. Particularly, we analyse the approaches for reconstructing the emergent properties of physical or biological systems. We propose approaches to scale emergence according to the degree of state-dependency of the system's component properties. Since the component properties of biological systems are state-dependent to a high extent, biological emergence should be considered as very strong emergence - i.e. its reconstruction would require a lot of information about state-dependency of its component properties. However, due to its complexity and volume, this information cannot be handled in the naked human brain, or on the back of an envelope. To solve this problem, biological emergence can be reconstructed in silico based on experimentally determined rate laws and parameter values of the living cell. According to some rough calculations, the silicon human might comprise the mathematical descriptions of around 10(5) interactions. This is not a small number, but taking into account the exponentially increase of computational power, it should not prove to be our principal limitation. The bigger challenges will be located in different areas. For example they may be related to the observer effect - the limitation to measuring a system's component properties without affecting the system. Another obstacle may be hidden in the tradition of "shaving away" all "unnecessary" assumptions (the so-called Occam's razor) that, in fact, reflects the intention to model the system as simply as possible and thus to deem the emergence to be less strong than it possibly is. We argue here that that Occam's razor should be replaced with the law of completeness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna; Phatchareewan Khadsiri; Nisa Chawapun; Suwit Saekho; Ekkasit Tharavichitkul

    2017-01-01

      Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model...

  6. 2008 C. H. McCloy Lecture: Social Psychology and Physical Activity--Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity." Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower bio-psycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather…

  7. Psychological and psycho-physical training as a factor of personal anxiety at students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Pichurin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to test the hypothesis that the proposed content of the psychological and psycho-physical preparation of students of railway high schools in the physical education is effective in terms of reducing the high level of personal anxiety. Material : the study involved 120 students who had high levels of trait anxiety. Age of study participants was 17 - 19 years. Psychological diagnostics level of personal anxiety in students was conducted using a scale assessing the level of reactive and personal anxiety Ch.Spilberger. Results : the use in psychological and psycho-physical training in the classroom for physical education for men (significant sports - athletics and powerlifting and girls (aerobics and Sahaja Yoga significantly influenced the decline in their personal anxiety. Conclusions : It is recommended that training on physical education to carry out the following structure. Preparatory part of the class - 10 minutes. Basically - 75 minutes. Of these, 25 minutes - to solve the traditional problems of physical education students to build their motor skills and the development of physical qualities. 20 minutes - was given to the students to perform specific exercise. 30 minutes devoted to the main part of a busy professional significant sport. The final part - 5 minutes.

  8. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children's Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly…

  9. A Neural Systems-Based Neurobiology and Neuropsychiatry Course: Integrating Biology, Psychodynamics, and Psychology in the Psychiatric Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. Method: The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based…

  10. Beyond the 'new cross-cultural psychiatry': cultural biology, discursive psychology and the ironies of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2006-03-01

    The 'new cross-cultural psychiatry' heralded by Kleinman in 1977 promised a revitalized tradition that gave due respect to cultural difference and did not export psychiatric theories that were themselves culture bound. In the ensuing years, the view of culture within anthropology has continued to change, along with our understanding of the relationship of biological processes to cultural diversity, and the global political economic contexts in which mental health care is delivered. This article considers the implications of these new notions of culture, biology and the context of practice for theory in cultural psychiatry. The future of cultural psychiatry lies in advancing a broad perspective that: (a) is inherently multidisciplinary (involving psychiatric epidemiology, medical anthropology and sociology, cognitive science and social psychology), breaking down the nature/culture dichotomy with an integrative view of culture as a core feature of human biology, while remaining alert to cultural constructions of biological theory; (b) attends to psychological processes but understands these as not exclusively located within the individual but as including discursive processes that are fundamentally social; and (c) critically examines the interaction of both local and global systems of knowledge and power. Globalization has brought with it many ironies for cultural psychiatry: Transnational migrations have resulted in cultural hybridization at the same time as ethnicity has become more salient; the call for evidence-based medicine has been used to limit the impact of cultural research; and cultural psychiatry itself has been co-opted by pharmaceutical companies to inform marketing campaigns to promote conventional treatments for new populations. Cultural psychiatry must address these ironies to develop the self-critical awareness and flexibility needed to deliver humane care in shifting contexts.

  11. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  12. Psychological and Physical Stress in Surgeons Operating in a Standard or Modern Operating Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect...... psychological and physiological stress in experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Methods: This was a prospective case-controlled study including 10 experienced surgeons. Surgery was performed in 2 different ORs: a standard room and a modern room (OR1-suite, Karl Storz). The surgeons filled out questionnaires...... concerning physical and psychological wellbeing before and after surgery and had their heart rate variability registered during surgery. Results: Preoperative to postoperative physical strain and pain measurements revealed a systematical difference with 14 of 15 parameters favoring the modern OR. Two...

  13. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-03-01

    Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents' homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden's yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007-2011 and child supplements with children 10-18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Symptom burden, palliative care need and predictors of physical and psychological discomfort in two UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Gardiner, Clare; Parker, Chris; Gott, Merryn; Noble, Bill

    2013-02-26

    The requirement to meet the palliative needs of acute hospital populations has grown in recent years. With increasing numbers of frail older people needing hospital care as a result of both malignant and non-malignant conditions, emphasis is being placed upon understanding the physical, psychological and social burdens experienced by patients. This study explores the extent of burden in two large UK hospitals, focusing upon those patients who meet palliative care criteria. Furthermore, the paper explores the use of palliative services and identifies the most significant clinical diagnostic and demographic factors which determine physical and psychological burden. Two hospital surveys were undertaken to identify burden using the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC). The Gold Standards Framework (GSF) is used to identify those patients meeting palliative care criteria. Participants were identified as being in-patients during a two-week data collection phase for each site. Data was gathered using face-to-face interviews or self-completion by patients or a proxy. Descriptive analyses highlight prevalence and use of palliative care provision. Binary logistic regression assesses clinical diagnostic predictor variables of physical and psychological burden. The sample consisted of 514 patients and elevated physical, psychological and social burden is identified amongst those meeting palliative care criteria (n = 185). Tiredness (34.6%), pain (31.1%), weakness (28.8%) and psychological discomfort (low mood 19.9%; anxiety 16.1%) are noted as being prevalent. A small number of these participants accessed Specialist Palliative Care (8.2%). Dementia was identified as a predictor of physical (OR 3.94; p psychological burden (OR 2.88; p psychological burden (OR 2.00; p care requirements. Moreover, the paper also indicates that a large proportion of such patients are not in receipt of palliative approaches to their care. Furthermore, the paper

  15. Sensing the coherence of biology in contrast to psychology: young children's use of causal relations to distinguish two foundational domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E; Keil, Frank C; Lockhart, Kristi L

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly cluster biological processes and separate them from psychological ones. Experiments 3 and 4 (N = 64) examine whether or not children make this distinction because they understand that biological and psychological processes operate according to fundamentally different causal mechanisms. The results suggest that 5-year-olds do possess this understanding, and furthermore, they have intuitions about the nature of these different mechanisms.

  16. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6- n -propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters ( n =113) and PROP hyper-tasters ( n =112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P (F)wines were grouped according to their dominant sensory properties (dry, sweet, carbonation and heat), liking scores for PROP hyper-tasters were higher than those of PROP hypo-tasters for all classes. Scores also varied with age, expertise and gender for some products. Effect sizes (eta-squared) were generally greatest for age, and those for PROP responsiveness were of similar magnitude as those for gender. As expected, wine consumption frequency was higher for men and experts, and increased with age. Age is the most robust and consistent driver of wine liking and intake of the variables examined. Taste phenotype also contributes significantly to variation in wine liking. Ontario wine consumers fall into one of three wine liking clusters, which differ in experiential, biological, psychological and demographic features that can be targeted through branding and marketing strategies.

  17. The feasibility of training with FES-assisted cycling: Psychological, physical and physiological consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Fattal, Charles; Sijobert, Benoît; Daubigney, Anne; Lucas, Brigitte; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Objective The literature contains considerable data showing that such programs are crucial to reduce the consequences of physical inactivity of people with SCI. The objective of the study was to assess the physical, psychological, functional and financial feasibility of training a paraplegic subject on a FES-assisted recumbent bike – initially fixed on a stationary stand and then over open terrain. At the end of a 12-month training, the patient was invited to participa...

  18. Parental Physical Force and Alcohol Use in Emerging Adults: Mediation by Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mary Ward; McKinney, Cliff

    2016-07-25

    Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of parental physical force on emerging adult functioning, specifically alcohol and psychological problems. A sample of 488 young adults completed questionnaires on current perceptions related to alcohol-related problems, physical and psychological aggression by their parents experienced during the previous year, and current emotional and behavioral functioning. Results showed full mediation between paternal physical force and emerging adult alcohol problems by emerging adult psychological problems. Emerging adult psychological problems partially mediated the effect of maternal physical force on emerging adult alcohol problem. Gender did not moderate these effects. The results support existing literature suggesting that the use of parental physical force may lead to a chain reaction of problems, even during emerging adulthood. These results also reveal that emerging adults report currently receiving physical force from their parents, which brings to light a concerning lack of literature on the use of parental physical force on emerging adult children. These results advocate for positive parenting practives and efforts to teach them, even for emerging adult children. The results may also clinically suggest that paying attention to parental force in emerging adult clients could yield a better understanding of their current functioning, especially including excessive alcohol use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Mareike; Guzy, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of ...

  20. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  2. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  3. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  4. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  5. Student Physical Education Teachers' Well-Being: Contribution of Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciyin, Gülten; Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted Self-Determination Theory tenets and aimed to explore whether student physical education (PE) teachers' satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs independently predicts well-being. 267 Turkish student PE teachers were recruited for the study. Two stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed in which each outcome…

  6. Integrative Evaluation of Automated Massage Combined with Thermotherapy: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Dae Woon; Schreiber, Joergen; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hansung

    2016-01-01

    Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae), physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG]), and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS]) measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.

  7. Effects of the Drama Course on Psychological Well-Being of Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Özgür; Çaglayan, Hakan Salim

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether the drama course has any effect on the psychological well-being levels of the 4th grade students who study at the Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching at the Faculty of Sport Sciences. The research group consists of 39 students studying at the 4th grade in the Department of Physical…

  8. Cochrane review abstracts: The psychological effects of the physical healthcare environment on healthcare personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of 'healing environments' refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall

  9. The psychological effects of the physical healthcare environment on healthcare personnel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of 'healing environments' refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall prevention) or

  10. The psychological effects of the physical healthcare environment on healthcare personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of 'healing environments' refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall

  11. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  12. Integrative Evaluation of Automated Massage Combined with Thermotherapy: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae, physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG], and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS] measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.

  13. Long-term physical, psychological and social consequences of severe injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.K.; Eisma, W.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.

    This 6 year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the long-term physical, psychological and social outcomes of severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16). Patients were treated at the University Hospital Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 1989 and

  14. Psychological Well-Being and Motivation in a Turkish Physical Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  16. Biological-based and physical-based optimization for biological evaluation of prostate patient's plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, E.; Sheino, I.; Vertinsky, A.

    2017-09-01

    Modern modalities of radiation treatment therapy allow irradiation of the tumor to high dose values and irradiation of organs at risk (OARs) to low dose values at the same time. In this paper we study optimal radiation treatment plans made in Monaco system. The first aim of this study was to evaluate dosimetric features of Monaco treatment planning system using biological versus dose-based cost functions for the OARs and irradiation targets (namely tumors) when the full potential of built-in biological cost functions is utilized. The second aim was to develop criteria for the evaluation of radiation dosimetry plans for patients based on the macroscopic radiobiological criteria - TCP/NTCP. In the framework of the study four dosimetric plans were created utilizing the full extent of biological and physical cost functions using dose calculation-based treatment planning for IMRT Step-and-Shoot delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in prostate case (5 fractions per 7 Gy).

  17. Music and physical activity in psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macone, Damiano; Baldari, Carlo; Zelli, Arnaldo; Guidetti, Laura

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of listening to music during exercise of moderate intensity on mood, state anxiety, and time to exhaustion as well as to evaluate sex differences in 27 physically active (14 men, 13 women) subjects between the ages of 20 and 30 years. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory before and after treadmill running in Music and No music conditions. Music and No Music conditions were randomly assigned, and participants exercised at 75% of their Heart Rate Reserve until voluntary exhaustion. Analysis indicated participants reported statistically significant mean changes on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, Confusion, and State Anxiety. However, the findings for emotions yielded no significant effect of music, except findings suggested that women, but not men, reported greater mean Fatigue after exercising in the presence of music than in its absence. Also, there was a statistically significant finding suggesting that women exercised longer with music than without.

  18. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  19. Physical bases for a triad of biological similarity theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, B; Morgado, E

    1986-01-01

    The dimensional analysis of physics, based on the MLT-system (M = mass, L = length, T = time), can be applied to the living world, from mycoplasmas (10(-13) g) to the blue whales (10(8) g). Body mass (M), or body weight (W), are utilized as convenient reference systems, since they represent the integrated masses of all elementary particles--at the atomic level--which conform an organism. A triad of biological similarities (mechanical, biological, transport) have been previously described. Each similarity was based on two postulates, of which the first was common to all three, i.e., the constancy of body density; whereas the second postulates were specific for each of the three theories. In this study a physical foundation for these second postulates, based on three universal constants of nature, is presented, these are: 1) the acceleration of gravity (g = LT-2); 2) the velocity of light (c = LT-1); and 3) the mass-specific quantum (h/m = L2T-1). The realm of each of these biological similarities is the following: 1) the gravitational or mechanical similarity (where g = constant), deals mainly with the relationship between a whole organism and its environment, particularly with locomotion. The acceleration of gravity (g) is also one of the determining factors of the "potential" energy (E = m.g.H), where m is the mass, and H is the height above the reference level; 2) the electrodynamic similarity (formerly biological similarity), (c = constant), is able to quantitatively define the internal organization of an organism from both a morphological and a physiological point of view.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Foundations of anticipatory logic in biology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Jesse S; Eastman, Timothy E

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in modern physics and biology reveal several scenarios in which top-down effects (Ellis, 2016) and anticipatory systems (Rosen, 1980) indicate processes at work enabling active modeling and inference such that anticipated effects project onto potential causes. We extrapolate a broad landscape of anticipatory systems in the natural sciences extending to computational neuroscience of perception in the capacity of Bayesian inferential models of predictive processing. This line of reasoning also comes with philosophical foundations, which we develop in terms of counterfactual reasoning and possibility space, Whitehead's process thought, and correlations with Eastern wisdom traditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  2. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Lawton; Eric Brymer; Peter Clough; Andrew Denovan

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (...

  3. Health: The No-Man's-Land Between Physics and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Health as a positive attribute is poorly understood because understanding requires concepts from physics, of which physicians and other life scientists have a very poor grasp. This paper reviews the physics that bears on biology, in particular complex quaternions and scalar fields, relates these to the morphogenetic fields proposed by biologists, and defines health as an attribute of living action within these fields. The distinction of quality, as juxtaposed with quantity, proves essential. Its basic properties are set out, but a science and mathematics of quality are awaited. The implications of this model are discussed, particularly as proper health enhancement could set a natural limit to demand for, and therefore the cost of, medical services.

  4. Surface treatments for biological, chemical and physical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics. Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis. Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.

  5. The Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Physical Abuse, Family Environment, and Gender on the Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Lori A.; Long, Patricia J.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Marx, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined contributions of sexual abuse, physical abuse, family cohesion, and conflict in predicting psychological functioning of 131 adolescents receiving residential vocational training services. In addition to child sexual abuse and physical abuse, family conflict and cohesion predicted development of psychological distress and…

  6. Relationship of weight-based teasing and adolescents' psychological well-being and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A; Martin, Scott B

    2014-01-01

    To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these, 245 (17.3%) reported being teased about being overweight. Participants completed measures of self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, physical activity (PA) self-efficacy, and self-report physical and sedentary activities. Participants also completed PF testing. After controlling for demographic characteristics, participants who were teased about being overweight had higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem, physical self-concept, PA self-efficacy, and health-related measures of PF in comparison to participants who were not teased. The results of this study support previous research indicating relationships between teasing and low levels of psychological well-being, physical self-concept, and PA self-efficacy, and establishes one between weight-based teasing and different types of PF. Research is needed to determine the potential causal nature of the relationships between teasing and fitness and evidence-based interventions are needed to reduce weight-based teasing and its potential effects on health and well-being. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  7. Addressing psychological aspects of physical problems through sandplay: a grounded theory study of therapists' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutina, Larissa; Sperlinger, David; Esterhuyzen, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to explore therapists' understanding of how people with a wide range of physical problems address the psychological aspects of these problems through sandplay, what happens for them in the process, what changes they experience and what sandplay can contribute to working with such people. This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to systematically analyse the data and construct a substantive theory of therapists' understanding of the processes and themes involved in sandplay therapy with people with physical problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine sandplay therapists with the participants asked about their experiences of using sandplay to address physical problems. The participants offered evidence of their clients' ability to address their physical problems and the corresponding psychological issues through symbolic expression in the sand. The emergent theory suggested that such symbolic expression could facilitate access to feelings and experiences that can be difficult to address through verbal therapy alone, thus facilitating the process of integration and recovery. The theory suggests how therapists thought that clients may address their physical problems through sandplay and what is important in that process. There was also a suggestion that the focus and themes unfolding in sandplay process may vary depending on whether the clients present with somatisation, chronic illness, or terminal illness. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Reimann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.

  9. The role of self-compassion in physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cathy W; Row, Kathleen A; Wuensch, Karl L; Godley, Katelyn R

    2013-01-01

    The relation of self-compassion to physical and psychological well-being was investigated among 182 college students. The self-compassion scale was delineated into three composites, following the proposition by Neff that self-compassion consists of three main components: self-judgment versus self-kindness (SJ-SK), a sense of isolation versus common humanity (I-CH), and over-identification versus mindfulness (OI-M). Findings support the association between self-compassion and psychological and physical well-being, but the composites demonstrate different influences. SJ-SK and I-CH were predictive of both depressive symptomatology and physical well-being, and SJ-SK and OI-M were predictive of managing life stressors. The results of this study support and expand prior research on self-compassion.

  10. In the company of wolves: the physical, social, and psychological benefits of dog ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sarah; Edwards, Victoria

    2008-06-01

    The increase in aging populations has implications for the provision of health and social services. A preventative approach is taken to address this problem by examining a mechanism that can enhance physical health and reduce minor ailments. Participants in 10 focus groups discussed physical, psychological, and social benefits associated with human-dog interactions. Interaction between humans and dogs is a mechanism that can enhance the physical and psychological health of elderly citizens and promote a social support network between dog owners. In turn, dependence and impact on health and social services are alleviated. The social and community consequences of promoting dog ownership in the elderly are addressed, and it is concluded that the benefits of dog ownership should be promoted among the elderly and acknowledged by relevant agencies.

  11. Preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure basic psychological needs in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-determination theory is a psychological approach to motivation that focuses on causes and consequences of human behavior regulation. According several authors, this theoretical framework could provide important information about the student’s motivational process to physical education class, however, in Portugal does not exists any instrument to measure the basic psychological needs in this domain. So, the main propose of this study is the preliminary adaptation to physical education contexts of Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (Portuguese version: BPNESp, and determine their initial psychometrics properties through an exploratory factor analysis. This propose was accomplished with a sample of 150 students (n=150 from de 2nd and 3rd CEB, aged from 11 to 16 years (M = 13.39, SD = 1.44 with different levels of sports practice. Results revealed a factorial structure just like the original model (12 items grouped in 3 factors, with 4 items hitch factor and presents acceptable values of validity and reliability. Those findings allow us to conclude, that questionnaire can be used in future investigations to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education.

  12. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  13. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Albieri Jodas Salvagioni

    Full Text Available Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers' well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.

  14. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagioni, Denise Albieri Jodas; Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes; Andrade, Selma Maffei de

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers' well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.

  15. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe

  16. Psychological and physical impact of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Lu, Debbie H; Barnett, Mitchell J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Vo, Justin C; Perry, Paul J

    2012-10-01

    To contrast the characteristics of two groups of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users-those with versus those without AAS dependence. Subanalysis of data from the Anabolic 500, a cross-sectional survey. One hundred twelve male AAS-dependent users and 367 AAS-nondependent users who completed an online survey between February 19 and June 30, 2009. Respondents were recruited from the Internet discussion boards of 38 fitness, bodybuilding, weightlifting, and steroid Web sites. The respondents provided online informed consent and completed the Anabolic 500, a 99-item Web-based survey. Self-reported data included demographics, exercise patterns, use of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents, adverse effects of AAS use, behavior consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for AAS dependence, history of illicit drug and alcohol use, history of sexual or physical abuse, and psychiatric conditions diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR. Behavior consistent with AAS dependence was identified in 23.4% of the survey participants. These AAS-dependent users were more excessive in their AAS use (e.g., higher doses, higher quantity of agents, longer duration of use), more likely to report a history of illicit heroin use in the last 12 months (5.4% vs 1.9%, p=0.049), and more likely to report a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (16.1 vs 8.4%, p=0.020) or major depressive disorder (15.2% vs 7.4%, p=0.012) than AAS-nondependent users. Data from the Anabolic 500 survey showed that almost one quarter of AAS users were dependent on these drugs. These AAS-dependent users had a higher rate of heroin use as well as anxiety and major depressive disorders compared with AAS-nondependent users. These findings can help clinicians and researchers better understand and address the potential illicit drug use and psychiatric comorbidities that may be present among AAS-dependent users. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy

  17. Long-Range Correlations in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chung-Kang

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore a wide variety of physical and biological systems without any temporal (or spatial) characteristic scale. These systems are usually associated with the terms "fractal," "scale free," "1/f noise" and "long-range correlations." In the first part of the thesis, I discuss some general concepts of scale-free systems and introduce several useful analytic and numerical tools to describe and analyze them. In the second part, I study simple physical models that exhibit long-range correlations in their spatial or temporal sequences. Two concrete examples are the one -dimensional diffusion of hard-core particles and the diffusion of particles in a random velocity field. Although, both examples exhibit power-law behavior in their velocity auto -correlation function, higher order correlations are completely different. Furthermore, I apply a novel numerical algorithm for generating correlated stochastic variables to study numerically the behavior of a dynamical system in the presence of long-range correlated noise. In the last part, I present two biological systems with long-range correlations: The DNA sequences and the human heartbeat time series. Two observations are made: (1) By constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk--called a "DNA walk," one can show that long -range correlations exist in non-coding nucleotide sequences but not in cDNA (protein coding) sequences. (2) Under healthy conditions, cardiac interbeat interval dynamics exhibit long-term correlations; with severe pathology this correlation behavior breaks down. For both systems, I discuss possible origins of these correlations and their biological implications.

  18. Feminist Psychology and the "Body Problem": Sexuality, Physical Appearance, and Women's Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2011-01-01

    Reductionistic, misogynistic, and heterosexist views of women's bodies have been often expressed and widely shared, and psychology has not been immune to those views. Second-wave feminist psychologists had plenty of work to do to normalize and destigmatize women's bodies and to point out that cultural pressures, social constructions, and…

  19. Decision-Making Under Risk: Integrating Perspectives From Biology, Economics, and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep

    2014-08-01

    Decision-making under risk has been variably characterized and examined in many different disciplines. However, interdisciplinary integration has not been forthcoming. Classic theories of decision-making have not been amply revised in light of greater empirical data on actual patterns of decision-making behavior. Furthermore, the meta-theoretical framework of evolution by natural selection has been largely ignored in theories of decision-making under risk in the human behavioral sciences. In this review, I critically examine four of the most influential theories of decision-making from economics, psychology, and biology: expected utility theory, prospect theory, risk-sensitivity theory, and heuristic approaches. I focus especially on risk-sensitivity theory, which offers a framework for understanding decision-making under risk that explicitly involves evolutionary considerations. I also review robust empirical evidence for individual differences and environmental/situational factors that predict actual risky decision-making that any general theory must account for. Finally, I offer steps toward integrating various theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on risky decision-making. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung

    CERN Document Server

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    "The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...

  1. Physics, biology and the origin of life: the physicians' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoffrey; Gershwin, M Eric

    2011-12-01

    Physicians have a great interest in discussions of life and its origin, including life's persistence through successive cycles of self-replication under extreme climatic and man-made trials and tribulations. We review here the fundamental processes that, contrary to human intuition, life may be seen heuristically as an ab initio, fundamental process at the interface between the complementary forces of gravitation and quantum mechanics. Analogies can predict applications of quantum mechanics to human physiology in addition to that already being applied, in particular to aspects of brain activity and pathology. This potential will also extend eventually to, for example, autoimmunity, genetic selection and aging. We present these thoughts in perspective against a background of changes in some physical fundamentals of science, from the earlier times of the natural philosophers of medicine to the technological medical gurus of today. Despite the enormous advances in medical science, including integration of technological changes that have led to the newer clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging and PET scans and of computerized drug design, there is an intellectual vacuum as to how the physics of matter became translated to the biology of life. The essence and future of medicine continue to lie in cautious, systematic and ethically bound practice and scientific research based on fundamental physical laws accepted as true until proven false.

  2. Marriages of mathematics and physics: A challenge for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Arezoo; Longo, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    The human attempts to access, measure and organize physical phenomena have led to a manifold construction of mathematical and physical spaces. We will survey the evolution of geometries from Euclid to the Algebraic Geometry of the 20th century. The role of Persian/Arabic Algebra in this transition and its Western symbolic development is emphasized. In this relation, we will also discuss changes in the ontological attitudes toward mathematics and its applications. Historically, the encounter of geometric and algebraic perspectives enriched the mathematical practices and their foundations. Yet, the collapse of Euclidean certitudes, of over 2300 years, and the crisis in the mathematical analysis of the 19th century, led to the exclusion of "geometric judgments" from the foundations of Mathematics. After the success and the limits of the logico-formal analysis, it is necessary to broaden our foundational tools and re-examine the interactions with natural sciences. In particular, the way the geometric and algebraic approaches organize knowledge is analyzed as a cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural issue and will be examined in Mathematical Physics and Biology. We finally discuss how the current notions of mathematical (phase) "space" should be revisited for the purposes of life sciences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-02-01

    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  5. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  6. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  7. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Levenstein

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millenium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  8. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  9. Normal mode analysis and applications in biological physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Sankey, Otto F

    2010-10-27

    Normal mode analysis has become a popular and often used theoretical tool in the study of functional motions in enzymes, viruses, and large protein assemblies. The use of normal modes in the study of these motions is often extremely fruitful since many of the functional motions of large proteins can be described using just a few normal modes which are intimately related to the overall structure of the protein. In this review, we present a broad overview of several popular methods used in the study of normal modes in biological physics including continuum elastic theory, the elastic network model, and a new all-atom method, recently developed, which is capable of computing a subset of the low frequency vibrational modes exactly. After a review of the various methods, we present several examples of applications of normal modes in the study of functional motions, with an emphasis on viral capsids.

  10. Biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Jan; Eekhout, Joris; Verdonschot, Piet

    2016-04-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Currently, stream restoration measures are being implemented in these degraded lowland streams, where design principles are often based on outdated relationships between biological and physical conditions. Little is known about the reference conditions in these streams. Therefore, the aim of this research is to quantify the relationships between biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams. The research was conducted in four near-natural lowland streams in Central Poland. Field data were obtained during a field campaign in 2011. The following data were obtained in a 50-m reach in each of the four streams: macroinvertebrate sampling, spatial habitat patterns, bathymetry, and flow-velocity. Furthermore, water level, light sensitivity and temperature sensors were installed to obtain the temporal dynamic of these streams. Macroinvertebrates were sampled in 9 different habitat types, i.e. sand, gravel, fine organic matter, stones, branches, leaves, silt, vegetation, and wood. Macroinvertebrates were determined to the highest taxonomic level possible. Data from the bathymetrical surveys were interpolated on a grid and bathymetrical metrics were determined. Flow velocity measurements were related to habitats and flow velocity metrics were determined. Analysis of the data shows that flow conditions vary among the different habitat, with a gradient from hard substrates towards soft substrates. Furthermore, the data show that stream as a unit best explains species composition, but also specific habitat conditions, such as substrate type and flow velocity, correlate with species composition. More specific, the data shows a strong effect of wood on species composition. These findings may have implications for stream restoration design, which

  11. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Najmi, Badroddin; Salesi, Aseih; Chorami, Maryam; Hoveidafar, Rezvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin's parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05). The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01). A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05); also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05) Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management PMID:24778669

  12. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    OpenAIRE

    Awat Feizi; Badroddin Najmi; Aseih Salesi; Maryam Chorami; Rezvan Hoveidafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s paren...

  13. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management

  14. Effectiveness of Nursing Interventions on Physical and Psychological Outcome among Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

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    T. Sivabalan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer patient's undergoing chemotherapy experiences a variety of side effects which has influence on prognosis of illness, activity of daily living and the quality of life. There is a need of nursing care interventions for management and prevention of problem among cancer patients. Aim & Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of nursing interventions on physical and psychological outcome among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: A true experimental study, post test only design with control group approach was conducted among 130 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at oncology ward of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni (Bk, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Cancer patients who are 18 years old or older were selected with systematic random sampling method. Pre tested semi structured interview schedule was used to gather data. The assessment of health status before start of chemotherapy was carried out, followed by the nursing interventions was implemented based on patient needs and problems, and the post test was conducted after the period of interventions. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods wherever required. Results: The results revealed that the cancer patients experienced a wide range of physical and psychological problems prior to chemotherapy treatment. Cancer patients who received nursing interventions had improved post test mean scores on chemotherapy symptoms, pain and fatigue; emotional well being, anxiety and depression than the patients who received routine care, notably it was statistically significant at p<0.05 level. A significant association was observed between physical, psychological outcome variables and the socio demographic characteristics like sex, site of cancer, stage of cancer, duration of cancer, metastasis of cancer and the regimen of chemotherapy at p<0.05 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the nursing

  15. Space Radiation and Manned Mission: Interface Between Physics and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Tom

    2012-07-01

    The natural radiation environment in space consists of a mixed field of high energy protons, heavy ions, electrons and alpha particles. Interplanetary travel to the International Space Station and any planned establishment of satellite colonies on other solar system implies radiation exposure to the crew and is a major concern to space agencies. With shielding, the radiation exposure level in manned space missions is likely to be chronic, low dose irradiation. Traditionally, our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. Radiobiological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are subjected to modulations by various parameters including bystander effects, adaptive response, genomic instability and genetic susceptibility of the exposed individuals. Radiation dosimetry and modeling will provide conformational input in areas where data are difficult to acquire experimentally. However, modeling is only as good as the quality of input data. This lecture will discuss the interdependent nature of physics and biology in assessing the radiobiological response to space radiation.

  16. AT THE PHYSICS-BIOLOGY INTERFACE: THE NEUTRON AFFAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, G; Barbieri, S; Babini, G; Morini, J; Friedland, W; Kundrát, P; Schmitt, E; Puchalska, M; Giesen, U; Nolte, R; Ottolenghi, A

    2017-10-21

    We present predictions of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell irradiations with neutron beams at PTB-Braunschweig. A neutron RBE model is adopted to evaluate initial DNA damage induction given the neutron-induced charged particle field. RBE values are predicted for cell exposures to quasi-monoenergetic beams (0.56 MeV, 1.2 MeV) and to a broad energy distribution neutron field with dose-averaged energy of 5.75 MeV. Results are compared to what obtained with our RBE predictions for neutrons at similar energies, when a 30-cm sphere is irradiated in an isotropic neutron field. RBE values for experimental conditions are higher for the lowest neutron energies, because, as expected, target geometry determines the weight of the low-effectiveness photon component of the neutron dose. These results highlight the importance of characterizing neutron fields in terms of physical interactions, to fully understand neutron-induced biological effects, contributing to risk estimation and to the improvement of radiation protection standards. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Estuary-ocean connectivity: Fast physics, slow biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Cloern, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Estuaries are connected to both land and ocean so their physical, chemical, and biological dynamics are influenced by climate patterns over watersheds and ocean basins. We explored climate-driven oceanic variability as a source of estuarine variability by comparing monthly time series of temperature and chlorophyll-a inside San Francisco Bay with those in adjacent shelf waters of the California Current System (CCS) that are strongly responsive to wind-driven upwelling. Monthly temperature fluctuations inside and outside the Bay were synchronous, but their correlations weakened with distance from the ocean. These results illustrate how variability of coastal water temperature (and associated properties such as nitrate and oxygen) propagates into estuaries through fast water exchanges that dissipate along the estuary. Unexpectedly, there was no correlation between monthly chlorophyll-a variability inside and outside the Bay. However, at the annual scale Bay chlorophyll-a was significantly correlated with the Spring Transition Index (STI) that sets biological production supporting fish recruitment in the CCS. Wind forcing of the CCS shifted in the late 1990s when the STI advanced 40 days. This shift was followed, with lags of 1–3 years, by 3- to 19-fold increased abundances of five ocean-produced demersal fish and crustaceans and 2.5-fold increase of summer chlorophyll-a in the Bay. These changes reflect a slow biological process of estuary–ocean connectivity operating through the immigration of fish and crustaceans that prey on bivalves, reduce their grazing pressure, and allow phytoplankton biomass to build. We identified clear signals of climate-mediated oceanic variability in this estuary and discovered that the response patterns vary with the process of connectivity and the timescale of ocean variability. This result has important implications for managing nutrient inputs to estuaries connected to upwelling systems, and for assessing their responses to

  18. Psychological distress, television viewing, and physical activity in children aged 4 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mishra, Gita

    2009-05-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological distress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Participants were 1486 boys and girls (mean age: 8.5 +/- 2.3 years). Parents answered on behalf of children who were required to be present. The parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and information on television and screen entertainment time, physical activity, and dietary intake of their children. An abnormally high Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score (20-40) was found in 4.2% of the sample. Approximately 25% of the children were exposed to television and screen entertainment at least 3 hours/day. In general linear models, television and screen entertainment time per week and physical activity levels were independently associated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score after adjustment for age, gender, area deprivation level, single-parent status, medical conditions, and various dietary intake indicators. There was also an additive interaction effect showing that the combination of high television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity was associated with the highest Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score. Higher television and screen entertainment exposure (>2.7 hours/day) alone resulted in a 24% increase in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score in comparison with lower television and screen entertainment exposure (television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.

  19. Psychological interventions for mental health disorders in children with chronic physical illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Shafran, Roz; Coughtrey, Anna; Walker, Susan; Heyman, Isobel

    2015-04-01

    Children with chronic physical illness are significantly more likely to develop common psychiatric symptoms than otherwise healthy children. These children therefore warrant effective integrated healthcare yet it is not established whether the known, effective, psychological treatments for symptoms of common childhood mental health disorders work in children with chronic physical illness. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched with predefined terms relating to evidence-based psychological interventions for psychiatric symptoms in children with chronic physical illness. We included all studies (randomised and non-randomised designs) investigating interventions aimed primarily at treating common psychiatric symptoms in children with a chronic physical illness in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of abstracts identified, extracted data and undertook quality analysis. Ten studies (209 children, including 70 in control groups) met the criteria for inclusion in the review. All studies demonstrated some positive outcomes of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in children with chronic physical illness. Only two randomised controlled trials, both investigating interventions for symptoms of depression, were found. There is preliminary evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy has positive effects in the treatment of symptoms of depression and anxiety in children with chronic physical illness. However, the current evidence base is weak and fully powered randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of psychological treatments in this vulnerable population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Directionality of physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents in Recife, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alice Kelly; de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Bigras, Marc; Njaine, Kathie; Assis, Simone Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents with respect to the profiles of directionality - only man perpetrates, only woman perpetrates, and bidirectional, ie, both perpetrate violence. Sample was performed by two-stage cluster selection in public and private school in the city of Recife (PE), Brazil, presenting data on 355 adolescents of both sexes between 15 and 19 years old. Psychological violence was measured in dimensions threat, verbal/emotional, and relational. Statistical analyzes incorporated the sampling weight and the complex sample design. Violence is bidirectional in most forms studied (83.9%) and girls reported higher levels of perpetration of physical violence, and boys reported more perpetration of relational violence. It was concluded that adolescent dating violence shows a pattern where partners attack each other, both physically and psychologically. Future research should study the patterns of these acts of violence, keeping the adolescent couple as the unit of analysis and exploring the context in which such violence occurs.

  1. Directionality of physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Kelly Barreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents with respect to the profiles of directionality - only man perpetrates, only woman perpetrates, and bidirectional, ie, both perpetrate violence. METHODS: Sample was performed by two-stage cluster selection in public and private school in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil, presenting data on 355 adolescents of both sexes between 15 and 19 years old. Psychological violence was measured in dimensions threat, verbal/emotional, and relational. Statistical analyzes incorporated the sampling weight and the complex sample design. RESULTS: Violence is bidirectional in most forms studied (83.9% and girls reported higher levels of perpetration of physical violence, and boys reported more perpetration of relational violence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that adolescent dating violence shows a pattern where partners attack each other, both physically and psychologically. Future research should study the patterns of these acts of violence, keeping the adolescent couple as the unit of analysis and exploring the context in which such violence occurs.

  2. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  3. The interpersonal and psychological functioning of women who experienced childhood physical abuse, incest, and parental alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K M; Gilbert, B O

    1994-10-01

    Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood incest (CI), and parental alcoholism (ACOA) were completed by 253 college women from introductory psychology classes at a large midwestern university. The relationship between these variables and the level of depression, self-esteem and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners was assessed. Support was found for an additive model of trauma that predicted a relationship between number of childhood traumas and adult outcomes. Limited support was found for a specificity model of trauma that predicted that specific childhood trauma would be predictive of parallel negative adult outcomes.

  4. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  5. Psychological effects of acute physical inactivty during microgravitiy simulated by bed rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-duration weightlessness simulated by bed rest represents an important model to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. This study evaluated changes of mood status, psychological well-being, coping strategies and physical self in ten healthy young male subjects during a 35-day horizontal bed rest. Participants were asked to complete psychometrical inventories before and after the bed rest experiment. The preceived satisfaction with life and the physical self-concept did not change during bed rest period and mood states were relatively stable during the experiment according to the Emotional States Questionnaire. The neurotic level was enhanced during the bed rest period according to the Slovenian version of the General Health Questionnaire. However, even after the period of physical immobilization, the expression of these symptoms remains relatively low and does not represent a risk to the mental health of the subjects. The results from Coping Resources Inventory indicated a tendency toward an increase of emotion focused coping and a decrease of problem focused coping strategies. The importance of this research was to provide evidence that the provision of favourable habitability countermeasures can prevent deterioration in the psychological state under conditions of physical immobilisation. Our findings have applied value in the field of health prevention and rehabilitaion.

  6. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FILL MATERIAL Evaluation and Testing § 230.61 Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing...-biological interactive effects. Dredged or fill material may be excluded from the evaluation procedures... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical, biological, and physical...

  7. Examining the sex difference in lateralisation for processing facial emotion: does biological sex or psychological gender identity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J; Maxwell, Adele M

    2010-04-01

    The research examining sex differences in functional lateralisation has shown varying results. While some provide evidence for males being more strongly lateralised than females, a number have shown either no relationship or the opposite pattern of findings. In this study we consider whether psychological gender identity might clarify some of the conflicting results in this area of research. Eight five participants (39 males) aged from 18 to 49 years old were tested. We found that psychological masculinity was associated with stronger patterns of lateralisation for the processing of a range of emotional expressions. We also found an interaction between biological sex and psychological gender identity, with a positive relationship between psychological masculinity and lateralisation found for males, but a negative relationship found for females. The possible role of hormonal exposure in this relationship is discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  9. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology ("theory of mind") in offspring of mothers with psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróthi, Rebeka; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or "theory of mind") and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  10. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  11. Mindfulness and its efficacy for psychological and biological responses in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Lena B; Andersson, Bengt A; Karlsson, Per; Bergh, Ingrid

    2017-05-01

    Many breast cancer survivors have to deal with a variety of psychological and physiological sequelae including impaired immune responses. The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention for mood disorders in women with breast cancer. Secondary outcomes were symptom experience, health status, coping capacity, mindfulness, posttraumatic growth, and immune status. This RTC assigned 166 women with breast cancer to one of three groups: MBSR (8 weekly group sessions of MBSR), active controls (self-instructing MBSR) and non-MBSR. The primary outcome measure was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures were: Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, SF-36, Sense of Coherence, Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire, and Posttraumatic Growth Index. Blood samples were analyzed using flow cytometry for NK-cell activity (FANKIA) and lymphocyte phenotyping; concentrations of cytokines were determined in sera using commercial high sensitivity IL-6 and IL-8 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits. Results provide evidence for beneficial effects of MBSR on psychological and biological responses. Women in the MBSR group experienced significant improvements in depression scores, with a mean pre-MBSR HAD-score of 4.3 and post-MBSR score of 3.3 (P = 0.001), and compared to non-MBSR (P = 0.015). Significant improvements on scores for distress, symptom burden, and mental health were also observed. Furthermore, MBSR facilitated coping capacity as well as mindfulness and posttraumatic growth. Significant benefits in immune response within the MBSR group and between groups were observed. MBSR have potential for alleviating depression, symptom experience, and for enhancing coping capacity, mindfulness and posttraumatic growth, which may improve breast cancer survivorship. MBSR also led to beneficial effect on immune function; the clinical implications of this

  12. Psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid: Study Protocol of a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinty Agnes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged communities suffer higher levels of physical and mental ill health than more advantaged communities. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychosocial, behavioural and biological determinants of ill health within population groups in Glasgow that differed in socioeconomic status and in their propensity to develop chronic disease especially coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Participants were selected at random from areas known to be at the extremes of the socioeconomic continuum in Glasgow. Within the categories of least deprived and most deprived, recruitment was stratified by sex and age to achieve an overall sample containing approximately equal numbers of males and females and an even distribution across the age categories 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 years. Individuals were invited by letter to attend for assessment of their medical history, risk factor status, cognitive function and psychological profile, morbidity, and carotid intima-media thickness and plaque count as indices of atherosclerosis. Anonymised data on study subjects were collected from the General Practice Administration System for Scotland to analyse characteristics of participants and non-participants. Results 700 subjects were recruited. The response (active participants per 100 invitation letters in the least deprived group was 35.1% and in the most deprived group was 20.3%. Lowest response was seen in young males (least deprived 22.4% and most deprived 14.1%. Conclusion This cross-sectional study recruited the planned sample of subjects from least deprived and most deprived areas within Glasgow. As evident in other studies response differed between the most and least deprived areas. This study brought together researchers/academics from diverse disciplines to build a more sophisticated understanding of the determinants of health inequalities than can be achieved through unidisciplinary approaches

  13. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinienė, Dalia; Lekavičienė, Rosita

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to unveil the ways in which the emotional intelligence (EI) of a young person is linked with subjective assessment of physical state, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being, as well as to determine whether these factors are reliable predictors of EI constituents. The study was conducted using an original EI test (EI-DARL-V1/V2), which consisted of a traditional 73-item questionnaire; tasks of emotional, social and interpersonal situations; and identification of emotions in facial expressions (pictures). Questionnaire items were multiplexed into 5 subscales using multi-step factor analysis. Special questionnaires were devised and presented to participants together with the EI questionnaire in order to assess subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being. There were 1430 participants from various regions of Lithuania who participated in the study. The age of participants varied from 17 to 27 years. Established inverse linear correlation showed that those participants who experienced certain somatic symptoms or unpleasant psychological states had lower EI; a particularly strong correlation was observed between poor subjective assessment of health and understanding and control of one's own emotions. Depressed and anxious participants possessed poorer understanding and ability to regulate emotions of others as well as their own. Also, these participants performed worse when resolving emotional, social, and interpersonal situations. A direct relationship between EI and psychological well-being was established according to three EI indexes i.e. (a) understanding of own emotions; (b) understanding of emotions of other people; (c) control of emotions of others. As perception of psychological well-being increased, participants were able to understand emotions of others better and demonstrated even better ability to understand and control their own emotions. The study

  14. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.

  15. Social Constraints are Associated with Negative Psychological and Physical Adjustment in Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse Versus Physical Abuse and Their Relationship With Mental Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, B S Sandra; Sanderson, Sonya

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has been limited in examining at what degree aggressive actions are initially perceived negatively. The present research examined whether anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were associated with prior abuse or with being attributed to past or present relationships. Scales such as the Dating Relationship Profile (DRP) and hypothetical scenarios of abuse perpetration were used. This study hypothesized that acceptability ratings from hypothetical scenarios would predict answers on DRP items measuring whether physical or psychological abuse is considered acceptable in relationships. Specifically, gender would be a predictor variable. Convenience sampling of undergraduate psychology students from a comprehensive, metropolitan university in north Georgia was used and resulted in 291 respondents (n = 227 [78%] female, n = 64 [22%] male) whose ages ranged from 18 to 54 years (M = 20.57 years, SD = 5.12 years). The present research used a 2 × 2 between-subjects design examining gender and type of hypothetical scenario violence with perceptions of abuse as the dependent variable. A significant association between experience of abuse and attribution of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms to past or present relationships and between experience of abuse and these symptoms was found. Results revealed a significant difference between acceptability ratings of psychological abuse and gender, with men perceiving psychological abuse as more acceptable.

  17. Relationship of Weight-Based Teasing and Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,…

  18. [Co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents in Recife, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alice Kelly; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho de; Avanci, Joviana Quintes

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents from Recife, Brazil, to identify associated factors and the co-occurrence of both types of violence. 302 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in public and private schools who were in a relationship in the last year filled out the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis were performed and the sample weight and the complex sample design were entered. The prevalence was 19.9% of physical violence 82.8% of psychological violence and 18.9% for the co-occurrence of both. Adolescents who have experienced violence in the community and who were in dating relationships of more than one year duration were more likely to perpetrate psychological violence. For the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence, the variables that increased the chance of perpetration were suffering physical violence from the father, violence among siblings, physical violence and the perpetration of verbal violence in previous relationships. The conclusion reached is that psychological violence and the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence have a distinct dynamics from physical violence in dating relationships.

  19. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  20. Application of stages of change model to adolescents' physical activity in relation to psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca-Sos, A; Bois, J E; Generelo, E; Julián, J A; Zaragoza, J

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the stages of change in physical activity in relation to psychological variables: self-efficacy, physical self-concept and barriers to physical activity, as well as gender. Furthermore, cluster profiles were created based on psychological variables to be compared with stages of change groups. Data were obtained from a representative sample of adolescents (N.=1618, 14.46±1.28 years) from Aragon region (Spain). The different strata were selected according to the geographical region, environment, type of school, age and gender Males (75.5%) and very active adolescents (96.9% participant boys and 93.5% participants girls) were more prevalent in the action and maintenance groups. We found significant differences in psychosocial variables by stages of change and gender, showing higher scores in active groups for physical self-concept (effects of gender and stages of change: F(1, 1618)=313.82 Pstages of change groups (χ²(1)=162,76, Pchange behaviour, not only stage of change model variables. Furthermore, the study can be relevant to designing more effective health promotion programmes in the adolescent population.

  1. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel of the mind/brain interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Stapp, Henry P.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-09-21

    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behavior generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g., ''feeling,'' ''knowing,'' and ''effort'') are not included as primary causal factors. This theoretical restriction is motivated primarily by ideas about the natural world that have been known to be fundamentally incorrect for more than three quarters of a century. Contemporary basic physical theory differs profoundly from classical physics on the important matter of how the consciousness of human agents enters into the structure of empirical phenomena. The new principles contradict the older idea that local mechanical processes alone can account for the structure of all observed empirical data. Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human agents about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual framework for describing neural processes. Indeed, due to certain structural features of ion channels critical to synaptic function, contemporary physical theory must in principle be used when analyzing human brain dynamics. The new framework, unlike its classical-physics-based predecessor is erected directly upon, and is compatible with, the prevailing principles of physics, and is able to represent more adequately than classical concepts the neuroplastic mechanisms relevant to the growing number of

  2. [Family configuration and physical and psychological health status in a sample of elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Doris Firmino; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-04-01

    This study focused on the relations between family configuration (living arrangements, heads of family, and financial contributions to the family's support), age, gender, and physical health (functional capacity, number of diseases and signs and symptoms, and social involvement) and psychological health (depression and anxiety) among the elderly, based on self-reported data. The probabilistic sample included 134 elderly without cognitive deficit, with data collected in home interviews. Cluster analyses were performed using the partitioning method (three groupings). The variables that contributed the most to forming groups were basic activities of daily living (R(2) = 0.732) and instrumental activities of daily living (R(2) = 0.487), number of diseases (R(2) = 0.241), and age (R(2) = 0.225). The predominant family configuration was living with children and/or grandchildren, with the elderly as providers and heads of the family. The study showed associations between family configuration and physical and psychological health status. Women showed a higher financial burden and worse psychological health than men.

  3. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms...

  4. Estuary-ocean connectivity: fast physics, slow biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Cloern, James E

    2017-06-01

    Estuaries are connected to both land and ocean so their physical, chemical, and biological dynamics are influenced by climate patterns over watersheds and ocean basins. We explored climate-driven oceanic variability as a source of estuarine variability by comparing monthly time series of temperature and chlorophyll-a inside San Francisco Bay with those in adjacent shelf waters of the California Current System (CCS) that are strongly responsive to wind-driven upwelling. Monthly temperature fluctuations inside and outside the Bay were synchronous, but their correlations weakened with distance from the ocean. These results illustrate how variability of coastal water temperature (and associated properties such as nitrate and oxygen) propagates into estuaries through fast water exchanges that dissipate along the estuary. Unexpectedly, there was no correlation between monthly chlorophyll-a variability inside and outside the Bay. However, at the annual scale Bay chlorophyll-a was significantly correlated with the Spring Transition Index (STI) that sets biological production supporting fish recruitment in the CCS. Wind forcing of the CCS shifted in the late 1990s when the STI advanced 40 days. This shift was followed, with lags of 1-3 years, by 3- to 19-fold increased abundances of five ocean-produced demersal fish and crustaceans and 2.5-fold increase of summer chlorophyll-a in the Bay. These changes reflect a slow biological process of estuary-ocean connectivity operating through the immigration of fish and crustaceans that prey on bivalves, reduce their grazing pressure, and allow phytoplankton biomass to build. We identified clear signals of climate-mediated oceanic variability in this estuary and discovered that the response patterns vary with the process of connectivity and the timescale of ocean variability. This result has important implications for managing nutrient inputs to estuaries connected to upwelling systems, and for assessing their responses to changing

  5. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Sani SH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

  6. Biologic: Gene circuits and feedback in an introductory physics sequence for biology and premedical students

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, S B

    2013-01-01

    Two synthetic gene circuits -- the genetic toggle switch and the repressilator -- are analyzed quantitatively and discussed in the context of an educational module on gene circuits and feedback that constitutes the final topic of a year-long introductory physics sequence, aimed at biology and premedical undergraduate students. The genetic toggle switch consists of two genes, each of whose protein product represses the other's expression, while the repressilator consists of three genes, each of whose protein product represses the next gene's expression. Analytic, numerical, and electronic treatments of the genetic toggle switch shows that this gene circuit realizes bistability. A simplified treatment of the repressilator reveals that this circuit can realize sustained oscillations. In both cases, a "phase diagram" is obtained, that specifies the region of parameter space in which bistability or oscillatory behavior, respectively, occurs.

  7. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emma; Brymer, Eric; Clough, Peter; Denovan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262) aged 18-71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1) who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp). Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  8. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  9. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and Life Satisfaction were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences.

  10. Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Delphine; Kotsou, Ilios; Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel; Weytens, Fanny; Dupuis, Pauline; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2011-04-01

    This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that 18 hr of training with e-mail follow-up was sufficient to significantly improve emotion regulation, emotion understanding, and overall EC. These changes led in turn to long-term significant increases in extraversion and agreeableness as well as a decrease in neuroticism. Results of Study 2 showed that the development of EC brought about positive changes in psychological well-being, subjective health, quality of social relationships, and employability. The effect sizes were sufficiently large for the changes to be considered as meaningful in people's lives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. An exploratory study of adolescent response to fluoxetine using psychological and biological predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat, Tamar; Amitai, Maya; Taler, Michal; Bari, Romi; Chen, Alon; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Avraham; Fennig, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    Background Not enough is known about predicting therapeutic response to serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, and specifically to fluoxetine. This exploratory study used psychological and biological markers for (retrospective) prediction of treatment-response to fluoxetine in depressed and/or anxious adolescents. Methods Forty-one consecutive adolescent outpatients with a primary diagnosis of severe affective and/or anxiety disorders were assessed and treated with an open-label 8-week trial of fluoxetine. Type D personality was assessed with the 14-item questionnaire, the DS14. In addition, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1b were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results There was an elevation of Type D personality in patients, compared to the adolescent population rate. Post-treatment, 44% of patients were classified as non-responders; the relative risk of non-response for Type D personality patients was 2.8. Binary logistic regression predicting response vs. non-response showed a contribution of initial TNFα levels as well as Type D personality to non-response. Conclusions In this exploratory study, the most significant contributor to non-response was Type D personality. However, the measurement of Type D was not prospective, and thus may be confounded with psychiatric morbidity. The measurement of personality in psychiatric settings may contribute to the understanding of treatment response and have clinical utility. PMID:29340244

  12. An exploratory study of adolescent response to fluoxetine using psychological and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H. Zohar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Not enough is known about predicting therapeutic response to serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, and specifically to fluoxetine. This exploratory study used psychological and biological markers for (retrospective prediction of treatment-response to fluoxetine in depressed and/or anxious adolescents. Methods Forty-one consecutive adolescent outpatients with a primary diagnosis of severe affective and/or anxiety disorders were assessed and treated with an open-label 8-week trial of fluoxetine. Type D personality was assessed with the 14-item questionnaire, the DS14. In addition, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1b were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results There was an elevation of Type D personality in patients, compared to the adolescent population rate. Post-treatment, 44% of patients were classified as non-responders; the relative risk of non-response for Type D personality patients was 2.8. Binary logistic regression predicting response vs. non-response showed a contribution of initial TNFα levels as well as Type D personality to non-response. Conclusions In this exploratory study, the most significant contributor to non-response was Type D personality. However, the measurement of Type D was not prospective, and thus may be confounded with psychiatric morbidity. The measurement of personality in psychiatric settings may contribute to the understanding of treatment response and have clinical utility.

  13. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  14. When physics is not "just physics": complexity science invites new measurement frames for exploring the physics of cognitive and biological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Dixon, James A

    2012-01-01

    The neurobiological sciences have struggled to resolve the physical foundations for biological and cognitive phenomena with a suspicion that biological and cognitive systems, capable of exhibiting and contributing to structure within themselves and through their contexts, are fundamentally distinct or autonomous from purely physical systems. Complexity science offers new physics-based approaches to explaining biological and cognitive phenomena. In response to controversy over whether complexity science might seek to "explain away" biology and cognition as "just physics," we propose that complexity science serves as an application of recent advances in physics to phenomena in biology and cognition without reducing or undermining the integrity of the phenomena to be explained. We highlight that physics is, like the neurobiological sciences, an evolving field and that the threat of reduction is overstated. We propose that distinctions between biological and cognitive systems from physical systems are pretheoretical and thus optional. We review our own work applying insights from post-classical physics regarding turbulence and fractal fluctuations to the problems of developing cognitive structure. Far from hoping to reduce biology and cognition to "nothing but" physics, we present our view that complexity science offers new explanatory frameworks for considering physical foundations of biological and cognitive phenomena.

  15. Individual differences in physical symptom burden and psychological responses in individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Flynn, Joseph M; Jones, Jeffrey; Byrd, John C; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable illness, with some patients requiring no treatment until disease progression. Burden from physical symptoms has been associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in cancer patients. Additionally, patient factors, i.e., individual differences, have been associated with worse psychological outcomes. There are few psychological studies of CLL, with no examination of individual differences. A cross-sectional design studied the covariation of symptom burden with depressive and anxiety symptoms and cancer-specific stress, and tested patients' individual differences as predictors and as moderators. CLL patients (N = 112) receiving active surveillance participated. They were Caucasian (100 %) and predominately male (55 %) with a mean age of 61; most (62.5 %) had stage 0 disease. A composite measure of physical symptom burden (CLL symptoms, fatigue, pain, impaired functional status) was tested as a predictor of psychological responses. Individual differences in psychiatric history and social support were tested as moderators. Using multiple linear regression, greater symptom burden covaried with higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms and cancer stress (ps < .05). Those with a psychiatric history, low social support, and low relationship satisfaction with one's partner reported greater symptom burden and more psychological symptoms and stress (ps < .05). Findings suggest that CLL patients in surveillance with a psychiatric history and/or low social support are at risk for greater distress when coping with high symptom burden. These new data clarify the experience of CLL surveillance and identify characteristics of patients with heightened risk for symptom burden, stress, and anxiety or depressive symptoms.

  16. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion

  17. Dielectric relaxation in biological systems physical principles, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This title covers the theoretical basis and practical aspects of the study of dielectric properties of biological systems, such as water, electrolyte and polyelectrolytes, solutions of biological macromolecules, cells suspensions and cellular systems.

  18. Paternal and maternal psychological and physical aggression and children's anxiety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the unique relationships between paternal and maternal psychological aggression (PA) and physical aggression (corporal punishment [CP] and severe physical abuse [SPA]) and children's anxiety in China. A total of 1,971 father-mother dyads completed the Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) and the Chinese version of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicated that when paternal and maternal PA, CP, and SPA were considered simultaneously, parental PA and maternal CP were both significantly predictive of children's anxiety, whereas SPA had no significant effects on children's anxiety. Specifically, both paternal and maternal PA were the most unique predictors of children's anxiety among parental psychological and physical aggression, whereas the effects of maternal CP and paternal CP were different, with maternal CP having a stronger effect on children's anxiety compared with paternal CP. The findings indicated that appropriate prevention and intervention efforts are needed to target parental PA and maternal CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a Support Group Intervention on Physical, Psychological, and Social Adaptation of Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Yaprak S; Karayurt, Özgül

    2016-06-01

    Liver transplant recipients must adapt to a new life after transplant. We report the effects of a support group on physical and psychosocial adaptation of liver transplant recipients. The study used a quasi-experimental design, comparing an intervention group and a control group. Data were collected between January 2011 and May 2012 with 73 liver transplant recipients. A patient identification form, Modified Transplant Symptom Occurrence and Symptom Distress Scale - 58, and SF-36 were used for data collection. The intervention group attended support group meetings, while the control group received a routine follow-up. Data were analyzed with t test and The Repeated Measures ANOVA with 1 between-group factor. The results indicated that the support group intervention increases physical, psychological, and social adaptation of liver transplant recipients. Specifically, this effect of the support group was accrued after support group intervention and decreased 3 months after intervention. A support group intervention can have a positive effect on liver transplant recipients' physical, psychological, and social adaptations.

  20. Impact of active concealment of stigmatized identities on physical and psychological quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M; Weisz, Bradley M; Lawner, Elizabeth K

    2017-11-01

    Despite theoretical support for the relationship between disclosure (or "outness") and positive health outcomes for people with concealable stigmatized identities, research using outness to predict health elicits weak to inconsistent relationships. In the current research we argue that it is the need to frequently conceal that predicts negative health consequences, rather than outness. A sample of adults recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on mental illness, chronic physical illness, or minority sexual orientation (N = 288) concealment. Participants were surveyed on their levels of outness (in general and to specific others), their frequency of active concealment of the identity, and their physical and psychological quality of life (as measured by the WHOQOL-BREF). All surveys were completed from IP addresses in the United States in 2014. Results showed that the extent of active concealment predicted self-reported psychological (β = -0.32, p < 0.001) and physical QOL (β = -0.28, p < 0.001) over and above general levels of outness and outness to specific others, neither of which were significant predictors with concealment in the model. By examining the need for active concealment, researchers may be better positioned to predict and intervene to improve health outcomes for people with concealable stigmatized identities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

  2. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

  3. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  4. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  5. Psychology, Physical Disability, & the Application of Buddhist Mindfulness to Martial Arts Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Kelland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical disabilities lead to difficult challenges for many people. The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (“Awakened One”, including the practice of mindfulness, have been described by some as a form of cognitive psychology. Mindfulness is a means of restraining our minds and reactions so that we might be relieved of suffering. The successful cultivation of mindfulness often begins with developing a healthy body, so that we might be able to meditate for significant periods of time as we cultivate mindfulness. Spiritually-minded martial arts training can provide numerous benefits for everyone, including individuals with disabilities who may seek formal and informal programs with such emphasis.

  6. Physical and Psychological Abuse among Seropositive African American MSM 50 Aged Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christopher Lance

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about abuse experienced among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) who are 50 years and older. A series of focus groups were conducted to examine perspectives of seropositive African American MSM age 50 years and older who reported experiencing some form of psychological or physical abuse. Thirty African American MSM were divided into four focus groups and four themes emerged: "Fear Being Gay," "No One Else to Love Me," "Nowhere to Turn," and "Sexual Risk & Control." The data suggest there is a need to develop culturally tailored interventions for this population.

  7. Biological mechanisms of premature ovarian failure caused by psychological stress based on support vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing-hua; Min, Jian-Xin; Ma, Na; Luo, Lai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the...

  8. Physical and biological dosimetry for risk perception in radioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Amaral

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in ionizing radiation (IR applications, especially nuclear, has been followed by the growth of public concern for the potential associated risks. The public’s perception of such risks is often based on the philosophy that IR is harmful at any exposure level. On the other hand, although radiation workers have knowledge about the nature of IR and its potential health effects, the relationship between absorbed dose and risk is not well understood, principally for low doses. This report presents an overview of physical and biological dosimetry as complementary methodologies, as well as their possible contribution for improving risk perception in radioprotection.O crescente aumento das aplicações das radiações ionizantes, em particular as radiações de origem nuclear, tem sido acompanhado pelo aumento do interesse público em relação aos riscos associados a essas aplicações. A percepção de tais riscos por parte da população é freqüentemente baseada na filosofia que a radiação ionizante é perigosa independentemente dos níveis de exposição. Por outro lado, apesar dos trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos terem conhecimento da natureza da IR e seus possíveis efeitos á saúde, a relação entre dose absorvida e risco não é bem entendida por estes, em particular para baixos valores de dose. Este artigo resume aspectos da dosimetria física e biológica como metodologias complementares na melhoria da percepção dos riscos em radioproteção.

  9. Psychological theory in an interdisciplinary context: psychological, demographic, health-related, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in a representative cohort of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniehotta, Falko F; Gellert, Paul; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T; Crombie, Iain K; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2013-09-08

    Physical activity (PA) in older adults is influenced by a range of environmental, demographic, health-related, social, and psychological variables. Social cognitive psychological models assume that all influences on behaviour operate indirectly through the models constructs, i.e., via intention and self-efficacy. We evaluated direct, indirect, and moderating relationships of a broad range of external variables with physical activity levels alongside intention and self-efficacy. We performed a cross-sectional survey of a representative and stratified (65-80 and 80+ years; deprived and affluent) sample of 584 community-dwelling people, resident in Scotland. Objectively measured physical activity and questionnaire data were collected. Self-efficacy showed unique relationships with physical activity, controlling for demographic, mental health, social, environmental, and weather variables separately, but the relationship was not significant when controlling for physical health. Overall, results indicating support for a mediation hypothesis, intention and self-efficacy statistically mediate the relationship of most domain variables with physical activity. Moderation analyses show that the relationship between social cognitions and physical activity was stronger for individuals with better physical health and lower levels of socio-economic deprivation. Social cognitive variables reflect a range of known environmental, demographic, health-related and social correlates of physical activity, they mediate the relationships of those correlates with physical activity and account for additional variance in physical activity when external correlates are controlled for, except for the physical health domain. The finding that the social cognition-physical activity relationship is higher for participants with better health and higher levels of affluence raises issues for the applicability of social cognitive models to the most disadvantaged older people.

  10. Evaluation of stress response using psychological, biological, and electrophysiological markers during immersive simulation of life threatening events in multidisciplinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, D A; Darmian-Rafei, I; Nadolny, J; Sosner, P; Ragot, S; Oriot, D

    2017-07-27

    Stress might impair clinical performance in real life and in simulation-based education (SBE). Subjective or objective measures can be used to assess stress during SBE. This monocentric study aimed to evaluate the effects of simulation of life-threatening events on measurements of various stress parameters (psychological, biological, and electrophysiological parameters) in multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) during SBE. The effect of gender and status of participants on stress response was also investigated. Twelve emergency MDTs of 4 individuals were recruited for an immersive simulation session. Stress was assessed by: (1) self-reported stress; (2) Holter analysis, including heart rate and heart rate variability in the temporal and spectral domain (autonomic nervous system); (3) salivary cortisol (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis). Forty-eight participants (54.2% men, psychological, biological and electrophysiological parameters. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  12. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  13. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, Marion E T; Argo, Ishbel; Crombie, Iain K; Feng, Zhiqiang; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Cross sectional survey. 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. 547 older people (mean (SD) age 79(8) years, 54% female) were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2) = 0.32). In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  14. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  15. Elder mistreatment predicts later physical and psychological health: Results from a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jaclyn S; Waite, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health 5 years later than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process.

  16. Effectiveness of physical, psychological, social, and spiritual intervention in breast cancer survivors: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the health outcomes of cancer patients have gained extensive research attention considering the increasing number and prolonged longevity of cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors experience physical, psychological, social, and spiritual challenges. This systematic literature review aims to present and discuss an overview of main issues concerning breast cancer survivors after treatment. Treatment-related symptoms as well as psychosocial and spiritual aspects of breast cancer survivors are evaluated. Moreover, the benefits of intervention for emotional, physical, social, and spiritual needs of the patient during the survivorship are investigated. This review also proposes avenues for future studies in this field and develops a new, integrated, and complete interpretation of findings on the holistic well-being of women with breast cancer. Thus, this study provides clinicians with a more comprehensive source of information compared with individual studies on symptom experiences.

  17. Applying cognitive developmental psychology to middle school physics learning: The rule assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.

  18. Interface between Physics and Biology: Training a New Generation of Creative Bilingual Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveline, Daniel; Kruse, Karsten

    2017-08-01

    Whereas physics seeks for universal laws underlying natural phenomena, biology accounts for complexity and specificity of molecular details. Contemporary biological physics requires people capable of working at this interface. New programs prepare scientists who transform respective disciplinary views into innovative approaches for solving outstanding problems in the life sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Course in Biophysics: An Integration of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancoli, Douglas C.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course for advanced undergraduates in the physical and biological sciences. The goal is to understand a living cell from the most basic standpoint possible. The ideas of physics, chemistry, and molecular biology are all essential to the course, which leads to a unified view of the sciences. (PR)

  20. Identity dimensions versus proactive coping in late adolescence while taking into account biological sex and psychological gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalka Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the relationship between proactive coping strategies and the dimensions of identity formation, along with the role of biological sex and psychological gender as moderators for this relationship. We conducted analyses aimed at showing differences in terms of identity dimensions levels and proactive coping strategies used by a group of individuals with different biological sex and psychological gender. A group of 101 students from upper secondary schools (47 females, 54 males from Pomeranian Voivodeship took part in the study. We used in our research The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale; The Psychological Gender Inventory and The Proactive Coping Inventory for Adolescents. We found, among others, that in the case of a proactive strategy, biological sex turned out to be a significant moderator in the relationship between this variable and identity dimensions: ruminative exploration, commitment-making and identification with commitment. In the case of instrumental support seeking, psychological gender turned out to be a significant moderator for the relationship between these variables and a part of identity dimensions. The obtained results show that, regardless of whether young people, in terms of characteristics that are stereotypically associated with biological sex, are described as aschematic (undifferentiated individuals or schematic (sex-typed when entering adulthood and attempting to constitute themselves, more often cope in a task-oriented manner by trying to create a set of information useful in difficult situations and aspire to obtain informational support from individuals in one’s own social network, who are regarded as safe people.

  1. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  3. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Introductory Biophysics Course: Presentation of Physics in a Biological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. J.; Henderson, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    An introductory biophysics course for science students who have previously taken two quarters of noncalculus physics is described. Material covered emphasizes the physical principles of sound, light, electricity, energy, and information. (Author/CP)

  5. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  6. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  7. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  9. Physical and psychological morbidities among selected antenatal females in Kegalle district of Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, I N S; Balasuriya, A; Sivayogan, S

    2017-10-01

    While motherhood is often a positive and satisfying experience, for some women, it is linked with suffering and ill-health. A woman should be able to feel physically and mentally content during pregnancy. Discomforts in pregnancy may be considered as insignificant by the physician. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine physical and psychological morbidities among primigravid antenatal females in the Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. A sample of 1017 second and third trimester primigravid antenatal females selected by a two-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling method, were assessed for physical and psychological problems. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16 package and associations were found using Chi square test with p values. The presence of any physical health problem during the preceding 14 days was reported by 75.7% (95% CI 73.0-78.2) of females though each individual physical problem was reported by less than or around one-third. Prevalence of psychological distress and depression was 22.7% (95% CI 20.2-25.4) and 10.4% (95% CI 8.7-12.4), respectively. The self-rated health was very good in 24.7% and good in 55.9%. Older employed females had significantly higher physical problems. It is concluded that although the self-rated wellbeing during pregnancy is high, the presence of physical and psychological ill-health is substantial. Impact statement Pregnancy is a time of intense physical change and is associated with emotional upheaval in many women. Obstetric morbidity is defined as morbidity in a woman who has been pregnant regardless of the site or the duration of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. It is classified into three categories namely; direct, indirect and psychological obstetric morbidity. For one maternal death, there can be between 9 and 16 females with obstetric morbidity depending on the level of development

  10. Leveraging a Relationship with Biology to Expand a Relationship with Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    2014-01-01

    This work examines how experiences in one disciplinary domain (biology) can impact the relationship a student builds with another domain (physics). We present a model for disciplinary relationships using the constructs of identity, affect, and epistemology. With these constructs we examine an ethnographic case study of a student who experienced a significant shift in her relationship with physics. We describe how this shift demonstrates (1) a stronger identification with physics, (2) a more mixed affective stance towards physics, and (3) more expert-like ways of knowing in physics. We argue that recruiting the students relationship with biology into experiences of learning physics impacted her relationship with physics as well as her sense of how physics and biology are linked.

  11. Physical methods for investigating structural colours in biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukusic, P.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    Many biological systems are known to use structural colour effects to generate aspects of their appearance and visibility. The study of these phenomena has informed an eclectic group of fields ranging, for example, from evolutionary processes in behavioural biology to micro-optical devices in

  12. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróthi, Rebeka

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

  13. Changes in productivity, psychological wellbeing and physical wellbeing from working in a 'green' building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Based on improvements in indoor environmental quality claims are that 'green' buildings are healthier and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. However, the empirical evidence over the last decade has been inconclusive, usually with flawed study designs. This study explored whether a 'green' building leads to a healthier, more productive work environment. A one-year, longitudinal comparison of two groups of employees of a large commercial bank; a group that moved into a GreenStar-accredited building and a group that stayed in a conventional building, was conducted. Measures of psychological wellbeing, physical wellbeing, productivity, and perceptions of the physical environment were taken before the move, six months later, and one year later. Results indicate that the 'green' building group had significantly increased self-reported productivity and physical wellbeing. The perceptions of the physical work environment indicate that respondents in the 'green' building group experienced significant air quality improvements (specifically, reduced stale air, better ventilation, improved air movement, reduced humidity, and conditions that were not too drafty) but perceived the lighting conditions as dimmer. Despite positive findings 'green' building rating tools require amendment to focus on those qualities that actually lead to improved wellbeing and productivity.

  14. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  15. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Julie E; Lombard, Calliandra M; Padi, Akhila R; Moffitt, Casey M; Wilson, L Britt; Wood, Christopher S; Wood, Susan K

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  16. Investigation of the relationship between aggression levels and basic psychological needs school of physical education and sports students

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Çağrı Çetin; Engin Gezer; Özer Yıldız; Mehtap Yıldız

    2013-01-01

    The search has been made for fixing if it varies or not regarding some variations aggressive levels and basic psychological needs of physical education and sports school students; and for if it has any relationship between aggression tendency and basic psychological need of the students. The research has been made in the year of 2010-2011 Education and Teaching. The students chosen by random sampling method (female students: 138, male students: 233 and totally: 371) participated to the search...

  17. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  18. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  19. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes.

  20. Biology meets physics: Reductionism and multi-scale modeling of morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sara; Batterman, Robert

    2017-02-01

    A common reductionist assumption is that macro-scale behaviors can be described "bottom-up" if only sufficient details about lower-scale processes are available. The view that an "ideal" or "fundamental" physics would be sufficient to explain all macro-scale phenomena has been met with criticism from philosophers of biology. Specifically, scholars have pointed to the impossibility of deducing biological explanations from physical ones, and to the irreducible nature of distinctively biological processes such as gene regulation and evolution. This paper takes a step back in asking whether bottom-up modeling is feasible even when modeling simple physical systems across scales. By comparing examples of multi-scale modeling in physics and biology, we argue that the "tyranny of scales" problem presents a challenge to reductive explanations in both physics and biology. The problem refers to the scale-dependency of physical and biological behaviors that forces researchers to combine different models relying on different scale-specific mathematical strategies and boundary conditions. Analyzing the ways in which different models are combined in multi-scale modeling also has implications for the relation between physics and biology. Contrary to the assumption that physical science approaches provide reductive explanations in biology, we exemplify how inputs from physics often reveal the importance of macro-scale models and explanations. We illustrate this through an examination of the role of biomechanical modeling in developmental biology. In such contexts, the relation between models at different scales and from different disciplines is neither reductive nor completely autonomous, but interdependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Professional Burnout, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Physical Health in Clinical and Counselling Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeding, April; Sougleris, Christina; Reid, Corinne; van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Hayes, Christopher; Dorrian, Jill; Simpson, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the personal factors that increase vulnerability to job-related stress and burnout among psychologists in training. This study was based on a large international sample and aimed to explore the role of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) in predicting vulnerability to burnout, as well as attendant effects on short-term physical health, in clinical and counseling postgraduate psychology trainees. An online, quantitative, cross-sectional survey method design was used to collect self-report data that measured burnout, EMS, and physical health from 1,297 trainees. Only the unrelenting standards (US) schema predicted high burnout among trainees. The most commonly endorsed physical health symptoms were back and neck pain and tiredness, and were more severe for those experiencing high burnout. The current study contributes to our understanding of the role of the US EMS in the evolution of burnout in trainees and has implications for the development of self-awareness training programs for this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  3. Psychological functioning and adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity in later life: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Dunsky, Ayelet; Zach, Sima; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Shimony, Tal; Goldbourt, Uri; Zeev, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.

  4. The physics of complex systems in information and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dylan

    Citation networks have re-emerged as a topic intense interest in the complex networks community with the recent availability of large-scale data sets. The ranking of citation networks is a necessary practice as a means to improve information navigability and search. Unlike many information networks, the aging characteristics of citation networks require the development of new ranking methods. To account for strong aging characteristics of citation networks, we modify the PageRank algorithm by initially distributing random surfers exponentially with age, in favor of more recent publications. The output of this algorithm, which we call CiteRank, is interpreted as approximate traffic to individual publications in a simple model of how researchers find new information. We optimize parameters of our algorithm to achieve the best performance. The results are compared for two rather different citation networks: all American Physical Society publications between 1893-2003 and the set of high-energy physics theory (hep-th) preprints. Despite major differences between these two networks, we find that their optimal parameters for the CiteRank algorithm are remarkably similar. The advantages and performance of CiteRank over more conventional methods of ranking publications are discussed. Collaborative voting systems have emerged as an abundant form of real-world, complex information systems that exist in a variety of online applications. These systems are comprised of large populations of users that collectively submit and vote on objects. While the specific properties of these systems vary widely, many of them share a core set of features and dynamical behaviors that govern their evolution. We study a subset of these systems that involve material of a time-critical nature as in the popular example of news items. We consider a general model system in which articles are introduced, voted on by a population of users, and subsequently expire after a proscribed period of time. To

  5. Sleep deprivation in critical illness: its role in physical and psychological recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Biren B; Needham, Dale M; Collop, Nancy A

    2012-01-01

    Critically ill patients frequently experience poor sleep, characterized by frequent disruptions, loss of circadian rhythms, and a paucity of time spent in restorative sleep stages. Factors that are associated with sleep disruption in the intensive care unit (ICU) include patient-ventilator dysynchrony, medications, patient care interactions, and environmental noise and light. As the field of critical care increasingly focuses on patients' physical and psychological outcomes following critical illness, understanding the potential contribution of ICU-related sleep disruption on patient recovery is an important area of investigation. This review article summarizes the literature regarding sleep architecture and measurement in the critically ill, causes of ICU sleep fragmentation, and potential implications of ICU-related sleep disruption on patients' recovery from critical illness. With this background information, strategies to optimize sleep in the ICU are also discussed.

  6. Number and measure: Hermann von Helmholtz at the crossroads of mathematics, physics, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2003-09-01

    In 1887 Helmholtz discussed the foundations of measurement in science as a last contribution to his philosophy of knowledge. This essay borrowed from earlier debates on the foundations of mathematics (Grassmann/Du Bois), on the possibility of quantitative psychology (Fechner/Kries, Wundt/Zeller), and on the meaning of temperature measurement (Maxwell,Mach.). Late nineteenth-century scrutinisers of the foundations of mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor, Frege, Russell) made little of Helmholtz's essay. Yet it inspired two mathematicians with an eye on physics (Poincaré and Hölder), and a few philosopher-physicists (Mach, Duhem,Campbell). The aim of the present paper is to situate Helmholtz's contribution in this complex array of nineteenth-century philosophies of number, quantity, and measurement. 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.

  8. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  9. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  10. Human development I: Twenty Fundamental Problems of Biology, Medicine, and Neuro-Psychology Related to Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyge Dahl Hermansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: “metamorphous top down” evolution and “adult human metamorphosis”. The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai’s model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne’s theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  11. Human development I: twenty fundamental problems of biology, medicine, and neuro-psychology related to biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Ventegodt, Søren; Rald, Erik; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: "metamorphous top down" evolution and "adult human metamorphosis". The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai's model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne's theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  12. How much does physical appearance say about the psychological adjustment of competent and dysfunctional children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, J E; Nilsen, W; Lynch, A M

    2001-09-01

    Presents a study in which three sets of photographs of socially competent, aggressive, and anxious preschoolers were rated by college students (n = 150 raters per set), blind to the children's group membership. This was done to assess the extent to which adults are able to make valid and reliable evaluations of children's psychological adjustment on the basis of physical appearance alone. Sets 1 and 2 were photographs of different children taken under the same conditions and providing both facial and nonfacial cues. Sets 2 and 3 were of the same children taken under conditions that varied as to the amount of nonfacial cues they provided. Results showed that (a) socially competent children were judged to be better adjusted than their dysfunctional peers (i.e., more competent, less aggressive, less anxious, and less likely to have emotional or behavioral problems); (b) within the dysfunctional group, aggressive and anxious children were distinguished in ways that correspond closely to what is known about them from behavioral and clinical research; (c) irrespective of group membership, girls and boys were generally distinguished in ways that reflect normative beliefs about gender differences from social and developmental research; (d) group differences in ratings of psychological adjustment were generally comparable across photograph sets and could not be accounted for by differences in the children's perceived physical attractiveness; and (e) raters reported that they relied mainly on the children's expression, eyes, and posture to make their judgments of adjustment. These results replicate and extend earlier findings based on 1 of the 3 photograph sets (Serketich & Dumas, 1997). They suggest that when first impressions matter, competent children are at an advantage and their dysfunctional peers at a disadvantage even before their actual behavior comes to confirm or to invalidate these impressions. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Psychological changes among Muslim students participating in a faith-based school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-12-01

    Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.

  14. Pain and physical and psychological symptoms in ambulatory HIV patients in the current treatment era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Cen, Liyi; Praestgaard, Amy; Turner, Michelle; Obando, Aura; Alpert, Craig; Woolston, Sophie; Casarett, David; Kostman, Jay; Gross, Robert; Frank, Ian

    2012-03-01

    HIV infection has become a manageable chronic disease. There are few studies of pain and symptoms in the current treatment era. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for pain and physical and psychological symptoms in a population of ambulatory HIV patients. We performed a cross-sectional study using the Brief Pain Inventory and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS). We evaluated 156 individuals with a median age of 47.5 years (range 21-71), median time since HIV diagnosis of 11 years (range <1 to 25), and median CD4+ cell count of 502 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range [IQR] 308-683). Most (125, 80.6%) of the patients had an undetectable viral load. Seventy-six (48.7%) patients reported pain, of whom 39 (51.3%) had moderate to severe pain, and 43 (57.3%) had pain that caused moderate to severe interference with their lives. The median number of symptoms was eight (IQR 5-14.5) of 32 queried. In multivariable analyses, patients with psychiatric illness were 39.8% more likely to have pain (P<0.001). Psychiatric illness was associated with 0.7 and 1.2 point higher MSAS subscale scores, and IV drug use was associated with 0.4 and 0.5 higher subscale scores (out of four). Pain and other physical and psychological symptoms were common among ambulatory HIV patients. Pain and symptoms were strongly associated with psychiatric illness and IV drug use. Future investigation should evaluate interventions that include psychiatric and substance abuse components for HIV patients with pain. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. All rights reserved.

  15. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  16. Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology Nobel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Gräslund, Astrid; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Written by the leading experts in the field, this book describes the development and current state-of-the-art in single molecule spectroscopy. The application of this technique, which started 1989, in physics, chemistry and biosciences is displayed.

  17. DNA confinement in nanochannels: physics and biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, Walter; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Austin, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    DNA is the central storage molecule of genetic information in the cell, and reading that information is a central problem in biology. While sequencing technology has made enormous advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in platforms that can readout genetic information directly...

  18. Does social desirability influence psychological well-being: perceived physical health and religiosity of Italian elders? A developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2017-04-01

    This study was mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between psychological well-being and lifestyle, religion, perceived physical health and social desirability of Italian elders. Four hundred and six cognitively healthy 65-99 years old participants were recruited from the Italian isle of Sardinia, where a high prevalence of centenarians is registered. Participants were presented with several tools assessing psychological well-being, lifestyle, social desirability, religiosity and subjective physical health. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the social desirability measure is the best predictor of general subjective well-being, whereas further predictors are age, perceived physical health and gardening. A significant but moderate relationship was also found between psychological well-being, subjective physical health and religiosity, while controlling for social desirability. Social desirability seems to contaminate the self-rating of psychological well-being in late adulthood. Moreover, from a developmental perspective, age-related factors, life style and perceived physical health are strictly related to and therefore influence the perception of life quality in the third and fourth age.

  19. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014.

  20. From Grouping to Coupling: A New Perceptual Organization in Vision, Psychology, and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Porcheddu, Daniele; Deiana, Katia

    2016-01-01

    In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity. On the contrary, they suggested the unique role played by the principle of dissimilarity among elements that behaves like an accent or a visual emphasis within a whole. The principle of accentuation was here considered as imparting a directional structure to the elements and to the whole object thus creating new phenomena. The salience of the resulting phenomena reveals the supremacy of dissimilarity in relation to similarity and the fact that it belongs to a further organization dynamics that we called "coupling." In biology, coupling and its principle of accentuation are very strongly related to disruptive camouflage. Moreover, they are source of sexual attraction. They advertise the presence and elicit species identification/communication. In human beings accentuation is needed to show ourselves to others, to understand the way we dress, choose, and create clothes or invent fashion, the way we change our body accentuating several parts and hiding some others, the way we use maquillage. The existence of maquillage itself is derived from the need to accentuate something with the purpose to increase sexual attraction, to exhibit physical strength and beauty, to show or hide social status (e.g., being the king, a warrior, a priest, etc.). Last but not least, accentuation plays a basic role also in making it easier or difficult to read and understand written words.

  1. From grouping to coupling:A new perceptual organization in vision, psychology and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baingio Pinna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity. On the contrary, they suggested the unique role played by the principle of dissimilarity among elements that behaves like an accent or a visual emphasis within a whole. The principle of accentuation was here considered as imparting a directional structure to the elements and to the whole object thus creating new phenomena. The salience of the resulting phenomena reveals the supremacy of dissimilarity in relation to similarity and the fact that it belongs to a further organization dynamics that we called coupling. In biology, coupling and its principle of accentuation are very strongly related to the disruptive camouflage. Moreover, they are source of sexual attraction. They advertise the presence and elicit species identification/communication. In human beings accentuation is needed to show ourselves to others, to understand the way we dress, choose and create clothes or invent fashion, the way we change our body accentuating several parts and hiding some others, the way we use maquillage. The existence of maquillage itself is derived from the need to accentuate something with the purpose to increase sexual attraction, to exhibit physical strength and beauty, to show or hide social status (e.g., being the king, a warrior, a priest, etc.. Last but not least, accentuation plays a basic role also in making it easier or difficult to read and understand written words.

  2. From Grouping to Coupling: A New Perceptual Organization in Vision, Psychology, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Porcheddu, Daniele; Deiana, Katia

    2016-01-01

    In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity. On the contrary, they suggested the unique role played by the principle of dissimilarity among elements that behaves like an accent or a visual emphasis within a whole. The principle of accentuation was here considered as imparting a directional structure to the elements and to the whole object thus creating new phenomena. The salience of the resulting phenomena reveals the supremacy of dissimilarity in relation to similarity and the fact that it belongs to a further organization dynamics that we called “coupling.” In biology, coupling and its principle of accentuation are very strongly related to disruptive camouflage. Moreover, they are source of sexual attraction. They advertise the presence and elicit species identification/communication. In human beings accentuation is needed to show ourselves to others, to understand the way we dress, choose, and create clothes or invent fashion, the way we change our body accentuating several parts and hiding some others, the way we use maquillage. The existence of maquillage itself is derived from the need to accentuate something with the purpose to increase sexual attraction, to exhibit physical strength and beauty, to show or hide social status (e.g., being the king, a warrior, a priest, etc.). Last but not least, accentuation plays a basic role also in making it easier or difficult to read and understand written words. PMID:27471483

  3. Research Review: What we have learned about the causes of eating disorders - a synthesis of sociocultural, psychological, and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe psychiatric disorders with a complex etiology involving transactions among sociocultural, psychological, and biological influences. Most research and reviews, however, focus on only one level of analysis. To address this gap, we provide a qualitative review and summary using an integrative biopsychosocial approach. We selected variables for which there were available data using integrative methodologies (e.g., twin studies, gene-environment interactions) and/or data at the biological and behavioral level (e.g., neuroimaging). Factors that met these inclusion criteria were idealization of thinness, negative emotionality, perfectionism, negative urgency, inhibitory control, cognitive inflexibility, serotonin, dopamine, ovarian hormones. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed. Variables were classified as risk factors or correlates of eating disorder diagnoses and disordered eating symptoms using Kraemer et al.'s (1997) criteria. Sociocultural idealization of thinness variables (media exposure, pressures for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, thinness expectancies) and personality traits (negative emotionality, perfectionism, negative urgency) attained 'risk status' for eating disorders and/or disordered eating symptoms. Other factors were identified as correlates of eating pathology or were not classified given limited data. Effect sizes for risk factors and correlates were generally small-to-moderate in magnitude. Multiple biopsychosocial influences are implicated in eating disorders and/or disordered eating symptoms and several can now be considered established risk factors. Data suggest that psychological and environmental factors interact with and influence the expression of genetic risk to cause eating pathology. Additional studies that examine risk variables across multiple levels of analysis and that consider specific transactional processes amongst variables are needed to further elucidate the intersection of

  4. In vitro physical, chemical, and biological evaluation of commercially available metal orthodontic brackets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joo Hyoung Kim; Jung Yul Cha; Chung Ju Hwang

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological properties of commercially available metal orthodontic brackets in South Korea, because national standards for these products are lacking...

  5. Mechanobiology by the numbers: a close relationship between biology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2017-12-01

    Studies of mechanobiology lie at the interface of various scientific disciplines from biology to physics. Accordingly, quantification and mathematical modelling have been instrumental in fuelling the progress in this rapidly developing research field, assisting experimental work on many levels.

  6. Physical and psychological functioning of daily living in relation to physical activity. A longitudinal study among former elite male athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckmand, Heli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Sarna, Seppo; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2006-02-01

    Physical exercise plays an important role in the prevention and reduction of disabilities in elderly people. The aim of this study was to determine the role of physical activity in the physical and psychological functioning of daily living in a cohort of former elite male athletes representing different sports, and controls of middle and old age. Subjects were 664 former elite male athletes (mean age 64.4 years) and 500 controls (62.0 years) in middle and old age. Subjects were mailed "Physical activity and health survey" questionnaires in 1985 and 1995. The primary outcomes the physical and psychological functioning of daily living--were assessed in 1995 using items from the Mini-Finland Health Survey. Logistic regression was used for longitudinal as well as cross-sectional analyses to estimate odds ratios (OR) for poor physical and psychological functioning of daily living in relation to recreational physical activity adjusted for age, sport group, life-style, BMI, mood, chronic diseases, personality characteristics, life-events and socio-economic status. In the longitudinal analysis, low levels of physical activity (lowest MET quintile vs highest quintile) in 1985 (OR 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-11.9), older age (> or =70 yrs vs under 60 yrs OR 9.93, 95% CI 4.90-20.2), depression (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.01-4.09) and anxiety in 1995 (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.34-5.32) increased the risk of poor physical functioning of daily living in 1995, whereas an increase in a physical activity between 1985-1995 (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95) protected against poor physical functioning of daily living. A history of participating in specific types of sports, especially among certain power sports (weight-lifting and track & field throwers) (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.60) and team sports (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.81) did reveal a significant protective effect against poor psychological functioning of daily living in the longitudinal analysis. This study suggests that an increase in

  7. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preventing cancer. These biological activities are ascribed to polysaccharide structures of okra in particular pectin structures. However, the precise structure of okra pectins and also of other polysacchar...

  8. Consistency of reporting sexual and physical abuse during psychological treatment of personality disorder: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Bamelis, Lotte; Haringsma, Rimke; Molendijk, Marc; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of decreasing, consistent and increasing reports of sexual and physical abuse after 12 months of long-term psychological treatment of personality disorders, to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of inconsistency of reporting abuse, and to explore whether autobiographical memory may account for this inconsistency. In 229 clinical participants with an SCID II diagnosed personality disorder, 180 (78.6%) reported the same instances of invasive sexual and/or physical abuse on a trauma questionnaire (SPAQ) at baseline and follow-up, 25 (10.9%) decreased and 24 (10.4%) increased their abuse reports. Consistency of reporting abuse did not differ between schema-focused therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy and treatment-as-usual. Current depressive episode (SCID-I) and decreased capacity to produce specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test were characteristic of decreasing abuse reporters, while increasing abuse reporters showed higher levels of Cluster A personality pathology (in particular schizotypal traits) on the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (ADP-IV). These results suggest that even in treatment procedures directed at exploring someone's personal past with abuse-related imagery consistency of reporting abuse is quite stable. However, certain clinical characteristics may make some persons more likely to change their trauma reports. Moreover, reduced negative memory specificity may represent an avoidant strategy associated with no longer reporting instances of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological, Relational, and Biological Correlates of Ego-Dystonic Masturbation in a Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Castellini, PhD, MD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Clinicians should consider that some subjects seeking treatment in a sexual medicine setting might report compulsive sexual behaviors. EM represents a clinically relevant cause of disability, given the high level of psychological distress reported by subjects with this condition, and the severe impact on quality of life in interpersonal relationships.

  10. Intergenerational transmission of violence, self-control, and conjugal violence: a comparative analysis of physical violence and psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakame, E F

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to Avakame (1998), a study which sought to determine whether (a) violence in families of origin affects males' psychological aggression toward wives, and (b) whether the intergenerational transmission effect is solely direct or mediated by Gottfredson and Hirschi's concept of self-control. The current research extends these questions to females' psychological aggression as well as males' and females' physical violence. The models were estimated using data from the 1975 National Family Violence Survey. Like its precursor, results of the present research suggest that it is useful to (a) distinguish between mothers' and fathers' violence and (b) recognize that the intergenerational transmission of violence may be mediated by self-control. Specifically, results suggested that, whether considering physical violence or psychological aggression, fathers' violence is most likely to exert the direct social learning effect.

  11. Physical Improvement and Biological Maturity of Young Athletes (11-12 Years) with Systematic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilkeridis, Konstantinos E; Theodorou, Evaggelos F; Papathanasiou, Jannis V; Chloropoulou, Pelagia A; Trypsianis, Grigorios A; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Kazakos, Konstantinos I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of systematic training in physical growth and biological maturity in prepubertal males and estimate how this affects the physical growth and skeletal maturity. 177 primary school students of the fifth and sixth grade, from schools in Alexandroupolis, participated voluntarily in our study. Questionnaires were used in order to measure physical activity levels. The subjects were subdivided into two groups; control group (prepubertal, whose physical activity was the physical education of their school and which had never participated in systematic training, n = 95) and experimental group (prepubertal, whose weekly physical activity included physical education in their schools and additionally 3-4 training units organized training in various sports clubs in the city, n = 82). The following parameters were recorded: biological age measured by determination of skeletal age; bone density measured by ultrasound methods; anthropometric and morphological features such as height, body composition, selected diameters, circumferences and skinfolds; motor ability features. The experimental group exhibited older biological age (p = 0.033), higher bone density (p study demonstrates that systematic physical activity has a positive effect on both the physical and biological maturity of pre-pubertal children. This effect is mainly expressed in bone strengthening as a result of the increased bone density and in improvement of the kinetic skills of pupils who participated in organized extracurricular sport-activities.

  12. Analyzing Students' Understanding of Models and Modeling Referring to the Disciplines Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, secondary school students' (N?=?617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and…

  13. From Gene to Protein: A 3-Week Intensive Course in Molecular Biology for Physical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a 3-week intensive molecular biology methods course based upon fluorescent proteins, which is successfully taught at the McGill University to advanced undergraduates and graduates in physics, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medicine. No previous knowledge of biological terminology or methods is expected, so…

  14. Outline of a unified Darwinian evolutionary theory for physical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladrón, Carlos; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2017-11-01

    The scheme of a unified Darwinian evolutionary theory for physical and biological systems is described. Every physical system is methodologically endowed with a classical information processor, which turns every system into an agent being also susceptible to evolution. Biological systems retain this structure as natural extensions of physical systems from which they are built up. Optimization of information flows turns out to be the key element to study the possible emergence of quantum behavior and the unified Darwinian description of physical and biological systems. The Darwinian natural selection scheme is completed by the Lamarckian component in the form of the anticipation of states of surrounding bio-physical systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological complications of childhood chronic physical illness in Nigerian children and their mothers: the implication for developing pediatric liaison services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meremikwu Martin M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric liaison services attending to the psychological health needs of children with chronic physical illness are limited or virtually non-existent in Nigeria and most sub-Saharan African countries, and psychological problems complicate chronic physical illness in these children and their mothers. There exist needs to bring into focus the public health importance of developing liaison services to meet the psychological health needs of children who suffer from chronic physical illness in this environment. Sickle cell disease (SCD and juvenile diabetes mellitus (JDM are among the most common chronic physical health conditions in Nigerian children. This study compared the prevalence and pattern of emotional disorders and suicidal behavior among Nigerian children with SCD, JDM and a group of healthy children. Psychological distress in the mothers of these children that suffer chronic physical illness was also compared with psychological distress in mothers of healthy control children. Methods Forty-five children aged 9 to 17 years were selected for each group of SCD, JDM and controls. The SCD and JDM groups were selected by consecutive clinic attendance and the healthy children who met the inclusion criteria were selected from neighboring schools. The Youth version of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version IV (C- DISC- IV was used to assess for diagnosis of emotional disorders in these children. Twelve-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ – 12 was used to assess for psychological distress in mothers of these children and healthy control children. Results Children with JDM were significantly more likely to experience DSM – IV emotional disorders than children with SCD and the healthy group (p = 0.005, while children with JDM and SCD were more likely to have 'intermediate diagnoses' of emotional disorders (p = 0.0024. Children with SCD and JDM had higher rates of suicidal ideation when

  16. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  17. Physical and Psychological Health of Family Carers Co-Residing with an Adult Relative with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jillian M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Providing long-term care to an adult relative with intellectual disability can impact negatively on caregivers' health and well-being. Methods: Data were collected via online and postal questionnaires on 110 family carers' physical and psychological health, family stress and perceived positive gains from caring. Psychological…

  18. Agreement on Reporting of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence among White, Black, and Hispanic Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Field, Craig; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Lipsky, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article examines agreement on reports of male-to-female and female-to-male psychological, physical, and sexual violence among White, Black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. Using a probability sample, separate face-to-face interviews were conducted in respondents' homes with both members of 1,025 intact couples living in the 48…

  19. Physical Violence and Psychological Aggression towards Children: Five-Year Trends in Practices and Attitudes from Two Population Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Marie-Eve; Chamberland, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present prevalence rates of child psychological aggression and physical violence from a population survey conducted in 2004 and to compare the rates with the rates obtained in the 1999 edition of the survey. Methods: The survey used a randomly generated telephone number methodology. Interviews were conducted using a computer-assisted…

  20. Psychological and Physical Health in Family Caregivers of Intensive Care Unit Survivors: Current Knowledge and Future Research Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Donahoe, Michael P; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of current knowledge on the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health of family caregivers of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and suggestions for future research. Review of selected papers published in English between January 2000 and October 2015 reporting psychological and physical health outcomes in family caregivers of ICU survivors. In family caregivers of ICU survivors followed up to five years after patients' discharge from an ICU, psychological symptoms, manifested as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, were highly prevalent. Poor self-care, sleep disturbances and fatigue were identified as common physical health problems in family caregivers. Studies to date are mainly descriptive; few interventions have targeted family caregivers. Further, studies that elicit unique needs of families from diverse cultures are lacking. Studies to date have described the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health in family caregivers of ICU survivors. Few studies have tested interventions to support unique needs in this population. Therefore, evidence for best strategies is lacking. Future research is needed to identify ICU caregivers at greatest risk for distress, time points to target interventions with maximal efficacy, needs of those from diverse cultures and test interventions to mitigate family caregivers' burden.

  1. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  2. Educational differences in continuing or restarting drinking in early and late pregnancy: role of psychological and physical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-01-01

    Many women continue drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This study aimed to describe educational differences in continued drinking in early and late pregnancy and to examine the contribution of psychological and physical factors to the explanation of educational differences. We examined 4,885 women enrolled in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Information on alcohol intake during pregnancy was based on self-reports at the 16th week of gestation and at 3 months postpartum. Only women who reported alcohol intake before pregnancy were included. Explanatory factors were alcohol intake before pregnancy, psychological problems, and physical problems. The risk of continued drinking in early pregnancy was increased in higher educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI [1.25, 1.60]); in addition, in late pregnancy, higher educated women had an increased risk of restarting (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.37, 2.04]) and continuing drinking (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.36, 2.30]). The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and all physical and psychological problems together explained 17.1% and 8.8% of the educational differences in continued drinking in early pregnancy, respectively. Higher educated women are more likely to continue drinking during pregnancy. The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and physical and psychological problems contributed to the explanation of continued drinking. However, other factors may play a greater role, such as cultural factors and social norms.

  3. Review: Understanding barriers to online experience for people with physical and sensory disabilities using discursive social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of Internet users have physical or sensory disabilities. Work that addresses this group of users, as Bowker’s does, is rare. Bowker founded her work on philosophical, psychological, and linguistic theories, and conducted a qualitative analysis on her data. The paper presents the

  4. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... indicated that the psychological adaption mode can speed up the process of thermal adaption to the variation in the outdoor climate condition. This study presented a new insight into the feedback from the thermal adaption modes to occupant thermal comfort.......This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values......, under the synergistic feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes. The time period of thermal adaption increased to 13 days, if only the feedback effect of the physical adaption mode was accounted for. The difference between the two values of the time period of thermal adaption...

  5. Migration circumstances, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health for Latino immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wallace, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    We determined the impact of premigration circumstances on postmigration psychological distress and self-rated physical health among Latino immigrants. We estimated ordinary least squares and logistic regression models for Latino immigrants in the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 1603). Mean psychological distress scores (range = 10-50) were 14.8 for women and 12.7 for men; 35% of women and 27% of men reported fair or poor physical health. A third of the sample reported having to migrate; up to 46% reported unplanned migration. In multivariate analyses, immigration-related stress was significantly associated with psychological distress, but not with self-rated health, for both Latino men and women. Having to migrate was associated with increased psychological distress for Puerto Rican and Cuban women respondents and with poorer physical health for Puerto Rican migrant men. Unplanned migration was significantly associated with poorer physical health for all Latina women respondents. The context of both pre- and postmigration has an impact on immigrant health. Those involved in public health research, policy, and practice should consider variation in immigrant health by migration circumstances, including the context of exit and other immigration-related stressors.

  6. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  7. The Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Abuse and its Correlation with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanovic Ivana Simic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse in younger populations has been an issue of growing concern globally since youth already face various life situations that can heighten the occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and psychological abuse and its correlation with depressive and anxiety symptoms among students.

  8. Improving physical self-perception in adolescent boys from disadvantaged schools: psychological outcomes from the Physical Activity Leaders randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P J; Saunders, K L; Lubans, D R

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a school-based obesity prevention programme on physical self-perception and key physical-activity related cognitions in adolescent boys from disadvantaged secondary schools. A secondary objective was to determine if any psychological changes were associated with improved weight status. Participants (n = 100, age = 14.3[0.6]) were randomized to the PALS (Physical Activity Leaders) intervention (n = 50) or a control group (n = 50) and assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow up. Measures included BMI, BMI z-score and % body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis). Students also completed the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile and a physical activity-related cognitions questionnaire. The findings include secondary data analyses. Relative to the controls, the PALS group significantly increased their physical self worth (p = .01), perceived physical condition (p = .02), resistance training self efficacy (p physical activity behavioural strategies (p = .02). A school-based obesity prevention programme that targeted leadership skills improved psychological health in the physical domain in adolescent boys from disadvantaged schools. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Psychological sequelae of the station nightclub fire: Comparing survivors with and without physical injuries using a mixed-methods analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Ha T Trinh

    Full Text Available Surveying survivors from a large fire provides an opportunity to explore the impact of emotional trauma on psychological outcomes.This is a cross-sectional survey of survivors of The Station Fire. Primary outcomes were post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised and depressive (Beck Depression Inventory symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine differences in symptom profiles between those with and without physical injuries. The free-response section of the survey was analyzed qualitatively to compare psychological sequelae of survivors with and without physical injuries.104 participants completed the study survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. The mean age of respondents was 32 years, 62% were male, and 47% experienced a physical injury. No significant relationships were found between physical injury and depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom profiles. In the qualitative analysis, the emotional trauma that survivors experienced was a major, common theme regardless of physical injury. Survivors without physical injuries were more likely to experience survivor guilt, helplessness, self-blame, and bitterness. Despite the post-fire challenges described, most survivors wrote about themes of recovery and renewal.All survivors of this large fire experienced significant psychological sequelae. These findings reinforce the importance of mental health care for all survivors and suggest a need to understand factors influencing positive outcomes.

  10. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  11. The effect of psychomotor physical therapy on subjective health complaints and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitve, Monica H; Hynninen, Minna J; Kvåle, Alice

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy on subjective health complaints and psychological symptoms. A non-randomized waiting list controlled design was used. Physiotherapists in Norway recruited patients for a treatment group (n = 40) and waiting list control group (n = 22). Patients on the waiting list could only be included for 6 months, as they then started treatment. Symptoms registration was obtained from both groups at baseline and 6 months, and only for the treatment group also at 12 months. The following self-report forms were used; Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SCH); Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS); Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ); Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI); The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). The patients had had widespread and clinically significant health problems for an average of 9 years upon entrance to the study. After 6 months in psychomotor physical therapy, all the measured symptoms in the treatment group were significantly reduced, but only quality of life was significantly reduced when compared to the waiting list control group. After 12 months in therapy, the patients in the treatment group had continued to improve on all measured variables. The symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as quality of life, were improved from clinical to non-clinical level. Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy seems to have potential for reducing symptoms of subjective health complaints, depression, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue and improving quality of life, although the process takes time. Further research is needed to gain more rigorous data, and randomized controlled studies are highly welcomed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The application of statistical physics to evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Guy; Hirsh, Aaron E

    2005-07-05

    A number of fundamental mathematical models of the evolutionary process exhibit dynamics that can be difficult to understand analytically. Here we show that a precise mathematical analogy can be drawn between certain evolutionary and thermodynamic systems, allowing application of the powerful machinery of statistical physics to analysis of a family of evolutionary models. Analytical results that follow directly from this approach include the steady-state distribution of fixed genotypes and the load in finite populations. The analogy with statistical physics also reveals that, contrary to a basic tenet of the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution, the frequencies of adaptive and deleterious substitutions at steady state are equal. Finally, just as the free energy function quantitatively characterizes the balance between energy and entropy, a free fitness function provides an analytical expression for the balance between natural selection and stochastic drift.

  13. Effects of daily stressors on the psychological and biological well-being of spouses of persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, Jyoti; Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary; Cox, Matthew; Gwazdauskas, Frank

    2011-11-01

    This research documents spousal accounts of daily symptoms and behaviors of their husbands or wives with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and assesses how MCI-related symptoms and care needs are associated with spouse care partners' psychological well-being and biomarkers of physiological wear and tear. Thirty spouse care partners participated in a 7-day diary study and reported on behavior problems associated with MCI as well as daily stressors and strains they experienced. They also provided saliva samples on 4 of the study days. Multilevel models revealed daily variability and change in psychological affect and the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Daily primary stressors, everyday secondary strains, and marital interactions predicted these changes. The findings document the negative physiological effects of having a spouse with MCI and provide new details on probable causes of psychological and biological distress. They shed light on MCI-specific interventions to address couples' needs before severe disease progression occurs that could interfere with spouses' ability to provide home-based care and support.

  14. Application of the selected physical methods in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of acoustic emission (AE, which is a part of the non-destructive methods, currently having an extensive application. This method is used for measuring the internal defects of materials. AE has a high potential in further research and development to extend the application of this method even in the field of process engineering. For that matter, it is the most elaborate acoustic emission monitoring in laboratory conditions with regard to external stimuli. The aim of the project is to apply the acoustic emission recording the activity of bees in different seasons. The mission is to apply a new perspective on the behavior of colonies by means of acoustic emission, which collects a sound propagation in the material. Vibration is one of the integral part of communication in the community. Sensing colonies with the support of this method is used for understanding of colonies biological behavior to stimuli clutches, colony development etc. Simulating conditions supported by acoustic emission monitoring system the illustrate colonies activity. Collected information will be used to represent a comprehensive view of the life cycle and behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Use of information about the activities of bees gives a comprehensive perspective on using of acoustic emission in the field of biological research.

  15. Approximations, idealizations and 'experiments' at the physics-biology interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Darrell P

    2011-06-01

    This paper, which is based on recent empirical research at the University of Leeds, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Bristol, presents two difficulties which arise when condensed matter physicists interact with molecular biologists: (1) the former use models which appear to be too coarse-grained, approximate and/or idealized to serve a useful scientific purpose to the latter; and (2) the latter have a rather narrower view of what counts as an experiment, particularly when it comes to computer simulations, than the former. It argues that these findings are related; that computer simulations are considered to be undeserving of experimental status, by molecular biologists, precisely because of the idealizations and approximations that they involve. The complexity of biological systems is a key factor. The paper concludes by critically examining whether the new research programme of 'systems biology' offers a genuine alternative to the modelling strategies used by physicists. It argues that it does not. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological and Physical Health in Military Amputees During Rehabilitation: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Brede, Emily; Metter, E Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    -injured transtibial amputees are at risk for compromised quality of life during rehabilitation. Self-perceived physical health improved as might be expected from rehabilitation. Self-perceived mental health did not. During rehabilitation, physical healing, psychological adjustment, and lifestyle adaptation are occurring simultaneously. However, more attention may need to be directed toward mental health during rehabilitation. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  18. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  19. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  20. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  1. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children’s Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly cluster biological processes and separate them from psychological ones. Experiments 3 and 4 (N = 64) examine whether or not children make this distinction because they understand that biological and psychological processes operate according to fundamentally different causal mechanisms. The results suggest that 5-year-olds do possess this understanding, and furthermore, they have intuitions about the nature of these different mechanisms. PMID:20331675

  2. Assessment of biological, psychological and adherence factors in the prediction of step-down treatment for patients with well-controlled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, N; Kamata, A; Itoga, M; Tamaki, M; Kayaba, H; Ritz, T

    2017-04-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and inhaled corticosteroids combined with long-acting beta2-agonist (ICS/LABA) are standard treatments for asthma. However, factors that might help reduce medication in well-controlled asthma are unknown. We classified problems of asthma patients into biological, psychological and adherence factors, and investigated factors associated with the indication and failure of a medication step-down treatment. Two hundred twenty two well-controlled asthma patients receiving ICS or ICS/LABA were assessed for physical and psychiatric problems and followed up for one year from adjustment of their treatment step. Factor B was defined as a presence of chronic upper airway complications. Factor P was defined as presence of psychiatric complications such as sleep disorder, depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders. Factor A was defined as poor adherence to ICS or ICS/LABA inhaler of 75% or less. Success in step-down treatment was defined as maintenance of well-controlled status for over one year after step-down. Factor B was the most important single negative predictive factor for indication for step-down treatment (Odds ratio; 0.19). Factor A increased the risk of failure to maintain step-down treatment most significantly by 23-fold, and factor B increased it by 11-fold. The combination of factors B and A increased failure by 24-fold, factors P and A by 21-fold, all three factors by 36-fold. Factor P only interacted with the other factors to reduce chances of stepping down, but did not constitute a problem factor when present alone. The evaluation of biological, psychological and adherence problems may lead to a more proactive and targeted approach to step-down treatment for patients with well-controlled asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mindfulness and its efficacy for psychological and biological responses in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth; M?rtensson, Lena B; Andersson, Bengt A; Karlsson, Per; Bergh, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many breast cancer survivors have to deal with a variety of psychological and physiological sequelae including impaired immune responses. The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of a mindfulness?based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention for mood disorders in women with breast cancer. Secondary outcomes were symptom experience, health status, coping capacity, mindfulness, posttraumatic growth, and immune status. This RTC assigned 166 wome...

  4. Physical fitness and perceived psychological pressure at work: 30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure.......Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure....

  5. Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Ingrid J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and psychological problems after childbirth are common, and may have a significant negative and long-term impact on women’s wellbeing and daily functioning. The method of birth may be a particularly important factor influencing women’s health and wellbeing following birth, however, population-wide evidence is limited. This study uses data from 5,332 women who responded to a national survey of women’s experiences of maternity care in England. We examined women’s postnatal wellbeing in the first three months after birth, and whether these varied by mode of birth. Methods This is a secondary analysis of survey data using a random sample of women selected from birth registration. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the association between women’s self-reported psychological symptoms, health problems and mode of birth. Results Women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births and unplanned caesarean section births reported the poorest health and wellbeing, while those of women who had unassisted vaginal births and planned caesarean section births were less affected by the birth process. Most women’s physical and emotional health appeared to improve with time, however, those who had a forceps-assisted vaginal birth were more likely to report ongoing posttraumatic-type symptoms several months after the birth. Conclusions Mode of birth was associated with differences in outcomes at three months. By comparison to women who had unassisted vaginal births, the risk of reduced postnatal health and wellbeing was higher amongst the women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births but not amongst women who had ventouse-assisted vaginal births. This would suggest that it is important to differentiate the different types of instrumental birth in outcome studies. Of concern was the higher rate of posttraumatic-type symptoms among women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births relative to the other modes of

  6. Words can hurt: The effects of physical and psychological partner violence on condom negotiation and condom use among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Parra, Gilbert R; Weiss, Nicole H; Meyer, Jaimie P; Murphy, James G

    2017-04-12

    Physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) are prevalent on college campuses and may affect young women's condom use behavior. This study explored condom negotiation as a mediator of the relation of physical and psychological IPV to condom use among college women. A total of 235 heterosexual college women were recruited during September 2012-May 2013. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing lifetime history of IPV, frequency of condom negotiation, and use of condoms during the last 30 days. Specific forms of psychological IPV were related to less condom use. This association was mediated by condom negotiation, such that those who had experienced psychological IPV were less likely to negotiate condom use, and as a result, less likely to report using condoms in the past 30 days. Campus-based sexual health efforts should consider the relation of psychological IPV to condom negotiation and condom use and offer skills to promote condom negotiation among college women to increase condom use and reduce their risk of sexually transmitted infections.

  7. Dewetting and hydrophobic interaction in physical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Weeks, John D; Zhou, Ruhong

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophobicity manifests itself differently on large and small length scales. This review focuses on large-length-scale hydrophobicity, particularly on dewetting at single hydrophobic surfaces and drying in regions bounded on two or more sides by hydrophobic surfaces. We review applicable theories, simulations, and experiments pertaining to large-scale hydrophobicity in physical and biomolecular systems and clarify some of the critical issues pertaining to this subject. Given space constraints, we cannot review all the significant and interesting work in this active field.

  8. Perspective: Sloppiness and emergent theories in physics, biology, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transtrum, Mark K.; Machta, Benjamin B.; Brown, Kevin S.; Daniels, Bryan C.; Myers, Christopher R.; Sethna, James P.

    2015-07-01

    Large scale models of physical phenomena demand the development of new statistical and computational tools in order to be effective. Many such models are "sloppy," i.e., exhibit behavior controlled by a relatively small number of parameter combinations. We review an information theoretic framework for analyzing sloppy models. This formalism is based on the Fisher information matrix, which is interpreted as a Riemannian metric on a parameterized space of models. Distance in this space is a measure of how distinguishable two models are based on their predictions. Sloppy model manifolds are bounded with a hierarchy of widths and extrinsic curvatures. The manifold boundary approximation can extract the simple, hidden theory from complicated sloppy models. We attribute the success of simple effective models in physics as likewise emerging from complicated processes exhibiting a low effective dimensionality. We discuss the ramifications and consequences of sloppy models for biochemistry and science more generally. We suggest that the reason our complex world is understandable is due to the same fundamental reason: simple theories of macroscopic behavior are hidden inside complicated microscopic processes.

  9. Psychological determinants of physical activity across the life course: A "DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Carlin, Angela; Simon, Chantal; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; D’Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; O’Donoghue, Grainne; Perchoux, Camille; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; Castellani, Loriana

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR) was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The search was limited to studies published in English from January 2004 to April 2016. SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies investigating the association of psychological variables and PA were considered eligible. Extracted data were evaluated based on importance of determinants, strength of evidence, and methodological quality. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (Record ID: CRD42015010616). Twenty reviews (14 SLRs and 6 MAs), mostly of moderate methodological quality, were found eligible. Convincing evidence was found for self-efficacy (positive association with PA) in children and adolescents, and stress (negative association with PA) regardless of age. Most of the evidence revealing an association between psychological determinants and PA is probable and limited, mainly due to differences in the definition of PA and of psychological determinants across reviews. Thus, scholars are urged to reach a consensus on clear definitions of relevant psychological determinants of PA, subsuming cultural biases and allowing the possibility to obtain clear interpretations and generalizability of findings. Finally, most psychological determinants should be considered within a larger framework of other multi-level determinants that may interact or mediate some of the effects. PMID:28817676

  10. Physics and the molecular revolution in plant biology: union needed for managing the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lüttge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The question was asked if there is still a prominent role of biophysics in plant biology in an age when molecular biology appears to be dominating. Mathematical formation of theory is essential in systems biology, and mathematics is more inherent in biophysics than in molecular biology. A survey is made identifying and briefly characterizing fields of plant biology where approaches of biophysics remain essential. In transport at membranes electrophysiology and thermodynamics are biophysical topics. Water is a special molecule. Its transport follows the physical laws of osmosis and gradients of water potential on the background of physics of hydraulic architecture. Photobiology needs understanding of the physics of electro-magnetic radiation of quantitative nature in photosynthesis and of qualitative nature in perception by the photo-sensors cryptochromes, phototropins and phytochrome in environmental responses and development. Biophysical oscillators can play a role in biological timing by the circadian clock. Integration in the self-organization of modules, such as roots, stems and leaves, for the emergence of whole plants as unitary organisms needs storage and transport of information where physical modes of signaling are essential with cross talks between electrical and hydraulic signals and with chemical signals. Examples are gravitropism and root-shoot interactions in water relations. All of these facets of plant biophysics overlie plant molecular biology and exchange with it. It is advocated that a union of approaches of plant molecular biology and biophysics needs to be cultivated. In many cases it is already operative. In bionics biophysics is producing output for practical applications linking biology with technology. Biomimetic engineering intrinsically uses physical approaches. An extreme biophysical perspective is looking out for life in space. Sustained and increased practice of biophysics with teaching and research deserves strong

  11. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J. [UMDI-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  12. The interplay between sleep and mood in predicting academic functioning, physical health and psychological health: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wan, Jacky Ho Yin; Cheung, Shu Fai; Hui, C Harry; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-04-01

    Existing studies on sleep and behavioral outcomes are mostly correlational. Longitudinal data is limited. The current longitudinal study assessed how sleep duration and sleep quality may be causally linked to daytime functions, including physical health (physical well-being and daytime sleepiness), psychological health (mood and self-esteem) and academic functioning (school grades and study effort). The mediation role of mood in the relationship between sleep quality, sleep duration and these daytime functions is also assessed. A sample of 930 Chinese students (aged 18-25) from Hong Kong/Macau completed self-reported questionnaires online across three academic semesters. Sleep behaviors are assessed by the sleep timing questionnaire (for sleep duration and weekday/weekend sleep discrepancy) and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (sleep quality); physical health by the World Health Organization quality of life scale-brief version (physical well-being) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness); psychological health by the depression anxiety stress scale (mood) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (self-esteem) and academic functioning by grade-point-average and the college student expectation questionnaire (study effort). Structural equation modeling with a bootstrap resample of 5000 showed that after controlling for demographics and participants' daytime functions at baseline, academic functions, physical and psychological health were predicted by the duration and quality of sleep. While some sleep behaviors directly predicted daytime functions, others had an indirect effect on daytime functions through negative mood, such as anxiety. Sleep duration and quality have direct and indirect (via mood) effects on college students' academic function, physical and psychological health. Our findings underscore the importance of healthy sleep patterns for better adjustment in college years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological and physical influences on marine snowfall at the equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, R.; Biastoch, A.; Brandt, P.; Cravatte, S.; Hauss, H.; Hummels, R.; Kriest, I.; Marin, F.; McDonnell, A. M. P.; Oschlies, A.; Picheral, M.; Schwarzkopf, F. U.; Thurnherr, A. M.; Stemmann, L.

    2017-11-01

    High primary productivity in the equatorial Atlantic and Pacific oceans is one of the key features of tropical ocean biogeochemistry and fuels a substantial flux of particulate matter towards the abyssal ocean. How biological processes and equatorial current dynamics shape the particle size distribution and flux, however, is poorly understood. Here we use high-resolution size-resolved particle imaging and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data to assess these influences in equatorial oceans. We find an increase in particle abundance and flux at depths of 300 to 600 m at the Atlantic and Pacific equator, a depth range to which zooplankton and nekton migrate vertically in a daily cycle. We attribute this particle maximum to faecal pellet production by these organisms. At depths of 1,000 to 4,000 m, we find that the particulate organic carbon flux is up to three times greater in the equatorial belt (1° S-1° N) than in off-equatorial regions. At 3,000 m, the flux is dominated by small particles less than 0.53 mm in diameter. The dominance of small particles seems to be caused by enhanced active and passive particle export in this region, as well as by the focusing of particles by deep eastward jets found at 2° N and 2° S. We thus suggest that zooplankton movements and ocean currents modulate the transfer of particulate carbon from the surface to the deep ocean.

  14. [Period-tripling in Multiscale Physical and Biological Events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, A T; Fedorov, M V; Kolombet, V A

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper by S.J. Puetz et al. (Chaos, Solitons -& Fractals, v. 62-63, p. 55, 2014) described a fundamental period-tripled model. It involves periods of different astronomical (quasars, Sun), geophysical (geomagnetic, climatic, volcanic) and some biological processes. This work contains statistics for sixteen pairs of a period-tripled sequence. These periods range from -50 years to 1.5 billion years and no signs of the timescale limitations are found. We believe that the universal scope of the fundamental period-tripled model can be used for the development of new methodology of research data analysis: the main idea is that the spectrum of the periods of the studied event should be tested for the similarity with the spectrum of fundamental period-tripling pattern (because of the fundamental nature of the period-tripled model). Using this method, in this study we complement an already described period-tripled model with periods of human memory performance ranging from one minute to one month also adding seven relevant periods/frequencies of the period-tripled model in the range of human hearing. We make a conclusion that these characteristic frequencies may form the basis for music and singing phenomena. The new methodology is particularly appropriate for being applied in medicine and engineering.

  15. Creating healing intensive care unit environments: physical and psychological considerations in designing critical care areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuin, Doug; Cardon, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    A number of elements contribute to a healing ICU environment. The layout of a critical care unit helps create an environment that supports caregiving, which helps alleviate a host of work-related stresses. A quieter environment, one that includes family and friends, dotted with windows and natural light, creates a space that makes people feel balanced and reassured. A healing environment responds to the needs of all the people within a critical care unit-those who receive or give care and those who support patients and staff. Critical care units should be designed to focus on healing the body, the mind, and the senses. The design and policies of that department can be created in such a way to provide a sense of calm and balance. The physical environment has an impact on patient outcomes; the psychological environment can, too. A healing ICU environment will balance both. The authors discuss the ways in which architecture, interior design, and behavior contribute to a healing ICU environment.

  16. Physical constraint as psychological holding: Mental-health treatment for difficult and violent adolescents in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansel, Yannis; Lézé, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The phrase "Contraindre est thérapeutique"--constraining is therapeutic--underpins the principle of numerous interventions within the field of mental health in France, ranging from traditional psychiatric units to the courthouse to violence management and prevention of dangerousness. The treatment of violence in "difficult and violent adolescents" provides a paradigmatic and revealing example of this tendency. The aim of this article is to understand how the clinical category--contenir, or "to contain"--was formed and is used. The perspective taken is that of the political anthropology of mental health and the article combines a genealogical approach of the notion with a multisite ethnographical study (conducted between September 2008 and June 2012 in three facilities for adolescent care). This study will show how "psychological holding" is used to justify "physical constraint" in the treatment of adolescent crisis and violence. Furthermore, we will see how this "dirty work", delegated to front-line professionals (educators, social workers, nurses), is used within a moral economy of suffering that promotes care and control measures in a population largely from immigrant backgrounds, judged to be both potentially vulnerable and dangerous. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Measuring psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nicola W; Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F; Turrell, Gavin

    2007-02-01

    Many of the self-administered scales for measuring physical activity (PA) influences were originally developed for vigorous-intensity exercise, focus on only one domain of influence, and have not been evaluated for both reliability and validity using population-based samples. This study describes the factorial validity and internal reliability of scales for measuring individual-level psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time PA among adults in the general population. Constructs were identified from a literature review and formative research with a socio-economically diverse sample. Items were generated using previously developed scales and interview data. New items were pre-tested using reliability and principal components analyses, with data collected from a mail survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample. Qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample and expert panel. A second mail survey provided data for principal components and reliability analyses. Twenty-eight scales were factorially derived and 24 had acceptable or marginally acceptable levels of internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.65 to 0.91. The 24 scales are suitable for researchers and practitioners interested in measuring individual-level influences on PA that are consistent with Social Cognitive Theory. More research is required to assess predictive validity, sensitivity to change and test/re-test reliability.

  18. Behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, K A; Manore, M M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below ( approximately 5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.

  19. Physical, psychological and ethical issues in caring for individuals with genetic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Diane C; Darling, Thomas N

    2013-03-01

    Some forms of genetic skin disease are highly prevalent and others are exceedingly rare, but collectively, genetic skin disorders (or genodermatoses) are often poorly understood. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to increase nurses' awareness and understanding of some of the physical, psychological, social, and ethical issues facing patients with inherited skin disorders. This article offers an overview of genetic skin diseases; highlights the complexity and prevalence of the genodermatoses; describes inheritance patterns, genetics, and treatment for six genodermatoses; and reviews some of the ethical, privacy, technological, and resource issues nurses should consider when caring for patients with genetic skin disorders. Because genodermatoses are found in all age groups, across all populations, and within all healthcare settings, nurses are uniquely positioned to address the educational and healthcare needs of patients and families with inherited skin disorders. Over the past two decades, genetics has evolved from a niche specialty into general practice. To ensure that patients and their families receive appropriate services and resources, nurses must have a working knowledge of genetic concepts. This article reinforces key genetic concepts while discussing many of the issues and concerns important to caring for patients with genetic skin disease. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. [Physical and psychological abuse: follow-up of abused and delinquent adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiller, B

    1982-01-01

    Physical and Psychological Abuse: A Follow-up of Abused Delinquent Adolescents. This is a follow-up study of abused, very aggressive adolescent boys who had to be placed in an institution. A group of 252 boys were admitted between 1950 and 1977 in a limited freedom institution near Paris (France) because of delinquency or very difficult behaviour. Thirty-three of them had been abused either in their family or in other institutions during childhood. These adolescents proved to be three times more aggressive (i.e., they were involved in aggression episodes three times more often) as compared with their schoolmates who had not been abused previously. An inquiry about the subsequent life course of 22 of these 33 adolescents, made 3 to 30 years following their discharge, revealed that officially unlawful behaviour was recorded twice as often as in the life of their peers. The abused aggressive adolescents are therefore more difficult to rehabilitate than other non-abused adolescent with difficult behaviour. The author stresses this difference, which seems to be linked with a strong feeling of abandonment, and with an extreme difficulty to establish affective contacts with adults. The relationship with adults is always very fragile, and requires a large amount of tolerance regarding their aggressive behaviour.

  1. Consequences of Job Insecurity on the Psychological and Physical Health of Greek Civil Servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Nella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the short term consequences of job insecurity associated with a newly introduced mobility framework in Greece. In specific, the study examined the impact of job insecurity on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic and musculoskeletal symptoms, two months after the announcement of the mobility framework. In addition the study also examined the “spill over” effects of job insecurity on employees not directly affected by the mobility framework. Personal interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted for 36 university administrative employees awaiting repositioning, 36 coworkers not at risk, and 28 administrative employees of a local hospital not at risk. Compared to both control groups the employees in the anticipation phase of labor mobility had significantly worse scores for perceived stress, anxiety, depression, positive affect, negative affect, social support, marital discord, common somatic symptoms, and frequency of musculoskeletal pain. This study highlights the immediate detrimental effects of job insecurity on the physical, psychological, and social functioning of employees. There is a need for the development of front line interventions to prevent these effects from developing into chronic conditions with considerable cost for the individual and society in general.

  2. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Day-to-day co-variations of psychological and physical symptoms of the menstrual cycle: insights to individual differences in steroid reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2010-04-01

    The associations between physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle have not been carefully studied in past research, but may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms. The present study examines the day-to-day co-variations among physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle. These symptoms were evaluated on a daily basis across one entire menstrual cycle, with a non-clinical sample of 92 university students. Results showed that headaches, gastrointestinal problems, lower abdominal bloating, skin changes, and breast changes, were all significantly associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms; whereas back and joint pain, lower abdominal cramps, cervical mucous, and menstrual flow, were not associated with psychological symptoms. However, significant differences in these associations were observed across individuals for back and joint pain, headaches, lower abdominal cramps, skin changes, and menstrual flow: Whereas some women demonstrated higher levels of psychological symptoms associated with these physical symptoms, other women demonstrated lower levels of psychological symptoms. Finally, correlations among the associations between physical and psychological symptoms (slopes) demonstrated clear differences across the different physical symptoms. These results indicate that, although higher levels of some physical symptoms are associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms, there are significant differences in the magnitude and direction of these relations across individuals. Further consideration of physical symptoms may provide useful information for understanding individual differences in symptom profiles and response to steroid fluctuations, and for improving differential diagnosis and treatment planning and evaluation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does endorsement of physical discipline matter? Assessing moderating influences on the maternal and child psychological correlates of physical discipline in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C; Kaplan, Rachel; Hardaway, Cecily R; Wood, Dana

    2007-06-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of 890 African American families in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined whether maternal endorsement of physical discipline moderates the link between (a) maternal psychological distress and spanking frequency and (b) spanking frequency and child depressive symptoms. As predicted, physical discipline administered by nonendorsing mothers was more strongly linked to maternal psychological distress than physical discipline administered by endorsing mothers. Also in keeping with the authors' hypothesis, the relation between spanking frequency and child-reported depressive symptoms was stronger for children of nonendorsing mothers than for children of endorsing mothers. In particular, the positive relation between physical discipline and children's depressive symptoms was significant only for children of nonendorsing mothers. These findings suggest that within-group variation in African American mothers' attitudes about physical discipline partially regulates the conditions under which these mothers use physical discipline and the probability that physical discipline contributes to depressive symptoms in children. Conclusions and implications for future research are discussed.

  5. A Test of Basic Psychological Needs Theory in a Physical-Activity-Based Program for Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Blankenship, Bonnie T; LeBreton, James M

    2017-02-01

    This study used a randomized controlled design to test the pathways in basic psychological needs theory, where social relationships characterized by autonomy support, involvement, and structure foster psychological need satisfaction and well-being. Participants were recruited from a physical-activity-based youth program. A new staff training was implemented to manipulate the use of each interpersonal characteristic by program staff (N = 24 observed) and perceptions of each interpersonal characteristic, psychological needs, hope, and self-worth in youth (N = 379 surveyed pre- and postprogram). Staff in the intervention condition used greater overall observed autonomy support, involvement, and structure. Condition assignment did not lead to differences in youth perceptions, but observed staff behaviors positively predicted youth perceptions of staff and perceptions of staff positively predicted change in well-being. Findings indicate that the training manipulated how staff engaged youth, and autonomy support, involvement, and structure are useful strategies to foster well-being in youth.

  6. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  7. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the application of statistical physics to evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, N H; Coe, J B

    2009-07-21

    There is a close analogy between statistical thermodynamics and the evolution of allele frequencies under mutation, selection and random drift. Wright's formula for the stationary distribution of allele frequencies is analogous to the Boltzmann distribution in statistical physics. Population size, 2N, plays the role of the inverse temperature, 1/kT, and determines the magnitude of random fluctuations. Log mean fitness, log(W), tends to increase under selection, and is analogous to a (negative) energy; a potential function, U, increases under mutation in a similar way. An entropy, S(H), can be defined which measures the deviation from the distribution of allele frequencies expected under random drift alone; the sum G=E[log(W)+U+S(H)] gives a free fitness that increases as the population evolves towards its stationary distribution. Usually, we observe the distribution of a few quantitative traits that depend on the frequencies of very many alleles. The mean and variance of such traits are analogous to observable quantities in statistical thermodynamics. Thus, we can define an entropy, S(Omega), which measures the volume of allele frequency space that is consistent with the observed trait distribution. The stationary distribution of the traits is exp[2N(log(W)+U+S(Omega))]; this applies with arbitrary epistasis and dominance. The entropies S(Omega), S(H) are distinct, but converge when there are so many alleles that traits fluctuate close to their expectations. Populations tend to evolve towards states that can be realised in many ways (i.e., large S(Omega)), which may lead to a substantial drop below the adaptive peak; we illustrate this point with a simple model of genetic redundancy. This analogy with statistical thermodynamics brings together previous ideas in a general framework, and justifies a maximum entropy approximation to the dynamics of quantitative traits.

  9. Parenting quality and children's mental health: biological mechanisms and psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The quality of parenting that children receive can have a profound influence on their development and mental health. This article reviews articles published from late 2010 onwards that address the effects of parenting on the child's physiological and genetic systems, and how interventions can improve children's security of attachments, antisocial behaviour and other outcomes across a range of settings. Biological indices of stress, such as C-reactive protein, show that prenatal anxiety is a significant determinant of later outcomes for children, and abusive parenting of young children has lasting biological effects into adulthood. Increasingly, specific genes, especially those that code for neurotransmitter synthesis and functions, are being identified that moderate parenting effects. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that harsh parenting affects the expression of genes by epigenetic processes.Parenting programmes are effective in increasing the security of infant children's attachments, and reducing conduct problems/antisocial behaviour in childhood, and they can be effective at a population level in preventing abuse. These programmes are now widening their reach to cover a broader range of children's outcomes such as literacy and obesity. We are learning much more about the biological impact of poor parenting and the need for interventions that are crafted to improve the quality of parent-child relationships in many settings. Hopefully, they will also ameliorate the biological effects of poor parenting.

  10. Psychological, Relational, and Biological Correlates of Ego-Dystonic Masturbation in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Fanni, Egidia; Corona, Giovanni; Maseroli, Elisa; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Attitudes toward masturbation are extremely varied, and this practice is often perceived with a sense of guilt. To evaluate the prevalence of ego-dystonic masturbation (EM), defined as masturbation activity followed by a sense of guilt, in a clinical setting of sexual medicine and the impact of EM on psychological and relational well-being. A series of 4,211 men attending an andrology and sexual medicine outpatient clinic was studied retrospectively. The presence and severity of EM were defined according to ANDROTEST items related to masturbation, determined by the mathematical product of the frequency of masturbation and the sense of guilt after masturbation. Clinical, biochemical, and psychological parameters were studied using the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction, ANDROTEST, and modified Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Three hundred fifty-two subjects (8.4%) reported any sense of guilt after masturbation. Subjects with EM were younger than the remaining sample (mean age ± SD = 51.27 ± 13.43 vs 48.31 ± 12.04 years, P < .0001) and had more psychiatric comorbidities. EM severity was positively associated with higher free-floating (Wald = 35.94, P < .001) and depressive (Wald = 16.85, P < .001) symptoms, and subjects with a higher EM score reported less phobic anxiety (Wald = 4.02, P < .05) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (Wald = 7.6, P < .01). A higher EM score was associated with a higher alcohol intake. Subjects with EM more often reported the partner's lower frequency of climax and more problems achieving an erection during sexual intercourse. EM severity was positively associated with worse relational and intrapsychic domain scores. Clinicians should consider that some subjects seeking treatment in a sexual medicine setting might report compulsive sexual behaviors. EM represents a clinically relevant cause of disability, given the high level of psychological distress reported by subjects with this condition, and the severe impact on

  11. Psychological wellbeing of Turkish university students with physical impairments: an evaluation within the stress-vulnerability paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gulay; Aydemir, Deniz

    2011-04-01

    Generally, universities in developing countries offer little in the way of provisions and support (material, emotional, etc.) for disabled students. Therefore, disabled students experience considerable burdens and barriers in their educational life. This study investigated the psychological wellbeing of disabled Turkish university students by examining influences on stress-related growth and psychological distress. Disability is defined within the framework of a social model. According to this view, impairment refers to the functional limitation(s) that affect(s) a person's body, whereas disability refers to the loss or limitation of opportunities owing to social, physical or psychological obstacles. Seventy disabled university students with physical impairments were administered a questionnaire package, including a sociodemographic information sheet, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Stress-Related Growth Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Social Support, Life Events Inventory, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Snowball sampling was used and voluntary participation was essential. The results showed that disability burden, daily hassles, and helplessness coping were significant predictors of psychological symptoms. For stress-related growth the only variable that appeared significant was problem-solving coping. The results pointed out that there may be different pathways to distress and growth. In order to decrease psychological distress and enhance growth in disabled university students, disability awareness programs, changes in the barriers in the academic and physical environments of the university campuses, and coping skills training to increase problem-focused coping and to combat helplessness may prove to be effective. Reducing daily hassles for the disabled students is likely to contribute to their wellbeing by decreasing their burdens. Also, a more disability-friendly environment is likely to be empowering for disabled university students.

  12. Feeling Healthy? A Survey of Physical and Psychological Wellbeing of Students from Seven Universities in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Walid El; Stock, Christiane; Snelgrove, Sherrill; Hu, Xiaoling; Parke, Sian; Davies, Shân; John, Jill; Adetunji, Hamed; Stoate, Mary; Deeny, Pat; Phillips, Ceri; Mabhala, Andi

    2011-01-01

    University students’ physical and psychological health and wellbeing are important and comprise many variables. This study assessed perceived health status in addition to a range of physical and psychological wellbeing indicators of 3,706 undergraduate students from seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We compared differences in these variables across males and females, and across the participating universities. The data was collected in 2007–2008. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information (e.g., gender, age), self-reported physical and psychological health data, as well as questions on health awareness, health service use, social support, burdens and stressors and university study related questions. While females generally reported more health problems and psychological burdens, male students felt that they received/had fewer persons to depend on for social support. The comparisons of health and wellbeing variables across the different universities suggested some evidence of ‘clustering’ of the variables under study, whereby favourable situations would be exhibited by a cluster of the variables that is encountered at some universities; and conversely, the clustering of less favourable variables as exhibited at other universities. We conclude that the level of health complaints and psychological problems/burdens is relatively high and calls for increased awareness of university administrators, leaders and policy makers to the health and well-being needs of their students. The observed clustering effects also indicated the need for local (university-specific) health and wellbeing profiles as basis and guidance for relevant health promotion programmes at universities. PMID:21655121

  13. Feeling Healthy? A Survey of Physical and Psychological Wellbeing of Students from Seven Universities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Stoate

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available University students’ physical and psychological health and wellbeing are important and comprise many variables. This study assessed perceived health status in addition to a range of physical and psychological wellbeing indicators of 3,706 undergraduate students from seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We compared differences in these variables across males and females, and across the participating universities. The data was collected in 2007–2008. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information (e.g., gender, age, self-reported physical and psychological health data, as well as questions on health awareness, health service use, social support, burdens and stressors and university study related questions. While females generally reported more health problems and psychological burdens, male students felt that they received/had fewer persons to depend on for social support. The comparisons of health and wellbeing variables across the different universities suggested some evidence of ‘clustering’ of the variables under study, whereby favourable situations would be exhibited by a cluster of the variables that is encountered at some universities; and conversely, the clustering of less favourable variables as exhibited at other universities. We conclude that the level of health complaints and psychological problems/burdens is relatively high and calls for increased awareness of university administrators, leaders and policy makers to the health and well-being needs of their students. The observed clustering effects also indicated the need for local (university-specific health and wellbeing profiles as basis and guidance for relevant health promotion programmes at universities.

  14. Athletic trainers' and physical therapists' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychological skills within sport injury rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson-Utley, J Jordan; Martin, Scott; Walters, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport-injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabilitation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. The ATs and PTs were contacted via electronic or physical mailings to complete a single administration survey that measured their beliefs about the effectiveness of psychological skills for increasing adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes undergoing rehabilitation. Professional member databases of the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the American Physical Therapy Association. Of the 1000 ATs and 1000 PTs who were selected randomly, 309 ATs (age = 34.18 +/- 8.32 years, years in profession = 10.67 +/- 7.34) and 356 PTs (age = 38.58 +/- 7.51 years, years in profession = 13.18 +/- 6.17) responded. The Attitudes About Imagery (AAI) survey measures attitudes about psychological skills for enhancing adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. The AAI includes demographic questions and 15 items on a 7-point Likert scale measuring attitudes about the effectiveness of mental imagery, self-talk, goal setting, and pain control on rehabilitation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Test-retest reliability ranged from .60 to .84 and Cronbach alphas ranged from .65 to .90. We calculated 1-way analyses of variance to determine whether differences existed in attitudes as a result of the professionals' education, training experience, and interest. Mean differences were found on attitudes about effectiveness of psychological skills for those who reported formal training and those who reported interest in receiving formal training (P psychological skills to augment the rehabilitation process. Clinical implications regarding the use of mental skills are discussed.

  15. Biology and physics competencies for pre-health and other life sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Robert C; Friedlander, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The recent report on the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (SFFP) and the revised Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) reframe the preparation for medical school (and other health professional schools) in terms of competencies: what students should know and be able to do with that knowledge, with a strong emphasis on scientific inquiry and research skills. In this article, we will describe the thinking that went into the SFFP report and what it says about scientific and quantitative reasoning, focusing on biology and physics and the overlap between those fields. We then discuss how the SFFP report set the stage for the discussion of the recommendations for the revised MCAT, which will be implemented in 2015, again focusing the discussion on biology and physics. Based on that framework, we discuss the implications for undergraduate biology and physics education if students are to be prepared to demonstrate these competencies.

  16. Biology and Physics Competencies for Pre-Health and Other Life Sciences Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Robert C.; Friedlander, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The recent report on the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (SFFP) and the revised Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) reframe the preparation for medical school (and other health professional schools) in terms of competencies: what students should know and be able to do with that knowledge, with a strong emphasis on scientific inquiry and research skills. In this article, we will describe the thinking that went into the SFFP report and what it says about scientific and quantitative reasoning, focusing on biology and physics and the overlap between those fields. We then discuss how the SFFP report set the stage for the discussion of the recommendations for the revised MCAT, which will be implemented in 2015, again focusing the discussion on biology and physics. Based on that framework, we discuss the implications for undergraduate biology and physics education if students are to be prepared to demonstrate these competencies. PMID:23737625

  17. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Physical Improvement and Biological Maturity of Young Athletes (11-12 Years with Systematic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilkeridis Konstantinos E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the infl uence of systematic training in physical growth and biological maturity in prepubertal males and estimate how this affects the physical growth and skeletal maturity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 177 primary school students of the fifth and sixth grade, from schools in Alexandroupolis, participated voluntarily in our study. Questionnaires were used in order to measure physical activity levels. The subjects were subdivided into two groups; control group (prepubertal, whose physical activity was the physical education of their school and which had never participated in systematic training, n = 95 and experimental group (prepubertal, whose weekly physical activity included physical education in their schools and additionally 3-4 training units organized training in various sports clubs in the city, n = 82. The following parameters were recorded: biological age measured by determination of skeletal age; bone density measured by ultrasound methods; anthropometric and morphological features such as height, body composition, selected diameters, circumferences and skinfolds; motor ability features. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited older biological age (p = 0.033, higher bone density (p < 0.001, lower BMI and body fat (p < 0.001, better anthropometric features and higher performance throughout all motor ability tests (p < 0.05, compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that systematic physical activity has a positive effect on both the physical and biological maturity of pre-pubertal children. This effect is mainly expressed in bone strengthening as a result of the increased bone density and in improvement of the kinetic skills of pupils who participated in organized extracurricular sport-activities.

  19. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  20. STUDIES OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS BY FACILITIES OF IСT: ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia V. Stuchynska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to the problem of implementation of methodical system of medical and biological physics education by facilities of information and communication technologies. Methodical system includes all types of training sessions, and regulates students self-study. Main attention in the article is concentrated on research of multimedia lecture system implementations peculiarities and interactive system of laboratory classes of course "Medical and Biological Physics" for future doctors. The classification of computer models used in the laboratory workshop. Made conclusions regarding changes in motivational, factual and procedural components of educational activity in systemic use of information and communication technologies

  1. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiko

    2013-10-01

    Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (paromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (pAromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future.

  2. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  3. Physical and Psychological Distress Are Related to Dying Peacefully in Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Maaike L; Albers, Gwenda; Deliens, Luc; de Vet, Henrica C W; Francke, Anneke L; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Van den Block, Lieve

    2015-07-01

    Although dying peacefully is considered an important outcome of high-quality palliative care, large-scale quantitative research on dying peacefully and the factors associated with a peaceful death is lacking. To gain insight into how many residents with dementia in long-term care facilities die peacefully, according to their relatives, and whether that assessment is correlated with observed physical and psychological distress. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of deceased nursing home residents in a representative sample of long-term care facilities in Flanders, Belgium (2010). Structured post-mortem questionnaires were completed by relatives of the resident, who were asked to what extent they agreed that the resident "appeared to be at peace" during the dying process. Spearman correlation coefficients gave the correlations between physical and psychological distress (as measured using the Symptom Management at the End of Life with Dementia and Comfort Assessment in Dying at the End of Life with Dementia scales) and dying peacefully (as measured using the Quality of Dying in Long Term Care instrument). The sample comprised 92 relatives of deceased residents with dementia. In 54% of cases, relatives indicated that the resident died peacefully. Weak-to-moderate correlations (0.2-0.57) were found between dying peacefully and physical distress in the last week of life. Regarding psychological distress, weak-to-moderate correlations were found for both the last week (0.33-0.44) and last month of life (0.28-0.47). Only half of the residents with dementia died peacefully as perceived by their relatives. Relatives' assessment of whether death was peaceful is related to both physical and psychological distress. Further qualitative research is recommended to gain more in-depth insights into the aspects on which relatives base their judgment of dying peacefully. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Behaviour of medical students in seeking mental and physical health care: exploration and comparison with psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimstone, Renee; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Quirk, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Doctors are often reluctant to seek health care through the usual channels and tend to self-diagnose and prescribe. Medical students learn attitudes and values from clinician role models and may also adopt behaviour patterns that lead them to seek help for physical and mental health problems from informal sources. This study aimed to explore the behaviour of students in seeking health care for physical and mental health problems, comparing medical with psychology students, and to understand what barriers to conventional routes of seeking health care may affect this. We administered a questionnaire asking for demographic details and responses to 2 vignettes in which a student from the respondent's discipline was experiencing firstly symptoms of a mental health problem and secondly symptoms of a physical health problem. Data were analysed with spss and univariate anovas to examine differences between respondents. A total of 172 students at the psychology and medical schools at James Cook University in Australia participated. We identified a number of barriers affecting student behaviour in seeking help, which included worries about knowing the doctor they could consult at the university health centre or having future dealings with him or her, and cost of treatment. There were differences between the 2 groups of students. There are several barriers for both psychology and medical students to accessing appropriate professional mental health care. Medical students also experience barriers to attaining appropriate physical health care when needed. Psychology and medical students were more likely to seek advice informally from friends and/or family with regard to mental health care.

  5. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations. PMID:25598618

  6. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations.

  7. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  8. Dance/movement therapy for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Shim, Minjung; Goodill, Sherry W

    2015-01-07

    Current cancer care increasingly incorporates psychosocial interventions. Cancer patients use dance/movement therapy to learn to accept and reconnect with their bodies, build new self-confidence, enhance self-expression, address feelings of isolation, depression, anger and fear and to strengthen personal resources. To update the previously published review that examined the effects of dance/movement therapy and standard care versus standard care alone or standard care and other interventions on psychological and physical outcomes in patients with cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (OvidSP, 1950 to June week 4, 2014), EMBASE (OvidSP, 1980 to 2014 week 26), CINAHL (EBSCOhost, 1982 to July 15 2014), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost, 1806 to July 15 2014), LILACS (Virual Health Library, 1982 to July 15 2014), Science Citation Index (ISI, 1974 to July 15 2014), CancerLit (1983 to 2003), International Bibliography of Theatre and Dance (1989 to July 15 2014), the National Research Register (2000 to September 2007), Proquest Digital Dissertations, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Current Controlled Trials (all to July 15 2014). We handsearched dance/movement therapy and related topics journals, reviewed reference lists and contacted experts. There was no language restriction. We included all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of dance/movement therapy interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in patients with cancer. We considered studies only if dance/movement therapy was provided by a formally trained dance/movement therapist or by trainees in a formal dance/movement therapy program. Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality, seeking additional information from the trial researchers when necessary. Results were presented using standardized mean differences. We identified one new trial for inclusion in this update. In

  9. The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to Be Physically Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Evelia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

  10. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  11. Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Is Associated with Increased Psychological and Emotional Distress Among Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussin-Shoptaw, Alexandra L; Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J

    2017-08-01

    Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse. Participants were African American/Black (33.3%), Caucasian/White (28.3%), or Hispanic/Latina (24.2%). Average age was 35 years (standard deviation [SD] = 9), and 37.4% of participants self-reported an HIV-positive status. Most (84.9%) participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lifetime, and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) among those who reported abuse were more severe than those observed in cisgender psychiatric in-patient populations. After controlling for participant sociodemographics, prior experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased psychological and emotional distress across all measured symptom domains except psychoticism [χ 2 (9)  = 17.56; p < 0.05]. Given these associations as well as the high prevalence of physical and/or sexual abuse among transgender women, mental health professionals and social service providers working with this population should be sensitive to the abuse history and mental health needs of the transgender women with whom they work.

  12. Quality of Life in Physical and Psychological Health and Social Environment at Posthospitalization Period in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Narumi; Sasaki, Aya; Hondoh, Fumika; Odagiri, Chiyo; Hagii, Joji; Seino, Satoshi; Yasujima, Minoru; Osanai, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    Interaction of quality of life (QOL) in physical and psychological health and social environment has not been tested in stroke during a posthospitalization period, and a better understanding of the components of QOL would lead to a more integrated and person-centered approach to health management and outcome optimization. We investigated how QOL emerges from the sequelae of stroke and interacts with each other during the posthospitalization period. We performed a cross-sectional study in 53 outpatients of stroke survivors (39 men and 14 women with a mean age of 66 years, 46 infarctions, and 7 hemorrhages). Eight QOL domains of psychological health were scored by interview, and 2 of them ("desire to distend what they can do" or "desire to do rehabilitation") were associated with the improvement of physical health during the posthospitalization period (P health improvement, to go home, to go back to work, and to see grandchildren" as goals to achieve their desire (P health and social environment, another psychological domain "to gain satisfaction from the experience" was closely related to the presence of hobby or work before stroke attack (P health may support that of physical health, being associated with the presence of hobby or work before stroke attack. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interventional study plan to investigate the training effects on physical and psychological outcomes awareness of smoking in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadian, Fathola; Baghri, Maryam; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Studies have found that nearly 90% of the first use of tobacco takes place before high school graduation (teenagers) and training discussion due to prevention can be useful, therefore, here, we aimed to determine the effects of training on awareness of cigarette outcomes (physical and psychological) in male teenagers. We conducted an interventional study using Solomon's four-group plan, which used a two-stage cluster sampling in four groups (two experimental groups and two control groups). The three sessions of at least 2 h of education intervention including visual displaying using photo, film, and short scientific texts were held for the interventional group. After 1 month, all four groups took posttest, and research groups were followed up after 8 months of intervention. All data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and covariance in SPSS. According to the results, the mean of posttest scores had increased rather than pretest scores, and generally, a significant difference was observed (P ≤ 0.001). These results were significant in the aspect of both physical and psychological outcomes awareness. The difference between the mean of scores in follow-up period and posttest was not statistically significant, and it shows training retention after 8 months (P awareness of teenagers about physical and psychological outcomes of cigarette smoking that this can have an important role in smoking prevention.

  14. Immediate and longterm effects of immune stimulation: hypothesis linking the immune response to subsequent physical and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, E L; Morgenstern, H

    2001-06-01

    We hypothesize that antigenic stimuli in susceptible persons during key developmental life stages alters neuroendocrine-immune organization and leads to the development of aberrant immune and neuroendocrine responses to subsequent environmental stressors, with longterm physical and psychological consequences. The release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and other proinflammatory cytokines associated with the immune response during times when individuals are most vulnerable to the effects of environmental influences activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and leads to maladaptive responses to subsequent stressors. The primed HPA axis is reactivated by proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cortisol, followed by physical and psychological effects that feedback on the HPA axis to produce an array of outcomes affecting general wellbeing. Through the release of histamine and other mediators and their effects on the mast cell-leukocyte cytokine cascade, immune stimuli in susceptible persons increase allergic inflammation and magnify stressors' effects through the release of HPA-axis-activating cytokines, such as IL-1beta, that drive the axis and reinforce the physiological and behavioral effects. Thus, specific proinflammatory cytokines and allergic reactions initiate, promote, and maintain immune-stimulus-associated HPA axis activity, and with CRH and cortisol, participate in a positive feedback loop, resulting in aberrant, maladaptive responses to physical or psychological stressors, with outcomes such as depression, hyperalgesia, and pain-related behavior. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623

  16. Coping with physical and psychological symptoms: a qualitative study of advanced lung cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Ott, Mary A; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I; Champion, Victoria L

    2015-07-01

    Advanced lung cancer patients have high rates of multiple physical and psychological symptoms, and many of their family caregivers experience significant distress. However, little is known about strategies that these patients and their family caregivers employ to cope with physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to identify strategies for coping with various physical and psychological symptoms among advanced, symptomatic lung cancer patients and their primary family caregivers. Patients identified their primary family caregiver. Individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 advanced, symptomatic lung cancer patients and primary family caregivers. Thematic analysis of interview data was framed by stress and coping theory. Patients and caregivers reported maintaining a normal routine and turning to family and friends for support with symptom management, which often varied in its effectiveness. Whereas support from health-care professionals and complementary and alternative medicine were viewed favorably, reactions to Internet and in-person support groups were mixed due to the tragic nature of participants' stories. Several cognitive coping strategies were frequently reported (i.e., changing expectations, maintaining positivity, and avoiding illness-related thoughts) as well as religious coping strategies. Results suggest that advanced lung cancer patients and caregivers may be more receptive to cognitive and religious approaches to symptom management and less receptive to peer support. Interventions should address the perceived effectiveness of support from family and friends.

  17. From Molecules to Living Organisms : an Interplay between Biology and Physics : Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nury, Hughes; Parcy, François; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Ziegler, Christine; Cugliandolo, Leticia F; Session CII

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide new ideas for studying living matter by a simultaneous understanding of behavior from molecules to the cell, to the whole organism in the light of physical concepts. Indeed, forces guide most biological phenomena. In some cases these forces can be well-described and thus used to model a particular biological phenomenon. This is exemplified here by the study of membranes, where their shapes and curvatures can be modeled using a limited number of parameters that are measured experimentally. The growth of plants is another example where the combination of physics, biology and mathematics leads to a predictive model. The laws of thermodynamics are essential, as they dictate the behavior of proteins, or more generally biological molecules, in an aqueous environment. Integrated studies from the molecule to a larger scale need a combination of cutting-edge approaches, such as the use of new X-ray sources, in-cell NMR, cryo-electron microscopy or single-molecule microscopy. Some are...

  18. Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Zadereev, E.S.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Prokopkin, I.; Barkhatov, Y.V.; Tolomeev, A.; Khromechek, E.B.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite

  19. Childhood trauma as a cause of psychosis: linking genes, psychology, and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Ruud; van Nierop, Martine; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have provided robust evidence for an association between childhood trauma (CT) and psychosis. Meta-analyses have quantified the association, pointing to odds ratios in the order of around 3, and prospective studies have shown that reverse causation is unlikely to explain the association. However, more work is needed to address the possibility of a gene-environment correlation, that is, whether genetic risk for psychosis predicts exposure to CT. Nevertheless, multiple studies have convincingly shown that the association between CT and psychosis remains strong and significant when controlling for genetic risk, in agreement with a possible causal association. In addition, several studies have shown plausible psychological and neurobiological mechanisms linking adverse experiences to psychosis, including induction of social defeat and reduced self-value, sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system, changes in the stress and immune system, and concomitant changes in stress-related brain structures, such as the hippocampus and the amygdala, findings that should be integrated, however, in more complex models of vulnerability. It is currently unclear whether genetic vulnerability plays a role in conferring the mental consequences of adversity, and which genes are likely to be involved. The current, limited evidence points to genes that are not specifically involved in psychosis but more generally in regulating mood (serotonin transporter gene), neuroplasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and the stress-response system (FKBP5), in line with a general effect of CT on a range of mental disorders, rather than suggesting specificity for psychosis.

  20. An experimental investigation of the impact of biological and psychological causal explanations on anxious and depressed patients' perception of a person with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Danny C K; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    It is often suggested that biological accounts of the cause of mental health problems are beneficial in health education initiatives. However, an alternative view is that the idea of a diseased brain may result in stigma and therapeutic pessimism in sufferers, professionals and the public with implications for the perception of unpredictability and risk. Anxious and depressed patients (n=49) were randomly allocated to three experimental conditions. Prior to watching a video of a person suffering from panic disorder, participants were told either that research indicated that panic was caused by biological factors, by psychological factors or the cause was unclear (control condition). Those in the biological condition were significantly more pessimistic about the patient's prospects for recovery and rated risks as higher compared to those in the psychological condition. The results call into question the widely accepted practice of promoting biological/disease explanations of mental health problems.