Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V
A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
To elucidate how differing theories of rationality lead to differing practices, their social rules must be analyzed. This is true not merely in science but also in society at large. This analysis of social thinking requires both the identification of innate cognitive social psychological processes and explanations of their relations with differing rules of rational practice. These new tasks can enable social psychologists to contribute to the study of how social situations facilitate or inhibit rational practice and enable cognitive psychologists to improve social psychological theory. In contrast to dominant current research strategies, social and cognitive psychologists can integrate social studies of rational practices and their consequences with studies of underlying cognitive psychological processes. In this article I do not attempt to carry out these tasks but rather point to both their lack of recognition and their importance.
Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Anchors, W. Scott; Robinson, Daniel C.
Examined relationship between Jung's concept of psychological type and accomplishment of developmental tasks among matriculating traditional-age college students (n=472) using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-Form F and Student Development Task Inventory (2nd edition). Results supported notion that individual differences exist beyond traditional models…
Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.
Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.
This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…
Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education
Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…
Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.
Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Stones, M J
The Waterford Index provides a new scoring system for the Wechsler paired-associate task. Item performances across successive trials were coded so as to reflect the psychological phenomena of learning, forgetting and item effects (N = 50). The Index describes two rules for differentiating between cases of cognitive impairment and non-impairment. Rule 1 contrasts the respective contributions of learning and forgetting. Rule 2 takes account of cases characterized by a high proportion of correct responses. Against a criterion index based on performances on other psychological tests of organic dysfunction, the Waterford Index yielded higher predictive efficiencies than associated with other Wechsler indices, intelligence, and age.
American Psychologist, 2009
This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…
Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…
Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine
The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny
This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…
Pearson, Matthew R.; Richardson, Thomas A.
To teach the importance of deception in everyday social life, an in-class activity called the "Speed Lying Task" was given in an introductory social psychology class. In class, two major research findings were replicated: Individuals detected deception at levels no better than expected by chance and lie detection confidence was unrelated…
Green, Christopher D; Cautin, Robin L
The American Psychological Association (APA) began 125 years ago as a small club of a few dozen members in the parlor of its founder, G. Stanley Hall. In the decades since, it has faced many difficulties and even a few existential crises. Originally a scientific society, it spent the decades between the world wars figuring out how to accommodate the growing community of applied psychologists while still retaining and enhancing its scientific reputation. After World War II, with an expanded mandate, it developed formal training models for clinical psychologists and became an important player in legal cases pertaining to civil rights and other social justice issues. With practitioners taking an ever-greater role in the governance of the organization in the late 1970s, and the financial viability of the association in doubt in the 1980s, many psychological scientists felt the need to create a separate organization for themselves. The 1990s and early 2000s brought more challenges: declining divisional memberships; a legal dispute over fees with practitioners; and a serious upheaval over the APA Board of Directors' cooperation with governmental defense and intelligence agencies during the "war on terror." These clashes appear to have precipitated a decline in the association's membership for the first time in its history. The APA has faced many storms over its century-and-a-quarter, but has, thus far, always ultimately found a way forward for itself, for its members, and for the wider discipline of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
American Psychologist, 2010
This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…
American Psychologist, 2011
This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…
Maquestiaux, François; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Ruthruff, Eric; Bherer, Louis
In this research, the controversial issue of whether the central bottleneck can be bypassed through task automatization was investigated. To examine this issue, participants received six single-task practice sessions with an auditory-vocal task (low vs. high pitch). We then assessed dual-task performance using the analytically tractable psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, in which the highly practiced auditory-vocal task was presented as Task 2, along with an unpracticed visual-manual Task 1. The results provide evidence of bottleneck bypass for virtually all the participants (17 out of 20). Several converging tests suggest that the bottleneck reemerged, however, in a follow-up experiment with tasks presented in the opposite order (auditory-vocal Task 1 and visual-manual Task 2). One possible explanation is that tasks greedily recruit central resources when available, even though they can operate without central resources when unavailable.
Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.
Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…
... Staff Board of Directors Incorporation News Contact Us Psychological Challenges Associated with CMN Having a mole that ... don’t feel alone. Find Support While the psychological challenges facing the nevus community can be daunting, ...
Warchal, Judith R.; Ruiz, Ana I.; You, Di
This study focuses on the inclusion of the American Psychological Association's learning goals in the mission statements of undergraduate psychology programs across the US. We reviewed the mission statements available on websites for 1336 psychology programs listed in the Carnegie classification. Results of a content analysis revealed that of the…
Daniel Serrani Azcurra
Full Text Available The ageist attitudes of students represent an obstacle to the development of the knowledge and empathy required for assisting the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in explicit/implicit attitudes and knowledge regarding older people, in a sample of psychology students before and after they carried out a practical task called "Observing the Older Adult" (TOAM. To this end, we evaluated the changes in explicit knowledge with Palmore's Facts on Aging Quizzes 1 and 2 (FAQs1-2; the changes in explicit attitudes with Kogan's Scale for Attitudes Toward Old People (SATOP; and the Age Group Evaluation and Description (AGED Inventory. The subsequent changes in implicit attitudes were evaluated with the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The changes were measured one week, three months, one year and two years after completing the TOAM with ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. After the TOAM was carried out, positive changes were observed in knowledge and explicit attitudes toward seniors, but implicit attitudes remained negative in the first assessment, and were modified only after a year.
Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were
Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.
Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...
American Psychologist, 2006
This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…
Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.
This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…
This study explored college students' smoking behaviour and identifies the effect of different psychological factors. Randomly selected students from two different universities completed the perceived stress scale, self esteem scale, anxiety scale and a smoking questionnaire. Non-parametric analyses suggested that higher ...
Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the content of midterm performance evaluation of graduate students within the “Psychological Assessment” module of the master’s programme in School Psychology and focuses on the logic of the module’s design in relation to the professional standard in Educational Psychology. Complex situational tasks are considered in the modular program as the main means of assessing educational outcomes. The content of these tasks is determined by a range of diagnostic situations and closely corresponds with the real-life practice of educational psychologists. Setting complex situational tasks is related to a number of components of the educational psychologist’s professional activity in the field of psychological assessment, such as: planning the sequence of professional actions; ensuring the methodological background for assessment; taking into account deontological aspects of communication with assessed individuals; carrying out professional actions; reflecting on the process and outcomes of assessment. The paper analyses the place and role of graduate students’ self-assessment in finding solutions to complex situational tasks and offers a description of one such task that can be used in midterm performance evaluation of graduate students.
Mourgues, Catalina; Tan, Mei; Hein, Sascha; Ojanen, Emma; Reich, Jodi; Lyytinen, Heikki; Grigorenko, Elena L
Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phonological memory) and, therefore, contributing to reading performance indirectly. Research has shown that performance on tasks assessing associative learning, e.g., paired-associate learning (PAL) tasks, is lower in children with specific reading difficulties compared to typical readers. We explored the differential associations of two distinct verbal-visual PAL tasks (the Bala Bbala Graphogame, BBG, and a Foreign Language Learning Task, FLLT) with reading skills (word reading and pseudo-word decoding), controlling for phonological awareness, rapid naming, and letter and digit span in children at risk for reading disabilities and their typically developing peers. Our study sample consisted of 110 children living in rural Zambia, ranging in age from 7 to 18 years old (48.1% female). Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to explore the group differences in reading performance. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine children's learning across the PAL tasks. The differential relationships between both PAL tasks and reading performance were explored via structural equation modeling. The main result was that the children at risk for reading difficulties had lower performance on both PAL tasks. The BBG was a significant predictor for both word reading and pseudo-word decoding, whereas the FLLT-only for word reading. Performance on the FLLT partially mediated the association between phonological awareness and word reading. These results illustrate the partial independence of associative learning from other reading-related skills; the specifics of this relationship vary based on the type of PAL task administered.
Canavan, Maureen E; Sipsma, Heather L; Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Jack, Helen; Udry, Christopher; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.
Doron, Julie; Gaudreau, Patrick
This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.
Luis Guanzon Rile Jr.
Full Text Available This study explored the state of psychological well-being and academic optimism in relation to university tasks among one hundred sixty-nine (169 professors in selected UAE universities, utilizing mixed quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The quantitative aspect primarily employed descriptive correlation method which used quantifiable data through survey instruments on psychological well-being, academic optimism, and university tasks. The qualitative analysis was used through a focused group discussion among nineteen (19 key informants. Six (6 areas of psychological wellbeing: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and selfacceptance were measured through the Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Academic optimism scale measured three (3 subscales: efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. University tasks were categorized into three (3 major areas: student centered work, professional development work, and community centered work. The moderator variables considered were age, gender, length of teaching experience, length of experience in the UAE, and area of specialization. The results showed that the participants tend towards high scores in the subscales of autonomy, self-acceptance, and purpose in life. The academic optimism scale showed prominent high scores in efficacy and trust. Among the university tasks, student-centered work was the most fulfilled. Using the focused-group discussion, most expat university professors lament on the lack of time, management support, and lack of funding to pursue professional development, particularly research and publication. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between psychological well-being and academic optimism. Both psychological well-being and academic optimism predicts fulfillment of university tasks.
Douglas, Heather E; Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Westbrook, Johanna I
Multi-tasking is an important skill for clinical work which has received limited research attention. Its impacts on clinical work are poorly understood. In contrast, there is substantial multi-tasking research in cognitive psychology, driver distraction, and human-computer interaction. This review synthesises evidence of the extent and impacts of multi-tasking on efficiency and task performance from health and non-healthcare literature, to compare and contrast approaches, identify implications for clinical work, and to develop an evidence-informed framework for guiding the measurement of multi-tasking in future healthcare studies. The results showed healthcare studies using direct observation have focused on descriptive studies to quantify concurrent multi-tasking and its frequency in different contexts, with limited study of impact. In comparison, non-healthcare studies have applied predominantly experimental and simulation designs, focusing on interleaved and concurrent multi-tasking, and testing theories of the mechanisms by which multi-tasking impacts task efficiency and performance. We propose a framework to guide the measurement of multi-tasking in clinical settings that draws together lessons from these siloed research efforts. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Yang, Jiongjiong; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Zijian; Mecklinger, Axel; Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han
There is an intensive debate on whether memory for serial order is symmetric. The objective of this study was to explore whether associative asymmetry is modulated by memory task (recognition vs. cued recall). Participants were asked to memorize word triples (Experiments 1-2) or pairs (Experiments 3-6) during the study phase. They then recalled…
Full Text Available The article exposed the use of forms of physical training for the formation of psychological readiness to act in military training and battlefield. Analysis of pedagogical, psychological and special literature, the analysis features of professional military airborne troops, and suggested areas of application of lessons on overcoming obstacles to the formation of the psychological readiness of military personnel.
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...
Lee, Jeewon; Sung, Min-Je; Song, Sook-Hyung; Lee, Young-Moon; Lee, Je-Jung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Yun-Mi
The smartphone has many attractive attributes and characteristics that could make it highly addictive, particularly in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of young adolescents in risk of smartphone addiction and the psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction. Four hundred ninety middle school…
Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G
We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing
White, K.; Hofman, W.F.; van Kamp, I.
People who consider themselves sensitive to noise, experience more noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and reduced daytime performance. Besides psychological factors, an association with cardiovascular reactions during noise has been established in noise sensitives. Decreased efficiency of the
Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R
Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne
This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…
Sara L Bengtsson
Full Text Available The way we think about ourselves impacts greatly on our behaviour. This paper describes a behavioural study and a computational model that sheds new light on this important area. Participants were primed 'clever' and 'stupid' using a scrambled sentence task, and we measured the effect on response time and error-rate on a rule-association task. First, we observed a confirmation bias effect in that associations to being 'stupid' led to a gradual decrease in performance, whereas associations to being 'clever' did not. Second, we observed that the activated self-concepts selectively modified attention towards one's performance. There was an early to late double dissociation in RTs in that primed 'clever' resulted in RT increase following error responses, whereas primed 'stupid' resulted in RT increase following correct responses. We propose a computational model of subjects' behaviour based on the logic of the experimental task that involves two processes; memory for rules and the integration of rules with subsequent visual cues. The model also incorporates an adaptive decision threshold based on Bayes rule, whereby decision thresholds are increased if integration was inferred to be faulty. Fitting the computational model to experimental data confirmed our hypothesis that priming affects the memory process. This model explains both the confirmation bias and double dissociation effects and demonstrates that Bayesian inferential principles can be used to study the effect of self-concepts on behaviour.
Provides the 2012 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In 2012, APA celebrated its 120th anniversary. It has grown from its original 31 members to the largest association of psychologists in the United States and a worldwide leader within the discipline. This edition of the report introduces each directorate and office within APA and talks about their goals and objectives. the president of APA, Dr. Norman Anderson, also gives a brief report which updates you on the activities of the association during its 120th anniversary as the professional home for psychologists and an advocate for the discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David
Although much attention has been given to the physical determinants of common musculoskeletal complaints such as back and arm pain, research points to a stronger influence of psychological factors. Multiple studies have implicated poor mental health and somatisation (a tendency to worry about the common somatic symptoms) in the incidence and chronicity of musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. Also important are adverse beliefs about the prognosis of such disorders, and about the role of physical activity in their development and persistence. Differences in societal beliefs may have contributed to major variation in the prevalence of disabling musculoskeletal pain that has been observed between countries and in the same countries over time. Psychosocial aspects of work have also been linked with musculoskeletal pain, although relative risks have generally been smaller. There is a need to take account of psychological factors in the clinical management of patients with back, neck and arm pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition,
Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.
Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer
The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…
Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C
Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.
Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M
Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P physical functioning (r = 0.42, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant
M. A. Salyuk
Full Text Available Some principles on which it is expedient to lean in the process of the development of materials of distant educational courses are considered: support on multiplicity of form of representation of information in consciousness; an account of conformity to law of maintenance of information in semantic memory of man; integration of educational information in the personal experience; orientation on the future real professional activity at the design of base of executive knowledge. Application of principles is illustrated by the examples of tasks in the distance educational course «Experimental psychology».
Schroeder, J E; Koenig, K P
Two experiments were reported relating extroversion to reminiscence following a frustrating paired-associate (PA) task. In the first experiment a group of 30 male and female college students was randomly assigned to one of two tasks in which they learned a PA list of high or low stimulus similarity. All PA lists were mixed lists composed of half solvable and half unsolvable (randomized) stimulus-response items. Recall for solvable items was tested immediately, 15 min, and 30 min after criterion was reached. Results indicated a significant difference between high and low stimulus similarity with superior recall for low similarity. The predicted reminiscence effect for high stimulus similarity recall was present but not significant. Comparison of recall scores for extroverts and introverts indicated a significant difference in recall favoring the introverts. The second experiment made a similar test of recall for two groups of S s that had been established as extreme extroverts or introverts (N = 8 in each group). The superiority of recall for introverts was replicated, and a reminiscence effect was found for the extroverts. Results were discussed in relation to Eysenck's formulation and previous conflicting results.
Lahousen, Theresa; Painold, Annamaria; Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Schienle, Anne; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been associated with several psychological factors. But previous psychological data are limited and mainly restricted to male patients and small sample size. In this study we investigated psychosomatic complaints, personality factors, life events, and stress coping in acute and chronic recurrent CSC patients. Ninety-five patients (71 men, 24 women) with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated regarding critical life events before diagnosis, psychosomatic complaints, personality traits and coping style. The characteristics of CSC patients were compared with a control group comprising 75 patients (46 men, 29 women) suffering from acute or chronic ophthalmic disorders other than CSC. Compared with patients of the control group, CSC patients reported more psychosomatic problems, unfavourable stress coping strategies and critical life events as well as elevated tension, aggression, strain, emotional instability and achievement orientation. Except for aggression the observed characteristics were more pronounced in acute than in chronic CSC patients. The appearance of CSC may be associated with an accumulation of stressful life events with an unfavourable coping style and distinctive personality factors. Acute CSC is related to more unfavourable stress coping and more physical complaints compared to its chronic course. Elevated aggression may imply one potential risk factor for CSC manifestation and also may have an adverse effect with its chronification.
Lima, Lígia; Guerra, Marina Prista; de Lemos, Marina Serra
As part of a larger research project aimed to understand the impact of asthma in the psychological adjustment of children, this study focuses in the identification of factors associated with this process. The sample of this study consisted of 89 children, aged 8 to 12 with physician diagnosed asthma. To assess children's adjustment, the Portuguese versions of the following instruments were used: School-age Temperament Inventory (McClowry, 1995) Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory (Ryan-Wenger, 1990); Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - PedsQL (Varni, Seid & Kurtin, 2001); The Self-perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985), Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991); Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliot, 1990). The results revealed that negative reactivity predicts the level of anxiety/depression, task persistence and perceived coping efficacy predicts social skills and that self-esteem is a significant predictor of the perceived quality of life. A significant proportion of shared variance was also found what seems to confirm the existence of multi-determination in the process of adjustment. The main conclusion is that two dimensions of temperament (negative reactivity and task persistence), as well as perceived coping efficacy and self-esteem, play a significant role in influencing the psychological adjustment of children with asthma.
Catherine Hindi Attar
Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load or discrimination (high load task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.
Persson, Roger; Hansen, Åse Marie; Ohlsson, Kerstina
pain. To clarify whether men and women with identical work tasks reacted differently when doing work known to induce musculoskeletal pain, ratings and physiological measurements were obtained at work start (15:30) and at the end of the workshift (22:30) on 17 men and 20 women. Men showed a larger...
DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina
Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.
Fagan, Thomas K.; Gorin, Susan; Tharinger, Deborah
Since 1969, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and the Division of School Psychology within the American Psychological Association have dually influenced many psychological and educational issues in school psychology. Following a summary of the organizational topography of school psychology, the status and future directions…
Morse, Gwen Goetz
This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.
Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol
The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.
Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ﬁnd the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress
Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.
Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B
are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain...... and experimental pain. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors may have predictive value when investigating experimental pain. However, due to substantial heterogeneity and methodological shortcomings of the published literature, firm conclusions are not possible.......BACKGROUND: The association between pain and psychological characteristics has been widely debated. Thus, it remains unclear whether an individual's psychological profile influences a particular pain experience, or if previous pain experience contributes to a certain psychological profile...
Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of
Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit
Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the
Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0
Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan
To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P work balance (t = 2.028, P differences in the scores of management role, work responsibilities, and organizational climate between the MS group and the control group (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn
AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....
Recent evidence suggests substantial response-time costs associated with lag-2 repetitions of tasks within explicitly controlled task sequences [Koch, I., Philipp, A. M., Gade, M. (2006). Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition. "Psychological Science," 17, 346-350; Schneider, D. W. (2007). Task-set inhibition in chunked task…
Macavei, B; Baban, A; Dumitrascu, D L
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. So far, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its more severe variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is yet unclear, with many mechanisms being proposed as possible causes. This article aims to review the psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH. Three main categories of factors have been investigated: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. Five electronic databases were searched, limited to studies published in the English language, during the period 2005-2015: PubMed, Thomson ISI - Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect. Results indicated the most relevant emotional factors to be depression and anxiety. The areas of investigation for cognitive functioning concern those contents and processes related to the ability to initiate and maintain lifestyle changes. The most important behavioral factors identified are physical activity, nutrition/food intake and substance consumption: coffee, alcohol, cigarettes. Some of the factors identified act as protective factors, other as vulnerability factors. NAFLD/NASH may be considered a cognitive-behavioral disease, the most effective management being lifestyle changes, with emphasis on diet and exercise.
Leah A. Cardwell
Full Text Available Background: Conditions affecting the face are particularly prone to causing psychological comorbidity; patients may be reluctant to inform their physician about their psychological distress. Unscripted comments could provide novel insight regarding the psychological impact of rosacea. Aim: To assess psychologically distressing aspects of rosacea reported in an informal medical setting. Methods: Random sample of 10% of 27,051 posts analyzed, 446 comments addressed psychological effects of rosacea. Comments analyzed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, low confidence/self-esteem, and aspects of rosacea which cause distress, including symptoms, lifestyle change and difficulty with treatments. Brand names were changed to generic equivalent. Results: Symptoms of depression (n = 44 and the desire to end life (n = 6 were mentioned, but no comments expounded on any suicide plan. Anxiousness (n = 7 and negative impact on confidence/self-esteem (n = 5 were mentioned. Symptoms, or clinical manifestations (n = 29, were the most frequently mentioned distress factor, followed by lifestyle change (n = 20. Patients also voiced difficulty with treatments (n = 15. Limitations: Online forums may provide patient perceptions that patients would not share with a doctor, but the sample may not be representative of all rosacea patients. Conclusions: Inquiring about psychological impact of rosacea might be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from supportive psychological measures.
Sheiner, Einat K; Sheiner, Eyal; Carel, Refael; Potashnik, Gad; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential reproductive toxic agents, and psychological stress on male fertility. The study population consisted of 202 consecutive male patients attending a fertility clinic. Of those, 106 patients had attended the clinic because of a male infertility problem (case group), 66 patients had attended the clinic because of a female infertility problem (control group), and 30 patients had a combined infertility problem (male and female). Male infertility was associated with working in industry and construction as compared with other occupations (78.6% vs 58.3%, P = 0.044). Industry and construction workers were of lower educational level than the other workers (mean: 12.1 vs 13.4 years, P = 0.021). These patients also tended to smoke more than the other workers (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.08 to 5.98), more often worked in shifts (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.19 to 8.13), reported physical exertion in work (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.44 to 7.80), and were more exposed to noise and welding (OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.63 to 9.14, OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.76, respectively). Male infertility (case group) was found to be statistically related to higher marks in all four measures of burnout as compared with the controls. The largest difference was obtained in the measure of cognitive weariness (mean: 2.9 vs 2.1, P construction jobs (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and cognitive weariness (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.6) were found to be independent risk factors for male infertility problems. Male infertility was independently associated with industry and construction jobs as well as job burnout.
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd
Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…
Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M
.... The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design...
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja
Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.
Aarts, A.A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Souren, P.M.; Egger, J.I.M.
The present study investigated whether individual differences between psychologists in thinking styles are associated with accuracy in diagnostic classification. We asked novice and experienced clinicians to classify two clinical cases of clients with two co-occurring psychological disorders. No
found that the use of soundtracks along with the "Subincision " film produced a greater physiological stress response, indicated by heart rate and...between men and women (Matthews et al. , 1991) For the purposes of this dissertation, a stressor/task was chosen that has no history of gender...traumatic history questionnaire (THO) was used to determine the occurrence of traumatic events in the participant 1 s lifetime (Norris, 1990). Eight
Appelbaum, Mark; Cooper, Harris; Kline, Rex B; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Nezu, Arthur M; Rao, Stephen M
Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Quantitative Research Reporting Standards recommended some modifications to the original standards. Examples of modifications include division of hypotheses, analyses, and conclusions into 3 groupings (primary, secondary, and exploratory) and some changes to the section on meta-analysis. Several new modules are included that report standards for observational studies, clinical trials, longitudinal studies, replication studies, and N-of-1 studies. In addition, standards for analytic methods with unique characteristics and output (structural equation modeling and Bayesian analysis) are included. These proposals were accepted by the Publications and Communications Board of APA and supersede the standards included in the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; Erickson Cornish, Jennifer A; Thomas, Janet T; Forrest, Linda; Anderson, Austin; Bow, James N
Professional psychologists are expected to know ethical standards and engage in proactive analysis of ethical considerations across professional roles (e.g., practice, research, teaching). Yet, little is known about the current state of doctoral ethics education in professional psychology, including the content covered and pedagogical strategies used to ensure developing this core component of professional competency (de las Fuentes, Willmuth, & Yarrow, 2005). A survey of ethics educators fro...
Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...... with lymphoedema had a 14% higher risk for scoring one level higher on the POMS-SF test, a 9% higher probability of scoring one point lower on the quality of life scale and a 29% higher likelihood of reporting poorer or bad health than women without lymphoedema. These findings were seen at all three measurement...
Xiong, Maggie J; Logan, Gordon D; Franks, Jeffery J
In this study, we examined the hypothesis that semantic judgment tasks share overlapping processes if they require processing on common dimensions but not if they require processing on orthogonal dimensions in semantic space (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957). We tested the hypothesis with the implicit association test (IATl Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) in three experiments. Consistent with the hypothesis, IAT effects (costs in reaction time because of incompatible response mapping between associated judgment tasks) occurred consistently when judgment tasks tapped into common semantic dimensions, whereas no IAT effect appeared when judgment tasks entailed processing on orthogonal semantic dimensions.
Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken
ABSTRACT Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple...... psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated NT-proBNP measurements. Design: The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age=62.2±9.32). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression.......6% (BDI) and 21.3% (DS14), respectively. At baseline, none of the psychological risk markers were associated with NT-proBNP levels (all ps≥.05). In the subset of patients with scores on psychological risk markers both at baseline and at 9 months there were no association between anxiety (p=0...
Woud, M.L.; Ellwart, T.; Langner, O.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
In two studies, the Single Target Implicit Association Test (STIAT) was used to investigate automatic associations toward spiders. In both experiments, we measured the strength of associations between pictures of spiders and either threat-related words or pleasant words. Unlike previous studies, we
Members of the helping professions are not immune from physical or psychological impairments that interfere with competent and ethical practice. The types of problems faced by psychologists and the help offered by one support program are presented. The purpose of the Psychologist Support Program (PSP) of the Ontario (Canada) Psychological…
Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin
This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
Cavanagh, Sarah R; Fitzgerald, Erin J; Urry, Heather L
Frequent and successful use of cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves rethinking the meaning of an emotional event in order to change one's emotional response, has been linked in everyday life to positive outcomes such as higher well-being. Whether we should expect this association to be maintained in a strong, temporally and spatially close emotional context is an unexplored question that might have important implications for our understanding of emotion regulation and its relations to psychological functioning. In this study of members of the U. S. Embassy Tokyo community in the months following the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis in Japan, self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal was not related to psychological functioning, but demonstrated success using cognitive reappraisal to decrease feelings of unpleasantness in response to disaster-related pictures on a performance-based task was associated with fewer symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Moreover, emotional reactivity to these pictures was associated with greater symptomatology. These results suggest that situational intensity may be an important moderator of reappraisal and psychological functioning relationships.
Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja
To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.
Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E
Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.
Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger
The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....
Full Text Available Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g. time spent online and underlying motivations (e.g. making new friends of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N=119, we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed for connection purposes (e.g. making new friends. We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g. anxiety and life satisfaction. The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araújo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane
Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized that participants with higher trait anxiety would show blunted reactivity during the performance of an overwhelmingly difficult and stressful task. Participants (N = 50) delivered a speech and performed an arithmetic task in the presence of critical evaluators. Cortisol samples and electrocardiogram data were collected. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Military Peace Force Stressor Inventory. For heart rate, the findings showed that peacekeepers with higher trait anxiety reacted less to the speech task (p = 0.03) and to the arithmetic task (p = 0.008) than those with lower trait anxiety. Trait anxiety did not modulate cortisol responses to the task. Despite the high trait anxiety group having higher PCL-C scores than the low trait anxiety group (p anxiety had less tachycardia in response to acute psychological stress than those with lower trait anxiety. The present results point to a higher risk for more anxious individuals of a maladaptive reaction to stressful events.
Voerman, G.E.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Fleuren, J.F.; Hermens, H.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.
PURPOSE: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete
Voerman, Gerlienke; Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; Fleuren, Judith F.M.; Fleuren, J.F.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.
Purpose: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. - Methods: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.
Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise
Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.
Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.
Background The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. Methods 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for emotional content. Results The specific concurrent experience of happiness and sadness was associated with improvements in psychological well-being above and beyond the impact of the passage of time, personality traits, or the independent effects of happiness and sadness. Changes in mixed emotional experience preceded improvements in well-being. Conclusions Experiencing happiness alongside sadness in psychotherapy may be a harbinger of improvement in psychological well-being. PMID:22539987
Winer, E Samuel; Cervone, Daniel; Bryant, Jessica; McKinney, Cliff; Liu, Richard T; Nadorff, Michael R
A popular way to attempt to discern causality in clinical psychology is through mediation analysis. However, mediation analysis is sometimes applied to research questions in clinical psychology when inferring causality is impossible. This practice may soon increase with new, readily available, and easy-to-use statistical advances. Thus, we here provide a heuristic to remind clinical psychological scientists of the assumptions of mediation analyses. We describe recent statistical advances and unpack assumptions of causality in mediation, underscoring the importance of time in understanding mediational hypotheses and analyses in clinical psychology. Example analyses demonstrate that statistical mediation can occur despite theoretical mediation being improbable. We propose a delineation of mediational effects derived from cross-sectional designs into the terms temporal and atemporal associations to emphasize time in conceptualizing process models in clinical psychology. The general implications for mediational hypotheses and the temporal frameworks from within which they may be drawn are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wisniewski, David; Reverberi, Carlo; Momennejad, Ida; Kahnt, Thorsten; Haynes, John-Dylan
Rewards obtained from specific behaviors can and do change across time. To adapt to such conditions, humans need to represent and update associations between behaviors and their outcomes. Much previous work focused on how rewards affect the processing of specific tasks. However, abstract associations between multiple potential behaviors and multiple rewards are an important basis for adaptation as well. In this experiment, we directly investigated which brain areas represent associations between multiple tasks and rewards, using time-resolved multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Importantly, we were able to dissociate neural signals reflecting task-reward associations from those related to task preparation and reward expectation processes, variables that were often correlated in previous research. We hypothesized that brain regions involved in processing tasks and/or rewards will be involved in processing associations between them. Candidate areas included the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which is involved in associating simple actions and rewards, and the parietal cortex, which has been shown to represent task rules and action values. Our results indicate that local spatial activation patterns in the inferior parietal cortex indeed represent task-reward associations. Interestingly, the parietal cortex flexibly changes its content of representation within trials. It first represents task-reward associations, later switching to process tasks and rewards directly. These findings highlight the importance of the inferior parietal cortex in associating behaviors with their outcomes and further show that it can flexibly reconfigure its function within single trials. Significance statement: Rewards obtained from specific behaviors rarely remain constant over time. To adapt to changing conditions, humans need to continuously update and represent the current association between behavior and its outcomes. However, little is known
Carter, Kristie N; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony
There is evidence that smoking is associated with poorer mental health. However, the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. We used longitudinal data to assess whether smoking uptake, or failed quit attempts, are associated with increased psychological distress. Data were used from Waves 3 (2004/05), 5 (2006/07) and 7 (2008/09) of the longitudinal New Zealand Survey of Family, Income and Employment. Fixed-effects linear regression analyses were performed to model the impact of changes in smoking status and quit status (exposure variables) on changes in psychological distress (Kessler 10 (K10)). After adjusting for time-varying demographic and socioeconomic covariates, smoking uptake was associated with an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.22, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.43). The associations around quitting and distress were in the expected directions, but were not statistically significant. That is, smokers who successfully quit between waves had no meaningful change in psychological distress (K10: -0.05, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.23), whereas those who tried but failed to quit, experienced an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.18, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.40). The findings provide some support for a modest association between smoking uptake and a subsequent increase in psychological distress, but more research is needed before such information is considered for inclusion in public health messages.
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd
Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking psychological help (Obasi & Leong, 2009; Vogel, Wade, & Haake, 2006). For racial and ethnic minorities, the hindering effects of self-stigma and perceived stigmatization by others on treatment seeking may further be compounded by their relationships with their own ethnic groups, with other ethnic groups, and with the dominant society. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a model that explored the effects of psychological distress and psychocultural variables (i.e., ethnic identity, other-group orientation, perceived discrimination) on perceived stigmatization by others and self-stigma for seeking psychological help, controlling for past use of counseling/psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 260 African American, 166 Asian American, and 183 Latino American students. SEM multigroup analyses indicated measurement invariance, but partial structural invariance, across racial/ethnic groups. Across all 3 groups, higher levels of psychological distress and perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, respectively, predicted higher levels of perceived stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help, which, in turn, predicted greater self-stigma for seeking psychological help. Higher levels of other-group orientation predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help across groups. Higher levels of ethnic identity predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help only for African Americans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Bottiroli, S; Viana, M; Sances, G; Ghiotto, N; Guaschino, E; Galli, F; Vegni, E; Pazzi, S; Nappi, G; Tassorelli, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological factors associated with a negative outcome following detoxification in a 2-month follow-up in medication-overuse headache. All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective, non-randomised fashion. Psychiatric conditions and personality characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2. χ2 tests, one-way analyses of variance, and odds ratios (ORs) were used. A total of 248 patients completed the follow-up: 156 stopped overuse and their headaches reverted to an episodic pattern (Group A); 23 kept overusing without any benefit on headache frequency (Group B); and 51 stopped overuse without any benefit on headache frequency (Group C). The prognostic factors for the outcome of Group B were higher scores on the correction (OR 1.128; p = 0.036), depression (OR 1.071; p = 0.05), hysteria (OR 1.106; p = 0.023), and overcontrolled hostility (OR 1.182; p = 0.04) MMPI-2 scales, whereas those for Group C were psychiatric comorbidities (OR 1.502; p = 0.021) and higher scores on the hysteria scale (OR 1.125; p = 0.004). The outcome of detoxification is influenced by psychological factors that should be considered when considering treatment strategies. © International Headache Society 2016.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning
This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...
Wicks, Charlotte Rose; Ward, Karl; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan; Ford, Helen L
People with multiple sclerosis often stop working earlier than expected. Psychological factors may have an impact on job retention. Investigation may inform interventions to help people stay in work. To investigate the associations between psychological factors and work instability in people with multiple sclerosis. A multi-method, 2-phased study. Focus groups were held to identify key themes. Questionnaire packs using validated scales of the key themes were completed at baseline and at 8-month follow-up. Four key psychological themes emerged. Out of 208 study subjects 57.2% reported medium/high risk of job loss, with marginal changes at 8 months. Some psychological variables fluctuated significantly, e.g. depression fell from 24.6% to 14.5%. Work instability and anxiety and depression were strongly correlated (χ2 p < 0.001). Those with probable depression at baseline had 7.1 times increased odds of medium/high work instability, and baseline depression levels also predicted later work instability (Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.899; Nagelkerke R Square 0.579). Psychological factors fluctuated over the 8-month follow-up period. Some psychological variables, including anxiety and depression, were significantly associated with, and predictive of, work instability. Longitudinal analysis should further identify how these psychological attributes impact on work instability and potential job loss in the longer term.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.
Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard
) and the caregiver's relationship to the patient (spouse/partner, etc.) are related to these experiences. METHODS: In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, randomly selected cancer patients with a range of diagnoses and disease stages were invited to pass on the 'Cancer Caregiving Tasks, Consequences and Needs...... Questionnaire' (CaTCoN) to 1-3 of their caregivers. RESULTS: A total of 590 caregivers related to 415 (55% of 752 eligible) cancer patients participated. Large proportions of caregivers experienced substantial caregiving workload, e.g., provision of psychological support (74%), as well as a range of negative...... consequences, most commonly stress (59%). Some caregivers experienced personal growth, but relatively large proportions did not. Caregiver status and the caregiver's relationship to the patient were associated with some caregiving aspects. Primary caregivers experienced the highest caregiving workload, and non...
Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C
The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.
Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L
Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the topological properties of resting-state brain functional networks are modulated through task performances. However, the reconfiguration of functional networks associated with distinct degrees of task demands is not well understood. In the present study, we acquired fMRI data from 18 healthy adult volunteers during resting-state (RS and two visual tasks (i.e., visual stimulus watching, VSW; and visual stimulus decision, VSD. Subsequently, we constructed the functional brain networks associated with these three conditions and analyzed the changes in the topological properties (e.g., network efficiency, wiring-cost, modularity, and robustness among them. Although the small-world attributes were preserved qualitatively across the functional networks of the three conditions, changes in the topological properties were also observed. Compared with the resting-state, the functional networks associated with the visual tasks exhibited significantly increased network efficiency and wiring-cost, but decreased modularity and network robustness. The changes in the task-related topological properties were modulated according to the task complexity (i.e., from RS to VSW and VSD. Moreover, at the regional level, we observed that the increased nodal efficiencies in the visual and working memory regions were positively associated with the increase in task complexity. Together, these results suggest that the increased efficiency of the functional brain network and higher wiring-cost were observed to afford the demands of visual tasks. These observations provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the reconfiguration of the brain network during task performance.
Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William
Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies has explored whether pre-existing psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first-onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. PMID:24275225
Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok; Hwang, Eung-Soo
The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (Pherpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster.
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J
The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta
Working memory (WM) is an essential component for human higher order cognitive activities. Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization. Previous studies from different fields have suggested creativity and capacity of WM have opposing characteristics possibly in terms of diffuse attention. However, despite a number of functional imaging studies on creativity, how creativity relates to brain activity during WM has never been investigated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated this issue using an n-back WM paradigm and a psychometric measure of creativity (a divergent thinking test). A multiple regression analysis revealed that individual creativity was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the precuneus during the 2-back task (WM task), but not during the non-WM 0-back task. As the precuneus shows deactivation during cognitive tasks, our findings show that reduced task induced deactivation (TID) in the precuneus is associated with higher creativity measured by divergent thinking. The precuneus is included in the default mode network, which is deactivated during cognitive tasks. The magnitude of TID in the default mode network is considered to reflect the reallocation of cognitive resources from networks irrelevant to the performance of the task. Thus, our findings may indicate that individual creativity, as measured by the divergent thinking test, is related to the inefficient reallocation of attention, congruent with the idea that diffuse attention is associated with individual creativity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Grych, John H.
Objective This study utilized an observational coding scheme to identify parenting behavior reflecting psychological control and autonomy granting and examined relations between these parenting dimensions and indices of child and family functioning. Design A community sample of 90 preadolescents (aged 10.5 to 12 years) and both of their parents engaged in a triadic interaction that was coded for parental psychological control and autonomy granting. Participants also completed measures of child adjustment, interparental conflict, and triangulation. Results Factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model better fit the data than a one-factor model, suggesting that psychological control and autonomy granting are best conceptualized as independent but related constructs. Parental psychological control and autonomy granting exhibited some shared and some unique correlates with indices of child and family functioning. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant interactions between these dimensions, suggesting that the strength of some associations between parents’ use of psychological control and youth adjustment problems depends on the level of autonomy granting exhibited by the parent. Conclusions By examining psychological control and autonomy granting simultaneously as unique constructs, this study identifies patterns of psychological control and autonomy granting that undermine youth adjustment. Findings inform targeted intervention efforts for families of preadolescent youth. PMID:23418403
Spedden, Meaghan Elizabeth; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken Kjøller
The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....
Gabay, Yafit; Vakil, Eli; Schiff, Rachel; Holt, Lori L.
Objective Developmental dyslexia is presumed to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, an emerging theoretical framework suggests that phonological impairments may be symptoms stemming from an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. Method We tested procedural learning in adults with dyslexia (n=15) and matched-controls (n=15) using two versions of the Weather Prediction Task: Feedback (FB) and Paired-associate (PA). In the FB-based task, participants learned associations between cues and outcomes initially by guessing and subsequently through feedback indicating the correctness of response. In the PA-based learning task, participants viewed the cue and its associated outcome simultaneously without overt response or feedback. In both versions, participants trained across 150 trials. Learning was assessed in a subsequent test without presentation of the outcome, or corrective feedback. Results The Dyslexia group exhibited impaired learning compared with the Control group on both the FB and PA versions of the weather prediction task. Conclusions The results indicate that the ability to learn by feedback is not selectively impaired in dyslexia. Rather it seems that the probabilistic nature of the task, shared by the FB and PA versions of the weather prediction task, hampers learning in those with dyslexia. Results are discussed in light of procedural learning impairments among participants with dyslexia. PMID:25730732
Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.
Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…
American Psychologist, 2007
The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.
Esther L. Meerwijk
Full Text Available Psychological pain frequently underlies thoughts of suicide. We investigated if recent suicidal desire moderated the association between potential neurophysiological markers and psychological pain assessed on the Psychache Scale (PS and the Orbach & Mikulincer Mental Pain Questionnaire (OMMP. The OMMP specifically assesses current psychological pain that may more readily capture emotions present during recent suicidal desire. In contrast, the PS leaves the timeframe undefined. A secondary analysis was conducted of resting-state EEG data and heart rate obtained in adults with a history of depression. In simultaneous multiple regression models, while controlling for depressive symptoms, recent suicidal desire moderated associations with right-frontal EEG delta power (ΔR2 = .07, p < .01 and low-frequency heart rate variability (nonsignificantly for pain assessed on the PS. No indication for moderation was found for pain on the OMMP. The relationship between the two measures of psychological pain was stronger for individuals with recent suicidal desire (r = .75, p < .01 vs. r = .50, p < .05. The findings suggest that, unless a respondent’s psychological pain is recent and substantial, the PS may not capture the intensity of current psychological pain as effectively as the OMMP.
Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie
To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
Nieuwhof, Freek; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Reelick, Miriam F; Aarts, Esther; Maidan, Inbal; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Toni, Ivan; Helmich, Rick C
See Bell et al. (doi:10.1093/awx063) for a scientific commentary on this article. Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits. Second, the known dorso-posterior to ventro-anterior gradient of dopamine depletion in patients with Parkinson's disease may cause a funnelling of motor and cognitive processes into the relatively spared ventro-anterior putamen, causing a neural bottleneck. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity in 19 patients with Parkinson's disease and 26 control subjects during performance of a motor task (auditory-cued ankle movements), a cognitive task (implementing a switch-stay rule), and both tasks simultaneously (dual task). The distribution of task-related activity respected the known segregation between motor and cognitive territories of the putamen in both groups, with motor-related responses in the dorso-posterior putamen and task switch-related responses in the ventro-anterior putamen. During dual task performance, patients made more motor and cognitive errors than control subjects. They recruited a striatal territory (ventro-posterior putamen) not engaged during either the cognitive or the motor task, nor used by controls. Relatively higher ventro-posterior putamen activity in controls was associated with worse dual task performance. These observations suggest that dual task impairments in Parkinson's disease are related to reduced spatial focusing of striatal activity. This
Hodyl, Nicolette A; Schneider, Luke; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Clow, Angela; Ridding, Michael C; Pitcher, Julia B
There is emerging evidence of a relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CAR is associated with acquisition, retention and overnight consolidation or improvement of a serial sequence reaction time task. Salivary samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening in 39 healthy adults on 2 consecutive days. The serial sequence reaction time task was repeated each afternoon. Participants completed the perceived stress scale and provided salivary samples prior to testing for cortisol assessment. While the magnitude of the CAR (Z score) was not associated with either baseline performance or the timed improvement during task acquisition of the serial sequence task, a positive correlation was observed with reaction times during the stable performance phase on day 1 (r=0.373, p=0.019). Residuals derived from the relationship between baseline and stable phase reaction times on day 1 were used as a surrogate for the degree of learning: these residuals were also correlated with the CAR mean increase on day 1 (r=0.357, p=0.048). Task performance on day 2 was not associated with the CAR obtained on this same day. No association was observed between the perceived stress score, cortisol at testing or task performance. These data indicate that a smaller CAR in healthy adults is associated with a greater degree of learning and faster performance of a serial sequence reaction time task. These results support recognition of the CAR as an important factor contributing to cognitive performance throughout the day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B
Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.
Full Text Available Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany; 5Department of Anaesthesia, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden, Switzerland; 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT, fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1, and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ], which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again
Vaughon, Wendy; Lee, Yeonjung; Gallo, William; Kaufman, Jennifer; Unuigbe, Aig
Falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While research has explored the relationship between older care recipient falls and caregiver health, there has been little investigation of the relationship between caregiving tasks and falls in older caregivers. This study assessed associations between falls and caregiving frequency and type of caregiving tasks among informal older caregivers. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey on Healthy Aging (Public Use Microdata File 2008-2009) (n = 2,934) were examined, using descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Higher frequency of caregiving was positively associated with falls, although those who performed household chores were less likely to report falling in the past year. Results suggest there may be an association between factors related to caregiving and falls in older caregivers. More research using longitudinal and experimental data is needed to better understand the relationship between caregiving tasks and falls in older caregivers.
Full Text Available Background: A remarkable series of recent papers have shown that colour can influence performance in cognitive tasks. In particular, they suggest that viewing a participant number printed in red ink or other red ancillary stimulus elements improves performance in tasks requiring local processing and impedes performance in tasks requiring global processing whilst the reverse is true for the colour blue. The tasks in these experiments require high level cognitive processing such as analogy solving or remote association tests and the chromatic effect on local vs. global processing is presumed to involve widespread activation of the autonomic nervous system. If this is the case, we might expect to see similar effects on all local vs. global task comparisons. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether chromatic cues also influence performance in tasks involving low level visual feature integration. Methods: Subjects performed either local (contrast detection or global (form detection tasks on achromatic dynamic Glass pattern stimuli. Coloured instructions, target frames and fixation points were used to attempt to bias performance to different task types. Based on previous literature, we hypothesised that red cues would improve performance in the (local contrast detection task but would impede performance in the (global form detection task. Results: A two-way, repeated measures, analysis of covariance (2×2 ANCOVA with gender as a covariate, revealed no influence of colour on either task, F(1,29 = 0.289, p = 0.595, partial η2 = 0.002. Additional analysis revealed no significant differences in only the first attempts of the tasks or in the improvement in performance between trials. Discussion: We conclude that motivational processes elicited by colour perception do not influence neuronal signal processing in the early visual system, in stark contrast to their putative effects on processing in higher areas.
Di Ciano, Patricia; Manvich, Daniel F; Pushparaj, Abhiram; Gappasov, Andrew; Hess, Ellen J; Weinshenker, David; Le Foll, Bernard
Gambling disorder is a growing societal concern, as recognized by its recent classification as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5. Case reports have shown that disulfiram reduces gambling-related behavior in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether disulfiram affects performance on a rat gambling task, a rodent version of the Iowa gambling task in humans, and whether any changes were associated with alterations in dopamine and/or norepinephrine levels. Rats were administered disulfiram prior to testing on the rat gambling task or prior to analysis of dopamine or norepinephrine levels in brain homogenates. Rats in the behavioral task were divided into two subgroups (optimal vs suboptimal) based on their baseline levels of performance in the rat gambling task. Rats in the optimal group chose the advantageous strategy more, and rats in the suboptimal group (a parallel to problem gambling) chose the disadvantageous strategy more. Rats were not divided into optimal or suboptimal groups prior to neurochemical analysis. Disulfiram administered 2 h, but not 30 min, before the task dose-dependently improved choice behavior in the rats with an initial disadvantageous "gambling-like" strategy, while having no effect on the rats employing an advantageous strategy. The behavioral effects of disulfiram were associated with increased striatal dopamine and decreased striatal norepinephrine. These findings suggest that combined actions on dopamine and norepinephrine may be a useful treatment for gambling disorders.
American Psychologist, 2012
As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…
Nogueira Avelar E Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein
Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. We used data from Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a longitudinal study on adolescent sexual development in the Netherlands. Participants were 11.0-16.0 years old (mean age at T1 = 13.3 years). Self-reports from four waves of online questionnaires were used. Bidirectional longitudinal associations were assessed by linear mixed-effects models. At most waves, boys had significantly higher levels of psychological well-being than girls, but genders did not differ in experience with sexual behaviors. Engagement in early sexual behaviors did not predict lower levels of psychological well-being over time, and lower levels of psychological well-being did not predict more engagement in early sexual behaviors over time. Parent-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate these associations in either direction, although we found a significant direct effect, in which a higher-quality parent-adolescent relationship predicted more optimal levels of the three indicators of adolescents' psychological well-being (but not lower levels of early sexual activity) over time. Our results show that, among Dutch adolescents, early sexual behaviors and psychological well-being were not interrelated. This may be explained by socio-cultural aspects of the Dutch society, such as more normalization of sexual behaviors during adolescence. As a result, early sexual activity in and of itself was not related to lower psychological well-being over time. Yet, cross-cultural differences in links between adolescents' sexuality and well-being should be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Lau, Michelle W; Li, Wenlong E; Llewellyn, Anthony; Cyna, Allan M
To determine the prevalence of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers (JMO) and investigate the determinants associated with psychological distress over a 3-year (2014-2016) period. JMO were surveyed using the 2014-2016 JMO Census (n = 220, 399 and 466 each year; response rate approximately 15%). Levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A K10 ≥ 25 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress, and this determinant was compared to various demographic and work-related factors. Australian JMO experience a high level of psychological distress (mean: 18.1, median 16.0). There were no differences in demographical variables, such as age, gender, marital status, dependants and between postgraduate years 1 and 2. Increasing hours worked per week was associated with a higher K10, with every hour worked increasing odds by 3%. Attitudinal items, including feeling unwilling to study medicine again, feeling poorly trained and experiences of bullying, were related to high psychological distress. Coping strategies like exercise and spending time with friends correlated positively with lower distress, while time off work, frequent alcohol use, smoking and drug use were associated with increased distress levels. Of those with a high K10, 54.5% indicated that they did not use any form of professional support; 17.83% expressed that given their time again, they would not choose to study medicine. A focused approach to JMO support and education regarding significant risk factors identified is likely to assist health policies that aim to improve the mental well-being of Australian JMO. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Eiskær, Hans; Videbæk, Lars; Pedersen, Mette Storgaard; Aagard, Bitten; Pedersen, Susanne S
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurements. The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age =62.2 ± 9.3). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression, and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Type D Scale (DS14) were assessed only at baseline. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured at baseline and at 9 months. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and Type D personality at baseline was 23.4% (HADS-A), 17.0% (HADS-D), 46.6% (BDI), and 21.3% (DS14), respectively. At baseline, none of the psychological risk markers were associated with NT-proBNP levels (all p >.05). In the subset of patients with scores on psychological risk markers both at baseline and at 9 months, there were no association between anxiety (p =0.44), depression (HADS-D: p =0.90; BDI: p =0.85), and Type D (p =0.63) with NT-proBNP levels using ANOVA for repeated measures. Our findings indicate that measures frequently used in HF to assess psychological risk markers are unconfounded by NT-proBNP. Futher studies are warranted to replicate these findings and examine whether psychological risk markers are independent predictors of prognosis in HF or an artifact that may be attributed to other biological or behavioral mechanisms.
Oddo, Vanessa M; Mabli, James
We assessed whether households' participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was associated with improvements in well-being, as indicated by lower rates of psychological distress. We used longitudinal data for 3146 households in 30 states, collected between October 2011 and September 2012 for the SNAP Food Security survey, the largest longitudinal national survey of SNAP participants to date. Analyses compared households within days of program entry to the same households approximately 6 months later. We measured psychological distress in the past 30 days on a 6-item Kessler screening scale and used multivariable regression to estimate associations between SNAP participation and psychological distress. A smaller percentage of household heads exhibited psychological distress after 6 months of participation in SNAP than at baseline (15.3% vs 23.2%; difference = -7.9%). In adjusted models, SNAP participation was associated with a decrease in psychological distress (adjusted relative risk = 0.72; 95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.78). Continuing support for federal nutrition programs, such as SNAP, may reduce the public health burden of mental illness, thus improving well-being among vulnerable populations.
Ghaniyoun, Aram; Shakeri, Khosro; Heidari, Mohammad
Workers in social service professions are the first candidates for job burnout. The researchers believe this is due to daily exposure to stressful situations and lack of positive conditions in the workplace. It seems that psychological empowerment of staff can affect their job burnout. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and job burnout in operational staff of emergency center. This was a descriptive correlational study. A total of 1100 operational staff of emergency center were evaluated, and of which, 285 persons were selected by simple random sampling method. Data were collected using Spritzer's psychological empowerment and Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires. SPSS software, version 18, was used for data analysis along with descriptive analytical tests. The findings of this study revealed that the majority of units (46%) were in intermediate level in terms of empowerment. Similarly, the majority of cases had intermediate level (77.5%), and a minor percentage (8.4%) had low levels of job burnout. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there was a significant invert correlation between psychological empowerment and job burnout. This inverse and significant relationship was also observed between the four components of psychological empowerment (competence, self-determination, impact, and meaning) and job burnout. According to the results of the study, policy makers and health planners can take some measures in enhancing psychological empowerment to prevent problems associated with job burnout, by identifying stressors and strategies to deal with them.
Howard, George S.
The American Psychological Association recently released its Presidential Task Force report on Psychology and Global Climate Change. Its principles and proposals would inaugurate a long and productive program of psychological research on climate change. But is it too little, too late? Climatologists have been growing progressively gloomier over…
Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.
H. van Mierlo (Heleen); C.G. Rutte (Christel); J.K. Vermunt (Jeroen); M.A.J. Kompier (Michiel); H. Doorewaard (Hans)
textabstractThe past decade and a half witnessed a global trend towards the use of participatory team-based interventions. In the present contribution, we address the widespread idea that the resulting increase in team autonomy fosters employee psychological well-being. Specifically, we address the
Mierlo, H. van; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.
The past decade and a half witnessed a global trend towards the use of participatory team-based interventions. In the present contribution, we address the widespread idea that the resulting increase in team autonomy fosters employee psychological well-being. Specifically, we address the common but
Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne
Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (p< 0.05). Disability was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that pain-induced disability can be significantly predicted by anxiety and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). It can be concluded that anxiety, depression and catastrophizing of patients with chronic neck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.
Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakaya, Naoki; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Kakizaki, Masako; Sone, Toshimasa; Nagai, Masato; Sugawara, Yumi; Nitta, Akemi; Tomata, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Tsuji, Ichiro
Although green tea or its constituents might reduce psychological stress, the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress has not been investigated in a large-scale study. Our aim was to clarify whether green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress. We analyzed cross-sectional data for 42,093 Japanese individuals aged > or =40 y from the general population. Information on daily green tea consumption, psychological distress as assessed by the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale, and other lifestyle factors was collected by using a questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, history of disease, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, time spent walking, dietary factors, social support, and participation in community activities to investigate the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress. We classified 2774 (6.6%) of the respondents as having psychological distress (Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale > or =13/24). There was an inverse association between green tea consumption and psychological distress in a model adjusted for age and sex. Although the relation was largely attenuated when possible confounding factors were adjusted for, a statistically significant inverse association remained. The odds ratio (with 95% CI) of developing psychological distress among respondents who consumed >/=5 cups of green tea/d was 0.80 (0.70, 0.91) compared with those who consumed Green tea consumption was inversely associated with psychological distress even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.
Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen
To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D
This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nadig, Nandita; Huff, Nidhi G; Cox, Christopher E; Ford, Dee W
To develop and evaluate a preliminary multifaceted model for coping among family members of patients who survive mechanical ventilation. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, we interviewed family members of mechanically ventilated patients at the time of transfer from the ICU to the hospital ward. We constructed a theoretic model of coping that included characteristics attributable to family members, family-clinician rapport, and patients. We then explored relationships between coping factors and symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress). Fifty-six family members of survivors of mechanical ventilation. Psychological distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Posttraumatic Stress Scale. Optimism measured using the Life Orientation Test scale, resiliency by Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and social support using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System inventory. Family members had moderate levels of psychological distress with median total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale equal to 14 (interquartile range, 5-20) and Posttraumatic Stress Scale equal to 22 (interquartile range, 15-31). Among family member characteristics, greater optimism (p = 0.001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; p = 0.010, Posttraumatic Stress Scale), resilience (p = 0.012, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and social support (p = 0.013, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were protective against psychological distress. On the contrary, characteristics of family-clinician rapport such as communication quality and presence of conflict did not have any associations with psychological distress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore coping as a multifaceted construct and its relationship with family psychological outcomes among survivors of mechanical ventilation. We found certain family characteristics of coping such as optimism, resilience, and social support to be
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira
This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José
Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.
An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xi; Tao, Fangbiao
To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 4 cities in China. The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and demographic variables were used to measure adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms and sleep quality, respectively, in 13,723 students (aged 12-20 years). Problematic Internet use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of sleep quality and PIU on physical and psychological symptoms, and to identify the mediating effect of sleep quality in adolescents. Prevalence rates of PIU, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and poor sleep quality were 11.7%, 24.9%, 19.8%, and 26.7%, respectively. Poor sleep quality was found to be an independent risk factor for both physical and psychological symptoms. The effects of PIU on the 2 health outcomes were partially mediated by sleep quality. Problematic Internet use is becoming a significant public health issue among Chinese adolescents that requires urgent attention. Excessive Internet use may not only have direct adverse health consequences but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation.
Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A
The main aim of this study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields, and current densities and contact currents associated with tasks at air-insulated 110 kV substations and analyze if the action value of EU Directive 2004/40/EC was exceeded. Four workers volunteered to simulate the following tasks: Task (A) maintenance of an operating device of a disconnector at ground or floor level, Task (B) maintenance of an operating device of a circuit breaker at ground or floor level, Task (C) breaker head maintenance from a man hoist, and Task (D) maintenance of an operating device of a circuit breaker from a service platform. The highest maximum average current density in the neck was 1.8 mA/m(2) (calculated internal electric field 9.0-18.0 mV/m) and the highest contact current was 79.4 µA. All measured values at substations were lower than the limit value (10 mA/m(2)) of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC and the 2010 basic restrictions (0.1 and 0.8 V/m for central nervous system tissues of the head, and all tissues of the head and body, respectively) of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne
The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Mathews, Lena; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Utuama, Ovie A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Veledar, Emir; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur; Zhao, Di; Michos, Erin D
The cardiovascular effects of stress and other psychological factors may be different between women and men. We assessed whether self-perceived adverse psychological factors were associated with achievement of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as measured by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven (LS7) and whether this differed by sex. This was a cross-sectional study of employees from a large healthcare organization. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), intermediate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were categorized as optimal (11-14), average (9-10), and inadequate (0-8). Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychological factors obtained by questionnaire (self-perceived stress, low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, depression, and anxiety) were associated with CVH, after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and education. Among 9,056 participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (12) years, 74% were women, 57% Hispanic/Latino, 17% white, and 16% black. Stress was associated with reduced odds of having optimal/average CVH [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50-0.66) and 0.63 (0.50-0.81), for women and men, respectively]. Similarly, depression was associated with reduced odds of optimal/average CVH [0.58 (0.43-0.78) and 0.44 (0.26-0.76), for women and men, respectively]. Low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, and anxiety were also associated with statistically significantly lower odds of optimal/average CVH in women, but not in men; however, there were no interactions by sex. In an ethnically diverse population, both women and men with several adverse self-perceived psychological factors were less likely to have optimal or adequate CVH. Future studies are needed to determine whether addressing psychological stressors can improve CVH.
More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health
Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun
We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…
Pettifor, Jean L.
Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…
Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein
Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:
Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein
Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:
Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.
Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…
Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…
Neville, Helen A.; Flores, Michelle P.; Dodson, Milo L.
We underscore the importance of this compilation in our response to the major contribution on the histories of the five major ethnic minority psychological associations (EMPAs). The description of the formation, mission, goals, and activities of the EMPAs will serve as a useful tool to educate counseling psychologists and other professionals about…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Ruddy, Kathy L.; Rudolf, Anne K.; Kalkman, Barbara; King, Maedbh; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Carroll, Timothy J.; Carson, Richard G.
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1) to the opposite
Georges, Carrie; Schiltz, Christine; Hoffmann, Danielle
Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand, respectively. Two different proposals are commonly discussed concerning the cognitive origin of the SNARC effect: the visuospatial account and the verbal-spatial account. Recent studies have provided evidence for the relative dominance of verbal-spatial over visuospatial coding mechanisms, when both mechanisms were directly contrasted in a magnitude comparison task. However, in these studies, participants were potentially biased towards verbal-spatial number processing by task instructions based on verbal-spatial labels. To overcome this confound and to investigate whether verbal-spatial coding mechanisms are predominantly activated irrespective of task instructions, we completed the previously used paradigm by adding a spatial instruction condition. In line with earlier findings, we could confirm the predominance of verbal-spatial number coding under verbal task instructions. However, in the spatial instruction condition, both verbal-spatial and visuospatial mechanisms were activated to an equal extent. Hence, these findings clearly indicate that the cognitive origin of number-space associations does not always predominantly rely on verbal-spatial processing mechanisms, but that the spatial code associated with numbers is context dependent.
The face-name association task can be employed to examine functional alterations of hippocampal activation during encoding of both verbal and non-verbal material in one fMRI paradigm. Further, the left SFG seems to be a convergence region for encoding of verbal and non-verbal material.
McIntyre, Jason C; Wickham, Sophie; Barr, Ben; Bentall, Richard P
Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge. Here, we examined the relationship between social identity and mental health (paranoia, auditory verbal hallucinations [AVHs], and depression), and tested the mediating role of self-esteem. In study 1, we analyzed data collected from 4319 UK residents as part of the NIHR CLAHRC NWC Household Health Survey. Study 2 comprised data collected from 1167 students attending a large UK university. The studies provided convergent evidence that social identification reduces symptoms of paranoia and depression by furnishing people with self-esteem. There was no consistent effect of social identification on AVHs. People developing mental health assessments, treatments, and policies are encouraged to consider the notion that joining and identifying with social groups may reduce people's risk of paranoia and depression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Murphy, Karen; Hunt, Hayley
When two targets are presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and the interval between the targets is 200-500 ms, report of the second target is impaired, a phenomena known as the attentional blink (AB). This study examined the time course of semantic-only and associate-semantic priming effects during an AB task. Three RSVP experiments were conducted using targets that shared either a semantic-only or an associative-semantic relationship. The results of the three experiments demonstrated semantic-only priming effects at the shortest stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Associative-semantic priming was evident at shorter and longer SOAs. This suggests that priming in an AB task is driven by conceptual overlap facilitating lexical access at short SOAs and with longer SOAs lexical access benefits from word associations links between targets.
Huang, Bo; Xu, Shabei; Xiong, Jin; Huang, Guangying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei
psychological factors (K10, personality A, F, L, N, O, Q4) were closely related to HB scores. We are led to conclude that the psychological status between BP patients and healthy people are different; psychological distress and personality factors are closely associated with severity of facial paralysis.
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few
Marek, Ryan J; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J; Rish, Julie Merrell
The reasons why some patients who begin the presurgical process for bariatric surgery fail to complete the procedure are understudied. Previous research implies that psychological factors play a role. To examine whether scores from baseline psychological testing incrementally predict failure to proceed with bariatric surgery beyond demographic information in patients' medical charts and data derived from a clinical interview. Cleveland Clinic Bariatric and Metabolic Institute. The sample (n = 1160) was mainly female (72.41%), middle aged (mean age = 46.07 yr, SD = 11.70) and of Caucasian descent (65.76%). Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted to test the incremental validity of baseline Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form scores after controlling for information gathered from the psychological interview and medical charts. Relative risk ratios were calculated to reflect the clinical utility of the results. In total, 27.16% of patients failed to proceed with bariatric surgery after 1 year or more after a recommendation for surgery from their psychological evaluations. Psychological test scores were substantially associated with failure to proceed with surgery and significantly accounted for up to 6% of additional variance after controlling for psychological interview variables and medical chart data. Elevated scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form scales, such as anxiety and substance use, identify patients at up to 2.5 times greater risk for failing to proceed with bariatric surgery. Objective psychological test data-notably, scale scores assessing for substance abuse, anxiety, and demoralization-add to information obtained from a clinical interview and medical records in identifying patients at risk for failing to proceed with bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Linda Y; Rose, Danielle E; Soban, Lynn M; Stockdale, Susan E; Meredith, Lisa S; Edwards, Samuel T; Helfrich, Christian D; Rubenstein, Lisa V
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a primary care delivery model predicated on shared responsibility for patient care among members of an interprofessional team. Effective task sharing may reduce burnout among primary care providers (PCPs). However, little is known about the extent to which PCPs share these responsibilities, and which, if any, of the primary care tasks performed independently by the PCPs (vs. shared with the team) are particularly associated with PCP burnout. A better understanding of the relationship between these tasks and their effects on PCP burnout may help guide focused efforts aimed at reducing burnout. To investigate (1) the extent to which PCPs share responsibility for 14 discrete primary care tasks with other team members, and (2) which, if any, of the primary care tasks performed by the PCPs (without reliance on team members) are associated with PCP burnout. Secondary data analysis of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) survey data from two time periods. 327 providers from 23 VA primary care practices within one VHA regional network. The dependent variable was PCP report of burnout. Independent variables included PCP report of the extent to which they performed 14 discrete primary care tasks without reliance on team members; team functioning; and PCP-, clinic-, and system-level variables. In adjusted models, PCP reports of intervening on patient lifestyle factors and educating patients about disease-specific self-care activities, without reliance on their teams, were significantly associated with burnout (intervening on lifestyle: b = 4.11, 95% CI = 0.39, 7.83, p = 0.03; educating patients: b = 3.83, 95% CI = 0.33, 7.32, p = 0.03). Performing behavioral counseling and self-management education tasks without relying on other team members for assistance was associated with PCP burnout. Expanding the roles of nurses and other healthcare professionals to assume responsibility for these tasks may ease PCP burden and
Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen
Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comello, Maria Leonora G; Francis, Diane B; Marshall, Laura Heisner; Puglia, Deanna R
Playing recreational videogames is a common activity, yet little is known about its role in the lives of people who are coping with serious illness. These individuals may experience depression and isolation and may turn to games to help alleviate negative experiences and support well-being. We explored these possibilities in the context of cancer survivors. The study aimed to discover motivations underlying game play and the extent to which motivations are associated with psychological health and well-being. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of survivors who play recreational games (N = 794). Key variables were motivations and indicators of psychological health, including self-efficacy in cancer communications, resilient coping, and beliefs that one is living a fulfilling and meaningful life (flourishing). Participants were most likely to be motivated to play for stimulation and a sense of accomplishment (intrinsic rewards), followed by development of self, sense of community, and personal affirmation. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive associations between playing for intrinsic rewards and all three psychological health outcomes. Playing for a sense of community was also positively associated with coping and flourishing. Playing recreational videogames, particularly to receive intrinsic rewards and to connect with others, may play a supportive role in the psychological health of survivors. Findings suggest future areas for research and implications for development of serious games.
Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J
Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Zawadzki, Matthew J
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are related to psychological health, with most work examining reappraisal and suppression. Yet, emerging findings suggest that rumination may have stronger relationships with psychological health, namely depression, than other ER strategies. This paper replicated and extended this work by testing whether rumination was independently associated with a range of poor psychological health risk indicators and outcomes. In addition, it explored whether the reason why rumination is so deleterious to health is because it underlies the stress-health relationship. Participants (n = 218) completed measures online. Surveys assessed ER strategies (reappraisal, suppression, proactive coping, emotion support seeking, and rumination), health risk indicators (hostility, optimism, self-esteem), health outcomes (depression, poor sleep quality, anxiety) and perceived chronic stress. Multivariate regression analyses revealed rumination as the only ER strategy with a consistent independent effect on all the health risk indicators and outcomes. Bootstrapping analyses revealed indirect effects of perceived chronic stress on all the health variables via rumination. Rumination had a deleterious relationship with psychological health, perhaps because rumination underlies the relationship between stress and psychological health. Results have implications for interventions, particularly emphasizing the need to target ruminative thinking after stressful experiences.
Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.
In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....
Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.
Tempest, Elizabeth L; Carter, Ben; Beck, Charles R; Rubin, G James
The impact of flooding on mental health is exacerbated due to secondary stressors, although the mechanism of action is not understood. We investigated the role of secondary stressors on psychological outcomes through analysis of data collected one-year after flooding, and effect modification by sex. We analysed data from the English National Study on Flooding and Health collected from households flooded, disrupted and unexposed to flooding during 2013-14. Psychological outcomes were probable depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Parsimonious multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine the effect of secondary stressors on the psychological outcomes. Sex was tested as an effect modifier using subgroup analyses. A total of 2006 people participated (55.5% women, mean age 60 years old). Participants reporting concerns about their personal health and that of their family (concerns about health) had greater odds of probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.65) and PTSD (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.82-3.66). Loss of items of sentimental value was associated with probable anxiety (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.26-2.62). For women, the strongest associations were between concerns about health and probable PTSD (aOR 2.86, 95% CI 1.79-4.57). For men, the strongest associations were between 'relationship problems' and probable depression (aOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.54-6.85). Concerns about health, problems with relationships and loss of sentimental items were consistently associated with poor psychological outcomes. Interventions to reduce the occurrence of these secondary stressors are needed to mitigate the impact of flooding on probable psychological morbidity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The division of labor in social insect colonies involves transitions by workers from one task to another and is critical to the organization and ecological success of colonies. The differential regulation of genetic pathways is likely to be a key mechanism involved in plasticity of social insect task behavior. One of the few pathways implicated in social organization involves the cGMP-activated protein kinase gene, foraging, a gene associated with foraging behavior in social insect species. The association of the foraging gene with behavior is conserved across diverse species, but the observed expression patterns and proposed functions of this gene vary across taxa. We compared the protein sequence of foraging across social insects and explored whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with task behaviors in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of the foraging gene reveals considerable conservation in protein sequence across insects, particularly among hymenopteran species. The absence of amino acid variation in key active and binding sites suggests that differences in behaviors associated with this gene among species may be the result of changes in gene expression rather than gene divergence. Using real time qPCR analyses with a harvester ant ortholog to foraging (Pofor, we found that the brains of harvester ant foragers have a daily fluctuation in expression of foraging with mRNA levels peaking at midday. In contrast, young workers inside the nest have low levels of Pofor mRNA with no evidence of daily fluctuations in expression. As a result, the association of foraging expression with task behavior within a species changes depending on the time of day the individuals are sampled. Conclusions The amino acid protein sequence of foraging is highly conserved across social insects. Differences in foraging behaviors associated with this gene among
Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A
Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Foulds, James; Wells, J Elisabeth; Mulder, Roger
People with a low material living standard experience more psychological distress than those with a high living standard, but previous studies suggest the size of this difference is modest. To measure the association between living standard and psychological distress using a multidimensional measure of living standard, the Economic Living Standard Index (ELSI). Adults aged 25-64 years (n = 8,465) were selected from a New Zealand community survey. Logistic regression models were used to compare household income and ELSI scores as risk factors for high psychological distress, defined as a K10 score of 12 or over. In the population, the prevalence of high psychological distress was 5.8%. The prevalence of high distress increased steeply with decreasing living standard. In the most deprived decile according to ELSI score, 24.3% had high distress, compared to 0.8% in the least deprived decile. For household income, high distress was present in 15.9% of people in the lowest decile and 2.2% of the highest decile. In fully adjusted models, ELSI score remained significantly associated with high distress but household income was not. The mental health disparity between those at opposite ends of the social spectrum is very large. Comprehensive measures such as the ELSI give a more accurate estimate of this disparity than household income. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J
We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.
Silva, Mabile Francine Ferreira
Full Text Available Introduction: The peripheral facial paralysis (PFP results from the reduction or interruption of the axonal transport to the seventh cranial nerve resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial movements. The facial deformity and limitation of movements, besides affecting the aesthetics and functionality, can significantly interfere with interpersonal communication. Objective: Investigate the psychological contents and other social effects associated to PFP in adult subjects, performing a comparative analysis in three groups of subjects with PFP: at flaccid, recovery and sequel phases. Method: Quantitative and qualitative research. 16 adult subjects, from both sexes, aging between 43 and 88 years old, with PFP. Procedure: Open interviews with subjects. The material was recorded in audio and video, literally transcribed, systematized through categorical and statistical analysis. Results: The subjects bearing sequels presented higher statistical significance of psychological contents and social effects associated to PFP. Followed, respectively, by those that were on flaccid and recovery phases. The results suggest that the speech-language therapist, besides performing functional and aesthetical rehabilitation with the subject with PFP, needs to be aware of psychological and social aspects that may be involved, in order to evaluate and seek to reduce the degree of psychological distress and promote the social adjustment of these patients. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial approach to patients with PFP revealed a wide and significant range of subjective contents that warrant new studies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the speech-language clinical method to approach this medical condition.
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luck-Sikorski, Claudia; Pabst, Alexander; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex. Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women. Leipzig, Germany. We studied 5935 participants aged 18 to 79 years. Uncontrolled eating mediated the association between SES and BMI in men only and restrained eating in both men and women. Emotional eating did not act as mediator in this relationship. The total effect of eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI was estimated as β=-0·03 (se 0·02; 95 % CI -0·062, -0·003) in men and β=-0·18 (se 0·02; 95 % CI -0·217, -0·138) in women. Our findings do not indicate a strong overall mediation effect of the eating behaviour domains restrained eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating on the association between SES and BMI. Further research on other pathways of this association is strongly recommended. Importantly, our findings indicate that, independent from one's social position, focusing on psychological aspects in weight reduction might be a promising approach.
van Dijk Jitse P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.
Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving impairments in executive functioning, which are important cognitive processes that can be assessed by planning tasks such as the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC, and tasks of rule learning/abstraction such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. We undertook this study to investigate the association between performance during separate phases of SOC and WCST, including mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV measurements in chronic schizophrenia. Methods Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD was used to assess bilateral MFV changes in the middle (MCA and anterior (ACA cerebral arteries. Twenty-two patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics performed SOC and WCST during fTCD measurements of the MCA and the ACA. The SOC was varied in terms of easy and difficult problems, and also in terms of separate phases, namely mental planning and movement execution. The WCST performance was assessed separately for maintaining set and set shifting. This allowed us to examine the impact of problem difficulty and the impact of separate phases of a planning task on distinct intervals of WCST. Simultaneous registration of MFV was carried out to investigate the linkage of brain perfusion during the tasks. Results In patients, slowing of movement execution during easy problems (SOC was associated with slowing during maintaining set (WCST (P Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate performance and brain perfusion abnormalities in the association pattern of two different tasks of executive functioning in schizophrenia, and they support the notion that executive functions have a pathological functional correlate predominantly in the lateral hemispheres of the brain. This study also underpins the scientific potential of fTCD in assessing brain perfusion in patients with schizophrenia.
Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko
In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.
Dimova, Violeta; Lötsch, Jörn; Hühne, Kathrin; Winterpacht, Andreas; Heesen, Michael; Parthum, Andreas; Weber, Peter G; Carbon, Roman; Griessinger, Norbert; Sittl, Reinhard; Lautenbacher, Stefan
The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT), fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH), transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1), and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1), for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task) and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ]), which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again no significant additional explanation could be gained by the genetic predictors. In contrast, the preoperative PVAQ score was also, in the present enlarged sample, a meaningful predictor for lasting pain disability after surgery. Effect size measures suggested some genetic variables, for example, the polymorphism rs1800587G>A in the interleukin 1 alpha gene (IL1A) and the COMT haplotype rs4646312T>C/rs165722T>C/rs6269A>G/rs4633T>C/rs4818C>G/rs4680A>G, as possible relevant modulators of long-term postsurgical pain outcome. A comparison between pathophysiologically different predictor groups appears to be helpful in identifying clinically relevant
Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett A; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D; de la Haye, Kayla; Pollard, Michael S
Homophobic victimization, and specifically name-calling, has been associated with greater psychological distress and alcohol use in adolescents. This longitudinal study examines whether sexual orientation moderates these associations and also differentiates between the effects of name-calling from friends and nonfriends. Results are based on 1,325 students from three Midwestern high schools who completed in-school surveys in 2012 and 2013. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations among homophobic name-calling victimization and changes in anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use one year later, controlling for other forms of victimization and demographics. Homophobic name-calling victimization by friends was not associated with changes in psychological distress or alcohol use among either students who self-identified as heterosexual or those who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). In contrast, homophobic name-calling by nonfriends was associated with increased psychological distress over a one-year period among LGB students and increased drinking among heterosexual students. Homophobic name-calling victimization, specifically from nonfriends, can adversely affect adolescent well-being over time and, thus, is important to address in school-based bullying prevention programs. School staff and parents should be aware that both LGB and heterosexual adolescents are targets of homophobic name-calling but may tend to react to this type of victimization in different ways. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which homophobic victimization increases the risk of psychological distress and alcohol use over time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer
This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.
Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.
Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050
Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita
The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.
Goetzmann, Lutz; Irani, Sarosh; Schwegler, Kyrill; Stamm, Martina; Spindler, Anja; Bricman, Rosemarie; Buddeberg, Claus; Schmid, Christoph; Boehler, Annette; Klaghofer, Richard
Chronic stress is a well-known consequence of somatic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether physical, sociodemographic, or transplant-related psychological factors were associated with the patient's chronic stress level. A cross-sectional study enrolling 76 patients measured chronic stress (Screening Scale, Screening Subscale of Chronic Stress of the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress) and the emotional effects of the transplant (Transplant Effects Questionnaire), as well as physical and sociodemographic conditions (lung function, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, working status, and parenting). Chronic stress after a lung transplant was significantly lower than in a normal community sample. In the multiple regression analysis, worries concerning the transplant were significantly associated with the patient's chronic stress, but not with physical or sociodemographic parameters, nor with interactions between physical and psychological parameters. These results underscore the importance of transplant-related worries, regardless of the patient's current state of health.
Full Text Available This study was to investigate the association of psychological characteristics and functional dyspepsia treatment outcome. 109 patients who met the criteria for FD were enrolled. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL90, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were used to measure personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality in our patients. Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ was used to assess dyspeptic symptoms at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment. The LDQ scores change after therapy, and the degraded rate of LDQ was used to assess the prognosis of patients. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of the personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality on the prognosis of patients. Our result revealed that poor sleep quality (OR=7.68, 95% CI 1.83–32.25 and bad marriage status (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.36 had the negative effect on the prognosis of FD, while extroversion in personality traits (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.96 had positive effect on the prognosis of FD. We should pay attention to the sleep quality, the personality, and the marriage status of FD patients; psychological intervention may have benefit in refractory FD.
Gómez, Jennifer M; Smith, Carly P; Gobin, Robyn L; Tang, Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J
The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally. We detail how the impact of APA's institutional betrayals extended beyond the organization, its members, and the psychology profession, highlighting the potential for disproportionate harm to minorities, including those who were tortured; Muslims, Middle Easterners, Afghans, and non-Americans who were not tortured; and other minority individuals (Gómez, 2015d). Acknowledging, understanding, and addressing its institutional betrayals offers APA the opportunity to take meaningful corrective and preventive measures. We propose several institutional reparations, including making concrete changes with transparency and conducting self-assessments to inform further needed changes (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). By engaging in institutional courage, APA has the potential to grow into an ethical governing body that fulfills its mission to "advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives" (APA, 2016).
Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan
Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.
Brzoza, Zenon; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Hese, Robert T; Rogala, Barbara
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) decline in chronic urticaria (CU) may be involved in etiopathogenesis of the disease or is a secondary phenomenon resulting e.g. from psychological distress. The relation between mental stress and skin diseases is well documented, however not focused on urticaria. We sought to explore the association of mood disturbances and the sense of coherence (SOC), as psychological distress parameters, and DHEA-S decline in patients suffering from CU. The patient sample included 54 subjects with active CU. Fifty-nine healthy subjects were enrolled in the control group. In all subjects DHEA-S serum concentration was measured and mental status analyzed using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, SOC Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory. Urticaria patients showed lower serum concentration of DHEA-S (p = .01) and lower level of the SOC (p = .009), as well as higher level of anxiety as a state (p < .001) and as a trait (p = .001), and higher level of depression (p = .003). DHEA-S concentration correlated negatively with the level of anxiety as a trait (p = .02) and the level of depression (p = .046), and positively with the SOC level (p = .03). The results of the present study show that CU patients suffer from the psychological distress. We demonstrated for the first time that DHEA-S decline observed in CU patients might be a phenomenon secondary to psychological disturbances.
Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil
Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical st...
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...
Tuuliainen, Lauri; Sipilä, Kirsi; Mäki, Pirjo; Könönen, Mauno; Suominen, Anna Liisa
To evaluate the association between signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychological distress in a general population-based sample of Finnish adults. The Health 2000 Survey was conducted in 2000-2001 by the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. Of the sample of adults aged 30 or over (n=8,028), 79% participated in a clinical oral health examination, which included examination of TMD signs. The participants (n=6,155) also completed questionnaires, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which measured psychological distress. Associations between TMD signs and psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 were examined in both genders. Statistical measures included chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of the TMD signs (limited opening, clicking, crepitation, temporomandibular joint [TMJ] palpation pain, and muscle palpation pain) was 11.2%, 17.6%, 10.5%, 5.1%, and 18.9% in women, and 6.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, 2.4%, and 7.2% in men, respectively. High GHQ-12 scores, measured as continuous variables and in quartiles by distress level, were significantly associated with masticatory muscle pain on palpation in both genders (PTMJ pain on palpation in women (PTMJ crepitation in men (Pmuscle pain on palpation both in women (odds ratio [OR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.6-2.9) and men (OR=2.03; 95% CI=1.3-3.1). TMD signs and psychological distress appear to be associated. However, due to the limitations of the study, the findings can be regarded as preliminary.
Full Text Available Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism
Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Uengoer, Metin; Wolf, Oliver T
Recovery effects which can frequently be observed after a seemingly successful extinction procedure indicate that extinction does not lead to an erasure of the memory trace. Investigating factors which modulate the retrieval of extinction memory is highly relevant for basic science and clinical applications alike. This study investigated the effect of stress on the retrieval of extinguished and unextinguished stimulus-outcome associations in a predictive learning task. In this task, participants had to imagine being the doctor of a patient who sometimes suffers from stomach trouble after meals in his favorite restaurants. They were presented with different food stimuli while having to predict the occurrence or non-occurrence of stomach trouble. As extinction memory is modulated by context, we manipulated contextual cues so that initial acquisition of critical associations occurred in context (restaurant frame) A on day one, whereas associations were reversed in context B (extinction, day two). On the third day, participants were either stressed (exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor task (SECPT); n=21) or subjected to a control condition (n=21) shortly before extinction memory retrieval was tested (in contexts A and B). Salivary cortisol and blood pressure measures as well as subjective ratings indicated that stress induction was successful. When retrieval of extinguished associations was tested on day three, participants' predictions reflected a renewal effect, as indicated by stronger recovery of responding in the acquisition context compared to the extinction context. Compared to controls, stressed participants showed impaired retrieval of extinguished and unextinguished associations. Contextual cues abolished the stress-induced memory impairment for unextinguished but not for extinguished associations. These findings might help to explain why stress leads to the reoccurrence of symptoms in affective disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Benyamini, Yael; Gozlan, Miri; Kokia, Ehud
Research on illness perceptions and their associations with psychological adjustment to medical conditions has mostly focused on individuals coping with chronic diseases. The objective of the current study was to expand this research to the study of couples by examining the perceptions of infertility among couples undergoing treatment and their associations with each partner's psychological adjustment. The study was cross-sectional and included two samples that differed in the stage of treatment: Sample 1 included 72 couples at their first visit to an infertility clinic and Sample 2 included 49 couples at various stages of treatment. Participants filled in the Illness Perception Questionnaire regarding the timeline, consequences and controllability of their fertility problem and Infertility-Specific Distress and Well-being Scales. Dyadic analyses were conducted on the basis of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The partners differed in their perceptions of infertility and their distress. Partners' psychological adjustment was related to their perceptions of the fertility problem. Among couples at their first visit, perceptions of consequences of both partners were additively related to their distress whereas controllability perceptions interacted in their association with women's distress: Highest distress was reported by women who perceived low controllability whereas their partner perceived high controllability, compared with couples who reported similar (high or low) levels of controllability. A dyadic approach to studying illness perceptions can uncover patterns of couples at risk for poor adjustment. This is especially needed in contexts such as infertility, where both partners are involved and affected by the health threat.
Green, Christopher D; Heidari, Crystal; Chiacchia, Daniel; Martin, Shane M
There are many different ways to assess the significance of historical figures. Often we look at the influence of their writings, or at the important offices they held with disciplinary institutions such as universities, journals, and scholarly societies. In this study, however, we took a novel approach: we took the complete memberships, ca. 1900, of four organizations-the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association, and the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology-and visualized them as a network. We then identified individuals who "bridged" between two or more of these groups and considered what might be termed their "centrality" to the psychological-philosophical community of their time. First, we examined these figures qualitatively, briefly describing their lives and careers. Then we approached the problem mathematically, considering several alternative technical realizations of "centrality" and then explaining our reasons for choosing eigenvector centrality as the best for our purposes. We found a great deal of overlap among the results of the qualitative and quantitative approaches, but also some telling differences. J. Mark Baldwin, Edward Buchner, Christine Ladd Franklin, and Frank Thilly consistently emerged as highly central figures. Some more marginal figures such as Max Meyer, and Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Edward A. Pace, Edward H. Griffin played interesting roles as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok
Several studies suggest that subjective health status is closely related to various behavioral addictions, but there are few studies on smartphone overuse. This study investigated the associations between psychological and subjective health conditions and smartphone overuse in Korean college students. A total of 608 college students participated in this study. We investigated the perceived psychological factors, such as stress, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Overall health status was evaluated with self-assessed items, including usual health condition and EuroQol-visual analog scales (EQ-VAS) score. Smartphone overuse was evaluated as the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. Students with psychotic anxiety (i.e. stress, depression and suicidal ideation) showed significant associations with smartphone overuse, indicating an approximately twofold increased risk compared to those without psychological anxiety (all p Students who reported feeling that their usual health is not good were more likely to overuse smartphones than those who are in good health (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.22-3.21). The EQ-VAS score, which indicates current self-assessed health status, also showed a similar result with general health status (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.14-4.02). Negative conditions in self-perceived emotional or overall health condition are associated with the increased likelihood of smartphone overuse in Korean college students.
Scott, Samuel P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E
Iron deficiency (ID) is prevalent, particularly among women of reproductive age (WRA). How mild ID without anemia relates to cognition is poorly understood. Executive functioning (EF) has emerged as potentially being affected by mild ID in WRA. We sought to examine how iron markers relate to performance on EF tasks in nonanemic WRA. Participants included 127 females aged 18-35 y. Hematological indicators included hemoglobin, RBC distribution width, transferrin saturation (TSAT), ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and total body iron (TBI). EF was assessed using 5 tasks. Associations between EF outcomes and iron status were examined using continuous iron predictors and group comparisons. Better iron status was associated with better attention [faster reaction time (RT) with lower TfR (P = 0.028) and higher TSAT (P = 0.013)], inhibitory control [lower RT variability with higher TSAT (P = 0.042) and planning ability (faster planning time and a smaller planning time increase with increasing difficulty with higher ferritin; P = 0.010)]. No associations with iron status were found for several EF outcomes, possibly due to performance ceilings. Paradoxically, worse performance on a working memory task was related to better iron status, which may reflect hippocampal-frontal interference [lower capacity with lower TfR (P = 0.034) and higher TBI (P = 0.043) and a larger accuracy change with increasing difficulty with higher TBI (P = 0.016)]. Longer RTs on a working memory task were observed among those with positive TBI (iron surplus; P = 0.021) and Nutrition.
Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J
Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.
Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A
Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Goodhart, D E
This study investigated psychological effects associated with tendencies to focus one's thinking on positive versus negative outcomes of concluded stressful events, called respectively, positive and negative thinking. Four questions were addressed: (a) whether positive and negative thinking benefit or reduce psychological well-being, (b) whether these effects are transitory or enduring, (c) whether they are limited to thoughts about an event's impact on oneself or generalize to thoughts about an event's external consequences, and (d) whether tendencies to think positively or negatively about prior stressors influence psychological vulnerability to the impact of future ones. College students completed an event-outcome appraisal questionnaire designed to make salient positive and negative thoughts about the outcomes of recent stressful events. Subjects' well-being was then assessed both immediately after the salience manipulation and again 8 weeks later. Positive thinking increased the well-being that subjects reported immediately after their thoughts were assessed, but was unrelated to the well-being they reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively about past event outcomes may temporarily lead to perceptions of increased well-being while the thoughts are salient, it has no enduring influence. In contrast, negative thinking was associated with lower reported well-being not only when the thoughts were salient but after a delay as well. Psychological effects associated with both types of thinking were due mostly to self-relevant thoughts rather than to externally relevant ones. Negative thinking about prior stressor outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability to the impact of later ones on several aspects of well-being. Overall, results for negative thinking are consistent with evidence reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively effects that persist over time. However, positive thinking does not
Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie; Law, Paul A
Bullying has become a major national concern, particularly as it affects children with disabilities. The current study aimed to determine the association between psychiatric comorbid conditions, involvement in bullying (victim, bully, or bully-victim), and the immediate psychological correlates of bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A national sample of 1221 parents completed a survey dedicated to the bullying and school experiences of their child with ASD, reporting on the immediate consequences of bullying involvement, including their child's psychological well-being and any psychiatric comorbidity. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine whether specific psychiatric comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Analyses of variance determined the relationship between bullying frequency and psychological functioning. All models adjusted for child and school covariates. Children who were frequently victimized were more likely to present with internalizing symptoms, whereas children who frequently bullied others were more likely to exhibit emotion regulation problems. Children who were identified as frequent bully-victims presented with both internalizing symptoms and emotion regulation problems. Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression were more likely to have been victimized, whereas children with conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were more likely to have bullied other children. Children identified as bully-victims were more likely to have ADHD, CD, or ODD. Children with ASDs who had displayed bullying behaviors in the past month exhibited psychological impairments, including psychiatric comorbidity. The frequency of bullying behaviors was significantly associated with the level of impairment.
Full Text Available present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS.Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system (IBSSS, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel SyndromeQuality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318.Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Levin, Anna O; Carpenter, Kristen M; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Brothers, Brittany M; Andersen, Barbara L; Maxwell, G Larry
Sexual morbidity is a distressing and undertreated problem in gynecological cancer survivorship known to occur early and persist well beyond the period of physical recovery. Although often studied as a separate domain, sexuality represents an integral component of psychological adjustment and quality of life (QoL) that is adversely affected by cancer treatments. The present study tests the association between sexual morbidity, and adverse psychological adjustment and QoL outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used. The participants were gynecological (cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and vulvar) cancer survivors who were partnered (N = 186), whose cancer was diagnosed 2 to 10 years previously, and who were at least 6 months post any cancer therapy. Most had been found to have early-stage disease (70%) and were treated with hysterectomy (77%), chemotherapy (43%), and/or radiotherapy (23%). Sexual morbidity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct including sexual behavior, sexual functioning, and subjective sexual satisfaction, assessed by patient self-report. Outcomes included self-reported depressive symptoms, traumatic stress symptoms, cancer-specific stress, stress about body changes, and QoL. Nurse-rated of performance status and disruptive signs/symptoms of treatment toxicity, as well as relevant sociodemographic and disease variables were collected as potential controls. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested sexual morbidity as a predictor of poor outcomes. All statistical models were significant, accounting for 12% to 53% of the variance in psychological adjustment/QoL. Sexual morbidity covaried with worsened depressive symptoms, body change stress, and psychological QoL beyond the negative contributions of (older) age, (poorer) performance status, and (greater) fatigue. Notably, disease and treatment variables were not statistically significant correlates of psychological adjustment or QoL. These findings suggest that prevention or
Levitt, Heidi M; Bamberg, Michael; Creswell, John W; Frost, David M; Josselson, Ruthellen; Suárez-Orozco, Carola
The American Psychological Association Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards for Qualitative Research (JARS-Qual Working Group) was charged with examining the state of journal article reporting standards as they applied to qualitative research and with generating recommendations for standards that would be appropriate for a wide range of methods within the discipline of psychology. These standards describe what should be included in a research report to enable and facilitate the review process. This publication marks a historical moment-the first inclusion of qualitative research in APA Style, which is the basis of both the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) and APA Style CENTRAL, an online program to support APA Style. In addition to the general JARS-Qual guidelines, the Working Group has developed standards for both qualitative meta-analysis and mixed methods research. The reporting standards were developed for psychological qualitative research but may hold utility for a broad range of social sciences. They honor a range of qualitative traditions, methods, and reporting styles. The Working Group was composed of a group of researchers with backgrounds in varying methods, research topics, and approaches to inquiry. In this article, they present these standards and their rationale, and they detail the ways that the standards differ from the quantitative research reporting standards. They describe how the standards can be used by authors in the process of writing qualitative research for submission as well as by reviewers and editors in the process of reviewing research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel
Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature
Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil
Two experiments investigated the effects of product-attribute associations on false consumer memory. In both experiments, subjects were presented with sets of related product attributes under incidental encoding conditions. Later, recognition memory was tested with studied attributes, non-studied but associated attributes (critical lures) and non-studied unrelated attributes. In Experiment 1, the effect of Need for Cognition (NFC) was assessed. It was found that individuals high in NFC recognised more presented attributes and falsely recognised more associative critical lures. The increase in both true and associative false memory was accompanied by a greater number of responses that index the retrieval of detailed episodic-like information. Experiment 2, replicated the main findings through an experimental manipulation of the encoding task that required subjects to consider purchase likelihood. Explanations for these findings are considered from the perspective of activation processes and knowledge structures in the form of gist-based representations.
Ayeta, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ana Cristina Barros da; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Saunders, Cláudia
To evaluate the nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of the practice of pica in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was based on a descriptive design with exploratory features, and conducted on 13 adult and adolescent pregnant women aged 16 to 40 years with a diagnosis of pica in the current pregnancy. Pica was diagnosed by a nutritionist in a standardized interview situation, when questions about the occurrence and frequency of pica, and types of substance ingestion were investigated. After signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF), all participants were evaluated by a nutritionist and seven of them were submitted to psychological assessment with standardized instruments to evaluate stress and anxiety, and to assess coping strategies. The type of pica most frequently reported was pagophagia (30.8%) and the consumption of fruit with salt (30.8%). The most prevalent coping strategies were "religious practice-focused" and "seeking social support", both presented by 42% of the pregnant women. We observed the occurrence of some degree of stress and anxiety in all pregnant women, as well as comorbidities (69.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (84.6%). Considering that pica may be associated with increased perinatal risk, it is very important to investigate this disorder during prenatal care, and to dopt obstetric, psychological and nutritional preventive practices to reduce the complications for mother and fetus.
Broshek, Donna K; De Marco, Anthony P; Freeman, Jason R
This study reviewed several topics related to post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion. Topics include neurobiological perspectives, psychological predictors of post-concussion syndrome including pre-morbid anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and cognitive biases and misattribution. In addition, the iatrogenic effects of excessive rest are reviewed and treatment options are discussed briefly. Animal models of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury suggest that a concussion can result in anxiety and fear reactions. The pathophysiology of depression following a concussion appears to be consistent with the cortico-limbic model of depression. Additionally, some individuals may be at risk for neurobiological depression and/or anxiety following a concussion. The literature also demonstrates that pre-morbid and concurrent anxiety increases the risk for prolonged concussion recovery. Cognitive biases and misattribution of symptoms contribute to lengthy recovery from concussion. In addition, medically prescribed excessive cognitive and physical rest may contribute to a protracted concussion recovery. Supervised and graduated physical activity, the introduction of anxiety reduction techniques and cognitive-behavioural therapy of cognitive biases and misattribution are effective means of shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome. Understanding, assessing and treating the psychological factors associated with concussion are effective means of preventing or shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome.
Goudie, Anthony; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle; Hall, David E; Kuo, Dennis Z
The magnitude of stress and associated health consequences experienced by caregivers compromises their ability to effectively provide care to children, especially children with disability. We used latent class analysis of data from the 2010 Ohio Family Health Survey and identified 3 distinct classes of caregivers based on patterns of responses to 15 financial and psychological stresses they experienced. Compared with children residing in households in which caregivers experienced very little or no stress, children with disability were twice as likely to reside with caregivers with high levels of financial stress and almost 3.5 times as likely to reside with caregivers with high levels of financial stress and very high levels of psychological stress than typically developing children. Reducing caregiver stress is a critical step to ensuring the best health outcomes possible for children with disability. We identify the heterogeneity that is present in the population of caregivers by virtue of patterns of responses to various financial and psychological stressors. Children with disability are more likely to live in households in which a greater number of stressors affect caregivers. Different confounders are also associated with the latent classes of stress we identify. This is an important implication when determining the right interventions to target to the right subpopulations.
Baird, Brian N
The controversy surrounding B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman (1998) provides valuable lessons into scientific independence, politics, and organizational decision making. In an unprecedented action, the U.S. Congress officially condemned findings of Rind et al. Meanwhile, the American Psychological Association took similarly unprecedented measures in an effort to assuage its Congressional critics. This article, written from the perspective of a psychologist serving in Congress, discusses the various political and organizational dynamics that developed during the controversy. Understanding and learning from this incident can help psychologists and their professional associations better prepare for and respond to potential controversies arising from research or other publications.
Krawczyk, Daniel C; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark
Cognitive performance differs with motivation, but little direct evidence exists regarding the neural mechanisms of the influence of reward motivation on working memory (WM). We tested the effects of motivation on the top-down control in visual WM. Encoding relevant stimuli for maintenance, while suppressing inappropriate inputs is considered a core process in cognition. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results demonstrated that stimulus-specific visual association cortex serves as a marker of activation differences for task-relevant and task-irrelevant inputs, such that enhanced activity occurs when attention is directed to relevant stimuli and suppressed activity occurs when attention is directed away from irrelevant stimuli [Gazzaley, A., Cooney, J., McEvoy, K., Knight, R.T., and D'Esposito, M. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 507-517]. We used fMRI to test whether differential WM performance, indexed by lowered response times on a delayed-recognition task, was associated with amplification of enhancement and suppression effects during stimulus encoding within visual association cortex. Our results indicate that enhancement and suppression are amplified for trials with the highest reward level relative to non-rewarded trials for a scene-selective cortical region. In a face-selective region, similar modulation of enhancement for the highest reward level relative to non-rewarded trials was found. Prefrontal cortex also showed enhanced activity during high reward trials. Overall these results reveal that reward motivation can play a pivotal role in driving performance through top-down signaling in frontal regions involved in WM, as well as visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the items to be remembered.
Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young
Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed
Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth C; Finizia, Caterina
Psychological distress after laryngeal cancer treatment is prevalent. Although voice rehabilitation has shown to improve functional outcomes and positively affect health-related quality of life, to date, there has been limited study of the associated effect of behavioural voice intervention on psychological well-being/distress post laryngeal cancer. Sixty-three patients with Tis-T4 laryngeal cancer treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were prospectively recruited and randomised to either a voice rehabilitation (VR, n = 31) or control group (n = 32). The VR group received 10 speech pathology sessions consisting of both direct and indirect voice intervention post (chemo)radiotherapy. The control group received general voice education but not specific intervention. As part of a multidisciplinary assessment battery, psychological well-being/distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) pre, six and 12 months post VR. Within-group analysis revealed a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the proportion of patients with anxiety in the VR group between baseline and 12 months. No change over time was observed in controls. Between-group analysis revealed a trend for fewer VR cases demonstrating anxiety (p = 0.06) or depression (p = 0.08) at 6 months and significantly fewer demonstrating anxiety (p = 0.04) and depression (p = 0.04) at 12 months, compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed between patients' voice perceptions and reduced anxiety (r pb = -0.38) and depression (r pb = -0.66) within the VR group at 12 months. The positive correlations and between-group analyses indicate a positive effect on psychological well-being associated with completing voice rehabilitation. Results highlight potential additional benefits of behavioural voice intervention beyond achieving direct change to voice function.
Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Xuesong; Lin, Chun Chieh; Li, Chunyu; de Moor, Janet S; Rodriguez, Juan L; Kent, Erin E; Forsythe, Laura P
Serious psychological distress (SPD) is associated with adverse health outcomes such as poor quality of life and shorter survival in cancer survivors, but to the authors' knowledge, the relationship between SPD and health care use and medical expenditures is not clear. A total of 4326 cancer survivors and 57,109 noncancer participants were identified from the 2008 through 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationwide population-based survey, and their psychological distress was assessed with the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (SPD defined by a score ≥13). The association between SPD and use and medical expenditures of various types of health care (office-based, outpatient, hospital inpatient, emergency department, dental, and prescriptions) was examined using a 2-part modeling approach that adjusted for demographic, personal, and comorbidity factors. The marginal effects of SPD on health care use and expenditures were calculated for cancer survivors and were compared with those of noncancer participants. The weighted prevalence of SPD in cancer survivors was 8.2% compared with 4.8% in the noncancer participants. SPD was significantly associated with higher use of all care types except dental care in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors with SPD spent $4431 (95% confidence interval, $3419-$5443) more than survivors without SPD on medical services each year, whereas this extra expenditure associated with SPD for participants without cancer was $2685 (95% confidence interval, $2099-$3271). In a national representative sample of cancer survivors, SPD was found to be associated with higher health care use and medical expenditures. Distress screening and psychosocial care in cancer survivors may help reduce the economic burden of cancer in the United States. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Auvinen, Juha; Eskola, Pasi J; Ohtonen, Hanni-Rosa; Paananen, Markus; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro
Although several studies have shown that adolescent musculoskeletal pain is associated with psychological problems in a cross-sectional setting, the associations of long-term musculoskeletal pain with psychological distress and anxiety are not known. The study included 1773 adolescents belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. They received a postal questionnaire at the age of 16years and a follow-up questionnaire two years later. The first inquiry contained questions about the sites of musculoskeletal pain; the second had the same pain questions, along with measures of distress and anxiety. Risk ratios (RR) were assessed by log-linear regression analysis. Multi-site musculoskeletal pain (in ≥2 body locations) at both 16 and 18years was common, reported by 53% of girls and 30% of boys. Multi-site pain at both ages, compared to those with multi-site pain neither at 16 nor 18years, was associated with psychological distress at the age of 18 among both girls (RR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.7) and boys (RR 3.5 95% CI 2.1-5.9). For anxiety, the corresponding relative risks were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3), respectively. For short-term multi-site pain (prevalent only at the age of 16 or 18), these relative risks were between 0.8 and 2.3. Adolescents with long-term multi-site pain have higher levels of distress and anxiety than those without or with only short-term multi-site pain. Associations were found in both genders, but the relationship between pain and distress was more pronounced among boys. The associations had modest effect strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vartanian, O; Jobidon, M-E; Bouak, F; Nakashima, A; Smith, I; Lam, Q; Cheung, B
Working memory (WM) training has been shown to lead to improvements in WM capacity and fluid intelligence. Given that divergent thinking loads on WM and fluid intelligence, we tested the hypothesis that WM training would improve performance and moderate neural function in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT)-a classic test of divergent thinking. We tested this hypothesis by administering the AUT in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner following a short regimen of WM training (experimental condition), or engagement in a choice reaction time task not expected to engage WM (active control condition). Participants in the experimental group exhibited significant improvement in performance in the WM task as a function of training, as well as a significant gain in fluid intelligence. Although the two groups did not differ in their performance on the AUT, activation was significantly lower in the experimental group in ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices-two brain regions known to play dissociable and critical roles in divergent thinking. Furthermore, gain in fluid intelligence mediated the effect of training on brain activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that a short regimen of WM training is associated with lower prefrontal activation-a marker of neural efficiency-in divergent thinking. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartlett, Diana L; Washington, Michael L; Bryant, Amanda; Thurston, Norman; Perfili, Christine A
Our objective was to investigate the potential cost savings of immunization information systems (IIS) in performing some administrative tasks associated with the federal Vaccines for Children (VFC) program at the state and practice levels. VFC is an entitlement program providing free vaccine to eligible children. We timed the staff of the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) and 72 private VFC practices for administrative VFC-related tasks from September 2003 through March 2004. Time measurements included time for practices to produce VFC reports and for UDOH staff to assess practice coverage levels and process VFC reports manually or via the Utah Statewide Immunization Information System (USIIS). Median cost savings to the state health department could be as much as $11 740 annually. Utah VFC practices could save up to a maximum of $446 annually per practice by using USIIS for VFC tasks. If applied to the 218 enrolled private practices statewide, this would result in a median total cost savings of $17,615 ($15,519 for reports and $2,096 for pulling medical charts).
Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E
Background This exploratory study examined the psychological and substance abuse symptoms and motivations associated with adolescents’ medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. We compared three groups of adolescents: 1) those who never used an opioid analgesic; 2) those who used a prescribed opioid analgesic (medical users); and 3) those who used someone else’s opioid analgesics (nonmedical users). Nonmedical use was defined as using someone else’s opioid analgesic medication. Comparisons among the groups were made on psychological and substance abuse symptoms as well as motivations to engage in nonmedical use. Methods A web-based survey, the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS) was administered to a sample of students who attended one of five secondary schools in southeastern Michigan. The sample included 2,627 respondents and was evenly distributed by sex and grade. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) were White/Caucasian and 29.5% African-American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD=1.9). Results Seventy percent (70.4%, n=1850) reported never using opioid analgesics in their lifetimes. Of the remaining 24.5% (n=644) of opioid analgesic users, most were medical users. However, 3.5% (n=92) were classified as nonmedical users who used someone else’s medication for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n=41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g. to get high). In contrast to never users, both medical users and nonmedical users reported more substance abuse symptoms and symptoms associated with pain. Further, those nonmedical users who used opioids to sensation seek had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. Conclusions These data: 1) provide additional support for the existence of distinct subgroups of adolescent opioid analgesic users; 2) provide evidence of psychological symptoms associated with nonmedical use; and 3) highlight the psychological differences among nonmedical users who self-treat for pain versus
Freitas, Thiago H; Andreoulakis, Elias; Alves, Gilberto S; Miranda, Hesley LL; Braga, Lúcia LBC; Hyphantis, Thomas; Carvalho, André F
AIM: To investigate the relationship between sense of coherence, psychological distress and health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 147 IBD (aged 45.1 ± 14.1 years; 57.1% female) patients recruited from a tertiary gastroenterology service. Sixty-four participants met diagnostic criteria for Crohn’s disease, while eighty-three patients had ulcerative colitis. Socio-demographic data (education, age, race, gender, gross monthly income and marital status), disease-related variables (illness activity, relapse rate in past 2 years, history of surgery and time since diagnosis), sense of coherence (Antonovsky’s SOC scale), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; WHOQOL-Bref) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors that are independently associated with psychological distress and HRQoL in patients with IBD and to provide indications for possible moderating or mediating effects. In addition, formal moderation and mediation analyses (Sobel tests) were performed to confirm potential moderators/mediators of the relationship between SOC, psychological distress symptoms and HRQoL. RESULTS: Lower SOC scores (std beta= -0.504; P anxiety symptoms. A significant interaction between time since diagnosis and SOC was found with regard to the severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms, as the interaction term (time since diagnosis X SOC) had beta coefficients of -0.191 (P = 0.009) and -0.172 (P = 0.026), respectively. Lower levels of anxiety symptoms (std beta = -0.369; P Anxiety symptoms were the most potent independent correlate of most aspects of HRQoL. In addition, anxiety mediated the association between SOC and satisfaction with health, as well as its relationship with physical, mental, and social relations HRQoL. Depressive symptoms also mediated the
Kathy L Ruddy
Full Text Available Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1 to the opposite limb. It has been proposed that these effects are causally related. Our aim was to establish whether changes in corticospinal excitability arising from prior training of the opposite limb determine levels of interlimb transfer. We used three vision conditions shown previously to modulate the excitability of corticospinal projections to the inactive (right limb during wrist flexion movements performed by the training (left limb. These were: mirrored visual feedback of the training limb; no visual feedback of either limb; and visual feedback of the inactive limb. Training comprised 300 discrete, ballistic wrist flexion movements executed as rapidly as possible. Performance of the right limb on the same task was assessed prior to, at the mid point of, and following left limb training. There was no evidence that variations in the excitability of corticospinal projections (assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the inactive limb were associated with, or predictive of, the extent of interlimb transfer that was expressed. There were however associations between alterations in muscle activation dynamics observed for the untrained limb, and the degree of positive transfer that arose from training of the opposite limb. The results suggest that the acute adaptations that mediate the bilateral performance gains realised through unilateral practice of this ballistic wrist flexion task are mediated by neural elements other than those within M1 that are recruited at rest by single-pulse TMS.
Ruddy, Kathy L.; Rudolf, Anne K.; Kalkman, Barbara; King, Maedbh; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Carroll, Timothy J.; Carson, Richard G.
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1) to the opposite limb. It has been proposed that these effects are causally related. Our aim was to establish whether changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) arising from prior training of the opposite limb determine levels of interlimb transfer. We used three vision conditions shown previously to modulate the excitability of corticospinal projections to the inactive (right) limb during wrist flexion movements performed by the training (left) limb. These were: (1) mirrored visual feedback of the training limb; (2) no visual feedback of either limb; and (3) visual feedback of the inactive limb. Training comprised 300 discrete, ballistic wrist flexion movements executed as rapidly as possible. Performance of the right limb on the same task was assessed prior to, at the mid point of, and following left limb training. There was no evidence that variations in the excitability of corticospinal projections (assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)) to the inactive limb were associated with, or predictive of, the extent of interlimb transfer that was expressed. There were however associations between alterations in muscle activation dynamics observed for the untrained limb, and the degree of positive transfer that arose from training of the opposite limb. The results suggest that the acute adaptations that mediate the bilateral performance gains realized through unilateral practice of this ballistic wrist flexion task are mediated by neural elements other than those within M1 that are recruited at rest by single-pulse TMS. PMID:27199722
Brittain, Philip J; Froudist Walsh, Sean; Nam, Kie-Woo; Giampietro, Vincent; Karolis, Vyacheslav; Murray, Robin M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Kalpakidou, Anastasia; Nosarti, Chiara
Very preterm birth (VPT; brain insult; however, adaptive neuroplastic processes may subsequently occur in the developing preterm brain which ameliorate, to an extent, the potential sequelae of altered neurophysiology. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neuronal activation in 24 VPT individuals and 22 controls (CT) in young adulthood during a learning task consisting of the encoding and subsequent recognition of repeated visual paired associates. Structural MRI data were also collected and analysed in order to explore possible structure-function associations. Whilst the two groups did not differ in their learning ability, as demonstrated by their capacity to recognize previously-seen and previously-unseen visual pairs, between-group differences in linear patterns of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependant (BOLD) activity were observed across the four repeated blocks of the task for both the encoding and recognition conditions, suggesting that the way learning takes place differs between the two groups. During encoding, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate gyrus, the midbrain/substantia nigra, medial temporal (including parahippocampal) gyrus and inferior and superior frontal gyri. During the recognition condition, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the claustrum and the posterior cerebellum. Structural analysis revealed smaller grey matter volume in right middle temporal gyrus in VPT individuals compared to controls, however volume in this region was not significantly associated with functional activation. These results demonstrate that although cognitive task performance between VPT individuals and controls may be comparable on certain measures, differences in BOLD signal may also be evident, some of which could represent compensatory neural processes following VPT
Kelly, Valerie E; Schrager, Matthew A; Price, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Shumway-Cook, Anne
In older adults, changes in speed and stability during walking are associated with impaired balance and increased fall risk. Narrow-base walking requires increased frontal plane stability and can be used to assess postural control while walking. Performance of a concurrent cognitive task (dual task) may further increase the complexity of walking, potentially allowing identification of individuals with instability that is not detected under single-task conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine age-associated effects of a cognitive task on speed and frontal plane stability during narrow-base walking. Thirty-four healthy adults participated, categorized by age: or =75 years. Participants walked at a comfortable pace within a narrow path under both single- and dual-task conditions. We examined spatiotemporal variables and frontal plane center of mass (CoM) parameters using a 13-segment biomechanical model. Increasing age (p task (p dual-task performance had no effect on these variables (both p >.450). Age-associated changes in both speed and stability are observed during narrow-base walking. Among this sample of healthy older adults, the addition of a concurrent cognitive task resulted in reduced speed, with no effect on frontal plane stability. Further research is needed to determine if dual-task, narrow-base walking is a sensitive and specific approach to identifying older adults at risk for falls.
Schrier Agnes C
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing body of evidence of an association between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these associations are similar in ethnic minority groups. Methods A random urban population sample, aged 18+, stratified by ethnicity (484 native Dutch subjects, 383 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 316 Moroccan-Dutch subjects, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was interviewed with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10 in combination with measurements of several cardiovascular risk factors. The association of psychological distress (defined as a K10 score above cut-off of 20 with cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL cholesterol levels or diabetes, ethnicity and their interaction was analyzed using logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and adjusted for age. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with psychological distress in any of the gender/ethnic groups, with the exception of a positive association of obesity and hypertension with psychological distress in native Dutch women and a negative association of hypertension and psychological distress in Turkish men. Interaction terms of cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity were approaching significance only in the association of obesity with the K10 in women. Conclusion In this cross-sectional multi-ethnic adult population sample the majority of the investigated cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with psychological distress. The association of obesity with psychological distress varies by gender and ethnicity. Our findings indicate that the prevention of obesity and psychological distress calls for an integrated approach in native Dutch women, but not necessarily in Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch women, in whom these problems may be targeted separately.
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.
Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María
Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.
Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate
Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these
Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M
Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.
Júnia M. Serra-Negra
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.
Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E
Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MÓNICA M. NOVOA GÓMEZ
Full Text Available This research aim was to evaluate the Burnout syndrome and its association to psychological profile and quality of lifein nurses from urgency, oncology and neonatology services at a third level hospital in Bogotá city. The research pertainsto the investigation group in Psychology and Health of the Psychology Faculty at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.It is a non-experimental research within a correlational descriptive design. The instruments used were the Catell’s 16Personality Factors Inventory (16PF, the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI, a semi-structured interview and anobservational register. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Additionally, multivariatecovariance analysis (MANCOVA and Pearson correlation were used in special cases. SSPS programme was used for thisdata analysis. Results showed that the Burnout syndrome was not present in the evaluated nurses but they had somesymptoms, like emotional tiredness and depersonalisation; personality factors as impulsive-prudent, confident-jealousand dominant-submisive were found as predictors of occupational performance.
Background Study results concerning associations between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of the association between BMI and psychological distress in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Data was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), in 68,311 adults aged 18–74. Self-reported data was derived from a merger of the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Life and Health (Liv och Hälsa) questionnaires focusing general perceived distress as well as living conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between BMI and psychological distress when controlled for age and gender in combination. Results Women reported an overall higher psychological distress than men. A significant pattern of decreasing psychological distress with increasing age emerged among women in all BMI categories. Trends of this same pattern showed for men. Small or no differences were seen in psychological distress between those in normal weight, overweight, and obesity I categories (among women: 20.4%, 18.4%, 20.5%; among men: 12.8%, 11.2%, 12.9%). For both genders, any notable increase in psychological distress appeared first in the obesity II category (among women: 27.2%. Among men: 17.8%). Conclusions Psychological distress decreases with increasing age regardless of BMI; a pattern more obvious for women. Being categorized with obesity II leads to a markedly higher psychological distress than being categorized with normal weight, overweight or obesity I. From this, we suggest that future obesity research focusing on psychological distress could investigate the role of stigma and norm susceptibility in relationships where people are evaluated through the eyes of the other. PMID:23347701
Roth, B; Munsch, S; Meyer, A; Isler, E; Schneider, S
The prevalence of childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, and many obese children suffer from emotional and behavior problems and mental disorders. Associations with social stigmatization of obesity, maternal psychopathology, socioeconomic status (SES) and resilience factors are discussed. We hypothesize maternal psychopathology to have an impact on the psychological well-being of an obese child. We further hypothesize that competence factors within the child are important key factors that influence the way a child deals with the psychological burden of obesity. A referred clinical sample of 59 obese children with their mothers was assessed using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires for child and maternal psychopathology, SES, body mass index (BMI), and percent overweight. Correlations, hierarchical linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between mothers and child and the impact of potential predictors. Mental disorders were found in 37.3% of the obese children in our sample. Maternal anxiety predicted the mother reported child's internalizing problems as well as the child's depression and anxiety self report scores. The mental disorder status of the mother predicted the child's internalizing problems, and maternal binge eating disorder (BED) had an impact on the mental disorder of the child. If the child's total competences were included in the hierarchical regression model they predicted the child's outcome in all three subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), thereby reducing the effect of maternal anxiety to influencing the child's depression score only. Neither SES nor the child's percent overweight accounted for the child's wellbeing. Although maternal psychopathology and diagnosis of mental disorder had some impact on the psychological well-being of the child, the child's competences showed a significant negative association with the problem scales. More research on parental and
El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M
Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sofia I Iqbal Kring
Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401
While most of our methods of listening have been geared toward unearthing unconscious fantasies, those directed toward the ego's all-inclusive role in effecting the associative process have lagged far behind. It is the thesis of this paper that listening from the perspective of the ego allows the analyst to work more closely with what the patient is ready to understand. Clinical technique, using an ego psychological view, is elaborated, demonstrated, and compared to technique dependent on the reading of signs and symbols of the unconscious.
Full Text Available An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (a that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (b, that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life.
Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike
In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.
Philip J. Brittain
Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; < 33 weeks of gestation is associated with an increased risk of learning disability, which contributes to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. Learning problems associated with VPT birth may be caused by pathophysiological alterations in neurodevelopment resulting from perinatal brain insult; however, adaptive neuroplastic processes may subsequently occur in the developing preterm brain which ameliorate, to an extent, the potential sequelae of altered neurophysiology. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare neuronal activation in 24 VPT individuals and 22 controls (CT in young adulthood during a learning task consisting of the encoding and subsequent recognition of repeated visual paired associates. Structural MRI data were also collected and analysed in order to explore possible structure-function associations. Whilst the two groups did not differ in their learning ability, as demonstrated by their capacity to recognize previously-seen and previously–unseen visual pairs, between-group differences in linear patterns of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependant (BOLD activity were observed across the four repeated blocks of the task for both the encoding and recognition conditions, suggesting that the way learning takes place differs between the two groups. During encoding, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate gyrus, the midbrain/substantia nigra, medial temporal (including parahippocampal gyrus and inferior and superior frontal gyri. During the recognition condition, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the claustrum and the posterior cerebellum. Structural analysis revealed smaller grey matter volume in right middle temporal gyrus in VPT individuals compared to controls, however volume in this region
Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Steptoe, Andrew
Psychological distress and low socioeconomic status (SES) are recognized risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether lower SES amplifies the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality. We selected 66 518 participants from the Health Survey for England who were 35 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and living in private households in England from 1994 to 2004. Selection used stratified random sampling, and participants were linked prospectively to mortality records from the Office of National Statistics (mean follow-up, 8.2 years). Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and SES was indexed by occupational class. The crude incidence rate of death was 14.49 (95% CI, 14.17-14.81) per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for age and sex, psychological distress and low SES category were associated with increased mortality rates. In a stratified analysis, the association of psychological distress with mortality differed with SES (likelihood ratio test-adjusted P < .001), with the strongest associations being observed in the lowest SES categories. The detrimental effect of psychological distress on mortality is amplified by low SES category. People in higher SES categories have lower mortality rates even when they report high levels of psychological distress.
Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo
Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Xia, Tiansheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Ling
The dynamics of cognitive control have been investigated by the proportion congruency effect. However, the theory that this effect is due to attentional modulation has been challenged by contingency learning accounts. This raises the question of how the cognitive control system operates during and after increasing the strength of task-irrelevant stimulus-response (S-R) associations. We employed a novel paradigm that elicits positive and reversed Simon effects via task rule manipulations, and combined it with a between subjects proportion congruency manipulation. The pattern of enhancement and reversal of the positive and reversed Simon effects across conditions suggested that participants used strengthened task-irrelevant S-R associations to predict responses. Functional neuroimaging identified proportion congruency effects that interacted with task S-R associations, showing greater activity when strengthened task-irrelevant S-R associations conflicted with task-defined S-R associations in frontoparietal regions, including bilateral superior parietal lobule (SPL) and dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), presupplementary motor area/anterior midcingulate cortex (Pre-SMA/aMCC), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These results suggest that the aMCC and DLPFC shifted to responding mainly to the conflict induced by the strengthened irrelevant S-R associations. The SPL and dPMC might represent the strengthened irrelevant S-R associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:756-772, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques
Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics
Watanabe, Tatsunori; Tsutou, Kotaro; Saito, Kotaro; Ishida, Kazuto; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei
Choice reaction requires response conflict resolution, and the resolution processes that occur during a choice stepping reaction task undertaken in a standing position, which requires maintenance of balance, may be different to those processes occurring during a choice reaction task performed in a seated position. The study purpose was to investigate the resolution processes during a choice stepping reaction task at the cortical level using electroencephalography and compare the results with a control task involving ankle dorsiflexion responses. Twelve young adults either stepped forward or dorsiflexed the ankle in response to a visual imperative stimulus presented on a computer screen. We used the Simon task and examined the error-related negativity (ERN) that follows an incorrect response and the correct-response negativity (CRN) that follows a correct response. Error was defined as an incorrect initial weight transfer for the stepping task and as an incorrect initial tibialis anterior activation for the control task. Results revealed that ERN and CRN amplitudes were similar in size for the stepping task, whereas the amplitude of ERN was larger than that of CRN for the control task. The ERN amplitude was also larger in the stepping task than the control task. These observations suggest that a choice stepping reaction task involves a strategy emphasizing post-response conflict and general performance monitoring of actual and required responses and also requires greater cognitive load than a choice dorsiflexion reaction. The response conflict resolution processes appear to be different for stepping tasks and reaction tasks performed in a seated position.
Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm
Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madhan, Balasubramanian; Barik, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Rajesh; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami
Although the health benefits of humor and the potential advantages of having a good Sense of Humor (SoH) have been long recognized, they have not been investigated in dental students. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and demographic correlates of SoH in dental students and its association with their self-reported level of psychological disturbances. Six hundred and five students (age 20.3±1.83 years, 250 males, 355 females) from two dental schools in India anonymously completed the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the intergroup differences based on gender and year of study, respectively. The association between SoH and each of the three negative affective states was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. The mean MSHS score of the sample was 59.65±11.77. Male students showed a marginally higher SoH than females (60.78 vs. 58.86, phumor, and their application in improving the psychological climate in dental schools.
Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel
We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart
Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with "Avoidance coping" (β = 0.39, p psychological distress (active: β = -0.25, p psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen
In recent years, the healthcare system in the western world has undergone a structural development caused by changes in demography and pattern of disease. In order to maintain the healthcare system cost-effective, new tasks are placed in general practice urging the general practitioners to rethink the working structure without compromising the quality of care. However, there is a substantial variation in the degree to which general practitioners delegate tasks to their staff, and it is not known how these various degrees of task delegation influence the job satisfaction of general practitioners and their staff. We performed a cross-sectional study based on two electronic questionnaires, one for general practitioners and one for their staff. Both questionnaires were divided into two parts, a part exploring the degree of task delegation regarding management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general practice and a part concerning the general job satisfaction and motivation to work. We found a significant association between perceived "maximal degree" of task delegation in management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the staff's overall job satisfaction. The odds ratio of the staff's satisfaction with the working environment displayed a tendency that there is also an association with "maximal degree" of task delegation. In the analysis of the general practitioners, the odds ratios of the results indicate that there is a tendency that "maximal degree" of task delegation is associated with overall job satisfaction, satisfaction with the challenges in work, and satisfaction with the working environment. We conclude that a high degree of task delegation is significantly associated with overall job satisfaction of the staff, and that there is a tendency that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the general practitioners' and the staff's satisfaction with the working environment as well as with general
Honzel, Nikki; Justus, Timothy; Swick, Diane
Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can show declines in working memory. A dual-task design was used to determine whether these impairments are linked to executive control limitations. Participants performed a Sternberg memory task with either one or four letters. In the dual-task condition, the maintenance period was filled with an arrow flanker task. PTSD patients were less accurate on the working memory task than were controls, especially in the dual-task condition. In the single-task condition, both groups showed similar patterns of brain potentials from 300 to 500 ms when discriminating old and new probes. However, when taxed with an additional task, the event-related potentials (ERPs) of the PTSD group no longer differentiated old and new probes. In contrast, interference resolution processes in both the single- and dual-task conditions of the flanker task were intact. The lack of differentiation in the ERPs reflects impaired working memory performance under more difficult, dual-task conditions. Exacerbated difficulty in performing a working memory task with concurrent task demands suggests a specific limitation in executive control resources in PTSD.
Bennett, Paul; Wilkinson, Clare; Turner, Jim; Brain, Kate; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Griffith, Gethin; France, Barbara; Gray, Jonathon
This study identified levels of distress, and predictors of levels of distress, in women undergoing assessment for genetic risk of breast/ovarian cancer based on their family history. It comprised a cohort study following 154 women who completed questionnaires at entry into a cancer genetic assessment programme and following risk provision. Independent significant associates of anxiety following risk provision were age, neuroticism, feeling hopeless about developing cancer, a perceived lack of control over developing cancer, lack of a social confidant, and a coping response involving acceptance/resignation. Depression was associated with age, neuroticism, feeling hopeless about developing cancer, lack of social confidant, and a coping response involving acceptance/resignation. To avoid high levels of psychological morbidity in future cohorts undergoing cancer genetic risk assessment, information should be given that emphasises that some degree of control over health outcomes through behaviour change or increased surveillance is possible.
De Houwer, Jan; De Bruycker, Els
We used both the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as implicit measures of inter-individual differences in attitudes towards political parties (Experiment 1), food items (Experiment 2) and homosexuality (Experiment 3). IAT but not EAST scores were related in a meaningful manner to self-report measures of the corresponding attitudes (Experiments 1-3) and self-reported behaviour (Experiments 2 and 3). Whereas split-half reliability of the IAT scores was satisfactory, EAST scores overall had a low split-half reliability. The present results suggest that the EAST as introduced by De Houwer (2003b, Experimental Psychology) does not offer a good alternative for the IAT as an implicit measure of inter-individual differences in attitudes.
The success of entering work life, young people s psychological resources and self-reported well-being were studied in a longitudinal setting from a life-span developmental-contextual perspective in early adulthood. The aim was to analyse how psychosocial characteristics in early childhood and adolescence predict successful entrance into work life, how this is associated with well-being, and to assess the level of psychological resources such as dispositional optimism, personal meaning of wor...
In the foreseeable future, private companies will manufacture space vehicles with a capacity of transporting tourists into low Earth orbit. Because of the stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and limited medical care capability, a system of medical clearance is highly recommended for these space tourists. It is our purpose to establish guidelines for use by private businesses, medical providers, and those planning on being a space tourist. Consequently, a Task Force was organized by the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) for the purpose of facilitating safety of passengers, fellow passengers, crew, and flight operations. The guidelines are meant to serve only as a template with the full expectation that exceptions might be made with appropriate rationale.
Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka
The dopamine system is believed to affect gambling behavior in pathological gambling. Particularly, dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to affect decision-making in the disorder. This study investigated dopamine release in the ventral striatum in relation to gambling performance...... on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 16 Pathological Gamblers (PG) and 14 Healthy Controls (HC). We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the binding potential of [(11)C] raclopride to dopamine D2/3 receptors during a baseline and gambling condition. We hypothesized that decreased raclopride...... binding potentials in the ventral striatum during gambling (indicating dopamine release) would be associated with higher IGT performance in Healthy Controls, but lower IGT performance in Pathological Gamblers. The results showed that Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had...
Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients.
American Psychologist, 2008
Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…
Full Text Available Cocaine use disorder is associated with maladaptive decision-making behaviour, which strongly contributes to the harmful consequences of chronic drug use. Prior research has shown that cocaine users exhibit impaired neuropsychological test performances, particularly with regard to attention, learning, and memory but also in executive functions such as decision-making and impulse control. However, to what extent cocaine users show impaired decision-making under risk without feedback has not yet been investigated systematically. Therefore, to examine risk-taking behaviour, 31 chronic cocaine users and 26 stimulant-naïve healthy controls, who were part of the Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, performed the Randomized Lottery Task (RALT with winning lotteries consisting of an uncertain and a certain prospect. Results revealed that risky decisions were associated with male sex, increased cocaine use in the past year, higher cocaine concentrations in the hair, and younger age. In addition, higher levels of cocaine in the hair and cumulative lifetime consumption were associated with risky decisions, whereas potentially confounding factors including cognition and psychiatric symptoms had no significant effect. Taken together, our results indicate that cocaine users who increased their consumption over a period of one year show deficits in the processing of risky information accompanied with increased risk-taking. Future research should analyse whether risky decisions could potentially serve as a prognostic marker for cocaine use disorder.
Wittwer, Amrei; Hulka, Lea M; Heinimann, Hans R; Vonmoos, Matthias; Quednow, Boris B
Cocaine use disorder is associated with maladaptive decision-making behavior, which strongly contributes to the harmful consequences of chronic drug use. Prior research has shown that cocaine users exhibit impaired neuropsychological test performances, particularly with regard to attention, learning, and memory but also in executive functions such as decision-making and impulse control. However, to what extent cocaine users show impaired decision-making under risk without feedback has not yet been investigated systematically. Therefore, to examine risk-taking behavior, 31 chronic cocaine users and 26 stimulant-naïve healthy controls who were part of the Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, performed the Randomized Lottery Task (RALT) with winning lotteries consisting of an uncertain and a certain prospect. Results revealed that risky decisions were associated with male sex, increased cocaine use in the past year, higher cocaine concentrations in the hair, and younger age. In addition, higher levels of cocaine in the hair and cumulative lifetime consumption were associated with risky decisions, whereas potentially confounding factors including cognition and psychiatric symptoms had no significant effect. Taken together, our results indicate that cocaine users who increased their consumption over a period of 1 year show deficits in the processing of risky information accompanied with increased risk-taking. Future research should analyse whether risky decisions could potentially serve as a prognostic marker for cocaine use disorder.
Dowling, N A; Brown, M
The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.
Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A
The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p socio-demographic data, being an immigrant is the only protective factor reducing the social dysfunction in the last weeks of pregnancy (p stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.
Silva, J D A; Ariente, L C; Roza, B A; Mucci, S
The addition of psychologists to organ transplant teams is still new in Brazil. In seeking the efficient performance of this professional, the knowledge of the scientific production and the development of research in the area is fundamental. In this sense, this study aims to survey the Brazilian scientific research that has investigated the psychologic aspects involved in tissue and organ transplantation. A literature narrative review was performed with the use of the "Transplante AND Psicologia" descriptors in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the CAPES Journal Portal. Fifty-three articles were found, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria: publications dating from 2000 to 2014 and the main topic of interest of the studies being quality of life, followed by organ donation. The instruments used most frequently were interviews developed by the researchers and the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Recent Brazilian studies on the association between psychology and transplantation are still scarce, possibly because of the recent addition of psychologists to transplantation teams. Therefore, it is suggested that more scientific research is made in the area and that the objects of study are more varied, to ensure adequacy of the psychologist to meet the specific demands of organ and tissue transplantation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla
Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.
Bahrami, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Jafari, Nasim; Kaveh, Zabihollah; Isanejad, Omid
This study aimed to investigate the association of children's obesity with parental attachment and psychological variables as impulsivity, self-control and efficiency of eating control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 obese students aged 9-13 years selected by multistage cluster sampling from different areas of Isfahan, Iran. Three questionnaires were considered to be answered by the students and one for their parents. The students completed the following questionnaires: (i) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised version for Children (IPPA-R); (ii) Impulsivity Scale (IS); (iii) Efficiency of Eating Control; and (iv) Self-control Rating Scale (SCRS). The quality of children's attachment had direct effects on self-efficacy of eating management and on obesity by mediating of self-efficacy of eating. Moreover, attachment had direct effect on self-control and impulsivity, and in turn through these psychological variables, it had indirect effects on self-efficacy of eating management. The findings of this study underscore the importance of parent-child attachment quality. It can be suggested that childhood obesity can be prevented and managed with creating a secure attachment bond between children and parents and increasing perceived self-efficacy eating management in children. © 2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.
Schuller, Hildegard M.
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation. PMID:24633083
Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P women report more symptoms. The effect sizes regarding the impact of potential trauma on self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18-25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well.
Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba; Sorrenti, Luana; Buzzai, Caterina; Orecchio, Susanna; Costa, Sebastiano
Despite the extensive research on parental psychological control, no study has explored the relation between parental and teacher psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism and learned helplessness (LH). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether perceived teacher psychological control predicts positively LH, (2) whether…
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, −0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling. PMID:28849669
Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E
Objectives Underlying heterogeneity among individuals with cocaine dependence is widely postulated in the literature, however, identification of a group of factors that explain risk of cocaine use severity has yet to be confirmed. Methods Latent mixture modeling evaluated 338 cocaine-dependent individuals recruited from the community to assess the evidence for the presence of distinct subgroups. Variables included 5 baseline questionnaires measuring cognitive function (Shipley), impulsivity (BIS), mood (BDI), affective lability (ALS), and addiction severity (ASI). Results failed to suggest multiple subgroups. Given a lack of evidence for discrete latent classes, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was implemented to identify functional dimensions to enhance interpretation of these variables. Results Findings from the EFA indicated a 3-factor model as the best fit, and the subsequent ESEM solution resulted in associations with lifetime cocaine use. Factor 1, best characterized by demographic factors (gender, age), is associated with less lifetime cocaine use. Psychological problems best characterize factor 2, which is associated with higher lifetime cocaine use. Finally, factor 3 is characterized by other substance use (alcohol and marijuana). Although this factor did not demonstrate a statistically reliable relation with self-reported, lifetime cocaine use, it did indicate a potentially meaningful positive association. Conclusions These 3 factors delineate dimensions of functioning that likewise help characterize the variability found in previously established associations with self-reported cocaine use. PMID:26170765
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Stasenko, Alena; Matt, Georg E; Gollan, Tamar H
Bilingual language switching may increase general switching efficiency, but the evidence on this question is mixed. We hypothesized that group differences in switching might be stronger at a long cue-target interval (CTI), which may better tap general switching abilities (Yehene & Meiran, 2007). Eighty Spanish-English bilinguals and 80 monolinguals completed a color-shape switching task, and an analogous language-switching task, varying CTI (short vs. long) in both tasks. With longer preparation time (long CTI), bilinguals exhibited significantly smaller task-switching costs than monolinguals, but only in the first half of trials. Group differences diminished with practice, though practice benefitted RTs on short CTI trials more than long, and bilinguals committed fewer errors with practice especially at short CTI. Groups did not differ in mixing costs; however, across CTIs and tasks, bilinguals and monolinguals alike, exhibited robust correlations between mixing costs, but not between switching costs. These results confirm an association between bilingualism and switching efficiency that may be magnified with manipulations that target general switching ability (or could reflect better ability to take advantage of preparation time). However, practice effects observed within experimental paradigms, and between task correlations in costs, may reflect cognitive mechanisms specific to laboratory tasks much more than associations with general switching ability and executive control mechanisms-for which more reliable and valid measures can hopefully be developed in future work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Spanakis, Elias K; Wand, Gary S; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill
Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18-30 years; mean 24.6 ± 3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spanakis, Elias K.; Wand, Gary S.; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill
Introduction Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18–30 years; mean 24.6±3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. Results There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. Conclusions We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. PMID:26520685
Na, Sumin; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Lalonde, Christopher E.
First, the authors investigated the direct associations of vertical collectivism, ethnic identity exploration, and ethnic identity commitment with psychological well-being among first-generation Asian Canadian university students in Canada (n = 78). Second, to gain a more nuanced understanding of the association between vertical collectivism and…
Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.
Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…
Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna
A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…
Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Kurdyak, Paul
The objective of our study was to estimate direct healthcare costs incurred by a population-based sample of people with psychological distress or depression. We used the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health and Well Being and categorized individuals as having psychological distress using the Kessler-6, major depressive disorder (MDD) using DSM-IV criteria and a comparison group of participants without MDD or psychological distress. Costs in 2013 USD were estimated by linking individuals to health administrative databases and following them until March 31, 2013. Our sample consisted of 9,965 individuals, of whom 651 and 409 had psychological distress and MDD, respectively. Although the age-and-sex adjusted per-capita costs were similarly high among the psychologically distressed ($3,364, 95% CI: $2,791, $3,937) and those with MDD ($3,210, 95% CI: $2,413, $4,008) compared to the comparison group ($2,629, 95% CI: $2,312, $2,945), the population-wide excess costs for psychological distress ($441 million) were more than twice that for MDD ($210 million) as there was a greater number of people with psychological distress than depression. We found substantial healthcare costs associated with psychological distress and depression, suggesting that psychological distress and MDD have a high cost burden and there may be public health intervention opportunities to relieve distress. Further research examining how individuals with these conditions use the healthcare system may provide insight into the allocation of limited healthcare resources while maintaining high quality care. PMID:28873469
Liu, Liang; Xiao, Qi-fan; Zhang, Yan-li; Yao, Shu-kun
The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and associated factors, especially psychological and lifestyle factors, in nurses in China have not been investigated previously. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of IBS in nurses, to evaluate whether factors, such as psychological disorders, are associated with IBS, and to determine whether psychological disorders can influence the severity of symptoms of IBS and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional study was conducted for Chinese nurses from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires. The prevalence of IBS was 17.4%. The revised symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90-R) scores were significantly higher for nurses with IBS than for those without IBS (P<0.001), and no difference in scores between IBS subtypes was found (F=1.893, P=0.142). The scores of QOL for nurses with and without IBS were 77.18±21.93 and 88.44±11.89 (P<0.001), respectively. Psychological disorders did not show statistically significant correlations with severity of symptoms of IBS or QOL. Alcohol consumption, low level of exercise, and psychological disorders were risk factors for IBS. In summary, nurses in China show a high prevalence of IBS. Psychological disorders and some related lifestyle factors are probably responsible for the development of IBS in nurses. PMID:24903997
Gadalla, Tahany M
Gerontological social workers and other health professionals are often dealing with older adults in psychological distress. Greater clarity on the relationship between stress and psychological distress will enhance the efficacy of outreach and treatment initiatives for older adults. This study explored the underlying causal structure of the relationships of common life stressors and psychosocial resources for Canadians 65 years and older (542 men and 835 women). Using structural equation modeling of data collected in the National Population Health Survey in 2004-2005 and 2002-2003, the roles played by socioeconomic conditions, physical health, chronic stress, sense of mastery, and perceived social support in the stress-psychological distress relationship were estimated and compared. Findings revealed that chronic stress was the strongest determinant of the level of psychological distress for both genders; however its effect was higher for men compared to women. Poor physical health played a more important role in determining women's psychological distress compared to men. Higher levels of mastery and perceived social support were associated with lower levels of psychological distress for both men and women. These associations were somewhat stronger for men compared with women. Socio-economic conditions played a minor role in the stress-mental health relationship for both genders.
Benjamin, Ludy T; Crouse, Ellen M
In 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision (1896) that was the foundation of school segregation in 17 states and the District of Columbia. Brown is arguably the most important Supreme Court decision of the 20th century in terms of its influence on American history. Moreover, it has a special significance for psychology because it marked the first time that psychological research was cited in a Supreme Court decision and because social science data were seen as paramount in the Court's decision to end school segregation. This article describes psychologist Kenneth B. Clark's role in that case and the response of the American Psychological Association to scientific psychology's moment in a great spotlight.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of compatible or incompatible emotional valence and semantic information is an essential aspect of complex social interactions. A modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT called Dual Valence Association Task (DVAT was designed in order to measure conflict resolution processing from compatibility/incompatibly of semantic and facial valence. The DVAT involves two emotional valence evaluative tasks which elicits two forms of emotional compatible/incompatible associations (facial and semantic. Methods Behavioural measures and Event Related Potentials were recorded while participants performed the DVAT. Results Behavioural data showed a robust effect that distinguished compatible/incompatible tasks. The effects of valence and contextual association (between facial and semantic stimuli showed early discrimination in N170 of faces. The LPP component was modulated by the compatibility of the DVAT. Conclusions Results suggest that DVAT is a robust paradigm for studying the emotional interference effect in the processing of simultaneous information from semantic and facial stimuli.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state)], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years). Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects. PMID:24385960
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.
Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years. Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects.
Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.
OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153
Marion E T McMurdo
Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.
McMurdo, Marion E T; Argo, Ishbel; Crombie, Iain K; Feng, Zhiqiang; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T
To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Cross sectional survey. 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. 547 older people (mean (SD) age 79(8) years, 54% female) were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2) = 0.32). In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.
Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman
Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.
Full Text Available Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population.In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to screen for anxiety and depression.After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27 and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15, compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81 compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16 and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12 than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87 than those with a non-healthy diet.We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.
Decaluwé, V; Braet, C; Moens, E; Van Vlierberghe, L
The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent parental psychological characteristics and parental behavior are related to psychological problems in obese youngsters. Data were collected from 196 families having an overweight youngster (range 10-16 years old) (mean body mass index (BMI)=31.2; s.d.=5.3) seeking weight-loss treatment and compared with data from normal weight samples. Behavior problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist; the Child version of the Eating Disorder Examination was used to assess eating disorder psychopathology. Parental psychopathology was measured using the Symptom Checklist-90; parenting behavior was assessed with the Ghent Parental Behavior Scale. Parental psychopathology was prevalent in 59.6% of mothers and 35.7% of fathers. Youngsters exceeding the cutoff for problem behavior ranged between 41.4 and 53.1%. Children's problem behavior was most associated with psychopathology in the mother (r=0.40 for Internalizing and r=0.37 for Externalizing; both Pdiscipline, although the effect was stronger for Externalizing behavior (explained variance: 10%) than for Internalizing behavior (explained variance: 4%). No evidence was found for a mediator effect from parenting behavior on the eating disorder symptoms of the obese youngsters. However, several direct relations emerged, suggesting a negative association between a child's eating disorder symptoms and Positive parenting behavior by the mother (r= -0.20 for Eating concern; r= -0.18 for Restraint eating; r= -0.16 for Shape concern; all Pstyle, namely inconsistent discipline on the part of the mother. Pediatric obesity treatments should focus more on parenting behaviors and parental characteristics.
Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
One important aspect of subjective judgments about one's well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the "the ideal life." In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents' nationality. Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of subjective well-being and psychological well
Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Xie, Yao Jie; Chen, Ya-Jun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Chan, Dicken; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; He, Qiqiang; Tse, Lap Ah; Woo, Jean
The aim of this study is to explore the association of dietary patterns with depression, perceived stress, and self-esteem among postmenopausal Chinese women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 906 participants who attended the screening visits for two soy trials. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire containing 85 food items. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns based on 11 food groups. Psychological factors were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. We identified three dietary patterns as follows: processed foods (refined grains, preserved foods, fat meat, fried foods, and sweets), whole plant foods (whole grains, vegetables, and fruits), and animal foods (fish, lean meat, and milk products). Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that whole plant food intake was negatively associated with depression score (P = 0.030). Processed food intake was positively associated with perceived stress (P = 0.025) and depression (P = 0.073), and negatively associated with scores of self-esteem (P = 0.046). The highest tertile of processed foods score was associated with 79.3% increased risk of depression (P for trend = 0.006), whereas the highest tertile of whole plant food score was associated with 26% reduction of depression (P for trend = 0.023) relative to the lowest tertile. Dietary patterns featuring a low intake of processed foods and/or a high intake of whole plant foods were associated with a reduced risk of depression and perceived stress.
Dede Yildirim, Elif; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L
Physical punishment has received worldwide attention because of its negative impact on children's cognitive and social development and its implications for children's rights. Using UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 4 and 5 data, we assessed the associations between positive discipline, harsh physical punishment, physical punishment and psychological aggression and preschoolers' literacy skills in 5628 preschool-aged children and their caregivers in the developing nations of Belize, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica and Suriname. Caregivers across countries used high levels of explanations and psychological aggression. There were significant country differences in the use of the four disciplinary practices. In the Dominican Republic and Guyana, physical punishment had negative associations with children's literacy skills, and in the Dominican Republic, positive discipline had a positive association with children's literacy skills. Findings are discussed with respect to the negative consequences of harsh disciplinary practices on preschoolers' early literacy skills in the developing world. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Arase, Sohei; Watanabe, Yohei; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi
Psychological stress can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms underlying how psychological stress affects gut inflammation remain unclear. Here, we focused on the relationship between changes in the microbial community of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria (MACB) and mucosal immune responses induced by chronic psychological stress in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, we examined the effect of probiotic treatment on exacerbated colitis and MACB composition changes induced by chronic psychological stress. Repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) in B6-Tcra-/- mice severely exacerbated colitis, which was evaluated by both colorectal tissue weight and histological score of colitis. rWAS treatment increased mRNA expression of UCN2 and IFN-γ in large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC). Interestingly, exacerbated colitis was associated with changes in the microbial community of MACB, specifically loss of bacterial species diversity and an increase in the component ratio of Clostridium, revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. Finally, the oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus strain was protective against the exacerbation of colitis and was associated with a change in the bacterial community of MACB in rWAS-exposed Tcra-/- mice. Taken together, these results suggested that loss of species diversity in MACB might play a key role in exacerbated colitis induced by chronic psychological stress. In addition, probiotic treatment may be used as a tool to preserve the diversity of bacterial species in MACB and alleviate gut inflammation induced by psychological stress.
Voos, Mariana Callil; Pimentel Piemonte, Maria Elisa; Castelli, Lilian Zanchetta; Andrade Machado, Mariane Silva; Dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Pereira; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Ribeiro Do Valle, Luiz Eduardo
The influence of educational status on perceptual-motor performance has not been investigated. The single- and dual-task performances of 15 Low educated adults (9 men, 6 women; M age=24.1 yr.; 6-9 yr. of education) and 15 Higher educated adults (8 men, 7 women; M age=24.7 yr.; 10-13 yr. of education) were compared. The perceptual task consisted of verbally classifying two figures (equal or different). The motor task consisted of alternating steps from the floor to a stool. Tasks were assessed individually and simultaneously. Two analyses of variance (2 groups×4 blocks) compared the errors and steps. The Low education group committed more errors and had less improvement on the perceptual task than the High education group. During and after the perceptual-motor task performance, errors increased only in the Low education group. Education correlated to perceptual and motor performance. The Low education group showed more errors and less step alternations on the perceptual-motor task compared to the High education group. This difference on the number of errors was also observed after the dual-task, when the perceptual task was performed alone.
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status
Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.
Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju
Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Manrique, Christine; Migliorati, Martine; Gilbert, Valérie; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Chaillan, Franck A; Truchet, Bruno; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Roman, François S
Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is associated with polysialic acid (PSA), and its function is highly dependent on the extent of polysialylation through the activity of two polysialyltransferases, sialyltransferase-X (STX) and polysialyltransferase (PST). PSA-NCAM plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The involvement of STX and PST during mnesic processes was assessed in the adult rat hippocampus. We investigated whether different levels in learning and memory using an olfactory associative task influenced STX and PST gene expression in the hippocampus using semiquantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, NCAM polysialylation and cell proliferation were quantified in the dentate gyrus of a "Learning and Memory" group using immunohistochemistry. We found that only the expression level of PST mRNA increased with learning performance and returned to an initial level when learned associations were consolidated in long-term memory, while STX mRNA levels remained unchanged. This phenomenon was accompanied by an increase in PSA on NCAM but not by cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Our results suggest a different involvement for STX and PST in neural plasticity: while STX is probably involved in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, PST could play a key role in synaptic plasticity of mature neural networks. The expression of the STX and PST genes could, therefore, be useful markers of neurobiological plasticity in the brain, allowing to follow chronological events in limbic and cortical structures related first to learning and memory processes (for PST) and, second, to adult neurogenesis processes (for STX). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Locke, Jill; Violante, Stephanie; Pullmann, Michael D; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Dorsey, Shannon
Despite increasing interest in supervision as a leverage point for bolstering public mental health services, the potential influence of supervisory alliance on organizations and direct service providers remains understudied, particularly in the context of supporting evidence-based treatment (EBT) use. This study examined agreement and discrepancy between supervisor and clinician ratings of alliance associated with clinicians' perceptions of psychological climate and emotional exhaustion. Results indicated that discrepancies in alliance ratings were common and associated with clinicians' perceptions of psychological climate. These findings have important implications for collaboration among supervisors and clinicians within a community mental health organizational context and the provision of EBTs.
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060
Tlhajoane, Malebogo; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Takaruza, Albert; Rhead, Rebecca; Maswera, Rufurwokuda; Schur, Nadine; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon
The correlation between mental health and sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection remains largely unknown in low and middle income settings. The present study determined the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a sub-Saharan African population with a generalized HIV epidemic, and investigated associations with HIV acquisition risk and uptake of HIV services using data from a cross-sectional survey of 13,252 adults. PD was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between PD and hypothesized covariates. The prevalence of PD was 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1%) among men, and 12.9% (95% CI 12.2-13.6%) among women. PD was associated with sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection and HIV-infected individuals were more likely to suffer from PD. Amongst those initiated on anti-retroviral therapy, individuals with PD were less likely to adhere to treatment (91 vs. 96%; age- and site-type-adjusted odds ratio = 0.38; 95% CI 0.15, 0.99). Integrated HIV and mental health services may enhance HIV care and treatment outcomes in high HIV-prevalence populations in sub-Saharan Africa.
Full Text Available Kenichi Hirashima,1,2 Yumi Higuchi,1 Masakazu Imaoka,1 Emiko Todo,1 Tomomi Kitagawa,1 Tetsuya Ueda11Graduate School of Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Osaka Prefecture University, Habikino Campus, Habikino City, Osaka, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Welfare, Department of Physical Therapy, Tokushima Bunri University, Nishihamaboji, Yamashiro Town, Tokushima City, Tokushima, Japan Aim: Dual-task methods, in which walking is the primary task, are not sufficient for accurately screening for the risk of falls among healthy older adults. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate whether using a dual-task method over an extended walking distance can predict falls among community-dwelling older adults.Methods: We enrolled independent community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Physical performance, cognitive function, psychological function, and a dual-task test were assessed at baseline. Our dual-task test required the subjects to walk 60 m while stepping over lines. The intervals between the lines ranged from 50–100 cm and were unequal. Falls and fall-related injuries were measured over a 12-month follow-up period using monthly postal surveys. Results: Ninety-two of 118 subjects (mean age, 75.4±5.5 years completed the 12-month follow-up. Sixteen (17.4% of fallers had injurious falls or fell more than or equal to two times. There were no significant differences between the fallers and non-fallers, except in age and in the number of missteps during the dual-task test when walking ≥40 m. The Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that those who had more than one misstep while walking ≥40 m had a significantly higher incidence of injurious or multiple falls than those who had no missteps.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the dual-task method with an extended walking distance may be able to predict falls among community-dwelling older adults. Keywords: cohort study, community-dwelling older adults, dual-task, falls
Nawroth, Christian; Prentice, Pamela M; McElligott, Alan G
Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits ('exploration' and 'sociability') of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent across time and context. Less explorative goats performed better in a non-associative cognitive task, in which subjects had to follow the trajectory of a hidden object (i.e. testing their ability for object permanence). We also found that less sociable subjects performed better compared to more sociable goats in a visual discrimination task. Good visual learning performance was associated with a preference for feature cues, indicating personality-dependent learning strategies in goats. Our results suggest that personality traits predict the outcome in visual discrimination and non-associative cognitive tasks in goats and that impaired performance in a visual discrimination tasks does not necessarily imply impaired learning capacities, but rather can be explained by a varying preference for feature cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Committee for Psychological Tests of the Slovenian Psychological Association (SPA is participating actively in the work of the Task Force for Tests and Testing of the European Federation of Professional Psychological Associations (EFPPA. This task force developed the questionnaire on tests and testing for psychologists, members of the national associations in the European states, which are members of EFPPA. 321 psychologists answered the questionnaire in Slovenia. We have collected the opinions of psychologists about various topics regarding the use of psychological tests: knowledge and competence, legal standards and control, missuse and abuse of tests and testing, testing procedures and their limitations, significance of tests and testing etc. In addition, psychologists named three psychological tests they use most frequently. The respondents also provided useful commentaries on test use. In our study, Slovenian results are also compared with answers of psychologists in Great Britain, Spain, Croatia and Germany.
Barreira, Alice Kelly; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho de; Avanci, Joviana Quintes
The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents from Recife, Brazil, to identify associated factors and the co-occurrence of both types of violence. 302 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in public and private schools who were in a relationship in the last year filled out the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis were performed and the sample weight and the complex sample design were entered. The prevalence was 19.9% of physical violence 82.8% of psychological violence and 18.9% for the co-occurrence of both. Adolescents who have experienced violence in the community and who were in dating relationships of more than one year duration were more likely to perpetrate psychological violence. For the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence, the variables that increased the chance of perpetration were suffering physical violence from the father, violence among siblings, physical violence and the perpetration of verbal violence in previous relationships. The conclusion reached is that psychological violence and the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence have a distinct dynamics from physical violence in dating relationships.
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
There is evidence that intrapersonal psychological factors might contribute to the development of binge eating. However, studies considering reciprocal effects between risk factors and disordered eating are rare. The present article investigates the nature of the temporal relationships between binge eating and low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and the internalization of the societal body ideal in adolescence while taking into account the moderating effects of age and gender. A German population-based sample of 1039 boys and girls from 12 to 19 years of age answered self-report questionnaires on risk factors and eating pathology on 2 measurement points separated by 20 months. Data were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. Low self-esteem, interoceptive deficits, weight/shape concerns, and the internalization of the societal body ideal predicted binge eating longitudinally in bivariate analyses. Binge eating predicted later depressive symptoms, whereas perfectionism and dietary restraint were not longitudinally linked to binge eating in either direction. Low self-esteem and weight/shape concerns emerged as multivariate predictors of binge eating in girls and boys, respectively. No moderating effects of age were observed. The results suggest that depressive symptoms might rather be a consequence of binge eating than a risk factor, and this underscores that even subclinical eating pathology might be associated with negative psychological outcomes. Central risk factors that should be targeted in prevention programs might be low self-esteem for girls and weight/shape concerns for boys.
Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914
Simpson, C. A.
In the present study of the responses of pairs of pilots to aircraft warning classification tasks using an isolated word, speaker-dependent speech recognition system, the induced stress was manipulated by means of different scoring procedures for the classification task and by the inclusion of a competitive manual control task. Both speech patterns and recognition accuracy were analyzed, and recognition errors were recorded by type for an isolated word speaker-dependent system and by an offline technique for a connected word speaker-dependent system. While errors increased with task loading for the isolated word system, there was no such effect for task loading in the case of the connected word system.
Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara
A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.
Flórez, Gerardo; Vila, Xosé A; Lado, María J; Cuesta, Pedro; Ferrer, Ventura; García, Luis S; Crespo, María R; Pérez, Manuel
Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary. Psychopathy signs and symptoms were scored through interview and file review. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and heart rate variability (HRV) experiments were also conducted. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was performed as a control measure. Spectral HRV indices were able to detect psychopathic inmates at a significant level, while IAT experiments and the IGT could not discriminate them. HRV indices showed a more significant difference when assessing the affective-interpersonal dimensions of psychopathy. An HRV experiment is better than IAT in order to detect psychopathy in a representative sample of Spanish inmates. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Byne, William; Bradley, Susan J; Coleman, Eli; Eyler, A Evan; Green, Richard; Menvielle, Edgardo J; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Pleak, Richard R; Tompkins, D Andrew
Both the diagnosis and treatment of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) are controversial. Although linked, they are separate issues and the DSM does not evaluate treatments. The Board of Trustees (BOT) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), therefore, formed a Task Force charged to perform a critical review of the literature on the treatment of GID at different ages, to assess the quality of evidence pertaining to treatment, and to prepare a report that included an opinion as to whether or not sufficient credible literature exists for development of treatment recommendations by the APA. The literature on treatment of gender dysphoria in individuals with disorders of sex development was also assessed. The completed report was accepted by the BOT on September 11, 2011. The quality of evidence pertaining to most aspects of treatment in all subgroups was determined to be low; however, areas of broad clinical consensus were identified and were deemed sufficient to support recommendations for treatment in all subgroups. With subjective improvement as the primary outcome measure, current evidence was judged sufficient to support recommendations for adults in the form of an evidence-based APA Practice Guideline with gaps in the empirical data supplemented by clinical consensus. The report recommends that the APA take steps beyond drafting treatment recommendations. These include issuing position statements to clarify the APA's position regarding the medical necessity of treatments for GID, the ethical bounds of treatments of gender variant minors, and the rights of persons of any age who are gender variant, transgender or transsexual.
Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio
The effect on likability of multiple subliminal exposures to the same person was investigated. Past studies on the mere exposure effect indicated a correlation between the frequency of repeated exposure to the same stimulus and likability. We proposed that exposure to various stimuli of the same person would have a stronger effect on likability. Participants were subliminally exposed to photographs of a person's face taken from seven angles (multi-angle-exposure) three times each (Experiment 1), or photographs of a person with seven facial expressions (multi-expression-exposure) three times each (Experiment 2). Then, the likability toward the exposed person was measured using the Go/No-go Association Task. The results indicated that the effect of the multiple exposures from various angles was equivalent to exposure to only one full-face photograph shown 21 times (Experiment 1). Moreover, likability was significantly higher in the case of exposure to various facial expressions than for exposure to only a single facial expression (Experiment 2). The results suggest that exposure to various stimuli in a category is more effective than repeated exposure to a single stimulus for increasing likability.
Fitzpatrick, Anna; Davids, Keith; Stone, Joseph Antony
The Lawn Tennis Association's mini tennis (MT) is a modified version of tennis consisting of progressive stages; however, there have been few attempts to evaluate how MT might shape performance behaviours. Here, we examine effects of playing MT on the emergence of children's match-play behaviours in 48 junior tennis players. Performance in 1010 match-play points were filmed and coded across 4 tennis stages (MT Red, MT Orange, MT Green and Full Ball), using a notational analysis system. Recorded performance variables included rally length, first serve percentage and shot type, for the purpose of analysing inter-stage comparisons. Results showed a series of specific adaptations to playing characteristics across the stages, including rally length, shot variety and serve success. MT Red rallies (7.36 ± 6.06) were longer than Full Ball rallies (3.83 ± 2.40), and a higher percentage of forehands were played at MT Red (66.40 ± 8.49%) than at Full Ball stage (45.96 ± 6.47%). Findings suggested that MT stages can afford children more opportunities to develop their skills and elicit different match-play characteristics than Full Ball task constraints. Coaches, therefore, should consider the nature of emergent adaptations when designing practice environments to facilitate learning in young tennis players.
Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus
The impact of traumatic exposure on psychological distress and posttraumatic stress was investigated at 14 months through self-report in 1,505 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Exposure, differentiated in single and multiple types, was associated with different levels of impaired mental health measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, having sole exposure to subjective life threat brought about specific psychological effects. Some demographic factors are associated with outcome on either the GHQ or the IES-R. Identifying specific types of exposure of disaster survivors may be a way to identify individuals who could be screened for psychological ill health at a later point in time.
Hessels, Marco G.P.
Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.
Full Text Available This review systematically assessed the clinical evidence for and against acupuncture as a treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The database was accessed from MEDLINE and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. We included all randomized clinical trials published in Chinese and English regardless of their controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software, version 5.2. We conducted a literature search of 16 databases from their inception to January 2014. Four studies from Western countries did not report any clinical gains in the treatment of psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. 10 of 12 studies from China have reported positive findings regarding the use of acupuncture to treat the psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. The meta-analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group for anxiety and depression associated with opioid addiction, although groups did not differ on opioid craving. This review and meta-analysis could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. However, considering the potential of acupuncture demonstrated in the included studies, further rigorous randomized controlled trials with long followup are warranted.
Mayo, Charles S; Moran, Jean M; Bosch, Walter; Xiao, Ying; McNutt, Todd; Popple, Richard; Michalski, Jeff; Feng, Mary; Marks, Lawrence B; Fuller, Clifton D; Yorke, Ellen; Palta, Jatinder; Gabriel, Peter E; Molineu, Andrea; Matuszak, Martha M; Covington, Elizabeth; Masi, Kathryn; Richardson, Susan L; Ritter, Timothy; Morgas, Tomasz; Flampouri, Stella; Santanam, Lakshmi; Moore, Joseph A; Purdie, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C; Hurkmans, Coen; Adams, Judy; Jackie Wu, Qing-Rong; Fox, Colleen J; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo; Brown, Norman L; Verbakel, Wilko; Archambault, Yves; Chmura, Steven J; Dekker, Andre L; Eagle, Don G; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Hong, Theodore; Kapoor, Rishabh; Lansing, Beth; Jolly, Shruti; Napolitano, Mary E; Percy, James; Rose, Mark S; Siddiqui, Salim; Schadt, Christof; Simon, William E; Straube, William L; St James, Sara T; Ulin, Kenneth; Yom, Sue S; Yock, Torunn I
A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO
Roselyne Anyango Okumu
Full Text Available Objective: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data were collected between May and August 2015 using structured questionnaires while qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions. This manuscript is based on quantitative data which were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Psychological distress index was created by counting the number of psychological experiences reported by respondents. Kendall's tau-b was used to test the association between the psychological distress index and socioeconomic characteristics; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The respondents experienced anxiety, shock, and fatigue. Spending a higher proportion of family's income was associated with higher psychological distress index (P = 0.009. The economic challenge led to significantly heightened tension in the family (P = 0.021. Conclusions: Financial challenge is a major cause of psychological distress thus needs for financial support through collaboration with government institutions, for example, NHIF, development agencies, and nongovernment organization who can contribute toward the treatment cost. Need to decentralize effective leukemia treatment centers. Psychological support and counseling should be done to alleviate tension. The nurse needs to be empathetic when caring for the child and family as well as to apply the ethical principles of justice and beneficence so that the child gets the best care despite the financial challenge.
Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Osborn, Chandra Y; Wagner, Julie
Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus. Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 121) who completed baseline assessments for the CALMS-D (Community Health Workers Assisting Latinos Manage Stress and Diabetes) stress management intervention trial completed the US Household Food Security Survey, and measures of depressive symptoms [Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-short], diabetes distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID-5)], and sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Psychological distress was operationalized with the PHQ-8, PROMIS-short, and PAID-5 scales. We used unadjusted and adjusted indirect effect tests with bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% CIs on 10,000 samples to test both relations between variables and potential mediation. Mean age was 61 y, 74% were women, and 67% were food insecure. Experiencing HFI was associated with both greater psychological distress and worse sleep quality (P sleep quality with and without adjustment for age, education, income, marital status, and employment status. Household food insecurity is a common and potent household stressor that is associated with suboptimal sleep quality through psychological distress. Efforts to improve food security and decrease psychological distress may yield improved sleep in this high-risk population. The CALMS-D stress management
Merritt, Stephanie M; Lee, Deborah; Unnerstall, Jennifer L; Huber, Kelli
We present alternative operationalizations of trust calibration and examine their associations with predictors and outcomes. It is thought that trust calibration (correspondence between aid reliability and user trust in the aid) is a key to effective human-automation performance. We propose that calibration can be operationalized in three ways. Perceptual accuracy is the extent to which the user perceives the aid's reliability accurately at one point in time. Perceptual sensitivity and trust sensitivity reflect user adjustment of perceived reliability and trust as the aid's actual reliability changes over time. One hundred fifty-five students completed an X-ray screening task with an automated screener. Awareness of the aid's accuracy trajectory and error type was examined as predictors, and task performance and aid failure detection were examined as outcomes. Awareness of accuracy trajectory was significantly associated with all three operationalizations of calibration, but awareness of error type was not when considered in conjunction with accuracy trajectory. Contrary to expectations, only perceptual accuracy was significantly associated with task performance and failure detection, and combined, the three operationalizations accounted for only 9% and 4% of the variance in these outcomes, respectively. Our results suggest that the potential importance of trust calibration warrants further examination. Moderators may exist. Users who were better able to perform the task unaided were better able to identify and correct aid failure, suggesting that user task training and expertise may benefit human-automation performance.
Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology.
Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria
The younger individuals quit smoking, the greater the health benefits. We studied the role of adolescent and concurrent psychological, social and familial factors in successful tobacco cessation in a general population sample of French young adults. Our data came from participants of the TEMPO cohort study and their parents (members of the GAZEL cohort study) in France. Among regular smokers (n = 678), Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios of self-reported tobacco cessation of at least 12 months in relation to individual and socioenvironmental variables. On average, participants (mean: 28.9 years) smoked for 10.51 years (SD = 5.9); the majority had attempted to quit smoking at least once (59.5%). In multiple regression analyses, cannabis use in the preceding year and recent financial difficulties were both negatively associated with successful smoking cessation. Conversely, living with a partner and, for women only, recent pregnancy or childbirth were associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco cessation. This study highlights the importance of young adults' cannabis use, family situation and socioeconomic context with regard to their smoking behavior. Physicians and public health decision makers aiming to decrease the burden of tobacco smoking should take into consideration these social and behavioral factors.
Mehić-Basara, Nermana; Oruč, Lilijana; Kapur-Pojskić, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin
There is a clear evidence that same psychoactive substance may cause various individual physiological reactions in same environmental conditions. Although there is a general attitude on equal liability to opioid addiction, latest genetic analysis findings imply there are certain quantifiable factors that could lead to elevated individual liability towards development of opioid addiction. The goal of this study was to investigate association of certain personality traits and genetic factors (separately and in combination) with heroin addiction. Total of 200 individuals participated in the study: 100 patients on Metadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 100 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. All were medically examined, interviewed and psychologically evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and genotyped for DRD2 (rs1800497) using PCR-RFLP method. Overrepresentation of certain personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion/intraversion), together with environemental risk factors such as: upbringing within incomplete families and familial history of psychotropic substances abuse, are associated with high-risk development of opioid addiction. PMID:23988166
Khan, F; Pallant, J F; Ng, L; Bhasker, A
To examine factors impacting long-term health-related outcomes in survivors of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Seventy-six consecutive patients with definite GBS admitted to the Royal Melbourne Hospital (1996-2009) were reviewed in the neurorehabilitation clinics. They underwent a structured interview designed to assess the impact of GBS on their current activity and restriction in participation using validated questionnaires: Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Their sociodemographic and disease severity data were obtained from the medical record. The 76 patients [60% male, mean age 56 years, median time since GBS 6 years (range 1-14 years)] showed good functional recovery (median motor FIM score 90). However, 16% reported moderate to extreme impact on their ability to participate in work, family, and social activities; and 22% substantial impact on mood, confidence and ability to live independently. More reported moderate to extreme depression (18%), anxiety (22%) and stress (17%) compared with the normative Australian population (13%). Factors associated with poorer current level of functioning and wellbeing included: females, older patients (57+ years), acute hospital stay (>11 days), those treated in intensive care and those discharged to rehabilitation. No associations were found between the Medical Research Council (MRC) Motor Scale Rating scores at admission, nor time since GBS diagnosis (≤6 vs. >6 years) on outcomes used. GBS is complex and requires long-term management of psychological sequelae impacting activity and participation.
Heesch, Kristiann C; Giles-Corti, Billie; Turrell, Gavin
Interest is growing in promoting utility cycling (i.e., for transport) as a means of incorporating daily physical activity (PA) into people's lives, but little is known about correlates of utility cycling. Our primary aim was to examine cross-sectional relationships between socio-economic characteristics, neighborhood environment perceptions and psychological disposition with utility cycling (with or without additional recreational cycling). A secondary aim was to compare these relationships with those for recreation-only cycling. Baseline survey data (2007) from 10,233 participants in HABITAT, a multilevel longitudinal study of PA, sedentary behavior, and health in Brisbane adults aged 40-65years, were analyzed using multinomial regression modeling. Greater income, habitual PA, and positive beliefs about PA were associated with utility and recreation-only cycling (precreation-only cycling (precreational destinations) were associated with utility cycling (precreation-only cycling in Brisbane residents aged 40-65years. Tailored approaches appear to be required to promote utility and recreational cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a clear evidence that same psychoactive substance may cause various individual physiological reactions in same environmental conditions. Although there is a general attitude on equal liability to opioid addiction, latest genetic analysis findings imply there are certain quantifiable factors that could lead to elevated individual liability towards development of opioid addiction. The goal of this study was to investigate association of certain personality traits and genetic factors (separately and in combination with heroin addiction. Total of 200 individuals participated in the study: 100 patients on Metadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT and 100 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. All were medically examined, interviewed and psychologically evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ and genotyped for DRD2 (rs1800497 using PCR-RFLP method. Overrepresentation of certain personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion/intraversion, together with environemental risk factors such as: upbringing within incomplete families and familial history of psychotropic substances abuse, are associated with high-risk development of opioid addiction.
Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia
Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.
Bränström, Richard; Duncan, Larissa G; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie
There is increasing recognition of the links between mindfulness, decreased stress, and healthier psychological functioning. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in US samples and the mechanisms through which mindfulness decreases stress and increases well-being are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between mindfulness and psychological functioning in a general population sample in Sweden. This cross-sectional study examined the association of mindfulness and five subscales of mindfulness with depression, anxiety, positive states of mind (PSOM), and perceived health. In the spring of 2007, a random population-based sample of N= 1,000 individuals aged 18-60 years in Sweden was contacted by mail with a request to participate in the study. Mindfulness and some of its subscales, in particular Acting with awareness and Non-reactivity to inner experiences, were strongly related to PSOM and perceived health, and inversely related to depression and anxiety. Tests of the moderating role of mindfulness showed that the associations of perceived stress with depression and perceived health were diminished for those with higher levels of mindfulness. Mindfulness is strongly related to well-being and perceived health. Results suggest that dispositional mindfulness might buffer against the negative influence of perceived stress on psychological well-being. These findings give additional support for the use of mindfulness training as a way of improving psychological functioning among people experiencing stress. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Barsom, Susannah Heyer; Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; Koch, Patricia Bartholow; Gierach, Gretchen; West, Sheila G
In previous studies of the relationship between stress and menstrual cycles, stress has been found to be associated with longer cycles, to be associated with shorter cycles, and to have no association with cycle length. Some of the menstrual cycle changes that have been attributed to stress are similar to those experienced by women during perimenopause. In an effort to see whether an association between psychological stress and menstrual cycle characteristics can be detected in women approaching menopause, this study examines this relationship in perimenopausal women who are participants in the Tremin Research Program on Women's Health. The analyses used prospectively recorded bleeding data and retrospectively captured life-event data. A single-year cross-sectional analysis of data from 206 women shows no correlation between stress level, as measured by total number and severity of stressful life events, and cycle characteristics, including interval length, duration of bleed, and variability in both of these factors, nor are there significant differences in cycle characteristics between subgroups of women with different overall levels of stress. In analyzing stress levels and cycle characteristics across 2 years, however, women with marked increases in their level of stress (n = 30) are shown to have decreased length (-0.2 days/cycle) of menstrual cycle intervals and decreased duration of bleed (-0.1 day/cycle) compared with increases in these measures (+2.9 days/cycle for cycle interval; +0.3 days/cycle for duration of bleed) among women with no marked change in stress level (n = 103); t-tests indicate that these differences are significant (p < .05).
Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies...... blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50...
Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs
The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association
Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…
Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut
Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.
Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori
Several previous studies showed that the lack of organizational justice was associated with poor mental health. However, no study examined the effect modification by internal factor, such as coping strategies, on the association of organizational justice with mental health. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect modification by coping strategies on the association of organizational justice with psychological distress. A total of 471 men and 764 women from a manufacturing company in Japan completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, K6 scale (i.e., psychological distress scale), Brief Scales for Coping Profile, and demographic characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for each coping strategy. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the association of the lack of procedural justice with psychological distress was greater among the low changing a point of view group than among their counterparts. Furthermore, the interaction term of procedural justice with changing a point of view was significant. The association of the lack of procedural justice and interactional justice with psychological distress was also greater among the high emotional expression involving others group than among their counterparts, while the interaction terms of procedural justice and interactional justice with emotional expression involving others were marginally significant. Positive emotion-focused coping strategies, such as changing a point of view, may effectively prevent psychological distress when there is a lack of organizational justice, while problem-focused coping strategies may have no effects, and negative emotion-focused coping strategies, such as emotional expression involving others, may have harmful effects on the association.
Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.
Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…
van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H
Objectives: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the
Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.
Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative
Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa
In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…
Deng, W; Cheung, S T; Tsao, S W; Wang, X M; Tiwari, A F Y
To summarise and discuss the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. A systematic review was carried out to identify prospective or retrospective studies and interventions published up to June 2015 that reported associations between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Electronic data bases of PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched. Twenty six studies on humans measured telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or leukocytes and examined its association with psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Of those studies, three reported significantly decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic psychological stress. Interestingly, one of the three studies found that acute laboratory psychological stress significantly increased telomerase activity. Nine studies reported mixed results on association between mental disorders and telomerase activity. Of the nine studies, five reported that major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with significantly increased telomerase activity. In thirteen out of fourteen studies on lifestyle factors, it was reported that physical exercise, diet micronutrient supplementation, mindfulness meditation, Qigong practice or yoga mediation resulted in increase in telomerase activity. In addition, two studies on animal models showed that depression-like behaviour was associated with decreased hippocampus telomerase activity. Five animal studies showed that physical exercise increased telomerase activity by cell-type-specific and genotype-specific manners. Although multi-facet results were reported on the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors, there were some consistent findings in humans such as (1) decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic stress, (2) increased
Full Text Available The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology in researching historical mental types (“Annals school” are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.
Full Text Available The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25 was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short, representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.
Klein, Ariel; Badia, Toni
In this study we show how complex creative relations can arise from fairly frequent semantic relations observed in everyday language. By doing this, we reflect on some key cognitive aspects of linguistic and general creativity. In our experimentation, we automated the process of solving a battery of Remote Associates Test tasks. By applying…
Karthik Laksham Balajee
Full Text Available Context: There is paucity of data on the comparison of psychological distress among chronic noncommunicable disease (NCD and healthy subjects in developing countries such as India. Objective: To assess and compare psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural field practice area attached to a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected from the chronic disease subjects which included those with diabetes and or hypertension registered in the rural health center. Healthy subjects residing nearest to the corresponding case from the respective village were taken as controls. Psychological distress was assessed by General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12. Results: There were 260 subjects with 130 in each group. Subjects with chronic disease had significantly higher proportion of psychological distress (50.8% compared to healthy subjects (35.4%. The mean ± standard deviation GHQ 12 score of those with chronic disease is also significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (13.35 ± 4.89 vs. 11.15 ± 4.43, P< 0.001. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension had higher psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.5 compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion: Subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension have higher proportion of psychological distress compared to healthy subjects. Screening subjects with chronic NCD for psychological distress may help to take appropriate measures.
Aasheim, V; Waldenström, U; Hjelmstedt, A; Rasmussen, S; Pettersson, H; Schytt, E
To investigate if advanced maternal age at first birth increases the risk of psychological distress during pregnancy at 17 and 30 weeks of gestation and at 6 and 18 months after birth. National cohort study. Norway. A total of 19 291 nulliparous women recruited between 1999 and 2008 from hospitals and maternity units. Questionnaire data were obtained from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and register data from the national Medical Birth Register. Advanced maternal age was defined as ≥ 32 years and a reference group of women aged 25-31 years was used for comparisons. The distribution of psychological distress from 20 to ≥ 40 years was investigated, and the prevalence of psychological distress at the four time-points was estimated. Logistic regression analyses based on generalised estimation equations were used to investigate associations between advanced maternal age and psychological distress. Psychological distress measured by SCL-5. Women of advanced age had slightly higher scores of psychological distress over the period than the reference group, also after controlling for obstetric and infant variables. The youngest women had the highest scores. A history of depression increased the risk of distress in all women. With no history of depression, women of advanced age were not at higher risk. Changes over time were similar between groups and lowest at 6 months. Women of 32 years and beyond had slightly increased risk of psychological distress during pregnancy and the first 18 months of motherhood compared with women aged 25-31 years. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.
Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna
Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥ 8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.
VandenBos, Gary R; Hogan, John D; Kazak, Anne E
In 2017, the American Psychological Association (APA) celebrates the 125th anniversary of its founding. This special issue commemorates this milestone by providing long- and short-term views on the history of APA and its role in psychology in America. The opening paper presents an overview of initiatives and challenges facing the field of psychology and APA in five periods, each roughly 25 years in length. The remaining eight articles review specific issues and areas of activity over varying lengths of time in more recent years. Issues of policy involvement, relations with the media, and involvement with the courts are described, as well as developments related to social justice, education, science, practice, and publications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, Raphael; Zijlstra, Wobbe P
BACKGROUND: Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels...... of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. METHODS: A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version...... was used to assess general psychological distress, diabetes was measured by means of self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident diabetes during 18 years follow up, comparing participants with low versus high...
Brown, Gregory G; Anderson, Vicki; Bigler, Erin D; Chan, Agnes S; Fama, Rosemary; Grabowski, Thomas J; Zakzanis, Konstantine K
The American Psychological Association (APA) celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2017. As part of this celebration, the APA journal Neuropsychology has published in its November 2017 issue 11 papers describing some of the advances in the field of neuropsychology over the past 25 years. The papers address three broad topics: assessment and intervention, brain imaging, and theory and methods. The papers describe the rise of new assessment and intervention technologies, the impact of evidence for neuroplasticity on neurorehabilitation. Examples of the use of mathematical models of cognition to investigate latent neurobehavioral processes, the development of the field of neuropsychology in select international countries, the increasing sophistication of brain imaging methods, the recent evidence for localizationist and connectionist accounts of neurobehavioral functioning, the advances in neurobehavioral genomics, and descriptions of newly developed statistical models of longitudinal change. Together the papers convey evidence of the vibrant growth in the field of neuropsychology over the quarter century since APA's 100th anniversary in 1992. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.
Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M
The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker
Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.
Melissa A. Napolitano
Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.
Zhai, Zu Wei; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E; Ridenour, Ty A
This prospective study tested the hypothesis that psychological dysregulation in mid-adolescence (age 16) mediates the association between parent-child attachment in late childhood (age 10-12) and development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adulthood (age 22). The Youth Attachment to Parents Scale (YAPS) was developed in 10-12-year-old boys and girls (N = 694) at baseline residing in western Pennsylvania. Psychological dysregulation was measured by the neurobehavior disinhibition trait. Substance use was assessed at ages 10-12, 12-14, 16 and 19. SUD was diagnosed at age 22 using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. The mediation of parent-child attachment and SUD by neurobehavior disinhibition was tested separately for mothers and fathers while controlling for baseline substance use. Psychological dysregulation mediates the association between attachment to mothers and SUD, and partially mediates the association between attachment to fathers and SUD. Significant mediation effects remains after controlling for baseline substance use. Optimal prevention of SUD should include ameliorating both psychological dysregulation predisposing to SUD and quality of the parent-child relationship.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study sought to study the associations of noise with heart rate, blood pressure, and perceived psychological and physiological responses among post-cardiac surgery patients in ICUs. METHODS: Forty patients participated in this study after recovering from anesthesia. A sound-level meter was placed at bedsides to measure noise level for 42 hours, and patients' heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every 5 minutes. Patients were also interviewed for their perceived psychological/physiological responses. RESULTS: The average noise level was between 59.0 and 60.8 dB(A at the study site. Annoyance and insomnia were the respective psychological and physiological responses reported most often among the patients. Although noise level, irrespective of measures, was not observed to be significantly associated with the self-assessed psychological and physiological responses, it was significantly associated with both heart rate and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that the noise in ICUs may adversely affect the heart rate and blood pressure of patients, which warrants the attention of hospital administrators and health care workers.
Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Katie M; Dardis, Christina M; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Gidycz, Christine A
This researchers assessed informal (e.g., friends, family) social reactions to college women's (N = 139) disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their current romantic relationships and associated psychological (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and global psychological distress symptoms) and relational (i.e., intentions to leave the abusive relationship) variables. Women completed confidential surveys, which assessed current partner abuse, psychological and relational variables, and three types of social reactions from informal supports to disclosure of IPV: positive (e.g., believing, validating the victim), negative (e.g., disbelieving, blaming the victim), and leaving (i.e., being told to end the relationship) reactions. At the bivariate level, negative social reactions to women's disclosure were related to increases in global psychological distress, PTSS, and leaving intentions; positive social reactions to disclosure related only to increases in PTSS; and being told to leave the relationship related to increases in PTSS and leaving intentions. In the regression analyses, after controlling for abuse severity, negative social reactions were significantly related to global psychological distress and PTSS, and being told to leave significantly related to leaving intentions and PTSS. Mechanisms for these relationships and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Martin, Scott B; Wrisberg, Craig A
Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Quantitative study. A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes.
Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.
Context: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective: To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design: Quantitative study. Setting: A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results: Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes. PMID:27159188
Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J; Calleja-González, Julio; Shipherd, Amber M
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between pre-training psychological well-being assessment scales (General Health Questionnaire-28-GHQ-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2-CSAI-2, Sport Competition Anxiety Test-SCAT, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S-STAI-S, Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire-OSQ and Psychological Characteristics Related to Sport Performance-PCSP), and pre-training stress hormone concentrations (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT, adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratios), on acute neuromuscular performance (ANP) in female volleyballers. Forty elite female volleyballers (27±4yrs.; 178.3±8.5cm; 67.9±7.2kg) participated. Bivariate correlations were performed between psychological assessments and hormone levels with ANP. All psychological scales presented at least one significant (pvolleyballers than pre-training stress hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuška, M.; Trnka, R.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Růžička, J.
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 981. ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : psycholinguistics * world * personal construct theory * free association * association network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kubena-0464017.pdf
Full Text Available Abstract Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses; the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses; and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses. Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3 were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg, and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania. A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate
Nelson, Audrey; Matz, Mary; Chen, Fangfei; Siddharthan, Kris; Lloyd, John; Fragala, Guy
significant increases in two subscales of job satisfaction: professional status and tasks requirements. Self-reports by nursing staff revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of 'unsafe' patient handling practices performed daily. Nurses ranked program elements they deemed to be "extremely effective": equipment was rated as most effective (96%), followed by No Lift Policy (68%), peer leader education program (66%), ergonomic assessment protocol (59%), patient handling assessment criteria and decision algorithms (55%), and lastly after action reviews (41%). Perceived support and interest for the program started at a high level for managers and nursing staff and remained very high throughout the program implementation. Patient acceptance was moderate when the program started but increased to very high by the end of the program. Although the ease and success of program implementation initially varied between and within the facilities, after six months there was strong evidence of support at all levels. The initial capital investment for patient handling equipment was recovered in approximately 3.75 years based on annual post-intervention savings of over $200,000/year in workers' compensation expenses and cost savings associated with reduced lost and modified work days and worker compensation. This multi-faceted program resulted in an overall lower injury rate, fewer modified duty days taken per injury, and significant cost savings. The program was well accepted by patients, nursing staff, and administrators. Given the significant increases in two job satisfaction subscales (professional status and task requirements), it is possible that nurse recruitment and retention could be positively impacted.
Nyawata, Milton T; Murphy, Karen
When two targets are presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and the interval between the targets is 200-500 ms, detection or identification of the second target is impaired. This impairment in second target report is known as the attentional blink (AB). This study sought to examine the impact of the direction of target association on priming during an AB task using very short and long SOAs. Two experiments were conducted using dual-stream RSVP tasks and targets that either shared an associative relationship or were unrelated to one another. The direction of association between the targets was also varied so that associatively related targets were presented in the forward (strongest association from target 1 to target 2) or backward directions of association (strongest association from target 2 to target 1). In Experiment 1 very short SOAs between targets (27-213 ms) were used. Priming was evident at the same SOAs for both targets presented in the backward direction of association. However, for targets presented in the forward direction of association, priming occurred for target 1 and target 2 at different SOAs. Experiment 2 used longer SOAs between targets (107 to 535 ms) and it was determined that while direction of association between the targets did not affect priming, there was a larger priming effect for target 2 than for target 1. The results of the two experiments indicate that direction of association between targets influences priming in RSVP tasks that use very short but not long SOAs. The results are discussed in relation to the two-stage response competition model of Potter et al. (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 28:1149-1162, 2002).
Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas
In these studies, the correlates of spontaneously using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal during stressful speeches were examined. Spontaneous emotion regulation means that there were no instructions of how to regulate emotions during the speech. Instead, participants indicated after the speech to what extent they used self-motivated expressive suppression or reappraisal during the task. The results show that suppression is associated with less anxiety expression, greater physiological responding, and less memory for the speech while having no impact on negative affect. In contrast, reappraisal has no impact on physiology and memory while leading to less expression and affect. Taken together, spontaneous emotion regulation in active coping tasks has similar consequences as experimentally induced emotion regulation in passive tasks. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz
Two experiments investigated multitasking performance with a new "prioritized-processing paradigm" in which participants responded only to a high-priority primary task when this task required some action, responding to a low-priority background task only when no action was required for the primary task. In both experiments, performance was worse on the primary task than on the same task performed in isolation, indicating that this attempt to give absolute priority to the primary task is not sufficient to protect it from multitasking interference. Multitasking interference was present for task-repetition trials as well as task-alternation trials, so the interference could not be completely explained as a task-switching cost. In addition, responses to the primary task were influenced by their compatibility with the responses associated with the stimulus for the background task, indicating that there was some activation of S-R associations within the background task even when this task did not require any response. The findings generalize a number of effects from the psychological refractory period and task-switching paradigms to the prioritized-processing paradigm, thereby providing hints as to the underlying mechanisms responsible for those effects. The "prioritized-processing paradigm" appears to have several desirable features for the study of multitasking interference.
Full Text Available Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.
de Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendon?a-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Ant?nio Fernando Ara?jo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes de; Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan,Eliane
Background Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized t...
James eRae; Lonborg, Susan D.
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the environmental and individual factors contributing to male nurses' psychological well-being and to explore the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between nurses' practice environment and work engagement, thereby presenting the implications for nurse managers. Methods: A total of 161 male nurses from three tertiary first-class hospitals in Changsha City in China participated in the study. We collected the data using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Results: Scores of male nurses' practice environment (2.88Â Â±Â 0.31, psychological capital (4.42Â Â±Â 0.62, and work engagement (3.17Â Â±Â 1.39 were all above the midpoint; however, the subscales âthe nursing staffing and resources adequacyâ (2.72Â Â±Â 0.48, âhopeâ (4.33Â Â±Â 0.72, and âdedicationâ (2.96Â Â±Â 1.61scored lowest. Nurses' practice environment and psychological capital positively predicted nurses' work engagement; psychological capital fully mediated the influence of nurses' practice environment on work engagement. Conclusions: Creating a supportive nursing practice environment can increase male nurses' work engagement by developing their psychological capital. Nurse managers can then provide reasonable workload and pathways for male nurses to achieve goals, thereby fostering their hope. Keywords: Male nurses, Nurses' practice environment, Psychological capital, Work engagement
Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
The functional neuroanatomy for explicit memory in conjunction with the major anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not yet been clearly identified. To investigate the brain activation patterns on the interaction between emotional and cognitive function during the explicit memory tasks, as well as its correlation with clinical characteristics in GAD. The participants comprised GAD patients and age-matched healthy controls. The fMR images were obtained while the participants performed an explicit memory task with neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Patients showed significantly decreased functional activities in the putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and middle cingulate gyrus during the memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words, whereas the precentral gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly increased only in the memory tasks with the anxiety-inducing words. Also, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the hippocampus were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy for both neutral and anxiety-inducing words. This study identified the brain areas associated with the interaction between emotional regulation and cognitive function in the explicit memory tasks in patients with GAD. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism on the explicit memory-related cognitive deficits and emotional dysfunction with GAD symptoms. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.
Skogli, Hans-Ragnar; Geoffroy, Dominique; Weiler, Hope A; Tell, Grethe S; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Egeland, Grace M
Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6). Biomarkers included n-3 fatty acids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The K6 screens for psychological distress over the last 30 days with six items scored on a 4-point scale. A total score of 13 or more indicates serious psychological distress (SPD). Logistic regression models were used to investigate any associations between SPD and biomarkers while controlling for age, gender, marital status, days spent out on the land, feeling of being alone, income and smoking. The 30-day SPD prevalence was 11.2%, with women below 30 years having the highest and men 50 years and more having the lowest SPD prevalence at 16.1% and 2.6%, respectively. SPD was associated with being female, younger age, not being married or with a common-law partner, spending few days out on the land, feelings of being alone, smoking and low income. Low levels of both 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds for SPD in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. In this cross-sectional analysis, low levels of 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds ratios for SPD, which highlights the potential impact of traditional foods on mental health and wellbeing. Cultural practices are also important for mental health and it may be that the biomarkers serve as proxies for cultural activities related to food collection, sharing and consumption that increase both biomarker levels and psychological well-being. n-3 FAs: omega-3
Chelsea N Wong
Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.
Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.
Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.
Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900
Human, Lauren J; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E
Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one's health: Socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wang, Huey-Fen; Yeh, Mei Chang
An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Consequently, to meet the prospective demands of technical manpower, not only do nursing students in college and vocational schools pursue further studies, but they also take competitive entrance exams. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam. The subjects were 441 third-year nursing students of vocational high schools in northern Taiwan, recruited by convenience sampling. Three measurements were adopted: Stress perceived scale, Coping behavior inventory, and a Chinese health questionnaire. Results showed that the five main stressors of entrance exam stress, in descending order, were taking tests, the student's own aspirations, learning tasks, teacher's aspirations and parent's aspirations. Students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including optimistic action and social support to deal with the entrance exam stress, but use of emotion-focused coping strategies including avoidance and emotional disturbance was significantly increased as perceived level of stress rose. Two-way analyses of variance (2-way ANOVA) revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect of alleviating psychological distress. A significant interaction was observed between stress perceived and problem-focused coping used for psychological health. Further examination of the interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially
Brian E Roe
Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.
Dunn, Louise; Coster, Wendy J.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Orsmond, Gael I.
Children's preparation for adult roles and independent living occur largely through participation with their families in home routines including household tasks. This preparation may involve learning related to family roles, socialization, and occupational performance. This study was designed to explore the extent to which child, environmental,…
Stephan eDe La Rosa
Full Text Available The ability to discriminate between different actions is essential for action recognition and social interaction. Surprisingly previous research has often probed action recognition mechanisms with tasks that did not require participants to discriminate between actions, e.g. left-right direction discrimination tasks. It is not known to what degree visual processes in direction discrimination tasks are also involved in the discrimination of actions, e.g. when telling apart a handshake from a high-five. Here, we examined whether action discrimination is influenced by movement direction and whether direction discrimination depends on the type of action. We used an action adaptation paradigm to target action and direction discrimination specific visual processes. In separate conditions participants visually adapted to forward and backward moving handshake and high-five actions. Participants subsequently either categorized the action or the movement direction of an ambiguous action. The results showed that direction discrimination adaptation effects were modulated by the type of action but action discrimination adaptation effects were unaffected by movement direction. These results suggest that action discrimination and direction categorization rely on partly different visual information. We propose that action discrimination tasks should be considered for the exploration of visual action recognition mechanisms.
Jeremy E. C. Genovese
Full Text Available Constructivist pedagogy draws on Piaget's developmental theory. Because Piaget depicted the emergence of formal reasoning skills in adolescence as part of the normal developmental pattern, many constructivists have assumed that intrinsic motivation is possible for all academic tasks. This paper argues that Piaget's concept of a formal operational stage has not been empirically verified and that the cognitive skills associated with that stage are in fact “biologically secondary abilities” (Geary and Bjorklund, 2000 culturally determined abilities that are difficult to acquire. Thus, it is unreasonable to expect that intrinsic motivation will suffice for most students for most higher level academic tasks. In addition, a case is made that educational psychology must incorporate the insights of evolutionary psychology.
Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M
To examine the association between parental report of intimate partner violence (IPV) and parental psychological distress (PPD) with child attainment of developmental milestones. By using data collected from a large cohort of primary care patients, this cross-sectional study examined the relationship between parental report of IPV and/or PPD and the attainment of developmental milestones within the first 72 months of a child's life. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for parental report of child abuse concern and sociodemographic characteristics. Our study population included 16 595 subjects. Children of parents reporting both IPV and PPD (n = 88; 0.5%) were more likely to fail at least 1 milestone across the following developmental domains: language (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.3), personal-social (aOR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-2.9), and gross motor (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.8-5.0). Significant associations for those reporting IPV-only (n = 331; 2.0%) were found for language (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9), personal-social (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.2), and fine motor-adaptive (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.7). Significant associations for those reporting PPD-only (n = 1920; 11.6%) were found for: language (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.7), personal-social (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8), gross motor (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8), and fine-motor adaptive (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Screening children for IPV and PPD helps identify those at risk for poor developmental outcomes who may benefit from early intervention.
Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal
Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.
Fang, Zhuo; Jung, Wi Hoon; Korczykowski, Marc; Luo, Lijuan; Prehn, Kristin; Xu, Sihua; Detre, John A; Kable, Joseph W; Robertson, Diana C; Rao, Hengyi
People vary considerably in moral reasoning. According to Kohlberg's theory, individuals who reach the highest level of post-conventional moral reasoning judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals rather than self-interest or adherence to laws and rules. Recent research has suggested the involvement of the brain's frontostriatal reward system in moral judgments and prosocial behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether moral reasoning level is associated with differences in reward system function. Here, we combined arterial spin labeling perfusion and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and measured frontostriatal reward system activity both at rest and during a sequential risky decision making task in a sample of 64 participants at different levels of moral reasoning. Compared to individuals at the pre-conventional and conventional level of moral reasoning, post-conventional individuals showed increased resting cerebral blood flow in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Cerebral blood flow in these brain regions correlated with the degree of post-conventional thinking across groups. Post-conventional individuals also showed greater task-induced activation in the ventral striatum during risky decision making. These findings suggest that high-level post-conventional moral reasoning is associated with increased activity in the brain's frontostriatal system, regardless of task-dependent or task-independent states.
Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.
American Psychological Association (APA), 2007
The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls was formed in response to expressions of public concern regarding the sexualization of girls and girlhood in U.S. culture. This report examines and summarizes psychological theory, research, and clinical experience addressing the sexualization of girls. The…
Full Text Available Walking, although a largely automatic process, is controlled by the cortex and the spinal cord; with corrective reflexes modulated through integration of neural signals from central and peripheral inputs at supraspinal level throughout the gait cycle. However the full mechanism is not described. In this study we used an additional cognitive task to interfere with the automatic processing during walking in order to explore the neural mechanisms involved in healthy young adults. Participants were asked to walk on a treadmill at two speeds, both with and without additional cognitive load. We evaluated the impact of speed and cognitive load by analysing activity of the pre-frontal cortex (PFC using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS alongside with spinal cord reflex activity measured by soleus H-reflex amplitude and gait changes obtained by using an inertial measuring unit. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that fNIRS Oxy-Hb concentrations significantly increased in the PFC with dual task (walking while performing a cognitive task compared to a single talk only (walking (p< 0.05. PFC activity was unaffected by increases of walking speed. H-reflex amplitude and gait variables did not change in response to either dual task or increases of walking speed. When walking under additional cognitive load we observed that participants adapted by using greater activity in the PFC, but that this adaption did not detrimentally affect H-reflex amplitude or gait variables. Our findings suggests that in a healthy young population central mechanisms (PFC are activated in response to cognitive loads but that H-reflex activity and gait performance can successfully be maintained. This study provides insight in the mechanisms behind healthy individuals safely performing dual task walking
Cazzulino, Francesca; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Arbogast, Helen; Upperman, Jeffrey S
Cell phone use among young drivers has become increasingly common in recent years. Young people are the most likely to accept the use of new technology and least likely to understand the risks associated with cell phone use while driving (CPWD; defined here as talking on the phone only) and texting while driving (TextWD). Due to inexperience, young drivers are the most at risk when using cell phones while driving and therefore should be the target of the majority of prevention strategies. The intent of this review is to determine factors that influence young drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD and suggest a basis for prevention campaigns and strategies that can effectively prevent current and future generations from using cell phones while driving. We conducted a search for original articles in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. All abstracts were reviewed and for those that met the inclusion criteria, full articles were obtained and assessed. Four hundred and twelve articles were identified in the search and, of those, 37 full-text articles were obtained. A total of 29 articles about the frequency of CPWD and the psychological effects influencing young driver's tendency to engage in CPWD were included. There was a high frequency of both CPWD and TextWD despite a high perceived risk of both behaviors. This discrepancy was explained by a high perceived controllability, the effect of social norms, call importance, and lack of effective law enforcement. The intervention strategies reviewed were also found to be ineffective over the long term. The systematic review reveals that young drivers are an at-risk group for distracted driving. We propose preventative strategies based on identifying factors that influence drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD as well as by reviewing strategies found in the reviewed articles. Further research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these proposed strategies.
Karnik, Indraneel; Gerlai, Robert
The zebrafish may be an ideal tool with which genes underlying learning and memory can be identified and functionally investigated. From a translational viewpoint, relational learning and episodic memory are particularly important as their impairment is the hallmark of prevalent human neurodegenerative diseases. Recent reports suggest that zebrafish are capable of solving complex relational-type associative learning tasks, namely spatial learning tasks. However, it is not known whether good performance in these tasks was truly based upon relational learning or upon a single CS-US association. Here we study whether zebrafish can find a rewarding stimulus (sight of conspecifics) based upon a single associative cue or/and upon the location of the reward using a method conceptually similar to 'context and cue dependent fear conditioning' employed with rodents. Our results confirm that zebrafish can form an association between a salient visual cue and the rewarding stimulus and at the same time they can also learn where the reward is presented. Although our results do not prove that zebrafish form a dynamic spatial map of their surroundings and use this map to locate their reward, they do show that these fish perform similarly to rodents whose hippocampal function is unimpaired. These results further strengthen the notion that complex cognitive abilities exist in the zebrafish and thus they may be analyzed using the excellent genetic tool set developed for this simple vertebrate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Steenbergen, Laura; Colzato, Lorenza S
The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25) was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short), representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.
E N Zamri
Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role.To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP, and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 45.2%, 50.9% and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9% respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75, high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57, low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99. Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43, low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99.Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce
Zamri, E N; Moy, F M; Hoe, V C W
Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce
Md. Azharul Islam
Full Text Available Abstract A growing body of epidemiological literature suggests that problematic Internet use (PIU is associated with a range of psychological health problems in adolescents and young adults. This study aimed to explore socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of PIU and examine its association with psychological distress. A total of 573 graduate students from Dhaka University of Bangladesh responded to a self-administered questionnaire that included internet addiction test (IAT, 12-items General Health Questionnaire and a set of socio-demographic and behavioural factors. The study found that nearly 24% of the participants displayed PIU on the IAT scale. The prevalence of PIU significantly varied depending on gender, socioeconomic status, smoking habit and physical activity (p < 0.05. The multiple regression analyses suggested that PIU is strongly associated with psychological distress regardless of all other explanatory variables (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.57, 3.58. Further research is warranted to confirm this association by employing prospective study designs.
Hall, Brian J; Bonanno, George A; Bolton, Paul A; Bass, Judith K
Social resources can buffer against psychological distress following potentially traumatic events. Psychological distress can also lead to social resource deterioration. This longitudinal study evaluated whether baseline psychological distress symptoms and changes in these symptoms were associated with changes in social resources 5 months later among 96 adult male (52.6%) and female treatment-seeking torture survivors residing in Kurdistan, Iraq. Adapted versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and a traumatic grief measure were used. Locally derived scales measured perceived social support, social integration, and frequency of social contact. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed the association between symptoms and loss or gain in social resources. We hypothesized that higher mental health symptoms would relate to decreased social resources. Higher baseline depression (adjusted conditional odds ratio [ACOR] = 1.14), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; ACOR = 1.09), and traumatic grief symptoms (ACOR = 1.14) increased the odds of loss of social integration. For some, higher traumatic grief symptoms were associated with increased social integration (ACOR = 1.17). Increased anxiety (ACOR = 1.23) and PTSD symptoms (ACOR = 1.07) was associated with declines in social contact; decreased depression (ACOR = 1.06) and PTSD symptoms (ACOR = 1.04) were related to gaining social contact. This study highlights the complex relationship between mental health symptoms and losses and gains in social resources among torture survivors. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Ingles, Jodie; Sarina, Tanya; Kasparian, Nadine; Semsarian, Christopher
Sudden cardiac death is a tragic complication of a number of genetic heart diseases. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy plays an important role in prevention of sudden death. The psychological consequences of ICD therapy in young people with genetic heart disease are poorly understood. This study sought to better understand psychological wellbeing and identify symptoms of posttraumatic stress in young people who had experienced an ICD shock. Eligible patients (ICD implanted over 12 months prior) with an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder, enrolled in the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry were included. Ninety patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Those patients who had an ICD shock (n=31) also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R). While the mean HADS-Anxiety and IES-R scores were within the normal range in the total group (n=90), a significant subgroup reported symptoms of anxiety (38%), depression (17%) and posttraumatic stress (31%) indicative of the potential need for referral to clinical care. Overall, greater psychological distress in ICD patients was associated with female gender, a history of syncope, other comorbid medical conditions, and reporting of other distressing events (i.e., ICD complications). In those with an ICD shock, higher posttraumatic stress scores were associated with female gender and longer time to first shock. Patients with genetic heart diseases can experience psychological difficulties, including anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, related to ICD implantation and subsequent shocks. This signals the importance of offering patients access to targeted interventions, including psychological care and support. © 2013.
Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke
, sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....
Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.
, sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.
Strauss, Gregory P; Whearty, Kayla M; Morra, Lindsay F; Sullivan, Sara K; Ossenfort, Kathryn L; Frost, Katherine H
The current study examined whether effort-cost computation was associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ). Participants included outpatients diagnosed with SZ (n=27) and demographically matched healthy controls (n=32) who completed a Progressive Ratio task that required incrementally greater amounts of physical effort to obtain monetary reward. Breakpoint, the point at which participants was no longer willing to exert effort for a certain reward value, was examined as an index of effort-cost computation. There were no group differences in breakpoint for low, medium, or high value rewards on the Progressive Ratio task. However, lower breakpoint scores were associated with greater severity of avolition and anhedonia symptoms in SZ patients. Findings provide further evidence that impaired effort-cost computation is linked to motivational abnormalities in SZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The dependency paradox (Feeney) states that independence actually can result from being in a nurturing relationship. Those who divorce often have the opposite notion that independence will occur without a relationship. The movies Eat, Pray, Love, An Unmarried Woman, and Kramer vs. Kramer examine divorce from different angles. The protagonists in all three movies grow through the process of divorce, each achieving a level of autonomy that seemed unattainable within their marriage. This paper aims to explore the concept of divorce in light of the dependency paradox by examining the self-differentiation achieved and the consequences of such independence for both the individual and, in Kramer vs. Kramer, for the child involved.
Bourjaily, Mark A.
Animals must often make opposing responses to similar complex stimuli. Multiple sensory inputs from such stimuli combine to produce stimulus-specific patterns of neural activity. It is the differences between these activity patterns, even when small, that provide the basis for any differences in behavioral response. In the present study, we investigate three tasks with differing degrees of overlap in the inputs, each with just two response possibilities. We simulate behavioral output via winner-takes-all activity in one of two pools of neurons forming a biologically based decision-making layer. The decision-making layer receives inputs either in a direct stimulus-dependent manner or via an intervening recurrent network of neurons that form the associative layer, whose activity helps distinguish the stimuli of each task. We show that synaptic facilitation of synapses to the decision-making layer improves performance in these tasks, robustly increasing accuracy and speed of responses across multiple configurations of network inputs. Conversely, we find that synaptic depression worsens performance. In a linearly nonseparable task with exclusive-or logic, the benefit of synaptic facilitation lies in its superlinear transmission: effective synaptic strength increases with presynaptic firing rate, which enhances the already present superlinearity of presynaptic firing rate as a function of stimulus-dependent input. In linearly separable single-stimulus discrimination tasks, we find that facilitating synapses are always beneficial because synaptic facilitation always enhances any differences between inputs. Thus we predict that for optimal decision-making accuracy and speed, synapses from sensory or associative areas to decision-making or premotor areas should be facilitating. PMID:22457467
Skovbjerg, Signe; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert
Objectives Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether other risk factors influence...... Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, and the second included individuals who had been diagnosed with environmental intolerance (n = 136). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with four IEI-related domains, i.e., mucosal and CNS symptoms, chemical intolerances and social...
Vandevala, Tushna; Pavey, Louisa; Chelidoni, Olga; Chang, Nai-Feng; Creagh-Brown, Ben; Cox, Anna
Background The work demands of critical care can be a major cause of stress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals and lead to poor health outcomes. In the process of recovery from work, psychological rumination is considered to be an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and health outcomes. This study aimed to extend our knowledge of the process by which ICU stressors and differing rumination styles are associated with burnout, depression and risk of psyc...
Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Emam-Alizadeh, Mahsa; Hamedi, Fatemeh; Jahangiry, Leila
There are limiting studies evaluating the weight self-stigma and its association with eating disorders and health concerns. However, no study is available evaluating weight self-stigma and its determinants among reproductive age women in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate weight self-stigma and its association with quality of life and psychological distress among overweight and obese Iranian women. The current cross-sectional study was performed among 170 women aged 17-45 years referring to health centers of Tabriz-Iran. Anthropometric assessments were performed. Weight self-stigma was assessed by weight self-stigma questionnaire (WSSQ). Evaluation of quality of life and psychological distress was performed using SF-12 and general health questionnaires (GHQ-12), respectively. Analysis of data was performed by multivariate hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 18 software. In this study, the multivariate hierarchical regression analysis revealed that being married and having low total weight self-stigma and fear of enacted stigma (FES) scores were associated with better physical component summary scores (p < 0.05). Whereas, younger ages and lower total weight self-stigma scores were associated with better mental component summary scores. In addition, lower weight self-stigma total scores and lower self-devaluation scores were predictors of lower psychological distress. Our results indicated the negative impacts of weight self-stigma on quality of life and psychological distress among overweight and obese women. Since weight stigma might be a potent barrier of obese individuals to engage in health promoting behaviors, therefore, the results of the current study further warrants the need for developing interventional strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of weight stigma on quality of life via including the reduction of weight self-stigma as a key therapeutic goal in obesity treatment programs.
Ozelo, HFB; Alessio, A; Sercheli, MS; E. Bilevicius; Pedro, T; Pereira, FRS; Rondina, JM; Damasceno, BP; F. Cendes; Covolan, RJM
Background: It is known that the abnormal neural activity in epilepsy may be associated to the reorganization of neural circuits and brain plasticity in various ways. On that basis, we hypothesized that changes in neuronal circuitry due to epilepsy could lead to measurable variations in patterns of both EEG and BOLD signals in patients performing some cognitive task as compared to what would be obtained in normal condition. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cerebral areas involve...
Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter
Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.
Fesl, Gunther; Brueckmann, Hartmut [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Campus Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Bruhns, Philipp [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Campus Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psycholinguistics, Munich (Germany); Rau, Sabine; Ilmberger, Josef [University of Munich, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin [Helios Hospitals Schwerin, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Schwerin (Germany); Kegel, Gerd [University of Munich, Department of Psycholinguistics, Munich (Germany)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of assessing hemispheric language dominance with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 'free reversed association task.' Thirty-nine healthy subjects (13 dextrals, 13 sinistrals and 13 bimanuals) underwent two repeated fMRI sessions. In the active phases sets of words were presented via headphones, and an associated target item was named. During the baseline phases a standard answer was given after listening to unintelligible stimuli. Data were preprocessed with SPM, and then laterality indices (LI) and reliability coefficients (RC) were calculated. Extensive frontal, temporal and parietal activations were found. Seventy-eight percent of the subjects showed left-hemispheric dominance, 5% showed right-hemispheric dominance, and 17% had bilateral language representations. The incidence of right-hemispheric language dominance was 4.3 times higher in a left-hander with a handedness quotient (HQ) of -90 than in a right-hander with a HQ of +90. The RC was 0.61 for combined ROIs (global network). Strong correlations were found between the two session LIs (r = 0.95 for the global network). 'Free reversed association' is a sensitive and reliable task for the determination of individual language lateralization. This suggests that the task may be used in a clinical setting. (orig.)
Pâquet, Myriam; Bois, Katy; Rosen, Natalie O; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Charbonneau-Lefebvre, Véronique; Bergeron, Sophie
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent cause of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and is associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners. PVD is often misdiagnosed or ignored and many couples may experience a sense of injustice, due to the loss of their ability to have a normal sexual life. Perceiving injustice has been documented to have important consequences in individuals with chronic pain. However, no quantitative research has investigated the experience of injustice in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between perceived injustice and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression among women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 50) and their partners completed questionnaires of perceived injustice, pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (2) Female Sexual Distress Scale; (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II; and (4) McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. After controlling for partners' age, women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater sexual distress, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater depression, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher perceived injustice was not associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction but partners' higher perceived injustice was associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction. Perceived injustice was not associated with women's pain intensity. Results suggest that perceiving injustice may have negative consequences for the couple's sexual and psychological outcomes. However, the effects of perceived injustice appear to be intra-individual. Targeting perceived injustice could enhance the efficacy of psychological interventions for women with PVD and their partners
Lian, Yulong; Gu, Yiyang; Han, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Guan, Suzhen; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen
We examined whether or not changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of psychological distress. A baseline evaluation of work stressors and coping resources and mental health was assessed for 4362 petroleum industry workers after 12 years. Increased task and organizational stressors were associated with an elevated risk of psychological distress. Decreased task stressors, increased job control, and increased coping resources were associated with a reduced risk of psychological distress. Increased coping also had a buffering effect on increased work stressors and psychological distress. Gender-specific differences were observed in the factors influencing mental health. The findings indicated that reducing gender-specific task and organizational stressors, and promoting coping resources at work may help prevent the onset of psychological distress.
Chamik, Tanja; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal
The direction and magnitude of the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and psychological stress continue to be debated, and no data are available from surveys in the African region. In this study, we examine the associations between CVRFs and psychological stress in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. A survey was conducted in 1,240 adults aged 25-64 years representative of the Seychelles. Participants were asked to rank psychological stress that they had experienced during the past 12 months in four domains: work, social life, financial situation, and environment around home. CVRFs (high blood pressure, tobacco use, alcohol drinking, and obesity) were assessed using standard procedures. Psychological stress was associated with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall, there were only few consistent associations between psychological stress and CVRFs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social stress was associated with smoking, drinking, and obesity, and there were marginal associations between stress at work and drinking, and between financial stress, and smoking and drinking. Psychological stress was not associated with high blood pressure. These findings suggest that psychological stress should be considered in cardiovascular disease prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Toussaint, Loren; Barry, Michael; Angus, Drew; Bornfriend, Lynn; Markman, Maurie
This study examined the association between self-forgiveness and psychological distress and tested whether self-blame and hope mediated these associations equally for both patients and caregivers. Participants were 38 patients and 44 unmatched caregivers receiving care at a national cancer hospital. Participants completed measures of self-forgiveness, self-blame, hope, and psychological distress. Self-forgiveness was inversely associated with self-blame and psychological distress and positively associated with hope. Self-forgiveness was indirectly associated with psychological distress through hope but not self-blame and more strongly for caregivers than patients. Group differences between patients and caregivers in associations are intriguing and may have implications for improved psychosocial care of cancer patients and support of caregivers.
DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.
This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361
Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.
The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…
Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…
Engström, Ingemar; Björnestam, Berit; Finkel, Yigael
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is life saving in some patients with intestinal failure. Clinical experience suggests that there may be psychologic problems in HPN children, including food refusal on reintroduction of food, parent-child conflict, sibling rivalry, and disruption of family routine. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic distress in children with HPN and the social integration of their parents. The parents were asked to fill in three questionnaires anonymously--one regarding the HPN procedures; the Child Behavior Checklist, which provides a standardized description of children's behavioral problems, as reported by their mothers; and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI), which in its short form comprises 30 questions about social network and social support. The Child Behavior Checklist questionnaires were returned from 20 families (80% response), and the ISSI questionnaires were returned from 21 families (84% response). Children and adolescents with HPN are quite distressed psychologically. The subscale within ISSI that measures social integration was significantly higher in the HPN group, whereas the subscale that measures adequacy of social integration did not differ between the groups. Both subscales measuring attachment were significantly lower in the HPN group. This study shows that children and adolescents with HPN are quite distressed psychologically, even though the exact reason for this may be somewhat unclear. The social integration of the parents is high, whereas attachment, which deals with deeper, emotional relations, is negatively affected.
Flanagan, Rosemary; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Jacob, Susan
The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists…
Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M.; van Mierlo, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480856; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047
The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients
Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees
This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…
Straus, Murray A.; Sweet, Stephen
The last decade has provided considerable research on the causes and effects of physical aggression in the family, but much less has been accomplished on the causes and effects of verbal/symbolic aggression. This verbal/symbolic aggression is defined as a communication, either verbal or nonverbal, intended to cause psychological pain to another…
Haagen, C. Hess
In 1968, a random sample of 70 Wesleyan University juniors participated in a study designed to: 1) determine the extent of drug usage among students; 2) investigate the social and psychological characteristics of users and non- users of marijuana; 3) investigate the attitudes and motivations of persons who had reacted differently to the increasing…
Baumann, Michèle; Ionescu, Ion; Chau, Nearkasen
In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses); the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses); and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses). Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3) were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian) covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg), and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium) was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania). A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, pemployability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate achievement of future professional projects.
Asif, Irfan M; Annett, Scott; Ewing, Joseph A; Abdelfattah, Ramy; Sutphin, Brittan; Conley, Kyle; Rothmier, Justin; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A
Determine the psychological impact of false-positive ECG screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Athletes representing seven NCAA institutions received a standardised history, physical examination and ECG interpreted using the 2013 Seattle Criteria. Assessments of health attitudes, anxiety and impact of screening on sport were conducted using validated prescreen and postscreen measurements. 1192 student-athletes participated (55.4% male, median age 19 years, 80.4% Caucasian). 96.8% of athletes had a normal cardiovascular screen, 2.9% had a false-positive ECG and 0.3% were diagnosed with a serious cardiac condition. Prior to screening, 4.5% worried about potentially harbouring cardiac disease and 70.1% preferred knowing about an underlying condition, rather than play sports without this knowledge. There was no difference in anxiety described by athletes with a normal versus false-positive screen (p=0.369). Reported anxiety levels during screening also did not differ when analysed by different gender, race, division of play or sport. Athletes with normal and false-positive screens had similar levels of satisfaction (p=0.714) and would recommend ECG screening to other athletes at similar rates (p=0.322). Compared with athletes with a normal screen, athletes with false-positive results also reported feeling safer during competition (p>0.01). In contrast, athletes with false-positive screens were more concerned about the possibility of sports disqualification (pAthletes with a false-positive ECG do not experience more anxiety than athletes with a normal screen but do express increased concern regarding sports disqualification and the development of a cardiac disorder. These findings do not justify avoiding advanced cardiovascular screening protocols. Further understanding of athlete experiences could better prepare the practising physician to counsel athletes with an abnormal ECG. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise
Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Nguyen, Simone P.; Murphy, Gregory L.
Research Findings: In 2 experiments, we tested whether children generalize psychological and biological properties to novel foods. We used an induction task in which a property (either biological or psychological) was associated with a target food. Children were then asked whether a taxonomically related and a script-related food would also have…
Gour, Natalina; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Soulier, Elisabeth; Guye, Maxime; Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier
Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest, exhibit a temporally coherent activity thought to reflect functionally relevant networks. Antero-mesial temporal structures are the site of early pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease and have been shown to be critical for declarative memory. Our study aimed at exploring the functional impact of basal connectivity of an anterior temporal network (ATN) on declarative memory. A heterogeneous group of subjects with varying performance on tasks assessing memory was therefore selected, including healthy subjects and patients with isolated memory complaint, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using Independent Component Analysis on resting-state fMRI, we extracted a relevant anterior temporal network (ATN) composed of the perirhinal and entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal head, the amygdala and the lateral temporal cortex extending to the temporal pole. A default mode network and an executive-control network were also selected to serve as control networks. We first compared basal functional connectivity of the ATN between patients and control subjects. Relative to controls, patients exhibited significantly increased functional connectivity in the ATN during rest. Specifically, voxel-based analysis revealed an increase within the inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the uncus. In the patient group, positive correlations between averaged connectivity values of ATN and performance on anterograde and retrograde object-based memory tasks were observed, while no correlation was found with other evaluated cognitive measures. These correlations were specific to the ATN, as no correlation between performance on memory tasks and the other selected networks was found. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that basal connectivity inside the ATN network has a functional role in
Juan Carlos Fernández Rodríguez
Full Text Available The present article examines the concept of rhinitis, its classification and the reasons for classifying the different typesof rhinitis as psychophysiological diseases. We review the few studies that have investigated the association betweenrhinitis and psychological factors. Most of these studies have focussed on allergies, among which is rhinitis. We alsoassess current knowledge on the association between rhinitis and psychological factors, mainly addressing anxiety,depression and personality characteristics. Further lines of research are suggested regarding this association.
Farrell, Tara M; Morgan, Amanda; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A
In songbirds, early-life environments critically shape song development. Many studies have demonstrated that developmental stress impairs song learning and the development of song-control regions of the brain in males. However, song has evolved through signaller-receiver networks and the effect stress has on the ability to receive auditory signals is equally important, especially for females who use song as an indicator of mate quality. Female song preferences have been the metric used to evaluate how developmental stress affects auditory learning, but preferences are shaped by many non-cognitive factors and preclude the evaluation of auditory learning abilities in males. To determine whether developmental stress specifically affects auditory learning in both sexes, we subjected juvenile European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to either an ad libitum or an unpredictable food supply treatment from 35 to 115 days of age. In adulthood, we assessed learning of both auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Females reared in the experimental group were slower than females in the control group to acquire a relative frequency auditory task, and slower than their male counterparts to acquire an absolute frequency auditory task. There was no difference in auditory performance between treatment groups for males. However, on the colour association task, birds from the experimental group committed more errors per trial than control birds. There was no correlation in performance across the cognitive tasks. Developmental stress did not affect all cognitive processes equally across the sexes. Our results suggest that the male auditory system may be more robust to developmental stress than that of females.
Meert, Gaëlle; Wang, Jessica; Samson, Dana
A growing body of evidence suggests that adults can monitor other people's beliefs in an efficient way. However, the nature and the limits of efficient belief tracking are still being debated. The present study addressed these issues by testing (a) whether adults spontaneously process other people's beliefs when overt task instructions assign priority to participants' own belief, (b) whether this processing relies on low-level associative processes and (c) whether the propensity to track other people's beliefs is linked to empathic disposition. Adult participants were asked to alternately judge an agent's belief and their own belief. These beliefs were either consistent or inconsistent with each other. Furthermore, visual association between the agent and the object at which he was looking was either possible or impeded. Results showed interference from the agent's belief when participants judged their own belief, even when low-level associations were impeded. This indicates that adults still process other people's beliefs when priority is given to their own belief at the time of computation, and that this processing does not depend on low-level associative processes. Finally, performance on the belief task was associated with the Empathy Quotient and the Perspective Taking scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, indicating that efficient belief processing is linked to a dispositional dimension of social functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shree Hari eGautam
Full Text Available The interpretation of neural activity related to sensory stimulation requires an understanding of the subject's perception of the stimulation. Previous methods used to evaluate the perception of chemosensory stimuli by rodents have distinct limitations. We developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the taste-location association task, to complement these methods. First we tested if rats are able to learn associations between five basic taste stimuli and their spatial locations. This spatial task was based on 4 prototypical tastants and water. All four rats trained to perform the task reached levels of performance well above chance. Control trials demonstrated that the rats used only taste cues. Further, the learned stimulus set was resistant to interference, allowing for generalization experiments performed subsequently. We tested the rats' gustatory generalizations of 100 tastants to the five trained stimuli, both regarding their taste qualities as well as intensity ratings. The taste profiles generated by these experiments contribute to the understanding of how perception of the specific taste stimuli relate to the perception of the five basic taste qualities in intact behaving rats. In this large taste space we found that intensity plays a major role. Furthermore, umami stimuli were not reported as being similar to other basic tastants. Our new paradigm enables neurophysiological studies of taste-based learning and memory in awake, freely moving animals.
Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L
This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles.
Martinez, Kelly; Frazer, Sharon F; Dempster, Martin; Hamill, Andrea; Fleming, Hanora; McCorry, Noleen K
This review aims to synthesise the literature examining the psychosocial variables related to self-management (insulin adherence, non-adherence and administration, blood sugar monitoring, dietary behaviour, exercise behaviour) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A systematic search of three electronic databases was carried out and, after the application of eligibility criteria, 21 articles were assessed for quality prior to data extraction. Numerous psychological factors were found to be associated with self-management; however, correlations were typically small to moderate. The strongest associations were found between social anxiety and diet (among males); greater intrinsic motivation, conscientiousness and diet; and extraversion and exercise.
Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10), and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85), lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91), poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31) and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28), and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69), lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71), poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70) and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16). In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not associated with
Becker-Larsen, Astrid; Edvardsson, Arne
of SIPF or DIFO. The association’s goals are to promote and develop sports psychology research, teaching and applied practice by gathering experiences from different practitioners (e.g., academia, federations and sports). Therfore, it is in both assocations intrest to come togheter and discuss the past...... and networkning in sports, federations and academia. Metod/Method Board members from DIFO and SIPF have been invited to participate in this symposium. To initate discussion the participants have been given the assignment to answer the 3 open questions regarding their association: “What have you done in the past...... directions for future growth and networking opportunities. Resultat/Results The ideas and future direction regarding growth and networking in sport psychology discussed in this symposium will be summarized in a shared guideline document. Diskussion och slutsatser/Discussion and conclusions For the continued...
Talbot, Annie; Uwihoreye, Chaste; Kamen, Charles; Grant, Philip; McGlynn, Lawrence; Mugabe, Isaac; Nshimyumukiza, Martin; Dongier, Pierre; Slamowitz, Debbie; Padilla, Cindy; Uvamahoro, Jaqueline; Musayidire, Irene; Mukarubuga, Ancilla; Zolopa, Andrew
The nongovernmental organization, Uyisenga N'Manzi (UNM), provides Rwandan orphans of genocide and HIV/AIDS with education, social, and mental health services. Many orphans in UNM report symptoms of psychological trauma. The primary study objective was to evaluate a multidisciplinary program integrating HIV prevention with an existing package of mental health services. We randomly selected 120 orphans between ages 15-25 years served by UNM and evaluated sexually-transmitted infections, HIV risk-taking behaviors and knowledge, and mental health at baseline, 5, 9, and 12 months. Increased trauma symptoms at baseline were associated with poorer coping skills and social functioning, and increased psychological distress and HIV risk-taking behavior. Following the 12-month intervention, trauma symptoms declined significantly, with those accessing counseling services showing greatest improvement. Orphans with the highest trauma scores benefited most from the intervention. In this at-risk population, addressing mental health issues in the context of HIV prevention is critical.
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
American Psychologist, 2011
Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…
Long, Nicole M.; Kahana, Michael J.
Although episodic and semantic memory share overlapping neural mechanisms, it remains unclear how our pre-existing semantic associations modulate the formation of new, episodic associations. When freely recalling recently studied words, people rely on both episodic and semantic associations, shown through temporal and semantic clustering of…
Seng, Elizabeth K; Buse, Dawn C; Klepper, Jaclyn E; J Mayson, Sarah; Grinberg, Amy S; Grosberg, Brian M; Pavlovic, Jelena M; Robbins, Matthew S; Vollbracht, Sarah E; Lipton, Richard B
To evaluate the relationships among modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine-related disability in a clinic-based sample of persons with migraine. Evidence evaluating relationships between modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine-related disability is lacking in people with migraine presenting for routine clinical care. Adults with migraine completed surveys during routinely scheduled visits to a tertiary headache center. Participants completed surveys assessing chronic migraine (meeting criteria for migraine with ≥15 headache days in the past month), severe migraine disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Scale score ≥ 21), and modifiable psychological factors (depressive symptoms [Patient Health Questionnaire-9], anxious symptoms [Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7], Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Headache Specific Locus of Control). Logistic regression evaluated relationships between modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine disability. Among 90 eligible participants the mean age was 45.0 (SD = 12.4); 84.8% were women. One-third (36.0%) met study criteria for chronic migraine; half of participants (51.5%) reported severe migraine-related disability. Higher depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.55) and chance HSLC (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.43) were associated with chronic migraine. Higher depressive symptoms (OR = 3.54, 95%CI = 1.49, 8.41), anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65, 8.06), and pain catastrophizing (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.14, 3.35), were associated with severe migraine-related disability. Psychiatric symptoms and pain catastrophizing were strongly associated with severe migraine-related disability. Depression and chance locus of control were associated with chronic migraine. This study supports the need for longitudinal observational studies to evaluate the relationships among
Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah
Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m2, respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm3), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.
The growth among older prisoner populations, including in Australia, necessitates an understanding of this group in order to generate effective management strategies. One particular concern is the mental well-being of older prisoners. This study aimed to determine the level of psychological distress among sentenced prisoners aged 50 years and older, to compare this level to that seen among younger prisoners and older people in the community, and to investigate which mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice characteristics were associated with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey of 173 older (M = 63 years) and 60 younger prisoners (M = 34 years) in two Australian jurisdictions was conducted. The Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) scale was administered with prisoners and additional data were collected from interviews and participant health and corrections files. K10 scores were compared to community norms using data from the Australian Health Survey. Average K10 scores of the older prisoners were significantly lower than the younger prisoners' (p = 0.04), though the effect size was small (r = 0.1). Significantly, higher distress levels were observed in comparison to the general population (p < 0.001), with older prisoners being three times more likely to display very high levels of distress (12.3% vs. 3.7%). Higher psychological distress scores among older prisoners were significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.002) and a history of mental health issues (p = 0.002). While the levels of distress seen among older prisoners were significantly lower than that of younger prisoners, their higher levels of distress in comparison to community norms demonstrate a need for correctional services to be attuned to the mental health of the expanding older prisoner population.
Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H
The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.
Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke
As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, pspace visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunsberger, Peter Hume
Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…
Full Text Available Self-compassion is defined by Neff as approaching to the self without judgment, criticism or puni