Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.
This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…
American Psychologist, 2009
This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…
Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine
The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…
Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…
Green, Christopher D; Cautin, Robin L
The American Psychological Association (APA) began 125 years ago as a small club of a few dozen members in the parlor of its founder, G. Stanley Hall. In the decades since, it has faced many difficulties and even a few existential crises. Originally a scientific society, it spent the decades between the world wars figuring out how to accommodate the growing community of applied psychologists while still retaining and enhancing its scientific reputation. After World War II, with an expanded mandate, it developed formal training models for clinical psychologists and became an important player in legal cases pertaining to civil rights and other social justice issues. With practitioners taking an ever-greater role in the governance of the organization in the late 1970s, and the financial viability of the association in doubt in the 1980s, many psychological scientists felt the need to create a separate organization for themselves. The 1990s and early 2000s brought more challenges: declining divisional memberships; a legal dispute over fees with practitioners; and a serious upheaval over the APA Board of Directors' cooperation with governmental defense and intelligence agencies during the "war on terror." These clashes appear to have precipitated a decline in the association's membership for the first time in its history. The APA has faced many storms over its century-and-a-quarter, but has, thus far, always ultimately found a way forward for itself, for its members, and for the wider discipline of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
American Psychologist, 2010
This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…
American Psychologist, 2011
This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…
... Staff Board of Directors Incorporation News Contact Us Psychological Challenges Associated with CMN Having a mole that ... don’t feel alone. Find Support While the psychological challenges facing the nevus community can be daunting, ...
American Psychologist, 2006
This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny
This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…
Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.
Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.
Warchal, Judith R.; Ruiz, Ana I.; You, Di
This study focuses on the inclusion of the American Psychological Association's learning goals in the mission statements of undergraduate psychology programs across the US. We reviewed the mission statements available on websites for 1336 psychology programs listed in the Carnegie classification. Results of a content analysis revealed that of the…
This study explored college students' smoking behaviour and identifies the effect of different psychological factors. Randomly selected students from two different universities completed the perceived stress scale, self esteem scale, anxiety scale and a smoking questionnaire. Non-parametric analyses suggested that higher ...
Canavan, Maureen E; Sipsma, Heather L; Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Jack, Helen; Udry, Christopher; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.
Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…
Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.
This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...
Lee, Jeewon; Sung, Min-Je; Song, Sook-Hyung; Lee, Young-Moon; Lee, Je-Jung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Yun-Mi
The smartphone has many attractive attributes and characteristics that could make it highly addictive, particularly in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of young adolescents in risk of smartphone addiction and the psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction. Four hundred ninety middle school…
Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G
We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing
Provides the 2012 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In 2012, APA celebrated its 120th anniversary. It has grown from its original 31 members to the largest association of psychologists in the United States and a worldwide leader within the discipline. This edition of the report introduces each directorate and office within APA and talks about their goals and objectives. the president of APA, Dr. Norman Anderson, also gives a brief report which updates you on the activities of the association during its 120th anniversary as the professional home for psychologists and an advocate for the discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R
Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David
Although much attention has been given to the physical determinants of common musculoskeletal complaints such as back and arm pain, research points to a stronger influence of psychological factors. Multiple studies have implicated poor mental health and somatisation (a tendency to worry about the common somatic symptoms) in the incidence and chronicity of musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. Also important are adverse beliefs about the prognosis of such disorders, and about the role of physical activity in their development and persistence. Differences in societal beliefs may have contributed to major variation in the prevalence of disabling musculoskeletal pain that has been observed between countries and in the same countries over time. Psychosocial aspects of work have also been linked with musculoskeletal pain, although relative risks have generally been smaller. There is a need to take account of psychological factors in the clinical management of patients with back, neck and arm pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were
Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne
This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…
Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C
Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.
Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M
Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P physical functioning (r = 0.42, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant
Lahousen, Theresa; Painold, Annamaria; Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Schienle, Anne; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been associated with several psychological factors. But previous psychological data are limited and mainly restricted to male patients and small sample size. In this study we investigated psychosomatic complaints, personality factors, life events, and stress coping in acute and chronic recurrent CSC patients. Ninety-five patients (71 men, 24 women) with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated regarding critical life events before diagnosis, psychosomatic complaints, personality traits and coping style. The characteristics of CSC patients were compared with a control group comprising 75 patients (46 men, 29 women) suffering from acute or chronic ophthalmic disorders other than CSC. Compared with patients of the control group, CSC patients reported more psychosomatic problems, unfavourable stress coping strategies and critical life events as well as elevated tension, aggression, strain, emotional instability and achievement orientation. Except for aggression the observed characteristics were more pronounced in acute than in chronic CSC patients. The appearance of CSC may be associated with an accumulation of stressful life events with an unfavourable coping style and distinctive personality factors. Acute CSC is related to more unfavourable stress coping and more physical complaints compared to its chronic course. Elevated aggression may imply one potential risk factor for CSC manifestation and also may have an adverse effect with its chronification.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.
Morse, Gwen Goetz
This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of
Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit
Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of
Sheiner, Einat K; Sheiner, Eyal; Carel, Refael; Potashnik, Gad; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential reproductive toxic agents, and psychological stress on male fertility. The study population consisted of 202 consecutive male patients attending a fertility clinic. Of those, 106 patients had attended the clinic because of a male infertility problem (case group), 66 patients had attended the clinic because of a female infertility problem (control group), and 30 patients had a combined infertility problem (male and female). Male infertility was associated with working in industry and construction as compared with other occupations (78.6% vs 58.3%, P = 0.044). Industry and construction workers were of lower educational level than the other workers (mean: 12.1 vs 13.4 years, P = 0.021). These patients also tended to smoke more than the other workers (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.08 to 5.98), more often worked in shifts (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.19 to 8.13), reported physical exertion in work (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.44 to 7.80), and were more exposed to noise and welding (OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.63 to 9.14, OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.76, respectively). Male infertility (case group) was found to be statistically related to higher marks in all four measures of burnout as compared with the controls. The largest difference was obtained in the measure of cognitive weariness (mean: 2.9 vs 2.1, P construction jobs (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and cognitive weariness (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.6) were found to be independent risk factors for male infertility problems. Male infertility was independently associated with industry and construction jobs as well as job burnout.
Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan
To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P work balance (t = 2.028, P differences in the scores of management role, work responsibilities, and organizational climate between the MS group and the control group (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3
Macavei, B; Baban, A; Dumitrascu, D L
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. So far, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its more severe variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is yet unclear, with many mechanisms being proposed as possible causes. This article aims to review the psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH. Three main categories of factors have been investigated: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. Five electronic databases were searched, limited to studies published in the English language, during the period 2005-2015: PubMed, Thomson ISI - Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect. Results indicated the most relevant emotional factors to be depression and anxiety. The areas of investigation for cognitive functioning concern those contents and processes related to the ability to initiate and maintain lifestyle changes. The most important behavioral factors identified are physical activity, nutrition/food intake and substance consumption: coffee, alcohol, cigarettes. Some of the factors identified act as protective factors, other as vulnerability factors. NAFLD/NASH may be considered a cognitive-behavioral disease, the most effective management being lifestyle changes, with emphasis on diet and exercise.
Bottiroli, S; Viana, M; Sances, G; Ghiotto, N; Guaschino, E; Galli, F; Vegni, E; Pazzi, S; Nappi, G; Tassorelli, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological factors associated with a negative outcome following detoxification in a 2-month follow-up in medication-overuse headache. All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective, non-randomised fashion. Psychiatric conditions and personality characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2. χ2 tests, one-way analyses of variance, and odds ratios (ORs) were used. A total of 248 patients completed the follow-up: 156 stopped overuse and their headaches reverted to an episodic pattern (Group A); 23 kept overusing without any benefit on headache frequency (Group B); and 51 stopped overuse without any benefit on headache frequency (Group C). The prognostic factors for the outcome of Group B were higher scores on the correction (OR 1.128; p = 0.036), depression (OR 1.071; p = 0.05), hysteria (OR 1.106; p = 0.023), and overcontrolled hostility (OR 1.182; p = 0.04) MMPI-2 scales, whereas those for Group C were psychiatric comorbidities (OR 1.502; p = 0.021) and higher scores on the hysteria scale (OR 1.125; p = 0.004). The outcome of detoxification is influenced by psychological factors that should be considered when considering treatment strategies. © International Headache Society 2016.
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition,
Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B
are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain...... and experimental pain. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors may have predictive value when investigating experimental pain. However, due to substantial heterogeneity and methodological shortcomings of the published literature, firm conclusions are not possible.......BACKGROUND: The association between pain and psychological characteristics has been widely debated. Thus, it remains unclear whether an individual's psychological profile influences a particular pain experience, or if previous pain experience contributes to a certain psychological profile...
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd
Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn
AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....
Fagan, Thomas K.; Gorin, Susan; Tharinger, Deborah
Since 1969, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and the Division of School Psychology within the American Psychological Association have dually influenced many psychological and educational issues in school psychology. Following a summary of the organizational topography of school psychology, the status and future directions…
Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer
The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
Leah A. Cardwell
Full Text Available Background: Conditions affecting the face are particularly prone to causing psychological comorbidity; patients may be reluctant to inform their physician about their psychological distress. Unscripted comments could provide novel insight regarding the psychological impact of rosacea. Aim: To assess psychologically distressing aspects of rosacea reported in an informal medical setting. Methods: Random sample of 10% of 27,051 posts analyzed, 446 comments addressed psychological effects of rosacea. Comments analyzed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, low confidence/self-esteem, and aspects of rosacea which cause distress, including symptoms, lifestyle change and difficulty with treatments. Brand names were changed to generic equivalent. Results: Symptoms of depression (n = 44 and the desire to end life (n = 6 were mentioned, but no comments expounded on any suicide plan. Anxiousness (n = 7 and negative impact on confidence/self-esteem (n = 5 were mentioned. Symptoms, or clinical manifestations (n = 29, were the most frequently mentioned distress factor, followed by lifestyle change (n = 20. Patients also voiced difficulty with treatments (n = 15. Limitations: Online forums may provide patient perceptions that patients would not share with a doctor, but the sample may not be representative of all rosacea patients. Conclusions: Inquiring about psychological impact of rosacea might be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from supportive psychological measures.
American Psychologist, 2012
As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…
Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken
ABSTRACT Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple...... psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated NT-proBNP measurements. Design: The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age=62.2±9.32). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression.......6% (BDI) and 21.3% (DS14), respectively. At baseline, none of the psychological risk markers were associated with NT-proBNP levels (all ps≥.05). In the subset of patients with scores on psychological risk markers both at baseline and at 9 months there were no association between anxiety (p=0...
Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M
.... The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design...
Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ﬁnd the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress
Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin
This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…
Voerman, G.E.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Fleuren, J.F.; Hermens, H.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.
PURPOSE: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete
Voerman, Gerlienke; Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; Fleuren, Judith F.M.; Fleuren, J.F.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.
Purpose: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. - Methods: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja
To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.
Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E
Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.
Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise
Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.
Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...... with lymphoedema had a 14% higher risk for scoring one level higher on the POMS-SF test, a 9% higher probability of scoring one point lower on the quality of life scale and a 29% higher likelihood of reporting poorer or bad health than women without lymphoedema. These findings were seen at all three measurement...
Members of the helping professions are not immune from physical or psychological impairments that interfere with competent and ethical practice. The types of problems faced by psychologists and the help offered by one support program are presented. The purpose of the Psychologist Support Program (PSP) of the Ontario (Canada) Psychological…
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira
This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
American Psychologist, 2011
Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…
Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger
The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....
Full Text Available Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g. time spent online and underlying motivations (e.g. making new friends of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N=119, we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed for connection purposes (e.g. making new friends. We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g. anxiety and life satisfaction. The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Carter, Kristie N; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony
There is evidence that smoking is associated with poorer mental health. However, the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. We used longitudinal data to assess whether smoking uptake, or failed quit attempts, are associated with increased psychological distress. Data were used from Waves 3 (2004/05), 5 (2006/07) and 7 (2008/09) of the longitudinal New Zealand Survey of Family, Income and Employment. Fixed-effects linear regression analyses were performed to model the impact of changes in smoking status and quit status (exposure variables) on changes in psychological distress (Kessler 10 (K10)). After adjusting for time-varying demographic and socioeconomic covariates, smoking uptake was associated with an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.22, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.43). The associations around quitting and distress were in the expected directions, but were not statistically significant. That is, smokers who successfully quit between waves had no meaningful change in psychological distress (K10: -0.05, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.23), whereas those who tried but failed to quit, experienced an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.18, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.40). The findings provide some support for a modest association between smoking uptake and a subsequent increase in psychological distress, but more research is needed before such information is considered for inclusion in public health messages.
Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.
Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…
American Psychologist, 2007
The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.
Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.
Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…
McIntyre, Jason C; Wickham, Sophie; Barr, Ben; Bentall, Richard P
Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge. Here, we examined the relationship between social identity and mental health (paranoia, auditory verbal hallucinations [AVHs], and depression), and tested the mediating role of self-esteem. In study 1, we analyzed data collected from 4319 UK residents as part of the NIHR CLAHRC NWC Household Health Survey. Study 2 comprised data collected from 1167 students attending a large UK university. The studies provided convergent evidence that social identification reduces symptoms of paranoia and depression by furnishing people with self-esteem. There was no consistent effect of social identification on AVHs. People developing mental health assessments, treatments, and policies are encouraged to consider the notion that joining and identifying with social groups may reduce people's risk of paranoia and depression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.
Full Text Available Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism
Background The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. Methods 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for emotional content. Results The specific concurrent experience of happiness and sadness was associated with improvements in psychological well-being above and beyond the impact of the passage of time, personality traits, or the independent effects of happiness and sadness. Changes in mixed emotional experience preceded improvements in well-being. Conclusions Experiencing happiness alongside sadness in psychotherapy may be a harbinger of improvement in psychological well-being. PMID:22539987
Winer, E Samuel; Cervone, Daniel; Bryant, Jessica; McKinney, Cliff; Liu, Richard T; Nadorff, Michael R
A popular way to attempt to discern causality in clinical psychology is through mediation analysis. However, mediation analysis is sometimes applied to research questions in clinical psychology when inferring causality is impossible. This practice may soon increase with new, readily available, and easy-to-use statistical advances. Thus, we here provide a heuristic to remind clinical psychological scientists of the assumptions of mediation analyses. We describe recent statistical advances and unpack assumptions of causality in mediation, underscoring the importance of time in understanding mediational hypotheses and analyses in clinical psychology. Example analyses demonstrate that statistical mediation can occur despite theoretical mediation being improbable. We propose a delineation of mediational effects derived from cross-sectional designs into the terms temporal and atemporal associations to emphasize time in conceptualizing process models in clinical psychology. The general implications for mediational hypotheses and the temporal frameworks from within which they may be drawn are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok; Hwang, Eung-Soo
The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (Pherpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster.
Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C
The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd
Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking psychological help (Obasi & Leong, 2009; Vogel, Wade, & Haake, 2006). For racial and ethnic minorities, the hindering effects of self-stigma and perceived stigmatization by others on treatment seeking may further be compounded by their relationships with their own ethnic groups, with other ethnic groups, and with the dominant society. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a model that explored the effects of psychological distress and psychocultural variables (i.e., ethnic identity, other-group orientation, perceived discrimination) on perceived stigmatization by others and self-stigma for seeking psychological help, controlling for past use of counseling/psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 260 African American, 166 Asian American, and 183 Latino American students. SEM multigroup analyses indicated measurement invariance, but partial structural invariance, across racial/ethnic groups. Across all 3 groups, higher levels of psychological distress and perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, respectively, predicted higher levels of perceived stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help, which, in turn, predicted greater self-stigma for seeking psychological help. Higher levels of other-group orientation predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help across groups. Higher levels of ethnic identity predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help only for African Americans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Wicks, Charlotte Rose; Ward, Karl; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan; Ford, Helen L
People with multiple sclerosis often stop working earlier than expected. Psychological factors may have an impact on job retention. Investigation may inform interventions to help people stay in work. To investigate the associations between psychological factors and work instability in people with multiple sclerosis. A multi-method, 2-phased study. Focus groups were held to identify key themes. Questionnaire packs using validated scales of the key themes were completed at baseline and at 8-month follow-up. Four key psychological themes emerged. Out of 208 study subjects 57.2% reported medium/high risk of job loss, with marginal changes at 8 months. Some psychological variables fluctuated significantly, e.g. depression fell from 24.6% to 14.5%. Work instability and anxiety and depression were strongly correlated (χ2 p < 0.001). Those with probable depression at baseline had 7.1 times increased odds of medium/high work instability, and baseline depression levels also predicted later work instability (Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.899; Nagelkerke R Square 0.579). Psychological factors fluctuated over the 8-month follow-up period. Some psychological variables, including anxiety and depression, were significantly associated with, and predictive of, work instability. Longitudinal analysis should further identify how these psychological attributes impact on work instability and potential job loss in the longer term.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.
Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne
Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (p< 0.05). Disability was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that pain-induced disability can be significantly predicted by anxiety and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). It can be concluded that anxiety, depression and catastrophizing of patients with chronic neck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.
Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B
Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.
Esther L. Meerwijk
Full Text Available Psychological pain frequently underlies thoughts of suicide. We investigated if recent suicidal desire moderated the association between potential neurophysiological markers and psychological pain assessed on the Psychache Scale (PS and the Orbach & Mikulincer Mental Pain Questionnaire (OMMP. The OMMP specifically assesses current psychological pain that may more readily capture emotions present during recent suicidal desire. In contrast, the PS leaves the timeframe undefined. A secondary analysis was conducted of resting-state EEG data and heart rate obtained in adults with a history of depression. In simultaneous multiple regression models, while controlling for depressive symptoms, recent suicidal desire moderated associations with right-frontal EEG delta power (ΔR2 = .07, p < .01 and low-frequency heart rate variability (nonsignificantly for pain assessed on the PS. No indication for moderation was found for pain on the OMMP. The relationship between the two measures of psychological pain was stronger for individuals with recent suicidal desire (r = .75, p < .01 vs. r = .50, p < .05. The findings suggest that, unless a respondent’s psychological pain is recent and substantial, the PS may not capture the intensity of current psychological pain as effectively as the OMMP.
Oddo, Vanessa M; Mabli, James
We assessed whether households' participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was associated with improvements in well-being, as indicated by lower rates of psychological distress. We used longitudinal data for 3146 households in 30 states, collected between October 2011 and September 2012 for the SNAP Food Security survey, the largest longitudinal national survey of SNAP participants to date. Analyses compared households within days of program entry to the same households approximately 6 months later. We measured psychological distress in the past 30 days on a 6-item Kessler screening scale and used multivariable regression to estimate associations between SNAP participation and psychological distress. A smaller percentage of household heads exhibited psychological distress after 6 months of participation in SNAP than at baseline (15.3% vs 23.2%; difference = -7.9%). In adjusted models, SNAP participation was associated with a decrease in psychological distress (adjusted relative risk = 0.72; 95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.78). Continuing support for federal nutrition programs, such as SNAP, may reduce the public health burden of mental illness, thus improving well-being among vulnerable populations.
Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.
In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....
Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne
The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Mathews, Lena; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Utuama, Ovie A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Veledar, Emir; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur; Zhao, Di; Michos, Erin D
The cardiovascular effects of stress and other psychological factors may be different between women and men. We assessed whether self-perceived adverse psychological factors were associated with achievement of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as measured by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven (LS7) and whether this differed by sex. This was a cross-sectional study of employees from a large healthcare organization. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), intermediate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were categorized as optimal (11-14), average (9-10), and inadequate (0-8). Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychological factors obtained by questionnaire (self-perceived stress, low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, depression, and anxiety) were associated with CVH, after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and education. Among 9,056 participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (12) years, 74% were women, 57% Hispanic/Latino, 17% white, and 16% black. Stress was associated with reduced odds of having optimal/average CVH [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50-0.66) and 0.63 (0.50-0.81), for women and men, respectively]. Similarly, depression was associated with reduced odds of optimal/average CVH [0.58 (0.43-0.78) and 0.44 (0.26-0.76), for women and men, respectively]. Low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, and anxiety were also associated with statistically significantly lower odds of optimal/average CVH in women, but not in men; however, there were no interactions by sex. In an ethnically diverse population, both women and men with several adverse self-perceived psychological factors were less likely to have optimal or adequate CVH. Future studies are needed to determine whether addressing psychological stressors can improve CVH.
Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William
Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies has explored whether pre-existing psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first-onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. PMID:24275225
Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.
Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie
To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health
Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun
We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…
Pettifor, Jean L.
Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…
Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein
Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:
Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein
Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:
Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.
Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…
Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…
Neville, Helen A.; Flores, Michelle P.; Dodson, Milo L.
We underscore the importance of this compilation in our response to the major contribution on the histories of the five major ethnic minority psychological associations (EMPAs). The description of the formation, mission, goals, and activities of the EMPAs will serve as a useful tool to educate counseling psychologists and other professionals about…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Nogueira Avelar E Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein
Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. We used data from Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a longitudinal study on adolescent sexual development in the Netherlands. Participants were 11.0-16.0 years old (mean age at T1 = 13.3 years). Self-reports from four waves of online questionnaires were used. Bidirectional longitudinal associations were assessed by linear mixed-effects models. At most waves, boys had significantly higher levels of psychological well-being than girls, but genders did not differ in experience with sexual behaviors. Engagement in early sexual behaviors did not predict lower levels of psychological well-being over time, and lower levels of psychological well-being did not predict more engagement in early sexual behaviors over time. Parent-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate these associations in either direction, although we found a significant direct effect, in which a higher-quality parent-adolescent relationship predicted more optimal levels of the three indicators of adolescents' psychological well-being (but not lower levels of early sexual activity) over time. Our results show that, among Dutch adolescents, early sexual behaviors and psychological well-being were not interrelated. This may be explained by socio-cultural aspects of the Dutch society, such as more normalization of sexual behaviors during adolescence. As a result, early sexual activity in and of itself was not related to lower psychological well-being over time. Yet, cross-cultural differences in links between adolescents' sexuality and well-being should be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Lau, Michelle W; Li, Wenlong E; Llewellyn, Anthony; Cyna, Allan M
To determine the prevalence of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers (JMO) and investigate the determinants associated with psychological distress over a 3-year (2014-2016) period. JMO were surveyed using the 2014-2016 JMO Census (n = 220, 399 and 466 each year; response rate approximately 15%). Levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A K10 ≥ 25 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress, and this determinant was compared to various demographic and work-related factors. Australian JMO experience a high level of psychological distress (mean: 18.1, median 16.0). There were no differences in demographical variables, such as age, gender, marital status, dependants and between postgraduate years 1 and 2. Increasing hours worked per week was associated with a higher K10, with every hour worked increasing odds by 3%. Attitudinal items, including feeling unwilling to study medicine again, feeling poorly trained and experiences of bullying, were related to high psychological distress. Coping strategies like exercise and spending time with friends correlated positively with lower distress, while time off work, frequent alcohol use, smoking and drug use were associated with increased distress levels. Of those with a high K10, 54.5% indicated that they did not use any form of professional support; 17.83% expressed that given their time again, they would not choose to study medicine. A focused approach to JMO support and education regarding significant risk factors identified is likely to assist health policies that aim to improve the mental well-being of Australian JMO. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Eiskær, Hans; Videbæk, Lars; Pedersen, Mette Storgaard; Aagard, Bitten; Pedersen, Susanne S
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurements. The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age =62.2 ± 9.3). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression, and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Type D Scale (DS14) were assessed only at baseline. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured at baseline and at 9 months. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and Type D personality at baseline was 23.4% (HADS-A), 17.0% (HADS-D), 46.6% (BDI), and 21.3% (DS14), respectively. At baseline, none of the psychological risk markers were associated with NT-proBNP levels (all p >.05). In the subset of patients with scores on psychological risk markers both at baseline and at 9 months, there were no association between anxiety (p =0.44), depression (HADS-D: p =0.90; BDI: p =0.85), and Type D (p =0.63) with NT-proBNP levels using ANOVA for repeated measures. Our findings indicate that measures frequently used in HF to assess psychological risk markers are unconfounded by NT-proBNP. Futher studies are warranted to replicate these findings and examine whether psychological risk markers are independent predictors of prognosis in HF or an artifact that may be attributed to other biological or behavioral mechanisms.
Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Grych, John H.
Objective This study utilized an observational coding scheme to identify parenting behavior reflecting psychological control and autonomy granting and examined relations between these parenting dimensions and indices of child and family functioning. Design A community sample of 90 preadolescents (aged 10.5 to 12 years) and both of their parents engaged in a triadic interaction that was coded for parental psychological control and autonomy granting. Participants also completed measures of child adjustment, interparental conflict, and triangulation. Results Factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model better fit the data than a one-factor model, suggesting that psychological control and autonomy granting are best conceptualized as independent but related constructs. Parental psychological control and autonomy granting exhibited some shared and some unique correlates with indices of child and family functioning. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant interactions between these dimensions, suggesting that the strength of some associations between parents’ use of psychological control and youth adjustment problems depends on the level of autonomy granting exhibited by the parent. Conclusions By examining psychological control and autonomy granting simultaneously as unique constructs, this study identifies patterns of psychological control and autonomy granting that undermine youth adjustment. Findings inform targeted intervention efforts for families of preadolescent youth. PMID:23418403
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José
Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.
Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; Erickson Cornish, Jennifer A; Thomas, Janet T; Forrest, Linda; Anderson, Austin; Bow, James N
Professional psychologists are expected to know ethical standards and engage in proactive analysis of ethical considerations across professional roles (e.g., practice, research, teaching). Yet, little is known about the current state of doctoral ethics education in professional psychology, including the content covered and pedagogical strategies used to ensure developing this core component of professional competency (de las Fuentes, Willmuth, & Yarrow, 2005). A survey of ethics educators fro...
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja
Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.
Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita
The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luck-Sikorski, Claudia; Pabst, Alexander; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex. Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women. Leipzig, Germany. We studied 5935 participants aged 18 to 79 years. Uncontrolled eating mediated the association between SES and BMI in men only and restrained eating in both men and women. Emotional eating did not act as mediator in this relationship. The total effect of eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI was estimated as β=-0·03 (se 0·02; 95 % CI -0·062, -0·003) in men and β=-0·18 (se 0·02; 95 % CI -0·217, -0·138) in women. Our findings do not indicate a strong overall mediation effect of the eating behaviour domains restrained eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating on the association between SES and BMI. Further research on other pathways of this association is strongly recommended. Importantly, our findings indicate that, independent from one's social position, focusing on psychological aspects in weight reduction might be a promising approach.
van Dijk Jitse P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.
Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.
An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xi; Tao, Fangbiao
To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 4 cities in China. The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and demographic variables were used to measure adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms and sleep quality, respectively, in 13,723 students (aged 12-20 years). Problematic Internet use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of sleep quality and PIU on physical and psychological symptoms, and to identify the mediating effect of sleep quality in adolescents. Prevalence rates of PIU, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and poor sleep quality were 11.7%, 24.9%, 19.8%, and 26.7%, respectively. Poor sleep quality was found to be an independent risk factor for both physical and psychological symptoms. The effects of PIU on the 2 health outcomes were partially mediated by sleep quality. Problematic Internet use is becoming a significant public health issue among Chinese adolescents that requires urgent attention. Excessive Internet use may not only have direct adverse health consequences but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation.
Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen
Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comello, Maria Leonora G; Francis, Diane B; Marshall, Laura Heisner; Puglia, Deanna R
Playing recreational videogames is a common activity, yet little is known about its role in the lives of people who are coping with serious illness. These individuals may experience depression and isolation and may turn to games to help alleviate negative experiences and support well-being. We explored these possibilities in the context of cancer survivors. The study aimed to discover motivations underlying game play and the extent to which motivations are associated with psychological health and well-being. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of survivors who play recreational games (N = 794). Key variables were motivations and indicators of psychological health, including self-efficacy in cancer communications, resilient coping, and beliefs that one is living a fulfilling and meaningful life (flourishing). Participants were most likely to be motivated to play for stimulation and a sense of accomplishment (intrinsic rewards), followed by development of self, sense of community, and personal affirmation. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive associations between playing for intrinsic rewards and all three psychological health outcomes. Playing for a sense of community was also positively associated with coping and flourishing. Playing recreational videogames, particularly to receive intrinsic rewards and to connect with others, may play a supportive role in the psychological health of survivors. Findings suggest future areas for research and implications for development of serious games.
Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J
Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen
To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D
This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nadig, Nandita; Huff, Nidhi G; Cox, Christopher E; Ford, Dee W
To develop and evaluate a preliminary multifaceted model for coping among family members of patients who survive mechanical ventilation. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, we interviewed family members of mechanically ventilated patients at the time of transfer from the ICU to the hospital ward. We constructed a theoretic model of coping that included characteristics attributable to family members, family-clinician rapport, and patients. We then explored relationships between coping factors and symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress). Fifty-six family members of survivors of mechanical ventilation. Psychological distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Posttraumatic Stress Scale. Optimism measured using the Life Orientation Test scale, resiliency by Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and social support using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System inventory. Family members had moderate levels of psychological distress with median total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale equal to 14 (interquartile range, 5-20) and Posttraumatic Stress Scale equal to 22 (interquartile range, 15-31). Among family member characteristics, greater optimism (p = 0.001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; p = 0.010, Posttraumatic Stress Scale), resilience (p = 0.012, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and social support (p = 0.013, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were protective against psychological distress. On the contrary, characteristics of family-clinician rapport such as communication quality and presence of conflict did not have any associations with psychological distress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore coping as a multifaceted construct and its relationship with family psychological outcomes among survivors of mechanical ventilation. We found certain family characteristics of coping such as optimism, resilience, and social support to be
Ghaniyoun, Aram; Shakeri, Khosro; Heidari, Mohammad
Workers in social service professions are the first candidates for job burnout. The researchers believe this is due to daily exposure to stressful situations and lack of positive conditions in the workplace. It seems that psychological empowerment of staff can affect their job burnout. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and job burnout in operational staff of emergency center. This was a descriptive correlational study. A total of 1100 operational staff of emergency center were evaluated, and of which, 285 persons were selected by simple random sampling method. Data were collected using Spritzer's psychological empowerment and Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires. SPSS software, version 18, was used for data analysis along with descriptive analytical tests. The findings of this study revealed that the majority of units (46%) were in intermediate level in terms of empowerment. Similarly, the majority of cases had intermediate level (77.5%), and a minor percentage (8.4%) had low levels of job burnout. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there was a significant invert correlation between psychological empowerment and job burnout. This inverse and significant relationship was also observed between the four components of psychological empowerment (competence, self-determination, impact, and meaning) and job burnout. According to the results of the study, policy makers and health planners can take some measures in enhancing psychological empowerment to prevent problems associated with job burnout, by identifying stressors and strategies to deal with them.
Tempest, Elizabeth L; Carter, Ben; Beck, Charles R; Rubin, G James
The impact of flooding on mental health is exacerbated due to secondary stressors, although the mechanism of action is not understood. We investigated the role of secondary stressors on psychological outcomes through analysis of data collected one-year after flooding, and effect modification by sex. We analysed data from the English National Study on Flooding and Health collected from households flooded, disrupted and unexposed to flooding during 2013-14. Psychological outcomes were probable depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Parsimonious multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine the effect of secondary stressors on the psychological outcomes. Sex was tested as an effect modifier using subgroup analyses. A total of 2006 people participated (55.5% women, mean age 60 years old). Participants reporting concerns about their personal health and that of their family (concerns about health) had greater odds of probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.65) and PTSD (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.82-3.66). Loss of items of sentimental value was associated with probable anxiety (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.26-2.62). For women, the strongest associations were between concerns about health and probable PTSD (aOR 2.86, 95% CI 1.79-4.57). For men, the strongest associations were between 'relationship problems' and probable depression (aOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.54-6.85). Concerns about health, problems with relationships and loss of sentimental items were consistently associated with poor psychological outcomes. Interventions to reduce the occurrence of these secondary stressors are needed to mitigate the impact of flooding on probable psychological morbidity.
Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer
This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.
Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett A; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D; de la Haye, Kayla; Pollard, Michael S
Homophobic victimization, and specifically name-calling, has been associated with greater psychological distress and alcohol use in adolescents. This longitudinal study examines whether sexual orientation moderates these associations and also differentiates between the effects of name-calling from friends and nonfriends. Results are based on 1,325 students from three Midwestern high schools who completed in-school surveys in 2012 and 2013. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations among homophobic name-calling victimization and changes in anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use one year later, controlling for other forms of victimization and demographics. Homophobic name-calling victimization by friends was not associated with changes in psychological distress or alcohol use among either students who self-identified as heterosexual or those who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). In contrast, homophobic name-calling by nonfriends was associated with increased psychological distress over a one-year period among LGB students and increased drinking among heterosexual students. Homophobic name-calling victimization, specifically from nonfriends, can adversely affect adolescent well-being over time and, thus, is important to address in school-based bullying prevention programs. School staff and parents should be aware that both LGB and heterosexual adolescents are targets of homophobic name-calling but may tend to react to this type of victimization in different ways. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which homophobic victimization increases the risk of psychological distress and alcohol use over time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.
Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakaya, Naoki; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Kakizaki, Masako; Sone, Toshimasa; Nagai, Masato; Sugawara, Yumi; Nitta, Akemi; Tomata, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Tsuji, Ichiro
Although green tea or its constituents might reduce psychological stress, the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress has not been investigated in a large-scale study. Our aim was to clarify whether green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress. We analyzed cross-sectional data for 42,093 Japanese individuals aged > or =40 y from the general population. Information on daily green tea consumption, psychological distress as assessed by the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale, and other lifestyle factors was collected by using a questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, history of disease, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, time spent walking, dietary factors, social support, and participation in community activities to investigate the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress. We classified 2774 (6.6%) of the respondents as having psychological distress (Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale > or =13/24). There was an inverse association between green tea consumption and psychological distress in a model adjusted for age and sex. Although the relation was largely attenuated when possible confounding factors were adjusted for, a statistically significant inverse association remained. The odds ratio (with 95% CI) of developing psychological distress among respondents who consumed >/=5 cups of green tea/d was 0.80 (0.70, 0.91) compared with those who consumed Green tea consumption was inversely associated with psychological distress even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.
Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A
Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Foulds, James; Wells, J Elisabeth; Mulder, Roger
People with a low material living standard experience more psychological distress than those with a high living standard, but previous studies suggest the size of this difference is modest. To measure the association between living standard and psychological distress using a multidimensional measure of living standard, the Economic Living Standard Index (ELSI). Adults aged 25-64 years (n = 8,465) were selected from a New Zealand community survey. Logistic regression models were used to compare household income and ELSI scores as risk factors for high psychological distress, defined as a K10 score of 12 or over. In the population, the prevalence of high psychological distress was 5.8%. The prevalence of high distress increased steeply with decreasing living standard. In the most deprived decile according to ELSI score, 24.3% had high distress, compared to 0.8% in the least deprived decile. For household income, high distress was present in 15.9% of people in the lowest decile and 2.2% of the highest decile. In fully adjusted models, ELSI score remained significantly associated with high distress but household income was not. The mental health disparity between those at opposite ends of the social spectrum is very large. Comprehensive measures such as the ELSI give a more accurate estimate of this disparity than household income. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J
We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.
Silva, Mabile Francine Ferreira
Full Text Available Introduction: The peripheral facial paralysis (PFP results from the reduction or interruption of the axonal transport to the seventh cranial nerve resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial movements. The facial deformity and limitation of movements, besides affecting the aesthetics and functionality, can significantly interfere with interpersonal communication. Objective: Investigate the psychological contents and other social effects associated to PFP in adult subjects, performing a comparative analysis in three groups of subjects with PFP: at flaccid, recovery and sequel phases. Method: Quantitative and qualitative research. 16 adult subjects, from both sexes, aging between 43 and 88 years old, with PFP. Procedure: Open interviews with subjects. The material was recorded in audio and video, literally transcribed, systematized through categorical and statistical analysis. Results: The subjects bearing sequels presented higher statistical significance of psychological contents and social effects associated to PFP. Followed, respectively, by those that were on flaccid and recovery phases. The results suggest that the speech-language therapist, besides performing functional and aesthetical rehabilitation with the subject with PFP, needs to be aware of psychological and social aspects that may be involved, in order to evaluate and seek to reduce the degree of psychological distress and promote the social adjustment of these patients. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial approach to patients with PFP revealed a wide and significant range of subjective contents that warrant new studies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the speech-language clinical method to approach this medical condition.
Goetzmann, Lutz; Irani, Sarosh; Schwegler, Kyrill; Stamm, Martina; Spindler, Anja; Bricman, Rosemarie; Buddeberg, Claus; Schmid, Christoph; Boehler, Annette; Klaghofer, Richard
Chronic stress is a well-known consequence of somatic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether physical, sociodemographic, or transplant-related psychological factors were associated with the patient's chronic stress level. A cross-sectional study enrolling 76 patients measured chronic stress (Screening Scale, Screening Subscale of Chronic Stress of the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress) and the emotional effects of the transplant (Transplant Effects Questionnaire), as well as physical and sociodemographic conditions (lung function, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, working status, and parenting). Chronic stress after a lung transplant was significantly lower than in a normal community sample. In the multiple regression analysis, worries concerning the transplant were significantly associated with the patient's chronic stress, but not with physical or sociodemographic parameters, nor with interactions between physical and psychological parameters. These results underscore the importance of transplant-related worries, regardless of the patient's current state of health.
Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel
Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature
Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil
Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical st...
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...
Tuuliainen, Lauri; Sipilä, Kirsi; Mäki, Pirjo; Könönen, Mauno; Suominen, Anna Liisa
To evaluate the association between signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychological distress in a general population-based sample of Finnish adults. The Health 2000 Survey was conducted in 2000-2001 by the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. Of the sample of adults aged 30 or over (n=8,028), 79% participated in a clinical oral health examination, which included examination of TMD signs. The participants (n=6,155) also completed questionnaires, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which measured psychological distress. Associations between TMD signs and psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 were examined in both genders. Statistical measures included chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of the TMD signs (limited opening, clicking, crepitation, temporomandibular joint [TMJ] palpation pain, and muscle palpation pain) was 11.2%, 17.6%, 10.5%, 5.1%, and 18.9% in women, and 6.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, 2.4%, and 7.2% in men, respectively. High GHQ-12 scores, measured as continuous variables and in quartiles by distress level, were significantly associated with masticatory muscle pain on palpation in both genders (PTMJ pain on palpation in women (PTMJ crepitation in men (Pmuscle pain on palpation both in women (odds ratio [OR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.6-2.9) and men (OR=2.03; 95% CI=1.3-3.1). TMD signs and psychological distress appear to be associated. However, due to the limitations of the study, the findings can be regarded as preliminary.
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Zawadzki, Matthew J
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are related to psychological health, with most work examining reappraisal and suppression. Yet, emerging findings suggest that rumination may have stronger relationships with psychological health, namely depression, than other ER strategies. This paper replicated and extended this work by testing whether rumination was independently associated with a range of poor psychological health risk indicators and outcomes. In addition, it explored whether the reason why rumination is so deleterious to health is because it underlies the stress-health relationship. Participants (n = 218) completed measures online. Surveys assessed ER strategies (reappraisal, suppression, proactive coping, emotion support seeking, and rumination), health risk indicators (hostility, optimism, self-esteem), health outcomes (depression, poor sleep quality, anxiety) and perceived chronic stress. Multivariate regression analyses revealed rumination as the only ER strategy with a consistent independent effect on all the health risk indicators and outcomes. Bootstrapping analyses revealed indirect effects of perceived chronic stress on all the health variables via rumination. Rumination had a deleterious relationship with psychological health, perhaps because rumination underlies the relationship between stress and psychological health. Results have implications for interventions, particularly emphasizing the need to target ruminative thinking after stressful experiences.
Marek, Ryan J; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J; Rish, Julie Merrell
The reasons why some patients who begin the presurgical process for bariatric surgery fail to complete the procedure are understudied. Previous research implies that psychological factors play a role. To examine whether scores from baseline psychological testing incrementally predict failure to proceed with bariatric surgery beyond demographic information in patients' medical charts and data derived from a clinical interview. Cleveland Clinic Bariatric and Metabolic Institute. The sample (n = 1160) was mainly female (72.41%), middle aged (mean age = 46.07 yr, SD = 11.70) and of Caucasian descent (65.76%). Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted to test the incremental validity of baseline Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form scores after controlling for information gathered from the psychological interview and medical charts. Relative risk ratios were calculated to reflect the clinical utility of the results. In total, 27.16% of patients failed to proceed with bariatric surgery after 1 year or more after a recommendation for surgery from their psychological evaluations. Psychological test scores were substantially associated with failure to proceed with surgery and significantly accounted for up to 6% of additional variance after controlling for psychological interview variables and medical chart data. Elevated scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form scales, such as anxiety and substance use, identify patients at up to 2.5 times greater risk for failing to proceed with bariatric surgery. Objective psychological test data-notably, scale scores assessing for substance abuse, anxiety, and demoralization-add to information obtained from a clinical interview and medical records in identifying patients at risk for failing to proceed with bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baird, Brian N
The controversy surrounding B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman (1998) provides valuable lessons into scientific independence, politics, and organizational decision making. In an unprecedented action, the U.S. Congress officially condemned findings of Rind et al. Meanwhile, the American Psychological Association took similarly unprecedented measures in an effort to assuage its Congressional critics. This article, written from the perspective of a psychologist serving in Congress, discusses the various political and organizational dynamics that developed during the controversy. Understanding and learning from this incident can help psychologists and their professional associations better prepare for and respond to potential controversies arising from research or other publications.
Huang, Bo; Xu, Shabei; Xiong, Jin; Huang, Guangying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei
psychological factors (K10, personality A, F, L, N, O, Q4) were closely related to HB scores. We are led to conclude that the psychological status between BP patients and healthy people are different; psychological distress and personality factors are closely associated with severity of facial paralysis.
Benyamini, Yael; Gozlan, Miri; Kokia, Ehud
Research on illness perceptions and their associations with psychological adjustment to medical conditions has mostly focused on individuals coping with chronic diseases. The objective of the current study was to expand this research to the study of couples by examining the perceptions of infertility among couples undergoing treatment and their associations with each partner's psychological adjustment. The study was cross-sectional and included two samples that differed in the stage of treatment: Sample 1 included 72 couples at their first visit to an infertility clinic and Sample 2 included 49 couples at various stages of treatment. Participants filled in the Illness Perception Questionnaire regarding the timeline, consequences and controllability of their fertility problem and Infertility-Specific Distress and Well-being Scales. Dyadic analyses were conducted on the basis of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The partners differed in their perceptions of infertility and their distress. Partners' psychological adjustment was related to their perceptions of the fertility problem. Among couples at their first visit, perceptions of consequences of both partners were additively related to their distress whereas controllability perceptions interacted in their association with women's distress: Highest distress was reported by women who perceived low controllability whereas their partner perceived high controllability, compared with couples who reported similar (high or low) levels of controllability. A dyadic approach to studying illness perceptions can uncover patterns of couples at risk for poor adjustment. This is especially needed in contexts such as infertility, where both partners are involved and affected by the health threat.
Green, Christopher D; Heidari, Crystal; Chiacchia, Daniel; Martin, Shane M
There are many different ways to assess the significance of historical figures. Often we look at the influence of their writings, or at the important offices they held with disciplinary institutions such as universities, journals, and scholarly societies. In this study, however, we took a novel approach: we took the complete memberships, ca. 1900, of four organizations-the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association, and the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology-and visualized them as a network. We then identified individuals who "bridged" between two or more of these groups and considered what might be termed their "centrality" to the psychological-philosophical community of their time. First, we examined these figures qualitatively, briefly describing their lives and careers. Then we approached the problem mathematically, considering several alternative technical realizations of "centrality" and then explaining our reasons for choosing eigenvector centrality as the best for our purposes. We found a great deal of overlap among the results of the qualitative and quantitative approaches, but also some telling differences. J. Mark Baldwin, Edward Buchner, Christine Ladd Franklin, and Frank Thilly consistently emerged as highly central figures. Some more marginal figures such as Max Meyer, and Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Edward A. Pace, Edward H. Griffin played interesting roles as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok
Several studies suggest that subjective health status is closely related to various behavioral addictions, but there are few studies on smartphone overuse. This study investigated the associations between psychological and subjective health conditions and smartphone overuse in Korean college students. A total of 608 college students participated in this study. We investigated the perceived psychological factors, such as stress, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Overall health status was evaluated with self-assessed items, including usual health condition and EuroQol-visual analog scales (EQ-VAS) score. Smartphone overuse was evaluated as the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. Students with psychotic anxiety (i.e. stress, depression and suicidal ideation) showed significant associations with smartphone overuse, indicating an approximately twofold increased risk compared to those without psychological anxiety (all p Students who reported feeling that their usual health is not good were more likely to overuse smartphones than those who are in good health (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.22-3.21). The EQ-VAS score, which indicates current self-assessed health status, also showed a similar result with general health status (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.14-4.02). Negative conditions in self-perceived emotional or overall health condition are associated with the increased likelihood of smartphone overuse in Korean college students.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning
This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...
Han, Xuesong; Lin, Chun Chieh; Li, Chunyu; de Moor, Janet S; Rodriguez, Juan L; Kent, Erin E; Forsythe, Laura P
Serious psychological distress (SPD) is associated with adverse health outcomes such as poor quality of life and shorter survival in cancer survivors, but to the authors' knowledge, the relationship between SPD and health care use and medical expenditures is not clear. A total of 4326 cancer survivors and 57,109 noncancer participants were identified from the 2008 through 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationwide population-based survey, and their psychological distress was assessed with the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (SPD defined by a score ≥13). The association between SPD and use and medical expenditures of various types of health care (office-based, outpatient, hospital inpatient, emergency department, dental, and prescriptions) was examined using a 2-part modeling approach that adjusted for demographic, personal, and comorbidity factors. The marginal effects of SPD on health care use and expenditures were calculated for cancer survivors and were compared with those of noncancer participants. The weighted prevalence of SPD in cancer survivors was 8.2% compared with 4.8% in the noncancer participants. SPD was significantly associated with higher use of all care types except dental care in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors with SPD spent $4431 (95% confidence interval, $3419-$5443) more than survivors without SPD on medical services each year, whereas this extra expenditure associated with SPD for participants without cancer was $2685 (95% confidence interval, $2099-$3271). In a national representative sample of cancer survivors, SPD was found to be associated with higher health care use and medical expenditures. Distress screening and psychosocial care in cancer survivors may help reduce the economic burden of cancer in the United States. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Auvinen, Juha; Eskola, Pasi J; Ohtonen, Hanni-Rosa; Paananen, Markus; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro
Although several studies have shown that adolescent musculoskeletal pain is associated with psychological problems in a cross-sectional setting, the associations of long-term musculoskeletal pain with psychological distress and anxiety are not known. The study included 1773 adolescents belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. They received a postal questionnaire at the age of 16years and a follow-up questionnaire two years later. The first inquiry contained questions about the sites of musculoskeletal pain; the second had the same pain questions, along with measures of distress and anxiety. Risk ratios (RR) were assessed by log-linear regression analysis. Multi-site musculoskeletal pain (in ≥2 body locations) at both 16 and 18years was common, reported by 53% of girls and 30% of boys. Multi-site pain at both ages, compared to those with multi-site pain neither at 16 nor 18years, was associated with psychological distress at the age of 18 among both girls (RR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.7) and boys (RR 3.5 95% CI 2.1-5.9). For anxiety, the corresponding relative risks were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3), respectively. For short-term multi-site pain (prevalent only at the age of 16 or 18), these relative risks were between 0.8 and 2.3. Adolescents with long-term multi-site pain have higher levels of distress and anxiety than those without or with only short-term multi-site pain. Associations were found in both genders, but the relationship between pain and distress was more pronounced among boys. The associations had modest effect strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.
Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050
Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J
Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.
Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A
Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Goodhart, D E
This study investigated psychological effects associated with tendencies to focus one's thinking on positive versus negative outcomes of concluded stressful events, called respectively, positive and negative thinking. Four questions were addressed: (a) whether positive and negative thinking benefit or reduce psychological well-being, (b) whether these effects are transitory or enduring, (c) whether they are limited to thoughts about an event's impact on oneself or generalize to thoughts about an event's external consequences, and (d) whether tendencies to think positively or negatively about prior stressors influence psychological vulnerability to the impact of future ones. College students completed an event-outcome appraisal questionnaire designed to make salient positive and negative thoughts about the outcomes of recent stressful events. Subjects' well-being was then assessed both immediately after the salience manipulation and again 8 weeks later. Positive thinking increased the well-being that subjects reported immediately after their thoughts were assessed, but was unrelated to the well-being they reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively about past event outcomes may temporarily lead to perceptions of increased well-being while the thoughts are salient, it has no enduring influence. In contrast, negative thinking was associated with lower reported well-being not only when the thoughts were salient but after a delay as well. Psychological effects associated with both types of thinking were due mostly to self-relevant thoughts rather than to externally relevant ones. Negative thinking about prior stressor outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability to the impact of later ones on several aspects of well-being. Overall, results for negative thinking are consistent with evidence reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively effects that persist over time. However, positive thinking does not
Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie; Law, Paul A
Bullying has become a major national concern, particularly as it affects children with disabilities. The current study aimed to determine the association between psychiatric comorbid conditions, involvement in bullying (victim, bully, or bully-victim), and the immediate psychological correlates of bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A national sample of 1221 parents completed a survey dedicated to the bullying and school experiences of their child with ASD, reporting on the immediate consequences of bullying involvement, including their child's psychological well-being and any psychiatric comorbidity. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine whether specific psychiatric comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Analyses of variance determined the relationship between bullying frequency and psychological functioning. All models adjusted for child and school covariates. Children who were frequently victimized were more likely to present with internalizing symptoms, whereas children who frequently bullied others were more likely to exhibit emotion regulation problems. Children who were identified as frequent bully-victims presented with both internalizing symptoms and emotion regulation problems. Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression were more likely to have been victimized, whereas children with conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were more likely to have bullied other children. Children identified as bully-victims were more likely to have ADHD, CD, or ODD. Children with ASDs who had displayed bullying behaviors in the past month exhibited psychological impairments, including psychiatric comorbidity. The frequency of bullying behaviors was significantly associated with the level of impairment.
Full Text Available present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS.Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system (IBSSS, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel SyndromeQuality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318.Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.
Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M
Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.
Júnia M. Serra-Negra
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.
Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko
In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.
Sofia I Iqbal Kring
Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401
Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo
Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.
Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María
Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.
Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young
Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed
Ayeta, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ana Cristina Barros da; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Saunders, Cláudia
To evaluate the nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of the practice of pica in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was based on a descriptive design with exploratory features, and conducted on 13 adult and adolescent pregnant women aged 16 to 40 years with a diagnosis of pica in the current pregnancy. Pica was diagnosed by a nutritionist in a standardized interview situation, when questions about the occurrence and frequency of pica, and types of substance ingestion were investigated. After signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF), all participants were evaluated by a nutritionist and seven of them were submitted to psychological assessment with standardized instruments to evaluate stress and anxiety, and to assess coping strategies. The type of pica most frequently reported was pagophagia (30.8%) and the consumption of fruit with salt (30.8%). The most prevalent coping strategies were "religious practice-focused" and "seeking social support", both presented by 42% of the pregnant women. We observed the occurrence of some degree of stress and anxiety in all pregnant women, as well as comorbidities (69.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (84.6%). Considering that pica may be associated with increased perinatal risk, it is very important to investigate this disorder during prenatal care, and to dopt obstetric, psychological and nutritional preventive practices to reduce the complications for mother and fetus.
Broshek, Donna K; De Marco, Anthony P; Freeman, Jason R
This study reviewed several topics related to post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion. Topics include neurobiological perspectives, psychological predictors of post-concussion syndrome including pre-morbid anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and cognitive biases and misattribution. In addition, the iatrogenic effects of excessive rest are reviewed and treatment options are discussed briefly. Animal models of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury suggest that a concussion can result in anxiety and fear reactions. The pathophysiology of depression following a concussion appears to be consistent with the cortico-limbic model of depression. Additionally, some individuals may be at risk for neurobiological depression and/or anxiety following a concussion. The literature also demonstrates that pre-morbid and concurrent anxiety increases the risk for prolonged concussion recovery. Cognitive biases and misattribution of symptoms contribute to lengthy recovery from concussion. In addition, medically prescribed excessive cognitive and physical rest may contribute to a protracted concussion recovery. Supervised and graduated physical activity, the introduction of anxiety reduction techniques and cognitive-behavioural therapy of cognitive biases and misattribution are effective means of shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome. Understanding, assessing and treating the psychological factors associated with concussion are effective means of preventing or shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome.
Goudie, Anthony; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle; Hall, David E; Kuo, Dennis Z
The magnitude of stress and associated health consequences experienced by caregivers compromises their ability to effectively provide care to children, especially children with disability. We used latent class analysis of data from the 2010 Ohio Family Health Survey and identified 3 distinct classes of caregivers based on patterns of responses to 15 financial and psychological stresses they experienced. Compared with children residing in households in which caregivers experienced very little or no stress, children with disability were twice as likely to reside with caregivers with high levels of financial stress and almost 3.5 times as likely to reside with caregivers with high levels of financial stress and very high levels of psychological stress than typically developing children. Reducing caregiver stress is a critical step to ensuring the best health outcomes possible for children with disability. We identify the heterogeneity that is present in the population of caregivers by virtue of patterns of responses to various financial and psychological stressors. Children with disability are more likely to live in households in which a greater number of stressors affect caregivers. Different confounders are also associated with the latent classes of stress we identify. This is an important implication when determining the right interventions to target to the right subpopulations.
Full Text Available This study was to investigate the association of psychological characteristics and functional dyspepsia treatment outcome. 109 patients who met the criteria for FD were enrolled. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL90, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were used to measure personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality in our patients. Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ was used to assess dyspeptic symptoms at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment. The LDQ scores change after therapy, and the degraded rate of LDQ was used to assess the prognosis of patients. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of the personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality on the prognosis of patients. Our result revealed that poor sleep quality (OR=7.68, 95% CI 1.83–32.25 and bad marriage status (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.36 had the negative effect on the prognosis of FD, while extroversion in personality traits (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.96 had positive effect on the prognosis of FD. We should pay attention to the sleep quality, the personality, and the marriage status of FD patients; psychological intervention may have benefit in refractory FD.
Gómez, Jennifer M; Smith, Carly P; Gobin, Robyn L; Tang, Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J
The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally. We detail how the impact of APA's institutional betrayals extended beyond the organization, its members, and the psychology profession, highlighting the potential for disproportionate harm to minorities, including those who were tortured; Muslims, Middle Easterners, Afghans, and non-Americans who were not tortured; and other minority individuals (Gómez, 2015d). Acknowledging, understanding, and addressing its institutional betrayals offers APA the opportunity to take meaningful corrective and preventive measures. We propose several institutional reparations, including making concrete changes with transparency and conducting self-assessments to inform further needed changes (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). By engaging in institutional courage, APA has the potential to grow into an ethical governing body that fulfills its mission to "advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives" (APA, 2016).
Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan
Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.
Brzoza, Zenon; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Hese, Robert T; Rogala, Barbara
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) decline in chronic urticaria (CU) may be involved in etiopathogenesis of the disease or is a secondary phenomenon resulting e.g. from psychological distress. The relation between mental stress and skin diseases is well documented, however not focused on urticaria. We sought to explore the association of mood disturbances and the sense of coherence (SOC), as psychological distress parameters, and DHEA-S decline in patients suffering from CU. The patient sample included 54 subjects with active CU. Fifty-nine healthy subjects were enrolled in the control group. In all subjects DHEA-S serum concentration was measured and mental status analyzed using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, SOC Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory. Urticaria patients showed lower serum concentration of DHEA-S (p = .01) and lower level of the SOC (p = .009), as well as higher level of anxiety as a state (p < .001) and as a trait (p = .001), and higher level of depression (p = .003). DHEA-S concentration correlated negatively with the level of anxiety as a trait (p = .02) and the level of depression (p = .046), and positively with the SOC level (p = .03). The results of the present study show that CU patients suffer from the psychological distress. We demonstrated for the first time that DHEA-S decline observed in CU patients might be a phenomenon secondary to psychological disturbances.
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J
The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control.
Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth C; Finizia, Caterina
Psychological distress after laryngeal cancer treatment is prevalent. Although voice rehabilitation has shown to improve functional outcomes and positively affect health-related quality of life, to date, there has been limited study of the associated effect of behavioural voice intervention on psychological well-being/distress post laryngeal cancer. Sixty-three patients with Tis-T4 laryngeal cancer treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were prospectively recruited and randomised to either a voice rehabilitation (VR, n = 31) or control group (n = 32). The VR group received 10 speech pathology sessions consisting of both direct and indirect voice intervention post (chemo)radiotherapy. The control group received general voice education but not specific intervention. As part of a multidisciplinary assessment battery, psychological well-being/distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) pre, six and 12 months post VR. Within-group analysis revealed a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the proportion of patients with anxiety in the VR group between baseline and 12 months. No change over time was observed in controls. Between-group analysis revealed a trend for fewer VR cases demonstrating anxiety (p = 0.06) or depression (p = 0.08) at 6 months and significantly fewer demonstrating anxiety (p = 0.04) and depression (p = 0.04) at 12 months, compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed between patients' voice perceptions and reduced anxiety (r pb = -0.38) and depression (r pb = -0.66) within the VR group at 12 months. The positive correlations and between-group analyses indicate a positive effect on psychological well-being associated with completing voice rehabilitation. Results highlight potential additional benefits of behavioural voice intervention beyond achieving direct change to voice function.
Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike
In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.
Doron, Julie; Gaudreau, Patrick
This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E
Background This exploratory study examined the psychological and substance abuse symptoms and motivations associated with adolescents’ medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. We compared three groups of adolescents: 1) those who never used an opioid analgesic; 2) those who used a prescribed opioid analgesic (medical users); and 3) those who used someone else’s opioid analgesics (nonmedical users). Nonmedical use was defined as using someone else’s opioid analgesic medication. Comparisons among the groups were made on psychological and substance abuse symptoms as well as motivations to engage in nonmedical use. Methods A web-based survey, the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS) was administered to a sample of students who attended one of five secondary schools in southeastern Michigan. The sample included 2,627 respondents and was evenly distributed by sex and grade. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) were White/Caucasian and 29.5% African-American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD=1.9). Results Seventy percent (70.4%, n=1850) reported never using opioid analgesics in their lifetimes. Of the remaining 24.5% (n=644) of opioid analgesic users, most were medical users. However, 3.5% (n=92) were classified as nonmedical users who used someone else’s medication for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n=41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g. to get high). In contrast to never users, both medical users and nonmedical users reported more substance abuse symptoms and symptoms associated with pain. Further, those nonmedical users who used opioids to sensation seek had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. Conclusions These data: 1) provide additional support for the existence of distinct subgroups of adolescent opioid analgesic users; 2) provide evidence of psychological symptoms associated with nonmedical use; and 3) highlight the psychological differences among nonmedical users who self-treat for pain versus
Freitas, Thiago H; Andreoulakis, Elias; Alves, Gilberto S; Miranda, Hesley LL; Braga, Lúcia LBC; Hyphantis, Thomas; Carvalho, André F
AIM: To investigate the relationship between sense of coherence, psychological distress and health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 147 IBD (aged 45.1 ± 14.1 years; 57.1% female) patients recruited from a tertiary gastroenterology service. Sixty-four participants met diagnostic criteria for Crohn’s disease, while eighty-three patients had ulcerative colitis. Socio-demographic data (education, age, race, gender, gross monthly income and marital status), disease-related variables (illness activity, relapse rate in past 2 years, history of surgery and time since diagnosis), sense of coherence (Antonovsky’s SOC scale), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; WHOQOL-Bref) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors that are independently associated with psychological distress and HRQoL in patients with IBD and to provide indications for possible moderating or mediating effects. In addition, formal moderation and mediation analyses (Sobel tests) were performed to confirm potential moderators/mediators of the relationship between SOC, psychological distress symptoms and HRQoL. RESULTS: Lower SOC scores (std beta= -0.504; P anxiety symptoms. A significant interaction between time since diagnosis and SOC was found with regard to the severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms, as the interaction term (time since diagnosis X SOC) had beta coefficients of -0.191 (P = 0.009) and -0.172 (P = 0.026), respectively. Lower levels of anxiety symptoms (std beta = -0.369; P Anxiety symptoms were the most potent independent correlate of most aspects of HRQoL. In addition, anxiety mediated the association between SOC and satisfaction with health, as well as its relationship with physical, mental, and social relations HRQoL. Depressive symptoms also mediated the
Schrier Agnes C
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing body of evidence of an association between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these associations are similar in ethnic minority groups. Methods A random urban population sample, aged 18+, stratified by ethnicity (484 native Dutch subjects, 383 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 316 Moroccan-Dutch subjects, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was interviewed with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10 in combination with measurements of several cardiovascular risk factors. The association of psychological distress (defined as a K10 score above cut-off of 20 with cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL cholesterol levels or diabetes, ethnicity and their interaction was analyzed using logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and adjusted for age. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with psychological distress in any of the gender/ethnic groups, with the exception of a positive association of obesity and hypertension with psychological distress in native Dutch women and a negative association of hypertension and psychological distress in Turkish men. Interaction terms of cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity were approaching significance only in the association of obesity with the K10 in women. Conclusion In this cross-sectional multi-ethnic adult population sample the majority of the investigated cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with psychological distress. The association of obesity with psychological distress varies by gender and ethnicity. Our findings indicate that the prevention of obesity and psychological distress calls for an integrated approach in native Dutch women, but not necessarily in Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch women, in whom these problems may be targeted separately.
Roth, B; Munsch, S; Meyer, A; Isler, E; Schneider, S
The prevalence of childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, and many obese children suffer from emotional and behavior problems and mental disorders. Associations with social stigmatization of obesity, maternal psychopathology, socioeconomic status (SES) and resilience factors are discussed. We hypothesize maternal psychopathology to have an impact on the psychological well-being of an obese child. We further hypothesize that competence factors within the child are important key factors that influence the way a child deals with the psychological burden of obesity. A referred clinical sample of 59 obese children with their mothers was assessed using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires for child and maternal psychopathology, SES, body mass index (BMI), and percent overweight. Correlations, hierarchical linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between mothers and child and the impact of potential predictors. Mental disorders were found in 37.3% of the obese children in our sample. Maternal anxiety predicted the mother reported child's internalizing problems as well as the child's depression and anxiety self report scores. The mental disorder status of the mother predicted the child's internalizing problems, and maternal binge eating disorder (BED) had an impact on the mental disorder of the child. If the child's total competences were included in the hierarchical regression model they predicted the child's outcome in all three subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), thereby reducing the effect of maternal anxiety to influencing the child's depression score only. Neither SES nor the child's percent overweight accounted for the child's wellbeing. Although maternal psychopathology and diagnosis of mental disorder had some impact on the psychological well-being of the child, the child's competences showed a significant negative association with the problem scales. More research on parental and
El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M
Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spanakis, Elias K; Wand, Gary S; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill
Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18-30 years; mean 24.6 ± 3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spanakis, Elias K.; Wand, Gary S.; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill
Introduction Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18–30 years; mean 24.6±3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. Results There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. Conclusions We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. PMID:26520685
While most of our methods of listening have been geared toward unearthing unconscious fantasies, those directed toward the ego's all-inclusive role in effecting the associative process have lagged far behind. It is the thesis of this paper that listening from the perspective of the ego allows the analyst to work more closely with what the patient is ready to understand. Clinical technique, using an ego psychological view, is elaborated, demonstrated, and compared to technique dependent on the reading of signs and symbols of the unconscious.
Levin, Anna O; Carpenter, Kristen M; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Brothers, Brittany M; Andersen, Barbara L; Maxwell, G Larry
Sexual morbidity is a distressing and undertreated problem in gynecological cancer survivorship known to occur early and persist well beyond the period of physical recovery. Although often studied as a separate domain, sexuality represents an integral component of psychological adjustment and quality of life (QoL) that is adversely affected by cancer treatments. The present study tests the association between sexual morbidity, and adverse psychological adjustment and QoL outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used. The participants were gynecological (cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and vulvar) cancer survivors who were partnered (N = 186), whose cancer was diagnosed 2 to 10 years previously, and who were at least 6 months post any cancer therapy. Most had been found to have early-stage disease (70%) and were treated with hysterectomy (77%), chemotherapy (43%), and/or radiotherapy (23%). Sexual morbidity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct including sexual behavior, sexual functioning, and subjective sexual satisfaction, assessed by patient self-report. Outcomes included self-reported depressive symptoms, traumatic stress symptoms, cancer-specific stress, stress about body changes, and QoL. Nurse-rated of performance status and disruptive signs/symptoms of treatment toxicity, as well as relevant sociodemographic and disease variables were collected as potential controls. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested sexual morbidity as a predictor of poor outcomes. All statistical models were significant, accounting for 12% to 53% of the variance in psychological adjustment/QoL. Sexual morbidity covaried with worsened depressive symptoms, body change stress, and psychological QoL beyond the negative contributions of (older) age, (poorer) performance status, and (greater) fatigue. Notably, disease and treatment variables were not statistically significant correlates of psychological adjustment or QoL. These findings suggest that prevention or
Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E
Objectives Underlying heterogeneity among individuals with cocaine dependence is widely postulated in the literature, however, identification of a group of factors that explain risk of cocaine use severity has yet to be confirmed. Methods Latent mixture modeling evaluated 338 cocaine-dependent individuals recruited from the community to assess the evidence for the presence of distinct subgroups. Variables included 5 baseline questionnaires measuring cognitive function (Shipley), impulsivity (BIS), mood (BDI), affective lability (ALS), and addiction severity (ASI). Results failed to suggest multiple subgroups. Given a lack of evidence for discrete latent classes, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was implemented to identify functional dimensions to enhance interpretation of these variables. Results Findings from the EFA indicated a 3-factor model as the best fit, and the subsequent ESEM solution resulted in associations with lifetime cocaine use. Factor 1, best characterized by demographic factors (gender, age), is associated with less lifetime cocaine use. Psychological problems best characterize factor 2, which is associated with higher lifetime cocaine use. Finally, factor 3 is characterized by other substance use (alcohol and marijuana). Although this factor did not demonstrate a statistically reliable relation with self-reported, lifetime cocaine use, it did indicate a potentially meaningful positive association. Conclusions These 3 factors delineate dimensions of functioning that likewise help characterize the variability found in previously established associations with self-reported cocaine use. PMID:26170765
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.
Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate
Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these
Bennett, Paul; Wilkinson, Clare; Turner, Jim; Brain, Kate; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Griffith, Gethin; France, Barbara; Gray, Jonathon
This study identified levels of distress, and predictors of levels of distress, in women undergoing assessment for genetic risk of breast/ovarian cancer based on their family history. It comprised a cohort study following 154 women who completed questionnaires at entry into a cancer genetic assessment programme and following risk provision. Independent significant associates of anxiety following risk provision were age, neuroticism, feeling hopeless about developing cancer, a perceived lack of control over developing cancer, lack of a social confidant, and a coping response involving acceptance/resignation. Depression was associated with age, neuroticism, feeling hopeless about developing cancer, lack of social confidant, and a coping response involving acceptance/resignation. To avoid high levels of psychological morbidity in future cohorts undergoing cancer genetic risk assessment, information should be given that emphasises that some degree of control over health outcomes through behaviour change or increased surveillance is possible.
Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E
Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MÓNICA M. NOVOA GÓMEZ
Full Text Available This research aim was to evaluate the Burnout syndrome and its association to psychological profile and quality of lifein nurses from urgency, oncology and neonatology services at a third level hospital in Bogotá city. The research pertainsto the investigation group in Psychology and Health of the Psychology Faculty at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.It is a non-experimental research within a correlational descriptive design. The instruments used were the Catell’s 16Personality Factors Inventory (16PF, the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI, a semi-structured interview and anobservational register. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Additionally, multivariatecovariance analysis (MANCOVA and Pearson correlation were used in special cases. SSPS programme was used for thisdata analysis. Results showed that the Burnout syndrome was not present in the evaluated nurses but they had somesymptoms, like emotional tiredness and depersonalisation; personality factors as impulsive-prudent, confident-jealousand dominant-submisive were found as predictors of occupational performance.
Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Xie, Yao Jie; Chen, Ya-Jun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Chan, Dicken; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; He, Qiqiang; Tse, Lap Ah; Woo, Jean
The aim of this study is to explore the association of dietary patterns with depression, perceived stress, and self-esteem among postmenopausal Chinese women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 906 participants who attended the screening visits for two soy trials. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire containing 85 food items. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns based on 11 food groups. Psychological factors were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. We identified three dietary patterns as follows: processed foods (refined grains, preserved foods, fat meat, fried foods, and sweets), whole plant foods (whole grains, vegetables, and fruits), and animal foods (fish, lean meat, and milk products). Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that whole plant food intake was negatively associated with depression score (P = 0.030). Processed food intake was positively associated with perceived stress (P = 0.025) and depression (P = 0.073), and negatively associated with scores of self-esteem (P = 0.046). The highest tertile of processed foods score was associated with 79.3% increased risk of depression (P for trend = 0.006), whereas the highest tertile of whole plant food score was associated with 26% reduction of depression (P for trend = 0.023) relative to the lowest tertile. Dietary patterns featuring a low intake of processed foods and/or a high intake of whole plant foods were associated with a reduced risk of depression and perceived stress.
Arase, Sohei; Watanabe, Yohei; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi
Psychological stress can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms underlying how psychological stress affects gut inflammation remain unclear. Here, we focused on the relationship between changes in the microbial community of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria (MACB) and mucosal immune responses induced by chronic psychological stress in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, we examined the effect of probiotic treatment on exacerbated colitis and MACB composition changes induced by chronic psychological stress. Repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) in B6-Tcra-/- mice severely exacerbated colitis, which was evaluated by both colorectal tissue weight and histological score of colitis. rWAS treatment increased mRNA expression of UCN2 and IFN-γ in large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC). Interestingly, exacerbated colitis was associated with changes in the microbial community of MACB, specifically loss of bacterial species diversity and an increase in the component ratio of Clostridium, revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. Finally, the oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus strain was protective against the exacerbation of colitis and was associated with a change in the bacterial community of MACB in rWAS-exposed Tcra-/- mice. Taken together, these results suggested that loss of species diversity in MACB might play a key role in exacerbated colitis induced by chronic psychological stress. In addition, probiotic treatment may be used as a tool to preserve the diversity of bacterial species in MACB and alleviate gut inflammation induced by psychological stress.
Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques
Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics
Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm
Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madhan, Balasubramanian; Barik, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Rajesh; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami
Although the health benefits of humor and the potential advantages of having a good Sense of Humor (SoH) have been long recognized, they have not been investigated in dental students. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and demographic correlates of SoH in dental students and its association with their self-reported level of psychological disturbances. Six hundred and five students (age 20.3±1.83 years, 250 males, 355 females) from two dental schools in India anonymously completed the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the intergroup differences based on gender and year of study, respectively. The association between SoH and each of the three negative affective states was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. The mean MSHS score of the sample was 59.65±11.77. Male students showed a marginally higher SoH than females (60.78 vs. 58.86, phumor, and their application in improving the psychological climate in dental schools.
Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel
We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart
Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state)], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years). Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects. PMID:24385960
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.
Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years. Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects.
DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina
Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.
Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.
OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153
Marion E T McMurdo
Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.
McMurdo, Marion E T; Argo, Ishbel; Crombie, Iain K; Feng, Zhiqiang; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T
To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Cross sectional survey. 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. 547 older people (mean (SD) age 79(8) years, 54% female) were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2) = 0.32). In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.
American Psychologist, 2008
Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, −0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling. PMID:28849669
Na, Sumin; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Lalonde, Christopher E.
First, the authors investigated the direct associations of vertical collectivism, ethnic identity exploration, and ethnic identity commitment with psychological well-being among first-generation Asian Canadian university students in Canada (n = 78). Second, to gain a more nuanced understanding of the association between vertical collectivism and…
Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.
Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…
Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna
A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…
Tlhajoane, Malebogo; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Takaruza, Albert; Rhead, Rebecca; Maswera, Rufurwokuda; Schur, Nadine; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon
The correlation between mental health and sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection remains largely unknown in low and middle income settings. The present study determined the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a sub-Saharan African population with a generalized HIV epidemic, and investigated associations with HIV acquisition risk and uptake of HIV services using data from a cross-sectional survey of 13,252 adults. PD was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between PD and hypothesized covariates. The prevalence of PD was 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1%) among men, and 12.9% (95% CI 12.2-13.6%) among women. PD was associated with sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection and HIV-infected individuals were more likely to suffer from PD. Amongst those initiated on anti-retroviral therapy, individuals with PD were less likely to adhere to treatment (91 vs. 96%; age- and site-type-adjusted odds ratio = 0.38; 95% CI 0.15, 0.99). Integrated HIV and mental health services may enhance HIV care and treatment outcomes in high HIV-prevalence populations in sub-Saharan Africa.
Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Steptoe, Andrew
Psychological distress and low socioeconomic status (SES) are recognized risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether lower SES amplifies the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality. We selected 66 518 participants from the Health Survey for England who were 35 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and living in private households in England from 1994 to 2004. Selection used stratified random sampling, and participants were linked prospectively to mortality records from the Office of National Statistics (mean follow-up, 8.2 years). Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and SES was indexed by occupational class. The crude incidence rate of death was 14.49 (95% CI, 14.17-14.81) per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for age and sex, psychological distress and low SES category were associated with increased mortality rates. In a stratified analysis, the association of psychological distress with mortality differed with SES (likelihood ratio test-adjusted P < .001), with the strongest associations being observed in the lowest SES categories. The detrimental effect of psychological distress on mortality is amplified by low SES category. People in higher SES categories have lower mortality rates even when they report high levels of psychological distress.
Background Study results concerning associations between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of the association between BMI and psychological distress in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Data was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), in 68,311 adults aged 18–74. Self-reported data was derived from a merger of the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Life and Health (Liv och Hälsa) questionnaires focusing general perceived distress as well as living conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between BMI and psychological distress when controlled for age and gender in combination. Results Women reported an overall higher psychological distress than men. A significant pattern of decreasing psychological distress with increasing age emerged among women in all BMI categories. Trends of this same pattern showed for men. Small or no differences were seen in psychological distress between those in normal weight, overweight, and obesity I categories (among women: 20.4%, 18.4%, 20.5%; among men: 12.8%, 11.2%, 12.9%). For both genders, any notable increase in psychological distress appeared first in the obesity II category (among women: 27.2%. Among men: 17.8%). Conclusions Psychological distress decreases with increasing age regardless of BMI; a pattern more obvious for women. Being categorized with obesity II leads to a markedly higher psychological distress than being categorized with normal weight, overweight or obesity I. From this, we suggest that future obesity research focusing on psychological distress could investigate the role of stigma and norm susceptibility in relationships where people are evaluated through the eyes of the other. PMID:23347701
Dowling, N A; Brown, M
The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.
Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A
The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p socio-demographic data, being an immigrant is the only protective factor reducing the social dysfunction in the last weeks of pregnancy (p stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.
Silva, J D A; Ariente, L C; Roza, B A; Mucci, S
The addition of psychologists to organ transplant teams is still new in Brazil. In seeking the efficient performance of this professional, the knowledge of the scientific production and the development of research in the area is fundamental. In this sense, this study aims to survey the Brazilian scientific research that has investigated the psychologic aspects involved in tissue and organ transplantation. A literature narrative review was performed with the use of the "Transplante AND Psicologia" descriptors in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the CAPES Journal Portal. Fifty-three articles were found, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria: publications dating from 2000 to 2014 and the main topic of interest of the studies being quality of life, followed by organ donation. The instruments used most frequently were interviews developed by the researchers and the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Recent Brazilian studies on the association between psychology and transplantation are still scarce, possibly because of the recent addition of psychologists to transplantation teams. Therefore, it is suggested that more scientific research is made in the area and that the objects of study are more varied, to ensure adequacy of the psychologist to meet the specific demands of organ and tissue transplantation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla
Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.
Bahrami, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Jafari, Nasim; Kaveh, Zabihollah; Isanejad, Omid
This study aimed to investigate the association of children's obesity with parental attachment and psychological variables as impulsivity, self-control and efficiency of eating control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 obese students aged 9-13 years selected by multistage cluster sampling from different areas of Isfahan, Iran. Three questionnaires were considered to be answered by the students and one for their parents. The students completed the following questionnaires: (i) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised version for Children (IPPA-R); (ii) Impulsivity Scale (IS); (iii) Efficiency of Eating Control; and (iv) Self-control Rating Scale (SCRS). The quality of children's attachment had direct effects on self-efficacy of eating management and on obesity by mediating of self-efficacy of eating. Moreover, attachment had direct effect on self-control and impulsivity, and in turn through these psychological variables, it had indirect effects on self-efficacy of eating management. The findings of this study underscore the importance of parent-child attachment quality. It can be suggested that childhood obesity can be prevented and managed with creating a secure attachment bond between children and parents and increasing perceived self-efficacy eating management in children. © 2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.
Schuller, Hildegard M.
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation. PMID:24633083
Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P women report more symptoms. The effect sizes regarding the impact of potential trauma on self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18-25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well.
Lima, Lígia; Guerra, Marina Prista; de Lemos, Marina Serra
As part of a larger research project aimed to understand the impact of asthma in the psychological adjustment of children, this study focuses in the identification of factors associated with this process. The sample of this study consisted of 89 children, aged 8 to 12 with physician diagnosed asthma. To assess children's adjustment, the Portuguese versions of the following instruments were used: School-age Temperament Inventory (McClowry, 1995) Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory (Ryan-Wenger, 1990); Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - PedsQL (Varni, Seid & Kurtin, 2001); The Self-perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985), Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991); Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliot, 1990). The results revealed that negative reactivity predicts the level of anxiety/depression, task persistence and perceived coping efficacy predicts social skills and that self-esteem is a significant predictor of the perceived quality of life. A significant proportion of shared variance was also found what seems to confirm the existence of multi-determination in the process of adjustment. The main conclusion is that two dimensions of temperament (negative reactivity and task persistence), as well as perceived coping efficacy and self-esteem, play a significant role in influencing the psychological adjustment of children with asthma.
Decaluwé, V; Braet, C; Moens, E; Van Vlierberghe, L
The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent parental psychological characteristics and parental behavior are related to psychological problems in obese youngsters. Data were collected from 196 families having an overweight youngster (range 10-16 years old) (mean body mass index (BMI)=31.2; s.d.=5.3) seeking weight-loss treatment and compared with data from normal weight samples. Behavior problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist; the Child version of the Eating Disorder Examination was used to assess eating disorder psychopathology. Parental psychopathology was measured using the Symptom Checklist-90; parenting behavior was assessed with the Ghent Parental Behavior Scale. Parental psychopathology was prevalent in 59.6% of mothers and 35.7% of fathers. Youngsters exceeding the cutoff for problem behavior ranged between 41.4 and 53.1%. Children's problem behavior was most associated with psychopathology in the mother (r=0.40 for Internalizing and r=0.37 for Externalizing; both Pdiscipline, although the effect was stronger for Externalizing behavior (explained variance: 10%) than for Internalizing behavior (explained variance: 4%). No evidence was found for a mediator effect from parenting behavior on the eating disorder symptoms of the obese youngsters. However, several direct relations emerged, suggesting a negative association between a child's eating disorder symptoms and Positive parenting behavior by the mother (r= -0.20 for Eating concern; r= -0.18 for Restraint eating; r= -0.16 for Shape concern; all Pstyle, namely inconsistent discipline on the part of the mother. Pediatric obesity treatments should focus more on parenting behaviors and parental characteristics.
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few
Barsom, Susannah Heyer; Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; Koch, Patricia Bartholow; Gierach, Gretchen; West, Sheila G
In previous studies of the relationship between stress and menstrual cycles, stress has been found to be associated with longer cycles, to be associated with shorter cycles, and to have no association with cycle length. Some of the menstrual cycle changes that have been attributed to stress are similar to those experienced by women during perimenopause. In an effort to see whether an association between psychological stress and menstrual cycle characteristics can be detected in women approaching menopause, this study examines this relationship in perimenopausal women who are participants in the Tremin Research Program on Women's Health. The analyses used prospectively recorded bleeding data and retrospectively captured life-event data. A single-year cross-sectional analysis of data from 206 women shows no correlation between stress level, as measured by total number and severity of stressful life events, and cycle characteristics, including interval length, duration of bleed, and variability in both of these factors, nor are there significant differences in cycle characteristics between subgroups of women with different overall levels of stress. In analyzing stress levels and cycle characteristics across 2 years, however, women with marked increases in their level of stress (n = 30) are shown to have decreased length (-0.2 days/cycle) of menstrual cycle intervals and decreased duration of bleed (-0.1 day/cycle) compared with increases in these measures (+2.9 days/cycle for cycle interval; +0.3 days/cycle for duration of bleed) among women with no marked change in stress level (n = 103); t-tests indicate that these differences are significant (p < .05).
Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman
Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.
Full Text Available Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population.In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to screen for anxiety and depression.After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27 and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15, compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81 compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16 and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12 than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87 than those with a non-healthy diet.We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the
Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0
The success of entering work life, young people s psychological resources and self-reported well-being were studied in a longitudinal setting from a life-span developmental-contextual perspective in early adulthood. The aim was to analyse how psychosocial characteristics in early childhood and adolescence predict successful entrance into work life, how this is associated with well-being, and to assess the level of psychological resources such as dispositional optimism, personal meaning of wor...
Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology.
Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria
The younger individuals quit smoking, the greater the health benefits. We studied the role of adolescent and concurrent psychological, social and familial factors in successful tobacco cessation in a general population sample of French young adults. Our data came from participants of the TEMPO cohort study and their parents (members of the GAZEL cohort study) in France. Among regular smokers (n = 678), Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios of self-reported tobacco cessation of at least 12 months in relation to individual and socioenvironmental variables. On average, participants (mean: 28.9 years) smoked for 10.51 years (SD = 5.9); the majority had attempted to quit smoking at least once (59.5%). In multiple regression analyses, cannabis use in the preceding year and recent financial difficulties were both negatively associated with successful smoking cessation. Conversely, living with a partner and, for women only, recent pregnancy or childbirth were associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco cessation. This study highlights the importance of young adults' cannabis use, family situation and socioeconomic context with regard to their smoking behavior. Physicians and public health decision makers aiming to decrease the burden of tobacco smoking should take into consideration these social and behavioral factors.
Mehić-Basara, Nermana; Oruč, Lilijana; Kapur-Pojskić, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin
There is a clear evidence that same psychoactive substance may cause various individual physiological reactions in same environmental conditions. Although there is a general attitude on equal liability to opioid addiction, latest genetic analysis findings imply there are certain quantifiable factors that could lead to elevated individual liability towards development of opioid addiction. The goal of this study was to investigate association of certain personality traits and genetic factors (separately and in combination) with heroin addiction. Total of 200 individuals participated in the study: 100 patients on Metadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 100 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. All were medically examined, interviewed and psychologically evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and genotyped for DRD2 (rs1800497) using PCR-RFLP method. Overrepresentation of certain personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion/intraversion), together with environemental risk factors such as: upbringing within incomplete families and familial history of psychotropic substances abuse, are associated with high-risk development of opioid addiction. PMID:23988166
Khan, F; Pallant, J F; Ng, L; Bhasker, A
To examine factors impacting long-term health-related outcomes in survivors of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Seventy-six consecutive patients with definite GBS admitted to the Royal Melbourne Hospital (1996-2009) were reviewed in the neurorehabilitation clinics. They underwent a structured interview designed to assess the impact of GBS on their current activity and restriction in participation using validated questionnaires: Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Their sociodemographic and disease severity data were obtained from the medical record. The 76 patients [60% male, mean age 56 years, median time since GBS 6 years (range 1-14 years)] showed good functional recovery (median motor FIM score 90). However, 16% reported moderate to extreme impact on their ability to participate in work, family, and social activities; and 22% substantial impact on mood, confidence and ability to live independently. More reported moderate to extreme depression (18%), anxiety (22%) and stress (17%) compared with the normative Australian population (13%). Factors associated with poorer current level of functioning and wellbeing included: females, older patients (57+ years), acute hospital stay (>11 days), those treated in intensive care and those discharged to rehabilitation. No associations were found between the Medical Research Council (MRC) Motor Scale Rating scores at admission, nor time since GBS diagnosis (≤6 vs. >6 years) on outcomes used. GBS is complex and requires long-term management of psychological sequelae impacting activity and participation.
Heesch, Kristiann C; Giles-Corti, Billie; Turrell, Gavin
Interest is growing in promoting utility cycling (i.e., for transport) as a means of incorporating daily physical activity (PA) into people's lives, but little is known about correlates of utility cycling. Our primary aim was to examine cross-sectional relationships between socio-economic characteristics, neighborhood environment perceptions and psychological disposition with utility cycling (with or without additional recreational cycling). A secondary aim was to compare these relationships with those for recreation-only cycling. Baseline survey data (2007) from 10,233 participants in HABITAT, a multilevel longitudinal study of PA, sedentary behavior, and health in Brisbane adults aged 40-65years, were analyzed using multinomial regression modeling. Greater income, habitual PA, and positive beliefs about PA were associated with utility and recreation-only cycling (precreation-only cycling (precreational destinations) were associated with utility cycling (precreation-only cycling in Brisbane residents aged 40-65years. Tailored approaches appear to be required to promote utility and recreational cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a clear evidence that same psychoactive substance may cause various individual physiological reactions in same environmental conditions. Although there is a general attitude on equal liability to opioid addiction, latest genetic analysis findings imply there are certain quantifiable factors that could lead to elevated individual liability towards development of opioid addiction. The goal of this study was to investigate association of certain personality traits and genetic factors (separately and in combination with heroin addiction. Total of 200 individuals participated in the study: 100 patients on Metadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT and 100 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. All were medically examined, interviewed and psychologically evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ and genotyped for DRD2 (rs1800497 using PCR-RFLP method. Overrepresentation of certain personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion/intraversion, together with environemental risk factors such as: upbringing within incomplete families and familial history of psychotropic substances abuse, are associated with high-risk development of opioid addiction.
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Dede Yildirim, Elif; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L
Physical punishment has received worldwide attention because of its negative impact on children's cognitive and social development and its implications for children's rights. Using UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 4 and 5 data, we assessed the associations between positive discipline, harsh physical punishment, physical punishment and psychological aggression and preschoolers' literacy skills in 5628 preschool-aged children and their caregivers in the developing nations of Belize, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica and Suriname. Caregivers across countries used high levels of explanations and psychological aggression. There were significant country differences in the use of the four disciplinary practices. In the Dominican Republic and Guyana, physical punishment had negative associations with children's literacy skills, and in the Dominican Republic, positive discipline had a positive association with children's literacy skills. Findings are discussed with respect to the negative consequences of harsh disciplinary practices on preschoolers' early literacy skills in the developing world. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with "Avoidance coping" (β = 0.39, p psychological distress (active: β = -0.25, p psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Locke, Jill; Violante, Stephanie; Pullmann, Michael D; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Dorsey, Shannon
Despite increasing interest in supervision as a leverage point for bolstering public mental health services, the potential influence of supervisory alliance on organizations and direct service providers remains understudied, particularly in the context of supporting evidence-based treatment (EBT) use. This study examined agreement and discrepancy between supervisor and clinician ratings of alliance associated with clinicians' perceptions of psychological climate and emotional exhaustion. Results indicated that discrepancies in alliance ratings were common and associated with clinicians' perceptions of psychological climate. These findings have important implications for collaboration among supervisors and clinicians within a community mental health organizational context and the provision of EBTs.
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
There is evidence that intrapersonal psychological factors might contribute to the development of binge eating. However, studies considering reciprocal effects between risk factors and disordered eating are rare. The present article investigates the nature of the temporal relationships between binge eating and low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and the internalization of the societal body ideal in adolescence while taking into account the moderating effects of age and gender. A German population-based sample of 1039 boys and girls from 12 to 19 years of age answered self-report questionnaires on risk factors and eating pathology on 2 measurement points separated by 20 months. Data were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. Low self-esteem, interoceptive deficits, weight/shape concerns, and the internalization of the societal body ideal predicted binge eating longitudinally in bivariate analyses. Binge eating predicted later depressive symptoms, whereas perfectionism and dietary restraint were not longitudinally linked to binge eating in either direction. Low self-esteem and weight/shape concerns emerged as multivariate predictors of binge eating in girls and boys, respectively. No moderating effects of age were observed. The results suggest that depressive symptoms might rather be a consequence of binge eating than a risk factor, and this underscores that even subclinical eating pathology might be associated with negative psychological outcomes. Central risk factors that should be targeted in prevention programs might be low self-esteem for girls and weight/shape concerns for boys.
Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914
Full Text Available This review systematically assessed the clinical evidence for and against acupuncture as a treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The database was accessed from MEDLINE and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. We included all randomized clinical trials published in Chinese and English regardless of their controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software, version 5.2. We conducted a literature search of 16 databases from their inception to January 2014. Four studies from Western countries did not report any clinical gains in the treatment of psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. 10 of 12 studies from China have reported positive findings regarding the use of acupuncture to treat the psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. The meta-analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group for anxiety and depression associated with opioid addiction, although groups did not differ on opioid craving. This review and meta-analysis could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. However, considering the potential of acupuncture demonstrated in the included studies, further rigorous randomized controlled trials with long followup are warranted.
Liu, Liang; Xiao, Qi-fan; Zhang, Yan-li; Yao, Shu-kun
The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and associated factors, especially psychological and lifestyle factors, in nurses in China have not been investigated previously. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of IBS in nurses, to evaluate whether factors, such as psychological disorders, are associated with IBS, and to determine whether psychological disorders can influence the severity of symptoms of IBS and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional study was conducted for Chinese nurses from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires. The prevalence of IBS was 17.4%. The revised symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90-R) scores were significantly higher for nurses with IBS than for those without IBS (P<0.001), and no difference in scores between IBS subtypes was found (F=1.893, P=0.142). The scores of QOL for nurses with and without IBS were 77.18±21.93 and 88.44±11.89 (P<0.001), respectively. Psychological disorders did not show statistically significant correlations with severity of symptoms of IBS or QOL. Alcohol consumption, low level of exercise, and psychological disorders were risk factors for IBS. In summary, nurses in China show a high prevalence of IBS. Psychological disorders and some related lifestyle factors are probably responsible for the development of IBS in nurses. PMID:24903997
Gadalla, Tahany M
Gerontological social workers and other health professionals are often dealing with older adults in psychological distress. Greater clarity on the relationship between stress and psychological distress will enhance the efficacy of outreach and treatment initiatives for older adults. This study explored the underlying causal structure of the relationships of common life stressors and psychosocial resources for Canadians 65 years and older (542 men and 835 women). Using structural equation modeling of data collected in the National Population Health Survey in 2004-2005 and 2002-2003, the roles played by socioeconomic conditions, physical health, chronic stress, sense of mastery, and perceived social support in the stress-psychological distress relationship were estimated and compared. Findings revealed that chronic stress was the strongest determinant of the level of psychological distress for both genders; however its effect was higher for men compared to women. Poor physical health played a more important role in determining women's psychological distress compared to men. Higher levels of mastery and perceived social support were associated with lower levels of psychological distress for both men and women. These associations were somewhat stronger for men compared with women. Socio-economic conditions played a minor role in the stress-mental health relationship for both genders.
Kuška, M.; Trnka, R.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Růžička, J.
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 981. ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : psycholinguistics * world * personal construct theory * free association * association network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kubena-0464017.pdf
Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut
Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.
Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori
Several previous studies showed that the lack of organizational justice was associated with poor mental health. However, no study examined the effect modification by internal factor, such as coping strategies, on the association of organizational justice with mental health. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect modification by coping strategies on the association of organizational justice with psychological distress. A total of 471 men and 764 women from a manufacturing company in Japan completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, K6 scale (i.e., psychological distress scale), Brief Scales for Coping Profile, and demographic characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for each coping strategy. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the association of the lack of procedural justice with psychological distress was greater among the low changing a point of view group than among their counterparts. Furthermore, the interaction term of procedural justice with changing a point of view was significant. The association of the lack of procedural justice and interactional justice with psychological distress was also greater among the high emotional expression involving others group than among their counterparts, while the interaction terms of procedural justice and interactional justice with emotional expression involving others were marginally significant. Positive emotion-focused coping strategies, such as changing a point of view, may effectively prevent psychological distress when there is a lack of organizational justice, while problem-focused coping strategies may have no effects, and negative emotion-focused coping strategies, such as emotional expression involving others, may have harmful effects on the association.
Brown, Gregory G; Anderson, Vicki; Bigler, Erin D; Chan, Agnes S; Fama, Rosemary; Grabowski, Thomas J; Zakzanis, Konstantine K
The American Psychological Association (APA) celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2017. As part of this celebration, the APA journal Neuropsychology has published in its November 2017 issue 11 papers describing some of the advances in the field of neuropsychology over the past 25 years. The papers address three broad topics: assessment and intervention, brain imaging, and theory and methods. The papers describe the rise of new assessment and intervention technologies, the impact of evidence for neuroplasticity on neurorehabilitation. Examples of the use of mathematical models of cognition to investigate latent neurobehavioral processes, the development of the field of neuropsychology in select international countries, the increasing sophistication of brain imaging methods, the recent evidence for localizationist and connectionist accounts of neurobehavioral functioning, the advances in neurobehavioral genomics, and descriptions of newly developed statistical models of longitudinal change. Together the papers convey evidence of the vibrant growth in the field of neuropsychology over the quarter century since APA's 100th anniversary in 1992. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.
Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M
The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker
Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.
Melissa A. Napolitano
Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.
Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus
The impact of traumatic exposure on psychological distress and posttraumatic stress was investigated at 14 months through self-report in 1,505 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Exposure, differentiated in single and multiple types, was associated with different levels of impaired mental health measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, having sole exposure to subjective life threat brought about specific psychological effects. Some demographic factors are associated with outcome on either the GHQ or the IES-R. Identifying specific types of exposure of disaster survivors may be a way to identify individuals who could be screened for psychological ill health at a later point in time.
Benjamin, Ludy T; Crouse, Ellen M
In 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision (1896) that was the foundation of school segregation in 17 states and the District of Columbia. Brown is arguably the most important Supreme Court decision of the 20th century in terms of its influence on American history. Moreover, it has a special significance for psychology because it marked the first time that psychological research was cited in a Supreme Court decision and because social science data were seen as paramount in the Court's decision to end school segregation. This article describes psychologist Kenneth B. Clark's role in that case and the response of the American Psychological Association to scientific psychology's moment in a great spotlight.
Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.
Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…
van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H
Objectives: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the
Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.
Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative
Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa
In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060
Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
One important aspect of subjective judgments about one's well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the "the ideal life." In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents' nationality. Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of subjective well-being and psychological well
Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
Hessels, Marco G.P.
Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.
Deng, W; Cheung, S T; Tsao, S W; Wang, X M; Tiwari, A F Y
To summarise and discuss the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. A systematic review was carried out to identify prospective or retrospective studies and interventions published up to June 2015 that reported associations between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Electronic data bases of PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched. Twenty six studies on humans measured telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or leukocytes and examined its association with psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Of those studies, three reported significantly decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic psychological stress. Interestingly, one of the three studies found that acute laboratory psychological stress significantly increased telomerase activity. Nine studies reported mixed results on association between mental disorders and telomerase activity. Of the nine studies, five reported that major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with significantly increased telomerase activity. In thirteen out of fourteen studies on lifestyle factors, it was reported that physical exercise, diet micronutrient supplementation, mindfulness meditation, Qigong practice or yoga mediation resulted in increase in telomerase activity. In addition, two studies on animal models showed that depression-like behaviour was associated with decreased hippocampus telomerase activity. Five animal studies showed that physical exercise increased telomerase activity by cell-type-specific and genotype-specific manners. Although multi-facet results were reported on the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors, there were some consistent findings in humans such as (1) decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic stress, (2) increased
Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M
To examine the association between parental report of intimate partner violence (IPV) and parental psychological distress (PPD) with child attainment of developmental milestones. By using data collected from a large cohort of primary care patients, this cross-sectional study examined the relationship between parental report of IPV and/or PPD and the attainment of developmental milestones within the first 72 months of a child's life. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for parental report of child abuse concern and sociodemographic characteristics. Our study population included 16 595 subjects. Children of parents reporting both IPV and PPD (n = 88; 0.5%) were more likely to fail at least 1 milestone across the following developmental domains: language (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.3), personal-social (aOR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-2.9), and gross motor (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.8-5.0). Significant associations for those reporting IPV-only (n = 331; 2.0%) were found for language (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9), personal-social (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.2), and fine motor-adaptive (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.7). Significant associations for those reporting PPD-only (n = 1920; 11.6%) were found for: language (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.7), personal-social (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8), gross motor (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8), and fine-motor adaptive (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Screening children for IPV and PPD helps identify those at risk for poor developmental outcomes who may benefit from early intervention.
Full Text Available Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany; 5Department of Anaesthesia, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden, Switzerland; 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT, fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1, and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ], which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again
Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Kurdyak, Paul
The objective of our study was to estimate direct healthcare costs incurred by a population-based sample of people with psychological distress or depression. We used the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health and Well Being and categorized individuals as having psychological distress using the Kessler-6, major depressive disorder (MDD) using DSM-IV criteria and a comparison group of participants without MDD or psychological distress. Costs in 2013 USD were estimated by linking individuals to health administrative databases and following them until March 31, 2013. Our sample consisted of 9,965 individuals, of whom 651 and 409 had psychological distress and MDD, respectively. Although the age-and-sex adjusted per-capita costs were similarly high among the psychologically distressed ($3,364, 95% CI: $2,791, $3,937) and those with MDD ($3,210, 95% CI: $2,413, $4,008) compared to the comparison group ($2,629, 95% CI: $2,312, $2,945), the population-wide excess costs for psychological distress ($441 million) were more than twice that for MDD ($210 million) as there was a greater number of people with psychological distress than depression. We found substantial healthcare costs associated with psychological distress and depression, suggesting that psychological distress and MDD have a high cost burden and there may be public health intervention opportunities to relieve distress. Further research examining how individuals with these conditions use the healthcare system may provide insight into the allocation of limited healthcare resources while maintaining high quality care. PMID:28873469
Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.
Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900
Human, Lauren J; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E
Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one's health: Socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia
Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.
Bränström, Richard; Duncan, Larissa G; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie
There is increasing recognition of the links between mindfulness, decreased stress, and healthier psychological functioning. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in US samples and the mechanisms through which mindfulness decreases stress and increases well-being are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between mindfulness and psychological functioning in a general population sample in Sweden. This cross-sectional study examined the association of mindfulness and five subscales of mindfulness with depression, anxiety, positive states of mind (PSOM), and perceived health. In the spring of 2007, a random population-based sample of N= 1,000 individuals aged 18-60 years in Sweden was contacted by mail with a request to participate in the study. Mindfulness and some of its subscales, in particular Acting with awareness and Non-reactivity to inner experiences, were strongly related to PSOM and perceived health, and inversely related to depression and anxiety. Tests of the moderating role of mindfulness showed that the associations of perceived stress with depression and perceived health were diminished for those with higher levels of mindfulness. Mindfulness is strongly related to well-being and perceived health. Results suggest that dispositional mindfulness might buffer against the negative influence of perceived stress on psychological well-being. These findings give additional support for the use of mindfulness training as a way of improving psychological functioning among people experiencing stress. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Brian E Roe
Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.
Zhai, Zu Wei; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E; Ridenour, Ty A
This prospective study tested the hypothesis that psychological dysregulation in mid-adolescence (age 16) mediates the association between parent-child attachment in late childhood (age 10-12) and development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adulthood (age 22). The Youth Attachment to Parents Scale (YAPS) was developed in 10-12-year-old boys and girls (N = 694) at baseline residing in western Pennsylvania. Psychological dysregulation was measured by the neurobehavior disinhibition trait. Substance use was assessed at ages 10-12, 12-14, 16 and 19. SUD was diagnosed at age 22 using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. The mediation of parent-child attachment and SUD by neurobehavior disinhibition was tested separately for mothers and fathers while controlling for baseline substance use. Psychological dysregulation mediates the association between attachment to mothers and SUD, and partially mediates the association between attachment to fathers and SUD. Significant mediation effects remains after controlling for baseline substance use. Optimal prevention of SUD should include ameliorating both psychological dysregulation predisposing to SUD and quality of the parent-child relationship.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study sought to study the associations of noise with heart rate, blood pressure, and perceived psychological and physiological responses among post-cardiac surgery patients in ICUs. METHODS: Forty patients participated in this study after recovering from anesthesia. A sound-level meter was placed at bedsides to measure noise level for 42 hours, and patients' heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every 5 minutes. Patients were also interviewed for their perceived psychological/physiological responses. RESULTS: The average noise level was between 59.0 and 60.8 dB(A at the study site. Annoyance and insomnia were the respective psychological and physiological responses reported most often among the patients. Although noise level, irrespective of measures, was not observed to be significantly associated with the self-assessed psychological and physiological responses, it was significantly associated with both heart rate and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that the noise in ICUs may adversely affect the heart rate and blood pressure of patients, which warrants the attention of hospital administrators and health care workers.
Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roselyne Anyango Okumu
Full Text Available Objective: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data were collected between May and August 2015 using structured questionnaires while qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions. This manuscript is based on quantitative data which were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Psychological distress index was created by counting the number of psychological experiences reported by respondents. Kendall's tau-b was used to test the association between the psychological distress index and socioeconomic characteristics; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The respondents experienced anxiety, shock, and fatigue. Spending a higher proportion of family's income was associated with higher psychological distress index (P = 0.009. The economic challenge led to significantly heightened tension in the family (P = 0.021. Conclusions: Financial challenge is a major cause of psychological distress thus needs for financial support through collaboration with government institutions, for example, NHIF, development agencies, and nongovernment organization who can contribute toward the treatment cost. Need to decentralize effective leukemia treatment centers. Psychological support and counseling should be done to alleviate tension. The nurse needs to be empathetic when caring for the child and family as well as to apply the ethical principles of justice and beneficence so that the child gets the best care despite the financial challenge.
Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Osborn, Chandra Y; Wagner, Julie
Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus. Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 121) who completed baseline assessments for the CALMS-D (Community Health Workers Assisting Latinos Manage Stress and Diabetes) stress management intervention trial completed the US Household Food Security Survey, and measures of depressive symptoms [Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-short], diabetes distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID-5)], and sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Psychological distress was operationalized with the PHQ-8, PROMIS-short, and PAID-5 scales. We used unadjusted and adjusted indirect effect tests with bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% CIs on 10,000 samples to test both relations between variables and potential mediation. Mean age was 61 y, 74% were women, and 67% were food insecure. Experiencing HFI was associated with both greater psychological distress and worse sleep quality (P sleep quality with and without adjustment for age, education, income, marital status, and employment status. Household food insecurity is a common and potent household stressor that is associated with suboptimal sleep quality through psychological distress. Efforts to improve food security and decrease psychological distress may yield improved sleep in this high-risk population. The CALMS-D stress management
Cazzulino, Francesca; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Arbogast, Helen; Upperman, Jeffrey S
Cell phone use among young drivers has become increasingly common in recent years. Young people are the most likely to accept the use of new technology and least likely to understand the risks associated with cell phone use while driving (CPWD; defined here as talking on the phone only) and texting while driving (TextWD). Due to inexperience, young drivers are the most at risk when using cell phones while driving and therefore should be the target of the majority of prevention strategies. The intent of this review is to determine factors that influence young drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD and suggest a basis for prevention campaigns and strategies that can effectively prevent current and future generations from using cell phones while driving. We conducted a search for original articles in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. All abstracts were reviewed and for those that met the inclusion criteria, full articles were obtained and assessed. Four hundred and twelve articles were identified in the search and, of those, 37 full-text articles were obtained. A total of 29 articles about the frequency of CPWD and the psychological effects influencing young driver's tendency to engage in CPWD were included. There was a high frequency of both CPWD and TextWD despite a high perceived risk of both behaviors. This discrepancy was explained by a high perceived controllability, the effect of social norms, call importance, and lack of effective law enforcement. The intervention strategies reviewed were also found to be ineffective over the long term. The systematic review reveals that young drivers are an at-risk group for distracted driving. We propose preventative strategies based on identifying factors that influence drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD as well as by reviewing strategies found in the reviewed articles. Further research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these proposed strategies.
Barreira, Alice Kelly; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho de; Avanci, Joviana Quintes
The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents from Recife, Brazil, to identify associated factors and the co-occurrence of both types of violence. 302 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in public and private schools who were in a relationship in the last year filled out the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis were performed and the sample weight and the complex sample design were entered. The prevalence was 19.9% of physical violence 82.8% of psychological violence and 18.9% for the co-occurrence of both. Adolescents who have experienced violence in the community and who were in dating relationships of more than one year duration were more likely to perpetrate psychological violence. For the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence, the variables that increased the chance of perpetration were suffering physical violence from the father, violence among siblings, physical violence and the perpetration of verbal violence in previous relationships. The conclusion reached is that psychological violence and the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence have a distinct dynamics from physical violence in dating relationships.
Md. Azharul Islam
Full Text Available Abstract A growing body of epidemiological literature suggests that problematic Internet use (PIU is associated with a range of psychological health problems in adolescents and young adults. This study aimed to explore socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of PIU and examine its association with psychological distress. A total of 573 graduate students from Dhaka University of Bangladesh responded to a self-administered questionnaire that included internet addiction test (IAT, 12-items General Health Questionnaire and a set of socio-demographic and behavioural factors. The study found that nearly 24% of the participants displayed PIU on the IAT scale. The prevalence of PIU significantly varied depending on gender, socioeconomic status, smoking habit and physical activity (p < 0.05. The multiple regression analyses suggested that PIU is strongly associated with psychological distress regardless of all other explanatory variables (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.57, 3.58. Further research is warranted to confirm this association by employing prospective study designs.
Hall, Brian J; Bonanno, George A; Bolton, Paul A; Bass, Judith K
Social resources can buffer against psychological distress following potentially traumatic events. Psychological distress can also lead to social resource deterioration. This longitudinal study evaluated whether baseline psychological distress symptoms and changes in these symptoms were associated with changes in social resources 5 months later among 96 adult male (52.6%) and female treatment-seeking torture survivors residing in Kurdistan, Iraq. Adapted versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and a traumatic grief measure were used. Locally derived scales measured perceived social support, social integration, and frequency of social contact. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed the association between symptoms and loss or gain in social resources. We hypothesized that higher mental health symptoms would relate to decreased social resources. Higher baseline depression (adjusted conditional odds ratio [ACOR] = 1.14), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; ACOR = 1.09), and traumatic grief symptoms (ACOR = 1.14) increased the odds of loss of social integration. For some, higher traumatic grief symptoms were associated with increased social integration (ACOR = 1.17). Increased anxiety (ACOR = 1.23) and PTSD symptoms (ACOR = 1.07) was associated with declines in social contact; decreased depression (ACOR = 1.06) and PTSD symptoms (ACOR = 1.04) were related to gaining social contact. This study highlights the complex relationship between mental health symptoms and losses and gains in social resources among torture survivors. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Pâquet, Myriam; Bois, Katy; Rosen, Natalie O; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Charbonneau-Lefebvre, Véronique; Bergeron, Sophie
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent cause of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and is associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners. PVD is often misdiagnosed or ignored and many couples may experience a sense of injustice, due to the loss of their ability to have a normal sexual life. Perceiving injustice has been documented to have important consequences in individuals with chronic pain. However, no quantitative research has investigated the experience of injustice in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between perceived injustice and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression among women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 50) and their partners completed questionnaires of perceived injustice, pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (2) Female Sexual Distress Scale; (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II; and (4) McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. After controlling for partners' age, women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater sexual distress, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater depression, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher perceived injustice was not associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction but partners' higher perceived injustice was associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction. Perceived injustice was not associated with women's pain intensity. Results suggest that perceiving injustice may have negative consequences for the couple's sexual and psychological outcomes. However, the effects of perceived injustice appear to be intra-individual. Targeting perceived injustice could enhance the efficacy of psychological interventions for women with PVD and their partners
McMahon, Elaine M.; Corcoran, Paul; McAuliffe, Carmel; Keeley, Helen S.; Perry, Ivan J.; Arensman, Ella
There is evidence for an association between suicidal behaviour and coping style among adolescents. The aims of this study were to examine associations between coping style, mental health factors and self-harm thoughts and acts among Irish adolescents, and to investigate whether coping style mediates associations between mental health factors (depression, anxiety and self-esteem) and self-harm. A cross-sectional school-based survey was carried out. Information was obtained on h...
Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna
Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥ 8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.
VandenBos, Gary R; Hogan, John D; Kazak, Anne E
In 2017, the American Psychological Association (APA) celebrates the 125th anniversary of its founding. This special issue commemorates this milestone by providing long- and short-term views on the history of APA and its role in psychology in America. The opening paper presents an overview of initiatives and challenges facing the field of psychology and APA in five periods, each roughly 25 years in length. The remaining eight articles review specific issues and areas of activity over varying lengths of time in more recent years. Issues of policy involvement, relations with the media, and involvement with the courts are described, as well as developments related to social justice, education, science, practice, and publications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, Raphael; Zijlstra, Wobbe P
BACKGROUND: Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels...... of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. METHODS: A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version...... was used to assess general psychological distress, diabetes was measured by means of self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident diabetes during 18 years follow up, comparing participants with low versus high...
Skogli, Hans-Ragnar; Geoffroy, Dominique; Weiler, Hope A; Tell, Grethe S; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Egeland, Grace M
Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6). Biomarkers included n-3 fatty acids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The K6 screens for psychological distress over the last 30 days with six items scored on a 4-point scale. A total score of 13 or more indicates serious psychological distress (SPD). Logistic regression models were used to investigate any associations between SPD and biomarkers while controlling for age, gender, marital status, days spent out on the land, feeling of being alone, income and smoking. The 30-day SPD prevalence was 11.2%, with women below 30 years having the highest and men 50 years and more having the lowest SPD prevalence at 16.1% and 2.6%, respectively. SPD was associated with being female, younger age, not being married or with a common-law partner, spending few days out on the land, feelings of being alone, smoking and low income. Low levels of both 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds for SPD in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. In this cross-sectional analysis, low levels of 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds ratios for SPD, which highlights the potential impact of traditional foods on mental health and wellbeing. Cultural practices are also important for mental health and it may be that the biomarkers serve as proxies for cultural activities related to food collection, sharing and consumption that increase both biomarker levels and psychological well-being. n-3 FAs: omega-3
Full Text Available Abstract Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses; the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses; and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses. Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3 were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg, and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania. A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate
E N Zamri
Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role.To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP, and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 45.2%, 50.9% and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9% respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75, high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57, low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99. Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33, severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43, low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25 and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99.Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce
Zamri, E N; Moy, F M; Hoe, V C W
Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce
Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.
Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke
, sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....
Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.
, sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.
Dimova, Violeta; Lötsch, Jörn; Hühne, Kathrin; Winterpacht, Andreas; Heesen, Michael; Parthum, Andreas; Weber, Peter G; Carbon, Roman; Griessinger, Norbert; Sittl, Reinhard; Lautenbacher, Stefan
The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT), fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH), transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1), and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1), for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task) and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ]), which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again no significant additional explanation could be gained by the genetic predictors. In contrast, the preoperative PVAQ score was also, in the present enlarged sample, a meaningful predictor for lasting pain disability after surgery. Effect size measures suggested some genetic variables, for example, the polymorphism rs1800587G>A in the interleukin 1 alpha gene (IL1A) and the COMT haplotype rs4646312T>C/rs165722T>C/rs6269A>G/rs4633T>C/rs4818C>G/rs4680A>G, as possible relevant modulators of long-term postsurgical pain outcome. A comparison between pathophysiologically different predictor groups appears to be helpful in identifying clinically relevant
Asif, Irfan M; Annett, Scott; Ewing, Joseph A; Abdelfattah, Ramy; Sutphin, Brittan; Conley, Kyle; Rothmier, Justin; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A
Determine the psychological impact of false-positive ECG screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Athletes representing seven NCAA institutions received a standardised history, physical examination and ECG interpreted using the 2013 Seattle Criteria. Assessments of health attitudes, anxiety and impact of screening on sport were conducted using validated prescreen and postscreen measurements. 1192 student-athletes participated (55.4% male, median age 19 years, 80.4% Caucasian). 96.8% of athletes had a normal cardiovascular screen, 2.9% had a false-positive ECG and 0.3% were diagnosed with a serious cardiac condition. Prior to screening, 4.5% worried about potentially harbouring cardiac disease and 70.1% preferred knowing about an underlying condition, rather than play sports without this knowledge. There was no difference in anxiety described by athletes with a normal versus false-positive screen (p=0.369). Reported anxiety levels during screening also did not differ when analysed by different gender, race, division of play or sport. Athletes with normal and false-positive screens had similar levels of satisfaction (p=0.714) and would recommend ECG screening to other athletes at similar rates (p=0.322). Compared with athletes with a normal screen, athletes with false-positive results also reported feeling safer during competition (p>0.01). In contrast, athletes with false-positive screens were more concerned about the possibility of sports disqualification (pAthletes with a false-positive ECG do not experience more anxiety than athletes with a normal screen but do express increased concern regarding sports disqualification and the development of a cardiac disorder. These findings do not justify avoiding advanced cardiovascular screening protocols. Further understanding of athlete experiences could better prepare the practising physician to counsel athletes with an abnormal ECG. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise
Jimerson, Shane R.
Professions are strong only to the extent they are represented by active and effective professional associations. Professional associations are strong only to the extent that they are composed of active and effective professionals. This article highlights the belief that the contributions of capable, creative, and committed colleagues who provide…
Skovbjerg, Signe; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert
Objectives Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether other risk factors influence...... Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, and the second included individuals who had been diagnosed with environmental intolerance (n = 136). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with four IEI-related domains, i.e., mucosal and CNS symptoms, chemical intolerances and social...
Vandevala, Tushna; Pavey, Louisa; Chelidoni, Olga; Chang, Nai-Feng; Creagh-Brown, Ben; Cox, Anna
Background The work demands of critical care can be a major cause of stress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals and lead to poor health outcomes. In the process of recovery from work, psychological rumination is considered to be an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and health outcomes. This study aimed to extend our knowledge of the process by which ICU stressors and differing rumination styles are associated with burnout, depression and risk of psyc...
Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Emam-Alizadeh, Mahsa; Hamedi, Fatemeh; Jahangiry, Leila
There are limiting studies evaluating the weight self-stigma and its association with eating disorders and health concerns. However, no study is available evaluating weight self-stigma and its determinants among reproductive age women in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate weight self-stigma and its association with quality of life and psychological distress among overweight and obese Iranian women. The current cross-sectional study was performed among 170 women aged 17-45 years referring to health centers of Tabriz-Iran. Anthropometric assessments were performed. Weight self-stigma was assessed by weight self-stigma questionnaire (WSSQ). Evaluation of quality of life and psychological distress was performed using SF-12 and general health questionnaires (GHQ-12), respectively. Analysis of data was performed by multivariate hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 18 software. In this study, the multivariate hierarchical regression analysis revealed that being married and having low total weight self-stigma and fear of enacted stigma (FES) scores were associated with better physical component summary scores (p < 0.05). Whereas, younger ages and lower total weight self-stigma scores were associated with better mental component summary scores. In addition, lower weight self-stigma total scores and lower self-devaluation scores were predictors of lower psychological distress. Our results indicated the negative impacts of weight self-stigma on quality of life and psychological distress among overweight and obese women. Since weight stigma might be a potent barrier of obese individuals to engage in health promoting behaviors, therefore, the results of the current study further warrants the need for developing interventional strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of weight stigma on quality of life via including the reduction of weight self-stigma as a key therapeutic goal in obesity treatment programs.
Edwards, Katie M; Dardis, Christina M; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Gidycz, Christine A
This researchers assessed informal (e.g., friends, family) social reactions to college women's (N = 139) disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their current romantic relationships and associated psychological (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and global psychological distress symptoms) and relational (i.e., intentions to leave the abusive relationship) variables. Women completed confidential surveys, which assessed current partner abuse, psychological and relational variables, and three types of social reactions from informal supports to disclosure of IPV: positive (e.g., believing, validating the victim), negative (e.g., disbelieving, blaming the victim), and leaving (i.e., being told to end the relationship) reactions. At the bivariate level, negative social reactions to women's disclosure were related to increases in global psychological distress, PTSS, and leaving intentions; positive social reactions to disclosure related only to increases in PTSS; and being told to leave the relationship related to increases in PTSS and leaving intentions. In the regression analyses, after controlling for abuse severity, negative social reactions were significantly related to global psychological distress and PTSS, and being told to leave significantly related to leaving intentions and PTSS. Mechanisms for these relationships and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Martin, Scott B; Wrisberg, Craig A
Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Quantitative study. A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes.
Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.
Context: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective: To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design: Quantitative study. Setting: A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results: Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes. PMID:27159188
Karthik Laksham Balajee
Full Text Available Context: There is paucity of data on the comparison of psychological distress among chronic noncommunicable disease (NCD and healthy subjects in developing countries such as India. Objective: To assess and compare psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural field practice area attached to a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected from the chronic disease subjects which included those with diabetes and or hypertension registered in the rural health center. Healthy subjects residing nearest to the corresponding case from the respective village were taken as controls. Psychological distress was assessed by General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12. Results: There were 260 subjects with 130 in each group. Subjects with chronic disease had significantly higher proportion of psychological distress (50.8% compared to healthy subjects (35.4%. The mean ± standard deviation GHQ 12 score of those with chronic disease is also significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (13.35 ± 4.89 vs. 11.15 ± 4.43, P< 0.001. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension had higher psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.5 compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion: Subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension have higher proportion of psychological distress compared to healthy subjects. Screening subjects with chronic NCD for psychological distress may help to take appropriate measures.
Aasheim, V; Waldenström, U; Hjelmstedt, A; Rasmussen, S; Pettersson, H; Schytt, E
To investigate if advanced maternal age at first birth increases the risk of psychological distress during pregnancy at 17 and 30 weeks of gestation and at 6 and 18 months after birth. National cohort study. Norway. A total of 19 291 nulliparous women recruited between 1999 and 2008 from hospitals and maternity units. Questionnaire data were obtained from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and register data from the national Medical Birth Register. Advanced maternal age was defined as ≥ 32 years and a reference group of women aged 25-31 years was used for comparisons. The distribution of psychological distress from 20 to ≥ 40 years was investigated, and the prevalence of psychological distress at the four time-points was estimated. Logistic regression analyses based on generalised estimation equations were used to investigate associations between advanced maternal age and psychological distress. Psychological distress measured by SCL-5. Women of advanced age had slightly higher scores of psychological distress over the period than the reference group, also after controlling for obstetric and infant variables. The youngest women had the highest scores. A history of depression increased the risk of distress in all women. With no history of depression, women of advanced age were not at higher risk. Changes over time were similar between groups and lowest at 6 months. Women of 32 years and beyond had slightly increased risk of psychological distress during pregnancy and the first 18 months of motherhood compared with women aged 25-31 years. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.
Martinez, Kelly; Frazer, Sharon F; Dempster, Martin; Hamill, Andrea; Fleming, Hanora; McCorry, Noleen K
This review aims to synthesise the literature examining the psychosocial variables related to self-management (insulin adherence, non-adherence and administration, blood sugar monitoring, dietary behaviour, exercise behaviour) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A systematic search of three electronic databases was carried out and, after the application of eligibility criteria, 21 articles were assessed for quality prior to data extraction. Numerous psychological factors were found to be associated with self-management; however, correlations were typically small to moderate. The strongest associations were found between social anxiety and diet (among males); greater intrinsic motivation, conscientiousness and diet; and extraversion and exercise.
Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke
As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, pspace visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavanagh, Sarah R; Fitzgerald, Erin J; Urry, Heather L
Frequent and successful use of cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves rethinking the meaning of an emotional event in order to change one's emotional response, has been linked in everyday life to positive outcomes such as higher well-being. Whether we should expect this association to be maintained in a strong, temporally and spatially close emotional context is an unexplored question that might have important implications for our understanding of emotion regulation and its relations to psychological functioning. In this study of members of the U. S. Embassy Tokyo community in the months following the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis in Japan, self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal was not related to psychological functioning, but demonstrated success using cognitive reappraisal to decrease feelings of unpleasantness in response to disaster-related pictures on a performance-based task was associated with fewer symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Moreover, emotional reactivity to these pictures was associated with greater symptomatology. These results suggest that situational intensity may be an important moderator of reappraisal and psychological functioning relationships.
Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients.
Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba; Sorrenti, Luana; Buzzai, Caterina; Orecchio, Susanna; Costa, Sebastiano
Despite the extensive research on parental psychological control, no study has explored the relation between parental and teacher psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism and learned helplessness (LH). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether perceived teacher psychological control predicts positively LH, (2) whether…
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Toussaint, Loren; Barry, Michael; Angus, Drew; Bornfriend, Lynn; Markman, Maurie
This study examined the association between self-forgiveness and psychological distress and tested whether self-blame and hope mediated these associations equally for both patients and caregivers. Participants were 38 patients and 44 unmatched caregivers receiving care at a national cancer hospital. Participants completed measures of self-forgiveness, self-blame, hope, and psychological distress. Self-forgiveness was inversely associated with self-blame and psychological distress and positively associated with hope. Self-forgiveness was indirectly associated with psychological distress through hope but not self-blame and more strongly for caregivers than patients. Group differences between patients and caregivers in associations are intriguing and may have implications for improved psychosocial care of cancer patients and support of caregivers.
Full Text Available Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.
Juan Carlos Fernández Rodríguez
Full Text Available The present article examines the concept of rhinitis, its classification and the reasons for classifying the different typesof rhinitis as psychophysiological diseases. We review the few studies that have investigated the association betweenrhinitis and psychological factors. Most of these studies have focussed on allergies, among which is rhinitis. We alsoassess current knowledge on the association between rhinitis and psychological factors, mainly addressing anxiety,depression and personality characteristics. Further lines of research are suggested regarding this association.
Ingles, Jodie; Sarina, Tanya; Kasparian, Nadine; Semsarian, Christopher
Sudden cardiac death is a tragic complication of a number of genetic heart diseases. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy plays an important role in prevention of sudden death. The psychological consequences of ICD therapy in young people with genetic heart disease are poorly understood. This study sought to better understand psychological wellbeing and identify symptoms of posttraumatic stress in young people who had experienced an ICD shock. Eligible patients (ICD implanted over 12 months prior) with an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder, enrolled in the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry were included. Ninety patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Those patients who had an ICD shock (n=31) also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R). While the mean HADS-Anxiety and IES-R scores were within the normal range in the total group (n=90), a significant subgroup reported symptoms of anxiety (38%), depression (17%) and posttraumatic stress (31%) indicative of the potential need for referral to clinical care. Overall, greater psychological distress in ICD patients was associated with female gender, a history of syncope, other comorbid medical conditions, and reporting of other distressing events (i.e., ICD complications). In those with an ICD shock, higher posttraumatic stress scores were associated with female gender and longer time to first shock. Patients with genetic heart diseases can experience psychological difficulties, including anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, related to ICD implantation and subsequent shocks. This signals the importance of offering patients access to targeted interventions, including psychological care and support. © 2013.
Bagshaw, Andrew T.M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M; Gemmell, Neil J.; Martin A Kennedy
Background The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. Methods We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied long...
DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.
This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status
Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.
Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju
Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui
This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L
Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chamik, Tanja; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal
The direction and magnitude of the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and psychological stress continue to be debated, and no data are available from surveys in the African region. In this study, we examine the associations between CVRFs and psychological stress in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. A survey was conducted in 1,240 adults aged 25-64 years representative of the Seychelles. Participants were asked to rank psychological stress that they had experienced during the past 12 months in four domains: work, social life, financial situation, and environment around home. CVRFs (high blood pressure, tobacco use, alcohol drinking, and obesity) were assessed using standard procedures. Psychological stress was associated with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall, there were only few consistent associations between psychological stress and CVRFs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social stress was associated with smoking, drinking, and obesity, and there were marginal associations between stress at work and drinking, and between financial stress, and smoking and drinking. Psychological stress was not associated with high blood pressure. These findings suggest that psychological stress should be considered in cardiovascular disease prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian
Studies examining associations between positive body image and well-being have used a limited array of measures of each construct. To rectify this, we asked an online sample of 1148 UK adults to complete a range of measures of positive body image (body appreciation, body image flexibility, body pride, body acceptance from others) and a multi-dimensional measure of well-being (emotional, psychological, and social). Results showed that, once the effects of age and body mass index (BMI) had been accounted for, body appreciation significantly predicted all dimensions of well-being. Other positive body image measures emerged as significant predictors, but patterns of associations were mixed across sex and well-being dimension. Additional analyses showed that women had significantly lower scores than men on most body image measures, and that BMI was negatively associated with all body image measures. These results have implications for the promotion of well-being, which we discuss.
Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G
The authors examined the associations between mixed-grade rejection (rejection by peers in a different school grade), anxious-withdrawal, aggression, and psychological adjustment in a middle school setting. Participants were 181 seventh-grade and 180 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.20 years, SD = 0.68 years) who completed peer nomination and self-report measures in their classes. Analyses indicated that in general, same- and mixed-grade rejection were related to overt and relational aggression, but neither type was related to anxious-withdrawal. Mixed-grade rejection was associated uniquely and negatively with self-esteem for seventh-grade boys, while increasing the loneliness associated with anxious-withdrawal. The results suggest that school-wide models of peer relations may be promising for understanding the ways in which different peer contexts contribute to adjustment in middle school settings.
Sharp, Linda; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Timmons, Aileen
Cancer places a financial and economic burden on individuals, but relatively little is known about the consequences. We investigated associations between cancer-related financial stress and strain and psychological well-being. Individuals >6 months post-diagnosis with breast, prostate and lung cancer, identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland, completed a postal questionnaire. Financial stress was assessed by the impact of the cancer diagnosis on household ability to make ends meet, financial strain by feelings about household financial situation since the cancer diagnosis and psychological well-being (depression, anxiety and distress) by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between financial stress and strain and depression, anxiety and distress of (a) any severity and (b) severe or worse. The response rate was 54%. Of 654 respondents, 49% reported increased financial stress and 32% increased financial strain due to cancer. Depression, anxiety and distress were present in: 36%, 29% and 29%, respectively (any severity); and 14%, 13% and 13%, respectively (severe or worse). In adjusted analyses, depression risk was raised threefold in those reporting increased cancer-related financial stress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.79, 95%CI 1.87-4.17) and increased cancer-related financial strain (OR = 3.56, 95%CI 2.23-5.67). For severe or worse depression, the risk estimates were more pronounced (increased stress: OR = 4.36, 95%CI 2.35-8.10; increased strain: OR = 8.21, 95%CI 3.79-17.77). Similar associations were found for anxiety and distress. Cancer-related financial stress and strain were consistently associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes. If confirmed, these findings provide further rationale for initiatives to alleviate the financial burden of cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Seng, Elizabeth K; Buse, Dawn C; Klepper, Jaclyn E; J Mayson, Sarah; Grinberg, Amy S; Grosberg, Brian M; Pavlovic, Jelena M; Robbins, Matthew S; Vollbracht, Sarah E; Lipton, Richard B
To evaluate the relationships among modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine-related disability in a clinic-based sample of persons with migraine. Evidence evaluating relationships between modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine-related disability is lacking in people with migraine presenting for routine clinical care. Adults with migraine completed surveys during routinely scheduled visits to a tertiary headache center. Participants completed surveys assessing chronic migraine (meeting criteria for migraine with ≥15 headache days in the past month), severe migraine disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Scale score ≥ 21), and modifiable psychological factors (depressive symptoms [Patient Health Questionnaire-9], anxious symptoms [Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7], Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Headache Specific Locus of Control). Logistic regression evaluated relationships between modifiable psychological factors and chronic migraine and severe migraine disability. Among 90 eligible participants the mean age was 45.0 (SD = 12.4); 84.8% were women. One-third (36.0%) met study criteria for chronic migraine; half of participants (51.5%) reported severe migraine-related disability. Higher depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.55) and chance HSLC (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.43) were associated with chronic migraine. Higher depressive symptoms (OR = 3.54, 95%CI = 1.49, 8.41), anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65, 8.06), and pain catastrophizing (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.14, 3.35), were associated with severe migraine-related disability. Psychiatric symptoms and pain catastrophizing were strongly associated with severe migraine-related disability. Depression and chance locus of control were associated with chronic migraine. This study supports the need for longitudinal observational studies to evaluate the relationships among
Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L
This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles.
Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Lawlor, Brian A
Social networks have been associated with a wide variety of health outcomes in older people. We examined the dimensions underlying the Wenger social support network type assessment to identify dimensions associated with mental and physical health. We interviewed 1334 community-dwelling participants aged 65+. The Geriatric Mental State automated geriatric examination for computer-assisted taxonomy interview was used to rate psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of social support network domains: family (distance from and contact with relatives) and social engagement. Social engagement was associated with a lower age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of depression (odds ratio for a one-tertile increase 0.48), generalised anxiety disorder (OR 0.60), cognitive impairment (OR 0.68) and physical disability (OR 0.62) all p social engagement domain was also associated with better quality of life (OR 1.5) self-rated happiness (OR 1.3) and rating life as worth living (OR 1.4). The family domain, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with any health outcome. The results suggest that elective relationships and social engagement are the 'active ingredients' of social networks which promote health in later life.
Miller, Alexandra; Vo, Hoa; Huo, Liang; Roca, Catherine; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a mood disorder affecting about 5% of women and is associated with substantial morbidity. Albeit inconsistently, PMDD is described as being characterized by heritable personality traits. Although PMDD is a heritable disorder, it is unclear whether any of the heritable susceptibility to PMDD resides in heritable personality traits. In groups of carefully characterized women with PMDD (n=68) and controls (n=56), we attempted to determine whether diagnosis-related traits could be confirmed, as well as to determine whether such traits were associated with SNPs in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-1) that we previously demonstrated were associated with PMDD. We observed 7/25 traits to be significantly different in patients and controls and further showed that 11/12 significant associations observed between these 7 traits and 16 ESR-1 SNPs involved the intron 4 SNPs previously shown to be the locus of the association with PMDD. While several interactions between genotype and diagnosis were observed, the effect of genotype in most instances was in the same direction in patients and controls. These data demonstrate affective state-independent personality traits that distinguish patients with PMDD from controls and further support the relevance of ESR-1 polymorphic variants in the regulation of non-reproductive behaviors. PMID:20172536
Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L
Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…
Full Text Available The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology in researching historical mental types (“Annals school” are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support (PSS and fatigue and the roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience as mediators or moderators on PSS-fatigue association among Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA patients in China.A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted withinpatients diagnosed with RA in northeast China, in which 305 eligible inpatients were enrolled. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Test Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Ego-Resiliency Scale were completed. The associations of PSS, hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience with fatigue and the moderating roles of these positive psychological constructs were tested by hierarchical linear regression. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were utilized to assess the mediating roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience.The mean score of the MFI was 57.88 (SD = 9.50. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience were negatively associated with RA-related fatigue, whereas DAS28-CRP was positively associated. Only resilience positively moderated the PSS-fatigue association (B = 0.03, β = 0.13, P<0.01. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association between PSS and fatigue symptoms (hope: a*b = -0.16, BCa 95%CI: -0.27, -0.03; optimism: a*b = -0.20, BCa 95%CI: -0.30, -0.10; resilience: a*b = -0.12, BCa 95%CI: -0.21-0.04.Fatigue is a severe symptom among RA patients. Resilience may positively moderate the PSS-fatigue association. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience may contribute as effective recourses to alleviate fatigue, upon which PSS probably has the greatest effect.
Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10), and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85), lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91), poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31) and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28), and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69), lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71), poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70) and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16). In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not associated with
Becker-Larsen, Astrid; Edvardsson, Arne
of SIPF or DIFO. The association’s goals are to promote and develop sports psychology research, teaching and applied practice by gathering experiences from different practitioners (e.g., academia, federations and sports). Therfore, it is in both assocations intrest to come togheter and discuss the past...... and networkning in sports, federations and academia. Metod/Method Board members from DIFO and SIPF have been invited to participate in this symposium. To initate discussion the participants have been given the assignment to answer the 3 open questions regarding their association: “What have you done in the past...... directions for future growth and networking opportunities. Resultat/Results The ideas and future direction regarding growth and networking in sport psychology discussed in this symposium will be summarized in a shared guideline document. Diskussion och slutsatser/Discussion and conclusions For the continued...
Talbot, Annie; Uwihoreye, Chaste; Kamen, Charles; Grant, Philip; McGlynn, Lawrence; Mugabe, Isaac; Nshimyumukiza, Martin; Dongier, Pierre; Slamowitz, Debbie; Padilla, Cindy; Uvamahoro, Jaqueline; Musayidire, Irene; Mukarubuga, Ancilla; Zolopa, Andrew
The nongovernmental organization, Uyisenga N'Manzi (UNM), provides Rwandan orphans of genocide and HIV/AIDS with education, social, and mental health services. Many orphans in UNM report symptoms of psychological trauma. The primary study objective was to evaluate a multidisciplinary program integrating HIV prevention with an existing package of mental health services. We randomly selected 120 orphans between ages 15-25 years served by UNM and evaluated sexually-transmitted infections, HIV risk-taking behaviors and knowledge, and mental health at baseline, 5, 9, and 12 months. Increased trauma symptoms at baseline were associated with poorer coping skills and social functioning, and increased psychological distress and HIV risk-taking behavior. Following the 12-month intervention, trauma symptoms declined significantly, with those accessing counseling services showing greatest improvement. Orphans with the highest trauma scores benefited most from the intervention. In this at-risk population, addressing mental health issues in the context of HIV prevention is critical.
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
The growth among older prisoner populations, including in Australia, necessitates an understanding of this group in order to generate effective management strategies. One particular concern is the mental well-being of older prisoners. This study aimed to determine the level of psychological distress among sentenced prisoners aged 50 years and older, to compare this level to that seen among younger prisoners and older people in the community, and to investigate which mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice characteristics were associated with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey of 173 older (M = 63 years) and 60 younger prisoners (M = 34 years) in two Australian jurisdictions was conducted. The Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) scale was administered with prisoners and additional data were collected from interviews and participant health and corrections files. K10 scores were compared to community norms using data from the Australian Health Survey. Average K10 scores of the older prisoners were significantly lower than the younger prisoners' (p = 0.04), though the effect size was small (r = 0.1). Significantly, higher distress levels were observed in comparison to the general population (p < 0.001), with older prisoners being three times more likely to display very high levels of distress (12.3% vs. 3.7%). Higher psychological distress scores among older prisoners were significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.002) and a history of mental health issues (p = 0.002). While the levels of distress seen among older prisoners were significantly lower than that of younger prisoners, their higher levels of distress in comparison to community norms demonstrate a need for correctional services to be attuned to the mental health of the expanding older prisoner population.
Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H
The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C
Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wilson, Jennifer; Jones, Margaret; Fear, Nicola T; Hull, Lisa; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon; Rona, Roberto J
Using survey data, the authors assessed whether military personnel's prior mental health status would influence their likelihood of being deployed. None of the previous studies that assessed a possible "healthy warrior effect," in which persons selected for deployment have better predeployment health, were based on surveys. A sample of 2,820 United Kingdom military personnel studied in 2002, before the Iraq War, was contacted again between 2004 and 2006. The baseline questionnaire included a measure of psychological distress (the General Health Questionnaire), the PTSD [posttraumatic stress disorder] Checklist (PCL), physical symptoms, and level of medical fitness. A total of 1,885 (67%) participants completed a follow-up questionnaire. General Health Questionnaire caseness in 2002 was associated with a reduction in risk of deployment later on (risk ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.99). Scoring high on the PCL intrusiveness and avoidance domains also reduced the risk of deployment. These associations were slightly stronger when the comparison was made between persons who were deployed to Iraq and those who were not. Although risk ratios were well below 1.00, PCL categories were not significantly associated with being deployed. This study demonstrated a small "healthy warrior effect"; persons with better psychological health had a higher chance of being deployed, even after adjustment for predeployment medical fitness.
Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of
Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb
While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…
Hackett, L; Hackett, R; Taylor, D C
The infrequent referral of Asian children to child psychiatry clinics was noted. By administering Rutter's scale A2 to samples of Gujarati and English parents with children between the ages of 4 and 7 years a lower rate of disturbance was demonstrated among the Asian sample providing an explanation for the original observation. Family and child-rearing factors associated with disturbance were identified.
Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas
The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…
Madjar, Nir; Nave, Adi; Hen, Shiran
This study investigated associations between student-perceived teacher behaviours and students' personal goal orientations. Thus, the study applied theoretical concepts from self-determination theory and parenting style in an attempt to enhance understanding of additional environmental characteristics possibly affecting personal goal orientation.…
Baumann, Michèle; Ionescu, Ion; Chau, Nearkasen
In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses); the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses); and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses). Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3) were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian) covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg), and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium) was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania). A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, pemployability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate achievement of future professional projects.
Sheehan, David V; Herman, Barry K
Although binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder, the impact of untreated BED is underappreciated. This review describes the relationship of BED to physical and mental health, quality of life, and functionality. PubMed searches were conducted on March 21, 2014; searches were limited to English-language research articles, meta-analyses, and reviews published between January 1, 2003 and March 21, 2014. Search terms included (binge eating OR binge-eating OR binge eating disorder) AND (cardiovascular OR metabolic OR metabolic syndrome OR gastrointestinal OR health OR rehabilitation OR recovery OR sleep OR pregnancy OR quality of life OR functional impairment OR activities of daily living OR QoL OR SF-12 OR ED-5D OR SF-36 OR psychosocial OR depressive OR anxiety OR self-esteem OR suicidality OR suicide OR productivity OR family). Of 326 identified publications, 43 were relevant to the topic and reported on the association of BED with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, quality of life, and functional outcomes. Individuals diagnosed with BED have increased rates of mental health comorbidities (eg, depression and anxiety) and more pronounced medical impairments (eg, cardiovascular disorders) compared with individuals without BED. BED is also associated with functional impairment and reduced quality of life. Binge eating disorder is associated with impairments in physical and mental health, which can decrease quality of life and functionality and lead to increased health care utilization and decreased productivity. However, some caution is warranted in interpreting these findings because it remains unclear whether BED is an antecedent condition, a complication associated with a comorbid psychiatric condition, or an unrelated feature that occurs concurrently with these comorbidities and impairments. Much of the research on BED is based on observational or epidemiologic studies. Controlled studies are needed to clearly define the long
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav
Loneliness is common in adolescence and has been linked to various negative outcomes. Until now, however, there has been little cross-country research on this phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to examine which factors are associated with adolescent loneliness in three countries that differ historically and culturally-the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States, and to determine whether adolescent loneliness is associated with poorer psychological and somatic health. Data from a school survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), were used to examine these relations among 2205 Czech, 1995 Russian, and 2050 U.S. male and female adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine if specific demographic, parenting, personal or school-based factors were linked to feeling lonely and whether lonely adolescents were more likely to report psychological (depression and anxiety) or somatic symptoms (e.g. headaches, pain). Inconsistent parenting, shyness, and peer victimisation were associated with higher odds for loneliness in at least 4 of the 6 country- and sex-wise subgroups (i.e. Czech, Russian, U.S. boys and girls). Parental warmth was a protective factor against feeling lonely among Czech and U.S. girls. Adolescents who were lonely had higher odds for reporting headaches, anxiety and depressive symptoms across all subgroups. Loneliness was associated with other somatic symptoms in at least half of the adolescent subgroups. Loneliness is associated with worse adolescent health across countries. The finding that variables from different domains are important for loneliness highlights the necessity of interventions in different settings in order to reduce loneliness and its detrimental effects on adolescent health.
van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H
Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the decision for RRM. This study investigated which psychological factors are related to the intention to choose for RRM. A cohort of 486 cancer-unaffected women with a family history of breast cancer completed the following questionnaires prior to genetic counseling: the Cancer Worry Scale, Positive And Negative Affect Scale, Perceived Personal Control Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and State Anxiety Scale and questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics, family history, risk perception and RRM intention. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relation between psychological factors and women's intention to choose for RRM. Factors associated with RRM intention were high positive affect (OR = 1.86, 95%CI = 1.12-3.08), high negative affect (OR = 2.52, 95%CI = 1.44-4.43), high cancer worry (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.00-2.72), high perceived personal control (OR = 3.58, 95%CI = 2.18-5.89), high risk-perception (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.15-2.95) and having children (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21-3.50). Negative and positive affects play an important role in the intention for RRM. Furthermore, perceived personal control over the situation is associated with an intention for RRM. In addition to focusing on accurate risk communication, counseling should pay attention to the influence of perceived control and emotions to facilitate decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kussin-Shoptaw, Alexandra L; Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J
Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse. Participants were African American/Black (33.3%), Caucasian/White (28.3%), or Hispanic/Latina (24.2%). Average age was 35 years (standard deviation [SD] = 9), and 37.4% of participants self-reported an HIV-positive status. Most (84.9%) participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lifetime, and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) among those who reported abuse were more severe than those observed in cisgender psychiatric in-patient populations. After controlling for participant sociodemographics, prior experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased psychological and emotional distress across all measured symptom domains except psychoticism [χ 2 (9) = 17.56; p < 0.05]. Given these associations as well as the high prevalence of physical and/or sexual abuse among transgender women, mental health professionals and social service providers working with this population should be sensitive to the abuse history and mental health needs of the transgender women with whom they work.
Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801
Sabik, Natalie J
Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
James eRae; Lonborg, Susan D.
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the environmental and individual factors contributing to male nurses' psychological well-being and to explore the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between nurses' practice environment and work engagement, thereby presenting the implications for nurse managers. Methods: A total of 161 male nurses from three tertiary first-class hospitals in Changsha City in China participated in the study. We collected the data using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Results: Scores of male nurses' practice environment (2.88Â Â±Â 0.31, psychological capital (4.42Â Â±Â 0.62, and work engagement (3.17Â Â±Â 1.39 were all above the midpoint; however, the subscales âthe nursing staffing and resources adequacyâ (2.72Â Â±Â 0.48, âhopeâ (4.33Â Â±Â 0.72, and âdedicationâ (2.96Â Â±Â 1.61scored lowest. Nurses' practice environment and psychological capital positively predicted nurses' work engagement; psychological capital fully mediated the influence of nurses' practice environment on work engagement. Conclusions: Creating a supportive nursing practice environment can increase male nurses' work engagement by developing their psychological capital. Nurse managers can then provide reasonable workload and pathways for male nurses to achieve goals, thereby fostering their hope. Keywords: Male nurses, Nurses' practice environment, Psychological capital, Work engagement
Wolfensberger, Adrian; Vuistiner, Philippe; Konzelmann, Michel; Plomb-Holmes, Chantal; Léger, Bertrand; Luthi, François
Validated clinician outcome scores are considered less associated with psychosocial factors than patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs). This belief may lead to misconceptions if both instruments are related to similar factors. We asked: In patients with chronic shoulder pain, what biopsychosocial factors are associated (1) with PROMs, and (2) with clinician-rated outcome measurements? All new patients between the ages of 18 and 65 with chronic shoulder pain from a unilateral shoulder injury admitted to a Swiss rehabilitation teaching hospital between May 2012 and January 2015 were screened for potential contributing biopsychosocial factors. During the study period, 314 patients were screened, and after applying prespecified criteria, 158 patients were evaluated. The median symptom duration was 9 months (interquartile range, 5.5-15 months), and 72% of the patients (114 patients) had rotator cuff tears, most of which were work injuries (59%, 93 patients) and were followed for a mean of 31.6 days (SD, 7.5 days). Exclusion criteria were concomitant injuries in another location, major or minor upper limb neuropathy, and inability to understand the validated available versions of PROMs. The PROMs were the DASH, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Patient Global Impression of Change, before and after treatment (physiotherapy, cognitive therapy and vocational training). The Constant-Murley score was used as a clinician-rated outcome measurement. Statistical models were used to estimate associations between biopsychosocial factors and outcomes. Greater disability on the DASH was associated with psychological factors (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale combined coefficient, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.25-1.03; p = 0.002) and social factors (language, professional qualification combined coefficient, -6.15; 95% CI, -11.09 to -1.22; p = 0.015). Greater pain on the Brief Pain Inventory was associated with psychological factors (Hospital Anxiety and
Iosua, Ella E; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob; Landhuis, C Erik; Keane, Raewyn; Hancox, Robert J
To examine the association between paid part-time employment among schoolchildren, and adult substance use, psychological well-being, and academic achievement. Longitudinal data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to evaluate the association between employment at each of 11, 13, and 15 years and adult smoking, regular alcohol binge drinking, regular cannabis use, sense of coherence, social participation, positive coping style, prosociality, no formal qualifications, and university degree. Associations were initially assessed using unadjusted regression analyses and then adjusted for the potential childhood confounders intelligence quotient, reading development, Student's Perception of Ability Scale, socioeconomic disadvantage, family climate, harsh parent-child interaction, parental opinion of their child's attitude to school, and child's personal attitude to school. Employment at 11 years of age was associated with a lower odds of adult smoking; the odds of subsequent regular alcohol binge drinking were greater for those who were employed at age 13; and higher adult rates of social participation and prosociality were identified for adolescents who were employed at 15 years of age. When the potential confounders were controlled, employment at age 13 was predictive of both adult smoking and regular binge drinking, and working at 15 years of age was protective against regular cannabis use and associated with greater social participation. There is no consistent evidence that exposing schoolchildren to part-time employment compromised subsequent health, well-being, and education in a developed country. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie
.... This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap...
Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie
.... This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships...
Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15 years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2) ⩾ 41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. © The Author(s) 2015.
Didymus, FF; Backhouse, SH
OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between rugby players’ stressful experiences, their coping resources, and their use of chemical assistance.\\ud DESIGN: A qualitative research design was adopted. Lazarus’ (1999) cognitive-motivational-relational theory was used as the theoretical lens to address the study objectives.\\ud METHODS: Ten male (n=7) and female (n=3) high level rugby league and union players (Mage = 22.6, SD = 2.80) were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. A high level p...
McCanlies, Erin C.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Violanti, John M.
Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor–Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p <.001), satisfaction with life (p <.001), and gratitude (p <.001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. PMID:25476965
McCanlies, Erin C; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M
Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p < .001), satisfaction with life (p < .001), and gratitude (p < .001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fais, Connor R; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Goodnight, Jackson A
The current study aims to understand mediators and moderators of the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. Based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, which emphasizes the role of internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events in the development of depression, we predicted that the association between stalking victimization and depression would be mediated by attributions for the stalking and characterological self-blame. We predicted that the association between stalking victimization and helplessness attributions or characterological self-blame, in turn, would be moderated by gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking. Specifically, we hypothesized that female victims, victims possessing a feminine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing longer stalking episodes would be more likely to experience depression in comparison with male victims, victims possessing a masculine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing shorter stalking episodes. The results indicated that global attributions for the cause of stalking significantly mediated the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. The results for stable attributions, internal attributions, and characterological self-blame were nonsignificant. Furthermore, gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking did not moderate the association between stalking and attributional style or characterological self-blame. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Mackelprang, Jessica L; Klest, Bridget; Najmabadi, Shadae J; Valley-Gray, Sarah; Gonzalez, Efrain A; Cash, Ralph E Gene
Betrayal trauma theory postulates that traumas perpetrated by a caregiver or close other are more detrimental to mental health functioning than are traumatic experiences in which the victim is not affiliated closely with the perpetrator. This study is the first to examine the concept of betrayal among a sample of individuals with a history of homelessness. A total of 95 homeless or formerly homeless adults completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographics questionnaire assessing participants' histories of homelessness, health, and relationships with their families. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations between high betrayal (HB) and low betrayal (LB) trauma exposure, relationship with family, and physical and mental health symptoms. Exposure to HB traumas in childhood and poor family relationships predicted earlier age at first episode of homelessness, and participants who had been exposed to a greater number of traumas during childhood were more likely to be revictimized during adulthood. Trauma exposure as an adult and earlier age of first homeless episode predicted symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, while trauma exposure alone predicted symptoms of depression and perceived stress. Number of medical diagnoses was associated with trauma exposure and becoming homeless at an older age. These findings emphasize that even among the most marginalized and multiply victimized individuals in our society, traumas that are characterized by a higher degree of betrayal are associated with more adverse outcomes.
Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs
The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association
Harrop, Tiffany M; Preston, Olivia C; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Michael D; Junearick, Regis; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Joye C
Studies have identified independent relationships between psychopathy, narcissism, and suicidality. The current study expands upon the extant literature by exploring psychopathic and narcissistic personality traits and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, utilizing a 3-factor model of psychopathy and 2-factor model of pathological narcissism in community, undergraduate, and military individuals. We hypothesized that the impulsive-antisocial facets of psychopathy would be related to suicidal desire, whereas all facets of psychopathy would relate to the capability for suicide. We anticipated an association between pathological narcissism, thwarted belongingness, and capability for suicide, but not perceived burdensomeness. We further hypothesized a relationship between physical pain tolerance and persistence and the affective (i.e., callousness) facet of psychopathy. Results partially supported these hypotheses and underscore the need for further examination of these associations utilizing contemporary models of psychopathy and narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Ahmad, Muayyad M
The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with psychological distress and coping strategies among university students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was used with a random sample of 587 university students in Jordan. The Perceived Stress Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory, and Internet Addiction Test were used. The prevalence of IA was 40%. IA was associated with high mental distress among the students. Students who used problem solving were more likely to experience a lower level of IA. This study should raise awareness in nurses and other healthcare providers that IA is a potential problem for this population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A
This meta-analytic review includes 135 studies, representing 17 countries, of child and adolescent (ages 4-17) samples of overt and relational peer victimization and examines the magnitude of overlap between forms of victimization and associations with five social-psychological adjustment indices. Results indicate a strong intercorrelation between forms of victimization (r¯ = .72). No gender difference with regard to relational victimization was found, but boys were slightly higher in overt victimization. Overt victimization is more strongly associated with overt aggression; relational victimization is more strongly related to internalizing problems, lower levels of received prosocial behavior from peers, and relational aggression. Both forms are related to externalizing problems. Age and method of assessment were explored as potential sources of variability in effect sizes. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter
Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.
Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Arving, Cecilia; Johansson, Birgitta; Glimelius, Bengt; Nordin, Karin
Patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer often have a short survival time. This means that spouses only have a short time to adjust to the approaching death. The aim was to explore whether psychological distress at diagnosis, the course of the illness (anti-tumour treatment, respite period and survival time), the spouses' experience of the care and of losing a loved one were related to distress and grief resolution after the patient had deceased. Twenty-one spouses were followed prospectively from the patient's diagnosis of advanced gastrointestinal cancer to 6 months after the patient death. Spouses' experiences were measured with an interview, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and grief resolution with the Grief Resolution Index. The spouses' anxiety at the time of diagnosis was related to their anxiety and grief resolution at follow-up. Two additional factors were associated with higher levels of anxiety at follow-up; the patient having received anti-tumour treatment and the spouse having experienced stress as a caregiver. The study indicates that anti-tumour treatment, though it has the potential to prolong life, does not positively influence spouses' psychological distress and bereavement after the death of the patient.
Nguyen, Thi; Dennis, Sarah; An, Huy; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Liaw, Siaw Teng
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress among Vietnamese adults attending Vietnamese-speaking general practices and explore possible risk factors in this population.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adult patients was conducted at 25 general practices with Vietnamese-speaking general practitioners (GPs) in south-western Sydney between October 2012 and February 2013. Patients completed the Kessler (K10) scale and a demographic questionnaire, available in Vietnamese or English. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21.Results: Of the 350 patients invited to participate, 247 completed surveys (response rate 71%). One-quarter (25%) of participants had a very high K10 score for psychological distress, nearly twice that reported in the NSW Health Survey. Participants with high exposure to trauma were at increased risk of psychological distress (odds ratio 5.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4-14.4; P speaking general practices is associated with exposure to trauma. This highlights the importance of personal, social and professional support in effective management. Vietnamese-speaking GPs who see Vietnamese or similar refugee groups should actively seek out a history of exposure to trauma, a past history of mental illness and the existence of support systems.
Vandevala, Tushna; Pavey, Louisa; Chelidoni, Olga; Chang, Nai-Feng; Creagh-Brown, Ben; Cox, Anna
The work demands of critical care can be a major cause of stress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals and lead to poor health outcomes. In the process of recovery from work, psychological rumination is considered to be an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and health outcomes. This study aimed to extend our knowledge of the process by which ICU stressors and differing rumination styles are associated with burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity among ICU professionals. Ninety-six healthcare professionals (58 doctors and 38 nurses) who work in ICUs in the UK completed a questionnaire on ICU-related stressors, burnout, work-related rumination, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity. Significant associations between ICU stressors, affective rumination, burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity were found. Longer working hours were also related to increased ICU stressors. Affective rumination (but not problem-solving pondering or distraction detachment) mediated the relationship between ICU stressors, burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity, such that increased ICU stressors, and greater affective rumination, were associated with greater burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity. No moderating effects were observed. Longer working hours were associated with increased ICU stressors, and increased ICU stressors conferred greater burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity via increased affective rumination. The importance of screening healthcare practitioners within intensive care for depression, burnout and psychiatric morbidity has been highlighted. Future research should evaluate psychological interventions which target rumination style and could be made available to those at highest risk. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of delivering these interventions should also be considered.
Kleppang, Annette Løvheim; Thurston, Miranda; Hartz, Ingeborg; Hagquist, Curt
The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15-16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.
Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.
The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…
Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…
Engström, Ingemar; Björnestam, Berit; Finkel, Yigael
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is life saving in some patients with intestinal failure. Clinical experience suggests that there may be psychologic problems in HPN children, including food refusal on reintroduction of food, parent-child conflict, sibling rivalry, and disruption of family routine. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic distress in children with HPN and the social integration of their parents. The parents were asked to fill in three questionnaires anonymously--one regarding the HPN procedures; the Child Behavior Checklist, which provides a standardized description of children's behavioral problems, as reported by their mothers; and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI), which in its short form comprises 30 questions about social network and social support. The Child Behavior Checklist questionnaires were returned from 20 families (80% response), and the ISSI questionnaires were returned from 21 families (84% response). Children and adolescents with HPN are quite distressed psychologically. The subscale within ISSI that measures social integration was significantly higher in the HPN group, whereas the subscale that measures adequacy of social integration did not differ between the groups. Both subscales measuring attachment were significantly lower in the HPN group. This study shows that children and adolescents with HPN are quite distressed psychologically, even though the exact reason for this may be somewhat unclear. The social integration of the parents is high, whereas attachment, which deals with deeper, emotional relations, is negatively affected.
Flanagan, Rosemary; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Jacob, Susan
The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists…
Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M.; van Mierlo, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480856; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047
The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients
Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees
This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…
Straus, Murray A.; Sweet, Stephen
The last decade has provided considerable research on the causes and effects of physical aggression in the family, but much less has been accomplished on the causes and effects of verbal/symbolic aggression. This verbal/symbolic aggression is defined as a communication, either verbal or nonverbal, intended to cause psychological pain to another…
Haagen, C. Hess
In 1968, a random sample of 70 Wesleyan University juniors participated in a study designed to: 1) determine the extent of drug usage among students; 2) investigate the social and psychological characteristics of users and non- users of marijuana; 3) investigate the attitudes and motivations of persons who had reacted differently to the increasing…
This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between benzodiazepine use and later life satisfaction, sleep difficulties, perceived general health, anxiety symptoms and somatic pain among the elderly. A 13-year prospective cohort study was conducted in a Norwegian population-based sample of 15 830 elderly individuals. Baseline control measures of the investigated psychological constructs and a wide range of demographic and health-relevant covariates were obtained from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997). Follow-up data were obtained from the third wave (HUNT 3, 2006-2008) of the same epidemiological study. The Norwegian Prescription Database (2004-2008) was used to link pharmacy prescription records of benzodiazepines for each case to the HUNT 2 and HUNT 3 materials. Use of benzodiazepines was associated with less life satisfaction and more sleep difficulties at follow-up. These tendencies increased by more frequent patterns of use. Benzodiazepine use had relatively weak relations to perceived general health, but intermittent and chronic use was related to higher anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Such patterns were also modestly related to somatic pain at follow-up. Benzodiazepines should be dispensed at a high-threshold policy among the elderly. By developing clear-cut discontinuation plans, clinicians could avoid chronic use and focus on psychosocial treatment for psychological disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hendricks, Peter S; Thorne, Christopher B; Clark, C Brendan; Coombs, David W; Johnson, Matthew W
Mental health problems are endemic across the globe, and suicide, a strong corollary of poor mental health, is a leading cause of death. Classic psychedelic use may occasion lasting improvements in mental health, but the effects of classic psychedelic use on suicidality are unknown. We evaluated the relationships of classic psychedelic use with psychological distress and suicidality among over 190,000 USA adult respondents pooled from the last five available years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2008-2012) while controlling for a range of covariates. Lifetime classic psychedelic use was associated with a significantly reduced odds of past month psychological distress (weighted odds ratio (OR)=0.81 (0.72-0.91)), past year suicidal thinking (weighted OR=0.86 (0.78-0.94)), past year suicidal planning (weighted OR=0.71 (0.54-0.94)), and past year suicide attempt (weighted OR=0.64 (0.46-0.89)), whereas lifetime illicit use of other drugs was largely associated with an increased likelihood of these outcomes. These findings indicate that classic psychedelics may hold promise in the prevention of suicide, supporting the view that classic psychedelics' most highly restricted legal status should be reconsidered to facilitate scientific study, and suggesting that more extensive clinical research with classic psychedelics is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.
Menendez, Mariano E; Baker, Dustin K; Oladeji, Lasun O; Fryberger, Charles T; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A
Shoulder disorders are a common cause of disability and pain. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a frequently employed and previously validated measure of shoulder pain and disability. Although the SPADI has high reliability and construct validity, greater differences between individual patients are often observed than would be expected on the basis of diagnosis and pathophysiology alone. This study aims to determine how psychological factors (namely depression, catastrophic thinking, and self-efficacy) affect pain and perceived disability in the shoulder. A cohort of 139 patients completed a sociodemographic survey and elements from the SPADI, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-2). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of psychosocial factors, demographic characteristics, and specific diagnosis with shoulder pain and disability. The SPADI score showed medium correlation with the PCS (r = 0.43; p 0.05) with the SPADI. Catastrophic thinking and decreased self-efficacy are associated with greater shoulder pain and disability. Our data support the notion that patient-to-patient variation in symptom intensity and magnitude of disability is more strongly related to psychological distress than to the specific shoulder diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
Kroll, Juliet L; Werchan, Chelsey A; Reeves, Audrey G; Bruemmer, Kevin J; Lippert, Alexander R; Ritz, Thomas
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter recently discovered after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide. Both NO and H2S are involved in multiple physiological functions. Whereas NO has been shown to vary with psychological stress, the influence of stress on H2S and the relationship between H2S and NO are unknown. We therefore examined levels of salivary H2S and NO in response to a stressful final academic exam period. Measurements of stress, negative affect, and fraction of exhaled NO (FENO), were obtained from students (N=16) and saliva was collected at three time points: low-stress period in the semester, early exam period, and late exam period. Saliva was immediately analyzed for H2S with the fluorescent probe Sulfidefluor-4. H2S increased significantly during the early exam period and FENO decreased gradually towards the late exam period. H2S, FENO, negative affect, and stress ratings were positively associated with each other: as stress level and negative affect increased, values of H2S increased; in addition, as FENO levels decreased, H2S also decreased. Asthma status did not modify these associations. Sustained academic stress increases H2S and these changes are correlated with NO and the experience of stress and negative affect. These findings motivate research with larger samples to further explore the interaction and function of H2S and FENO during psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulgrew, Kate E; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Hughes, Emily; Carter, Janet D; Kaye, Sherrie
We modified the Weight Control Behaviours scale to explore unhealthy/healthy behaviours to increase, decrease or maintain weight in young adults ( N = 1082) and associations with body mass index, depression and body image. Females reported more use of all strategies except those which increase body size or exercising to exhaustion. Although the sample reported more use of healthy weight management strategies, the use of dangerous ones warrants attention by healthcare professionals. Feelings of fatness was an important predictor of weight management behaviours. Public health campaigns should focus on the harmfulness of unhealthy weight management practices as well as the importance of healthy ones.
Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon
This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered.
López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Notario-Pérez, Ricardo; Del Corral, Tamara; Ramos-Díaz, Bernardo; Acuyo-Osorio, Mario; La Touche, Roy
Neck pain is one of the largest health problems in the military sector. To assess differences in the strength and endurance of the cervical muscles between military personnel with chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP) with higher level of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-K) and individuals with lower levels of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-NK). We used kinesiophobia as a classification method: (1) CNSNP-K and (2) CNSNP-NK. The variables measured were endurance and strength of cervical muscles; range of motion (ROM), disability, pain intensity and psychological factors. Eighty-three military personnel (26 CNSNP-K; 20 CNSNP-NK and 37 asymptomatic). Statistically significant differences in endurance and ROM were only found between the CNSNP-K group and the control group. In strength and disability differences were revealed between both symptomatic groups and the control group [CNSNP-K vs. control (flex-ext p < 0.001); CNSNP-NK vs. control (flex p = 0.003) and (ext p < 0.001)]. For psychological variables, the CNSNP-K group showed differences compared with the CNSNP-NK (pain catastrophizing, p = 0.007; anxiety and depression, p < 0.001) and with the asymptomatic group (pain catastrophizing, p = 0.008; anxiety and depression, p < 0.001). Military personnel with CNSNP-K have functional limitations and associated psychosocial factors compared with asymptomatic subjects, and showed greater associated psychological factors than CNSNP-NK group. Military personnel with CNSNP-NK only showed decreased strength with respect to those who were asymptomatic.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Sehwail, Mahmud A
A 2005 survey of 2,328 youth (ages 12 to 18) in the West Bank, Palestine, revealed an association between exposure to politically violent events, domestic violence, and school violence and with psychological symptomatology. Results also found associations between family violence, family economic status, and psychological symptomatology. Respondents reported low levels of family functioning. Data revealed some geographic variability in experiences of politically violent events, domestic violence, school violence, and psychological symptomatology. Implications for practice are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Rousselet, M; Guérineau, B; Paruit, M C; Guinot, M; Lise, S; Destrube, B; Ruffio-Thery, S; Dominguez, N; Brisseau-Gimenez, S; Dubois, V; Mora, C; Trolonge, S; Lambert, S; Grall-Bronnec, M; Prétagut, S
Over the last few years, disordered eating in athletes has received increasing attention. According to several studies, athletes could be more vulnerable to disordered eating and some characteristics specific to the athletic community could be in favour of an increased risk of poor body image and disturbed eating habits in athletes. However, the literature is sparse and some methodological issues in studies have been pointed out. In this context, we aimed at determining the prevalence of disordered eating in French high-level athletes using clinical interviews of three different clinicians and identifying what are the factors associated with disordered eating in athletes. In France, all athletes registered on the French high-level list have to undergo a yearly evaluation. Data collected during the somatic assessment, the dietary consultation, and the psychological of the yearly evaluation were used. Multivariate analysis was performed for identification of factors associated with disordered eating. Out of the 340 athletes included, 32.9% have been detected with a disordered eating. They were difficult to detect by clinicians, as usual criteria did not seem to be reliable for athletes. Competing in sports emphasizing leanness or low body weight was associated with disordered eating; however, gender was not. These results highlight the need for the development of specific screening tools for high-level athletes. Furthermore, the identification of factors associated with disordered eating could improve early detection and prevention program effectiveness.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, a 14-item self-administered rating scale developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, was used to assess the levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd. Statistical Analysis: The incidence of TMD level, malocclusion, anxiety, and depression in both genders was calculated as percentages. Association between TMD degree and occlusion, HADSa, and HADSd was tested using the Chi-square test. Results: According to our results, 50% of the subjects had TMD, but it was of moderate or severe degree in only 9.18% of them. No statistically significant association could be found between TMD and gender or occlusion. TMD was found to have statistically significant association with HADSa but not with HADSd. Conclusion : A high prevalence of TMD was found in this student population; however, most of the cases could be classified as mild. Of the variables studied, only HADSa had a statistically significant association with TMD.
Zamani Sani SH
Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults
Pajević, Izet; Sinanović, Osman; Hasanović, Mevludin
To compare the outcomes among war veterans who pray/do not pray and who were not suffering mental disorders after the Bosnia-Herzegovina war (1992-95). The sample consists of 100 healthy Bosnian war veterans divided in two equal groups-one, a highly religious group inside which were individuals who perform five obligatory prayers every day, and another group of individuals who do not practice any daily prayer. We used Minnesota Multiphase Personal Inventory (MMPI), Profile Index of Emotions (PIE) and Life Style Questionnaire (LSQ). War veterans who prayed had significantly higher levels for: incorporation, self-protection, and for reactive formation; but significantly lower levels for regression, compensation, transfer, no-controlling, oppositional and aggressiveness than their peers who did not pray. Practicing religion (regular performing daily prayers) is associated with reduction of tendencies towards the tendency for risk, impulsiveness, and aggression. It is also associated with successful overcoming of emotional conflicts in war veterans who practiced religion than their peers who did not practice religion.
Full Text Available This data archive includes Race Implicit Association Test (IAT scores of 2,355,303 Internet volunteers who completed educational/demonstration versions of the Race IAT at https://implicit.harvard.edu from 2002 to 2012. Data in this archive can be downloaded for all years, either separately by year or in a single file. Codebooks, indicating the variable labels and value labels, and changes of variables over years, are available for both individual-year data sets and the entire data set. Participation in the (still on-going Race IAT “study” at the Project Implicit (PI demonstration site includes completion of the Race IAT along with demographic questions, self-report measures of racial attitude, and various additional measures received by a portion of the participants. These data allow analyses involving changes in responding over time and interrelations among IAT and self-report measures of race attitudes, as well as the association of each of these with demographics. This archive is available at http://osf.io/project/52qxL/. Dataset The Data described in this paper is available from the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/52qxl/ [1
Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah
Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m2, respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm3), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.
Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Reynolds, Robert
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other same-sex attracted young people have been shown to be at a higher risk of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, suicidality, and substance abuse, compared to their heterosexual peers. Homophobic prejudice and stigma are often thought to underlie these disparities. In this study, the relationship between such experiences of social derogation and mental health and substance use in same-sex attracted young people was examined using Meyer's minority stress theory. An online survey recruited 254 young women and 318 young men who identified as same-sex attracted, were aged 18-25 years, and lived in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that internalized homophobia, perceived stigma, and experienced homophobic physical abuse were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and self-reported suicidal thoughts in the previous month. Furthermore, perceived stigma and homophobic physical abuse were associated with reporting a lifetime suicide attempt. The association between minority stress and substance use was inconsistent. While, as expected, higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with club drug dependence, there was an inverse association between internalized homophobia and club drug use, and between perceived stigma and hazardous alcohol use. The findings of this study provide support for the minority stress theory proposition that chronic social stress due to sexual orientation is associated with poorer mental health. The high rates of mental health and substance use problems in the current study suggest that same-sex attracted young people should continue to be a priority population for mental health and substance use intervention and prevention.
Full Text Available Self-compassion is defined by Neff as approaching to the self without judgment, criticism or punishment, sharing the stressful experiences with other people without isolation and holding the painful emotions and thoughts in mindful awareness without over identification. The studies showed that self-compassion has positive relationship with psychological well-being; has negative relationships with depression, anxiety, eating disorders, trauma and other psychological problems. Also, the findings from psychotherapy studies that try to strength self-compassion attracted a great deal of attention. The main aims of this article were reviewing the self-compassion concept toward the literature, summarizing the empirical findings in the context of self-compassion and discussing the usage of self-compassion in psychotherapy.
Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L
To describe the predictive relationships of selected sociodemographic, biomedical, and psychosocial variables to reluctance to use insulin among patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 178 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this cross-sectional, observational study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated measures of diabetes attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, care communication, and perceived barriers to treatment, as well as sociodemographic and biomedical data. Women and ethnic minorities with type 2 diabetes have more psychological barriers to insulin treatment (P self-efficacy, and had better interpersonal processes with their healthcare providers were less reluctant to use insulin treatment (R(2) = 0.403; P self-efficacy and better interaction with clinicians were important in decreasing patients' reluctance to use insulin, known as psychological insulin resistance.
Jiro Takaki; Yuri Hibino
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related ...
Oladunni Oluwoye; Salam Khan; Jacob Oluwoye; Russell J. Fricano; Earl M. Gooding; Joan Fobbs-Wilson; Jitendra Kapoor
This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consi...
Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Che Din, Normah; Ong, Hui Chien
Norhayati Ibrahim, Noh Amit, Normah Che Din, Hui Chien Ong Health Psychology Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Suicide is a global phenomenon that has been showing an upward trend in recent years. It is the second leading cause of death among youth. Studies on suicidal ideation warrant greater attention, as it leads to suicide attempts and other health risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare ...
Leung, Janni; Gartner, Coral; Dobson, Annette; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne
To investigate the association between levels of psychological distress and smoking and quitting behaviours. Data were from two large Australian national household surveys of individuals over 20 years of age. Level of psychological distress was measured by the Kessler 10 scale. Tobacco smoking measures included current smoking status (never, former, current); ex-smokers' time since quitting; current smokers' abstinent period in the last 12 months, cigarettes smoked per day, reasons for smoking, and self-report of factors that would motivate quitting; and self-report of factors that motivated smokers to quit in the last 12 months. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between smoking behaviours and psychological distress, while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Current smokers, especially those who smoke more cigarettes per day and those who report less success at quitting or reducing smoking, had higher levels of psychological distress. Ex-smokers were also more likely to experience psychological distress than those who never smoked, but the association weakened with more years since quitting. Current smokers with psychological distress were just as, or more likely, to report planning to quit as those without psychological distress. Smokers who did not plan to quit due to addiction, past failure at quitting, and using smoking for relaxation or to deal with stress were more likely to report psychological distress than those who did not report these reasons. Current smoking and unsuccessful quit attempts in the Australian community were strongly associated with symptoms of psychological distress. Quitting aspirations and influence from general public health interventions were not associated with the smokers' level of psychological distress.
Gustafsson, Maria; Sandman, Per-Olof; Karlsson, Stig; Gustafson, Yngve; Lövheim, Hugo
Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common among cognitively impaired individuals and psychotropic drugs are widely used for their treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings. The study comprised 2,019 cognitively impaired people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale. Of the study population, 1,442 individuals (71%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug (antidepressants (49%), anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (36%), antipsychotics (25%)). Furthermore, 363 individuals (18%) received anti-dementia drugs. Associations between various behavioral and psychological symptoms were found for all psychotropic drug classes and anti-dementia drugs. Verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior was associated with all psychotropic drugs. Use of antipsychotics was associated with several behavioral and psychological symptoms, including aggressive behavior. The associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use found in this study indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals despite limited evidence of their efficacy. Given the significant risk of adverse effects among old people with cognitive impairment, it is important to ensure that any medication used is both appropriate and safe.
Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Umeda, Maki
The majority of studies on the role of psychological resources linking childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult health have been conducted in Western countries. Empirical evidence for mediation effects of psychological resources is currently lacking in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of psychological resources (mastery and sense of coherence [SOC]) on the association between childhood SES and current health. Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (1,497 men and 1,764 women) from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood Study (J-SHINE) in Tokyo. Psychological resources (mastery and SOC), childhood SES (parents' education and perceived childhood SES), and current health of adults (psychological distress measured by K6 and self-rated health) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Mastery and SOC significantly and independently mediated the association between childhood SES and current health in the total sample after adjusting for age, gender, and respondent education, regardless of type of SES or health outcome indicators. Similar mediation effects were observed for both men and women. A few gender differences were observed; specifically, SOC significantly mediated the association between parents' education and current health only among women, and it mediated the association between perceived childhood SES and current health only among men. Overall, the findings underscore the importance of the mediating role of psychological resources in the association between childhood SES and current health.
Morgan, M J; McFie, L; Fleetwood, H; Robinson, J A
Chronic, regular recreational use of ecstasy (MDMA) is associated with psychopathology, elevated behavioural impulsivity and persistent impairment of memory performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate which of these sequelae persist after at least 6 months of abstinence from ecstasy. Four groups of participants were compared: 18 current regular recreational ecstasy users, 15 ex-regular ecstasy users who had abstained from using the drug for an average of 2 years, 16 polydrug users who had never taken ecstasy and 15 drug-naive controls. There were no significant group differences in age, education level, or pre-morbid intelligence and, generally, the use of illicit drugs other than ecstasy was not significantly different among the three drug-using groups. Both current and ex-ecstasy users exhibited elevated psychopathology and behavioural impulsivity compared with polydrug users and drug-naive controls, but current ecstasy users exhibited a broader range of psychopathology than ex-users. Both groups of ecstasy users also exhibited impaired working memory and verbal recall performance compared with drug-naive controls, but only ex-users exhibited impaired verbal recall relative to polydrug users. Regression analysis indicated that psychopathology was primarily predicted by the extent of previous consumption of cannabis rather than ecstasy, whereas the majority of the cognitive deficits were only predicted by the extent of previous ecstasy use. Selective impairments of neuropsychological performance associated with regular ecstasy use are not reversed by prolonged abstinence. This is consistent with evidence that ecstasy has potent and selective neurotoxic effects on brain serotonergic systems in humans.
Chester, Rachel; Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Lewis, Jeremy; Shepstone, Lee
Shoulder pain is a major musculoskeletal problem. We aimed to identify which baseline patient and clinical characteristics are associated with a better outcome, 6 weeks and 6 months after starting a course of physiotherapy for shoulder pain. 1030 patients aged ≥18 years referred to physiotherapy for the management of musculoskeletal shoulder pain were recruited and provided baseline data. 840 (82%) provided outcome data at 6 weeks and 811 (79%) at 6 months. 71 putative prognostic factors were collected at baseline. Outcomes were the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse prognostic factors associated with outcome. Parameter estimates (β) are presented for the untransformed SPADI at 6 months, a negative value indicating less pain and disability. 4 factors were associated with better outcomes for both measures and time points: lower baseline disability (β=-0.32, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.40), patient expectation of 'complete recovery' compared to 'slight improvement' as 'a result of physiotherapy' (β=-12.43, 95% CI -8.20 to -16.67), higher pain self-efficacy (β=-0.36, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.22) and lower pain severity at rest (β=-1.89, 95% CI -1.26 to -2.51). Psychological factors were consistently associated with patient-rated outcome, whereas clinical examination findings associated with a specific structural diagnosis were not. When assessing people with musculoskeletal shoulder pain and considering referral to physiotherapy services, psychosocial and medical information should be considered. Protocol published at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/14/192. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bártolo, Ana; Reis, Salomé; Monteiro, Sara; Leite, Renata; Montenegro, Nuno
The difficulties in the psychological adaptation to the infertility diagnosis and assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments have shown influence on the sperm quality. The biological and psychological aspects of infertility seem not to be independent. To analyze the impact of depressive symptoms, anxiety, dyadic adjustment and infertility stress on the sperm quality of the men proposed to ART first or repeated experience. This transversal study was conducted in the Medically Assisted Reproduction Unit of Centro Hospitalar de São João, in Porto, Portugal. 112 men with infertility diagnosis were included to initiate an ART cycle. Participants completed the Inventory State-Trait Anxiety-Form Y (STAI-Y), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Inventory of Fertility Problems (IFP) before the beginning of the treatment. The state-anxiety had a negative linear impact on the slow progressive motility (ppsychological interventions adjusted, so as to minimize the impact of exposure to ART treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fukunishi, Isao; Sugawara, Yasutoshi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Surman, Owen S
The authors examined pretransplant assessment in order to predict posttransplant occurrence of psychiatric disorders in living-related transplantation (LRT). Before LRT, the authors administered the Integrated House-Tree-Person Drawing Test (I-HTP) and 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to 31 donor-recipient pairs undergoing living-related liver transplantation (LRLT) and 65 pairs undergoing living-related kidney transplantation (LRKT). After LRT, the authors examined the occurrence of psychiatric disorders for the recipients and donors. Pretransplant, two psychological indicators,-alexithymia, a lack of verbalized emotion and abnormal projective drawings such as truncated tree representation-were significantly related to the manifestation of paradoxical psychiatric syndrome (PPS) in LRLT and LRKT. The occurrence of PPS was significantly related to recipients' guilt feelings toward living donors, but these were strongly superseded by recipients' desires to escape from approaching death just before LRT. These results suggest that pretransplant psychological assessment is useful for predicting posttransplant occurrence of psychiatric disorders.
Taylor, Ronald D
Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Em, Serda; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Caglayan, Mehmet; Ceylan Cevik, Figen; Kaya, Cemal; Oktayoglu, Pelin; Nas, Kemal
Stroke does not only affect the physical state of patients but also the emotional state of their relatives, most effectively their caregivers. The study aims to examine the mood of caregivers experienced with care for patients with stroke who are highly dependent on the assistance and also to establish the relationship between the emotional state of caregivers and the severity of disability of the patients. This study contained a total of 76 patients with sufficient cognitive functions and severe physical disabilities with hemiplegia caused by a cerebrovascular accident and their caregivers and 94 controls. The functional state of patients was assessed by the Barthel Index (BI). Furthermore, emotional state of the caregivers was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and their life quality was assessed by the SF36 Health Survey. The mean anxiety (9.73 ± 4.88) and depression rates (9.81 ± 5.05) in the caregivers were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.001, respectively). Significant impairments were observed in both their mental and physical health. Regression analysis also showed a significant negative correlation between the BI scores and the HADS scores. Caregivers had an impaired emotional state and the level of their anxiety was associated with the severity of functional disability of the patients. Therefore, the support provided to the caregiver might be influential on the functional recovery of the patients.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and stress among postpartum Arab mothers of preterm or low birth weight (LBW infants and to identify maternal characteristics that can predict psychological distress among mothers of preterm infants. Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted. A representative sample of 2,091 postpartum mothers was surveyed and 1,659 women (79.3% gave their consent to participate in the study. The study was based on a face-to-face interview with a designed questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, medical history, and maternal characteristics. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: In the study sample, 10.2% of the postpartum mothers had preterm/LBW infants. Depression (29.4 vs. 17.3% and anxiety (26.5 vs. 11.6% were significantly more common among mothers of preterm births compared to mothers of full term infants (p < 0.001. The risk of depression in mothers of preterm/LBW infants was two times the risk in mothers of full term infants, while the risk of anxiety was 2.7 times in mothers of preterm/LBW infants than in mothers of full term infants. Young mothers and those who had less than secondary education (42.0 vs. 21.7%; p = 0.007 and lower monthly household income (72.0 vs. 53.3%; p = 0.024 were more depressed and anxious after the preterm birth when compared with mothers of full term infants. Psychological distress was higher in mothers with history of preterm birth (30.0 vs. 21.7% and delivery complications (52.0 vs. 33.3%. Conclusions: We found a greater risk of depression and anxiety in mothers of preterm births than in mothers of full term infants. Our analysis revealed that depressed and anxious women of preterm infants were younger, less educated, had a lower body weight and low household income than non-depressed and non
Mathieu, Sasha; Dorard, Géraldine
Vegetarianism is a food consumption pattern. Vegetarianism, at large, includes several diets depending on exclusion's degree (partial or total) of animal products (meat or dairy). Among them we distinguish, according to the restriction order, flexitarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, vegan food, raw food and fruit diets. These three last modes can extend to a lifestyle called veganism, which is defined as the lack of use of animal products in daily life (cosmetics, clothing, materials, etc.). This diversity can be explained by individual, psychological and motivational characteristics. Main reasons reported by individuals who have undertaken this feeding method are health and ethics. We observe differences in behaviors, attitudes and reactions about animals, disgust and justification of each diet vs. others' diets especially the omnivorous diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Attfield, Kathleen R; Dobson, Christine B; Henn, Jennifer B; Acosta, Meileen; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Wilken, Jason A; Barreau, Tracy; Schreiber, Merritt; Windham, Gayle C; Materna, Barbara L; Roisman, Rachel
On August 24, 2014, at 3:20 a.m., a magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck California, with its epicenter in Napa County (1). The earthquake was the largest to affect the San Francisco Bay area in 25 years and caused significant damage in Napa and Solano counties, including widespread power outages, five residential fires, and damage to roadways, waterlines, and 1,600 buildings (2). Two deaths resulted (2). On August 25, Napa County Public Health asked the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) for assistance in assessing postdisaster health effects, including earthquake-related injuries and effects on mental health. On September 23, Solano County Public Health requested similar assistance. A household-level Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) was conducted for these counties in two cities (Napa, 3 weeks after the earthquake, and Vallejo, 6 weeks after the earthquake). Among households reporting injuries, a substantial proportion (48% in Napa and 37% in western Vallejo) reported that the injuries occurred during the cleanup period, suggesting that increased messaging on safety precautions after a disaster might be needed. One fifth of respondents overall (27% in Napa and 9% in western Vallejo) reported one or more traumatic psychological exposures in their households. These findings were used by Napa County Mental Health to guide immediate-term mental health resource allocations and to conduct public training sessions and education campaigns to support persons with mental health risks following the earthquake. In addition, to promote community resilience and future earthquake preparedness, Napa County Public Health subsequently conducted community events on the earthquake anniversary and provided outreach workers with psychological first aid training.
Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José
We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.
Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Greenberg, Neil
The psychological impact of disasters has been well-documented; less attention has been paid to factors affecting the wellbeing of those exposed to disasters as occupational groups. To conduct a systematic literature review identifying social and occupational factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster-exposed employees; to use these factors to identify recommendations for potential interventions. Four electronic literature databases were searched; reference lists of relevant papers were hand-searched. A total of 18 005 papers were found, 571 full texts were read and 36 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on employees was associated with pre-disaster factors (experience/training; income; life events/health; job satisfaction), peri-disaster factors (exposure; peri-traumatic experiences; perceptions of safety; injury), social factors (organisational support; social support generally) and post-disaster factors (impact on life). It is important to build a resilient workforce outside of a crisis. Pre-disaster training in recognising signs of distress, understanding vulnerability factors such as those described above, which may put certain employees at greater risk of distress and how to support colleagues may be useful. Further research into the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions is needed.
Gladys Merma Molina
Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.
African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434
Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo
-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive...... distress in this patient group. Methods Women with breast cancer (n = 833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3 years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non...
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E
Approximately 18% of US adolescents engaged in prescription opioid abuse in 2013. However, this estimate may be misleading because it includes both medical misusers and nonmedical users, and there is evidence that these are 2 groups that differ relative to substance abuse and criminal risk. Thus, this study does not combine medical and nonmedical users; rather, it seeks to better understand the characteristics of nonmedical users. This was a school-based, cross-sectional study that was conducted during 2009-2010 in southeastern Michigan with a sample of 2627 adolescents using a Web-based survey. Three mutually exclusive groups were created based on responses regarding medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. Group 1 had never used an opioid analgesic, Group 2 used an opioid analgesic only as prescribed, and Group 3 nonmedically used an opioid analgesic. In addition, Group 3 was divided into 2 mutually exclusive subgroups (self-treaters and sensation-seekers) based on reasons for nonmedical use. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine if the groups differed on the presence of pain, psychological symptoms (e.g., affective disorder, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), and drug abuse. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) of the sample was white/Caucasian and 29.5% was African American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.9). Seventy percent (70.4%; n = 1850) reported no lifetime opioid use, 24.5% (n = 644) were medical users, 3.5% (n = 92) were nonmedical users who used for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n = 41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g., to get high). Both medical users and nonmedical users reported more pain and substance abuse symptoms compared with never users. Those nonmedical users who used opioids for sensation-seeking motivations had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. These data support the need to further consider subgroups of
Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele
We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.
Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. Methods. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Results. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post–September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post–September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusions. Perceived post–September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans. PMID:20019301
Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Muñoz Vega, P; Espada, S; Bartolomé Alberca, S; Aguirre, J; Peral, D
Stroke has a complex aetiopathogenesis influenced by numerous risk factors. There is growing interest in the study of the pathophysiological changes associated with stress and their potential relationship with cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the strength of association between exposure to stress and stroke. We conducted a case-control study (1:1) to compare exposure to stress in a group of patients with a history of a first transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke and in a control group. Participants were asked a subjective question about their perception of stress in the previous months and completed the standardised Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. The study included data on 50 cases and 50 controls. There were no significant differences in demographic variables and economic, social, and employment status between cases and controls. Fifty percent of the cases reported moderate to severe stress, compared to 30% of controls (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.02-5.30; P=.041). ERI questionnaire results found that greater effort at work (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19-1.83) and greater commitment is associated with stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17-1.54), while higher reward constitutes a protective factor against the disease (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61-0.82). There is a strong association between self-perceived psychological stress and TIA. The imbalance between effort and reward at work is also clearly related to TIA. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu; McAloney, Kerrie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Frank, Josef; Hansell, Narelle K; Wright, Margaret J; McGrath, John J; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Martin, Nicholas G
Measuring cortisol in hair is a promising method to assess long-term alterations of the biological stress response system, and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) may be altered in psychiatric disorders and in subjects suffering from chronic stress. However, the pattern of associations between HCC, chronic stress and mental health require clarification. Our exploratory study: (1) assessed the association between HCC and perceived stress, symptoms of depression and neuroticism, and the trait extraversion (as a control variable); and (2) made use of the twin design to estimate the genetic and environmental covariance between the variables of interest. Hair samples from 109 (74 female) subjects (age range 12-21 years, mean 15.1) including 8 monozygotic (MZ) and 21 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were analyzed. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale and/or the Daily Life and Stressors Scale, neuroticism, and extraversion with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory or the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. We found a modest positive association between HCC and the three risk factors - perceived stress, symptoms of depression, and neuroticism (r = 0.22-0.33) - but no correlation with extraversion (-0.06). A median split revealed that the associations between HCC and risk factors were stronger (0.47-0.60) in those subjects with HCC >11.36 pg/mg. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic effects underlying HCC are largely shared with those that influence perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. These results of our proof of principle study warrant replication in a bigger sample but raise the interesting question of the direction of causation between these variables.
Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araújo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane
Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized that participants with higher trait anxiety would show blunted reactivity during the performance of an overwhelmingly difficult and stressful task. Participants (N = 50) delivered a speech and performed an arithmetic task in the presence of critical evaluators. Cortisol samples and electrocardiogram data were collected. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Military Peace Force Stressor Inventory. For heart rate, the findings showed that peacekeepers with higher trait anxiety reacted less to the speech task (p = 0.03) and to the arithmetic task (p = 0.008) than those with lower trait anxiety. Trait anxiety did not modulate cortisol responses to the task. Despite the high trait anxiety group having higher PCL-C scores than the low trait anxiety group (p anxiety had less tachycardia in response to acute psychological stress than those with lower trait anxiety. The present results point to a higher risk for more anxious individuals of a maladaptive reaction to stressful events.
Testoni, Ines; Sansonetto, Giulia; Ronconi, Lucia; Rodelli, Maddalena; Baracco, Gloria; Grassi, Luigi
This paper presents a two-phase cross-sectional study aimed at examining the possible mitigating role of perceived meaning of life and representation of death on psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. The first phase involved 219 healthy participants, while the second encompassed 30 cancer patients. Each participant completed the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP), the Testoni Death Representation Scale (TDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Distress Thermometer (DT). The primary analyses comprised (1) correlation analyses between the overall scores of each of the instruments and (2) path analysis to assess the indirect effect of the PMP on DT score through anxiety and depression as determined by the HADS. The path analysis showed that the PMP was inversely correlated with depression and anxiety, which, in turn, mediated the effect on distress. Inverse correlations were found between several dimensions of the PMP, the DT, and the HADS-Anxiety and HADS-Depression subscales, in both healthy participants and cancer patients. Religious orientation (faith in God) was related to a stronger sense of meaning in life and the ontological representation of death as a passage, rather than annihilation. Our findings support the hypothesis that participants who represent death as a passage and have a strong perception of the meaning of life tend to report lower levels of distress, anxiety, and depression. We recommend that perceived meaning of life and representation of death be more specifically examined in the cancer and palliative care settings.
Full Text Available Norhayati Ibrahim, Noh Amit, Normah Che Din, Hui Chien Ong Health Psychology Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Suicide is a global phenomenon that has been showing an upward trend in recent years. It is the second leading cause of death among youth. Studies on suicidal ideation warrant greater attention, as it leads to suicide attempts and other health risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare gender differences in suicidal ideation and determine the predictors of suicidal ideation among youth. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 232 youths aged between 15 and 25 years from selected urban areas in Malaysia. The results showed that suicidal ideation was higher among male participants compared with female participants. Age was the predictor of suicidal ideation for males, while depression and loss of motivation, as components of hopelessness, were the predictors of suicidal ideation among females. Hence, it is important that professionals conduct early identification tests for suicidality among young people. This will facilitate the early detection of depression and hopelessness, which is important, in order to prevent suicidal behaviors or other problems before these occur. Keywords: suicidal ideation, youth, depression, hopelessness, gender
Beck, Alison; Burdett, Mark; Lewis, Helen
To investigate the impact of waiting for psychological therapy on client well-being as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) global distress (GD) score. Global distress scores were retrieved for all clients referred for psychological therapy in a secondary care mental health service between November 2006 and May 2013 and who had completed a CORE-OM at assessment and first session. GD scores for a subgroup of 103 clients who had completed a CORE-OM during the last therapy session were also reviewed. The study sample experienced a median wait of 41.14 weeks between assessment and first session. The relationship between wait time from referral acceptance to assessment, and assessment GD score was not significant. During the period between assessment and first session no significant difference in GD score was observed. Nevertheless 29.1% of the sample experienced reliable change; 16.0% of clients reliably improved and 13.1% reliably deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy. Demographic factors were not found to have a significant effect on the change in GD score between assessment and first session. Waiting time was associated with post-therapy outcomes but not to a degree which was meaningful. The majority of individuals (54.4%), regardless of whether they improved or deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy, showed reliable improvement at end of therapy as measured by the CORE-OM. The majority of GD scores remained stable while waiting for therapy; however, 29.1% of secondary care clients experienced either reliable improvement or deterioration. Irrespective of whether they improved, deteriorated or remained unchanged whilst waiting for therapy, most individuals who had a complete end of therapy assessment showed reliable improvements following therapy. There was no significant difference in GD score between assessment and first session recordings. A proportion of clients (29.1%) showed reliable change, either improvement or
Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunities for face-to-face communication with patients is increasing in modern hospital pharmacist practice. This may impose new burdens on hospital pharmacists. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence of psychological distress, burnout, and compassion fatigue among hospital pharmacists. We also investigated possible relevant factors, such as sex, years of experience, hospital size, interpersonal work hours, and personality traits related to communication. Methods We mailed self-administered questionnaires to all pharmacists (n = 823 belonging to the prefectural society of hospital pharmacists in Japan. The questionnaires were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Burnout (BO and Compassion Fatigue and Secondary Traumatic Stress (CF/STS subscales of the Professional Quality of Life Scale, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, and the Adult ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS. We examined associations between personality traits (AQ, ASRS and psychological burden (GHQ-12, BO, CF/STS using rank ANCOVA or multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Complete responses were obtained from 380 pharmacists (46.2 % response rate. A substantial number of participants obtained scores that were higher than the cutoff points of the GHQ-12 (54.7 %, BO (49.2 %, and CF/STS (29.2 %. The GHQ-12 scores were negatively affected by years of experience (p < 0.001, and positively affected by AQ (p < 0.001 and ASRS (p < 0.001 scores. The BO scores was positively affected by AQ (p < 0.001 and ASRS (p = 0.001 scores, while the CF/STS (p = 0.023 score was negatively affected by years of experience, and positively affected by AQ (p < 0.001 and ASRS (p < 0.001 scores. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of psychological distress and work-related burnout/CF among hospital pharmacists. Additionally, two common personality traits, such as autistic-like traits and ADHD-like symptoms
Saso, Srdjan; Clarke, Alex; Bracewell-Milnes, Timothy; Saso, Anja; Al-Memar, Maya; Thum, Meen-Yau; Yazbek, Joseph; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Hardiman, Paul; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J Richard
Uterine transplantation (UTx). To explore patients' knowledge of and attitudes toward UTx before and after a short educational intervention via a video and question and answer (Q&A) session. Large, in-depth survey investigating patients' motivations, aims, and beliefs on UTx. Imperial College London. Women diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) who were seeking information on UTx and had already volunteered to participate in the study. A semistructured interview involving a brief baseline questionnaire before a Q&A session and a 20-minute video exploring the main risks and benefits for UTx. Attitudes of self-referred patients with AUFI toward UTx before and after education focusing on UTx. Rank order of importance of key UTx-related issues. Forty women were interviewed. Following the video presentation and Q&A session, 97.5% (n = 39) would undergo UTx ahead of surrogacy and adoption in full knowledge that the latter 2 options would be ultimately safer for their own well-being and the fact that the graft could fail even prior to conception. All felt that UTx should take place, and 92.5% saw UTx as achievable. The study demonstrates a keen interest in UTx, partly because other options seem difficult to access. It is worth noting that people appear to be distancing themselves from the risk. This requires careful assessment in any clinical program. This study is the first to demonstrate a qualitative relationship between patients with AUFI and their curiosity and desire for UTx. It paves the way for forming the introduction into the psychological assessment of a potential patient. © 2016, NATCO.
Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V
A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Fernández-Muñoz, J J; Morón-Verdasco, A; Cigarán-Méndez, M; Muñoz-Hellín, E; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, M; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C
To examine the associations between function, quality of life, personality, cognitive and psychological outcomes with fatigue in patients with MS. One hundred and eight patients (54% women) with definite MS participated. MS-related fatigue was assessed with the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS). Demographic and clinical data (weight, height, medication and history of pain), specific disease outcomes (Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis/FAMS), general disease outcomes (Beck Depression Inventory/BDI-II, and Short-Form Health Survey 36/SF-36) and personality (NEO Five-Factor Inventory/NEOFFI) were assessed. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to determine associations between variables. A significant positive correlation existed between the FIS and EDSS (r=0.190; Ppersonality (NEOFFI neuroticism: r=-0.39, P<0.01; agreeableness: r=-0.206, P<0.05; conscientiousness: r=-0.279, P<0.01) were also observed. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that FAMS thinking/fatigue, physical function (SF-36) and FAMS emotional well-being explained 62.5% of the variance in fatigue (r2=0.652; r2 adjusted=0.625; F=23.774; P<0.001). This study indicates that MS-related fatigue shows an impact on physical, cognitive and emotional aspects in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wardecker, Britney M; Edelstein, Robin S; Quas, Jodi A; Cordon, Ingrid M; Goodman, Gail S
Traumatized individuals are often encouraged to confront their experiences by talking or writing about them. However, survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) might find it especially difficult to process abuse experiences, particularly when the abuse is more severe, which could put them at greater risk for mental health problems. The current study examined whether CSA survivors who use emotion language when describing their abuse experiences exhibit better mental health. We analyzed the trauma narratives of 55 adults who, as children, were part of a larger study of the long-term emotional effects of criminal prosecutions on CSA survivors. Abuse narratives were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. We examined whether positive and negative emotion language in participants' abuse narratives were associated with self- and caregiver-reported mental health symptoms and whether these associations differed according to the severity of the abuse. As hypothesized, participants who used more positive and negative emotion language had better psychological outcomes, especially when the abuse was severe. Our findings suggest that survivors of more severe abuse might benefit from including emotion language, whether positive or negative in valence, when describing the abuse.
Sharpley, Christopher F; Christie, David R H; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Andronicos, Nicholas M; McMillan, Mary E; Richards, Timothy M
To investigate the effect of chronic stress as measured in cortisol concentrations upon the association between psychological resilience (PR) and depression in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. A total of 104 men with PCa completed inventories on PR, depression, and background factors, plus gave a sample of their saliva for cortisol assay. The inverse correlation between PR and depression was present only for PCa patients with low or moderate concentrations of salivary cortisol (when classified as more than 1.0 SD below the mean vs within 1.0 SD of the group mean) but not for those men whose cortisol was >1.0 SD from the group mean. Specific PR factors and behaviours that made the greatest contribution to depression were identified for the low and moderate cortisol groups. These results suggest that there are particular aspects of PR that are most strongly related to depression, but that PR's inverse association with depression may be absent in participants with extreme chronic physiological stress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units
Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.
Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Wright, Rosalind J.
Objectives. We examined the association between psychological abuse in a current relationship and current cigarette smoking among women, with and without the co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse. Methods. Women’s experience of psychological abuse, experience of physical or sexual abuse, and smoking status were ascertained through a survey of female nurses. A score of 20 or more on the Women’s Experience With Battering scale defined psychological abuse. We used logistic regression to predict current smoking, adjusting for demographic and social covariates. Analyses included women in a current relationship (n=54200). Results. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that women experiencing only psychological abuse alone were 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13%, 57%) more likely to smoke than nonabused women. Compared with nonabused women, psychologically abused women’s risk of smoking was greater if they reported a single co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; 95% CI=1.3, 1.8) or multiple co-occurrences (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.7, 2.3). Conclusions. Psychological abuse in a current relationship was associated with an increased risk of smoking in this cohort of largely White, well-educated, and employed women. The co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse enhanced that risk. Further research is needed to see if these associations hold for other groups. PMID:17600272
Lansakara, Nirosha; Wickramasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Seneviratne, Harshalal Rukka
Primary infertility may have a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of women. In the present study, the authors investigated the psychological well-being and its correlates among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were compared with 177 fertile women matched for age and duration of marriage to identify differences in the psychological well-being between the two groups. They were recruited from a prevalence survey conducted in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka from August 2005 to February 2006. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) and Mental Health sub-components of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used to measure psychological well-being. In addition, infertile women with and without psychological distress were compared to identify the social, marital, treatment, and demographic factors independently associated with psychological distress. A significantly higher proportion of women with primary infertility (66.1%; 95% CI 58.6-73.0%) had psychological distress as compared to fertile women (18.6 %; 95% CI 13.2-25.2%; P infertile women who were psychologically distressed were significantly less educated (OR = 55.3; 95% CI 15.2-201.0), had poor marital communication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.8), had a higher priority for having children (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.3-13.8), and had been previously (OR = 39.1; 95% CI 8.3-185.4) or currently (OR = 11.0; 95% CI 3.0-40.6) investigated/treated for infertility when compared with infertile women without distress. Women with primary infertility reported more distress as compared to fertile women. Psychological distress among infertile women was associated with poorer education, being previously/currently investigated/treated, placing higher importance on having children, and having poor marital communication. The need for psychological intervention targeting infertile women in clinics and community settings is highlighted.
Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E.; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.
Background Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Methods and Findings Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th–12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. Conclusions TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for
Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.
Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D
Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts.
Rabey, Martin; Smith, Anne; Beales, Darren; Slater, Helen; O'Sullivan, Peter
To explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n=294) based upon data from multiple psychological questionnaires, and profile subgroups on data from multiple dimensions. Psychological questionnaires considered as indicator variables entered into latent class analysis included: Depression, Anxiety, Stress scales, Thought Suppression and Behavioural Endurance subscales (Avoidance Endurance questionnaire), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (short-form), Pain Catastrophising Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Multidimensional profiling of derived clusters included: demographics, pain characteristics, pain responses to movement, behaviors associated with pain, body perception, pain sensitivity, and health and lifestyle factors. Three clusters were derived. Cluster 1 (23.5%) was characterized by low Cognitive and Affective Questionnaire scores, with the exception of fear-avoidance beliefs. Cluster 2 (58.8%) was characterized by relatively elevated thought suppression, catastrophizing, and fear-avoidance beliefs, but lower pain self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and stress. Cluster 3 (17.7%) had the highest scores across cognitive and affective questionnaires.Cluster 1 reported significantly lower pain intensity and bothersomeness than other clusters. Disability, stressful life events, and low back region perceptual distortion increased progressively from cluster 1 to cluster 3, whereas mindfulness progressively decreased. Clusters 2 and 3 had more people with an increase in pain following repeated forward and backward spinal bending, and more people with increasing pain following bending, than cluster 1. Cluster 3 had significantly greater lumbar pressure pain sensitivity, more undiagnosed comorbid symptoms, and more widespread pain than other clusters. Clinical implications relating to presentations of each cluster are postulated.
Fan, Ni; Xu, Ke; Ning, Yuping; Wang, Daping; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Sun, Bin; Zhou, Chao; Deng, Xuefeng; Rosenheck, Robert; He, Hongbo
Ketamine is an increasingly popular drug of abuse in China but there is currently no method for classifying the psychological effects of ketamine in individuals with ketamine dependence. Develop a scale that characterizes the acute and long-term psychological effects of ketamine use among persons with ketamine dependence. We developed a preliminary symptom checklist with 35 dichotomous ('yes' or 'no') items about subjective feelings immediately after ketamine use and about perceived long-term effects of ketamine use that was administered to 187 inpatients with ketamine dependence recruited from two large hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a randomly selected half of thesample to reduce the items and to identify underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the second half of the sample to assess the robustness of the identified factor structure. Among the 35 symptoms, the most-reported acute effects were 'floating or circling' (94%), 'euphoric when listening to rousing music' (86%), and 'feeling excited, talkative, and full of energy' (67%). The mostreported long-term symptoms were 'memory impairment' (93%), 'personality changes' (86%), and 'slowed reactions' (81%). EFA resulted in a final 22-item scale best modelled by a four-factor model: two factors representing chronic symptoms (social withdrawal and sleep disturbances), one about acute psychoticlike symptoms, and one that combined acute drug-related euphoria and longer-term decreased libido. CFA showed that these 4 factors accounted for 50% of the total variance of the final 22-item scale and that the model fit was fair (Goodness of Fit Index, GIF=83.3%; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA=0.072). A four-factor model including social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, psychotic-like symptoms, and euphoria at the time of drug use provides a fair description of the short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with
Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi
The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Background / Objectives: Migration is suspected to increase the risk for psychological distress for those who enter a new cultural environment. We investigated the association between sociodemographic characteristics, premigratory and migratory factors and psychological distress in rural-to-urban migrants just after migration and after resettlement. Methods: Data from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (IMS, 2005-2007 were used. The analysis focused on 2112 participants aged ≥18 years from the total IMS sample (n = 7067 who reported being migrant. Psychological distress was assessed based on the responses of the 7-questions in a five-point scale, where the respondents were asked to report about their feelings now and also asked to recall these feelings when they first migrated. The associations were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. Results: High prevalence of psychological distress was found just after migration (7.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-8.4 than after settlement (4.7%; 95% CI: 3.8-5.6. Push factors as a reason behind migration and not being able to adjust in the new environment were the main correlates of psychological distress among both the male and female migrants, just after migration. Conclusions: Rural-urban migration is a major phenomenon in India and given the impact of premigratory and migratory related stressors on mental health, early intervention could prevent the development of psychological distress among the migrants.
Agrawal, Sutapa; Taylor, Fiona C; Moser, Kath; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah
Migration is suspected to increase the risk for psychological distress for those who enter a new cultural environment. We investigated the association between sociodemographic characteristics, premigratory and migratory factors and psychological distress in rural-to-urban migrants just after migration and after resettlement. Data from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (IMS, 2005-2007) were used. The analysis focused on 2112 participants aged ≥18 years from the total IMS sample (n = 7067) who reported being migrant. Psychological distress was assessed based on the responses of the 7-questions in a five-point scale, where the respondents were asked to report about their feelings now and also asked to recall these feelings when they first migrated. The associations were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. High prevalence of psychological distress was found just after migration (7.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-8.4) than after settlement (4.7%; 95% CI: 3.8-5.6). Push factors as a reason behind migration and not being able to adjust in the new environment were the main correlates of psychological distress among both the male and female migrants, just after migration. Rural-urban migration is a major phenomenon in India and given the impact of premigratory and migratory related stressors on mental health, early intervention could prevent the development of psychological distress among the migrants.
Lee, Hsing-Feng; Liu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Yen-Po; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang
Both sexual and physical abuse history have been reported to be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Western countries. The impact of abuse history in IBS patients in Asia remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of abuse history, its associated psychological profiles, and sleep problems among IBS patients in Taiwan. In total, 194 Rome III-defined IBS patients were invited to participate. Age- and sex- matched healthy carriers of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C without chronic abdominal symptoms were identified as disease-controls. We administered a validated questionnaire to evaluate bowel symptoms, physical/sexual abuse history, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and sleep quality. IBS patients had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse history than the disease-control group both before (16.5% vs 6.7%, P < 0.05) and after (16.0% vs 6.6%, P < 0.05) adolescence. These significant differences were mainly observed in women (13.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted in history of physical abuse between the 2 groups. IBS patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly higher HADS scores and higher frequencies of sleep difficulty than those without. In Taiwan, sexual abuse history was more prevalent in female IBS patients than controls. Sexual abuse history may contribute to higher anxiety/depression levels and sleep difficulties, which are commonly experienced in IBS patients. In Asia, abuse history should be obtained when approaching IBS patients to facilitate better management.
Freitas-Rosa, Marta; Gonçalves, Sónia; Antunes, Henedina
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviours (NSSI) among healthy weight and overweight adolescents and to examine the role of age, gender, weight status, treatment condition for weight control, and psychological variables (psychopathological symptoms and emotional skills) in the prediction of NSSI. The study had a cross-sectional design, and participants (n = 370) were aged 14-19 years and were divided in three groups: 205 adolescents with normal weight, 82 adolescents from the community with overweight/obesity, and 83 adolescents with overweight/obesity and in outpatient treatment for weight control. The prevalence of these behaviours in the overweight community group (25.6 %) and in the overweight clinical group (14.5 %) was similar to their healthy weight peers (19 %). Not attending an outpatient treatment for weight control, higher psychopathology and less ability to regulate emotions predict the presence of NSSI. Being overweight is not associated with NSSI, but psychosocial variables such as psychopathology, emotional deregulation and the absence of medical care predict these behaviours.
Alkan, Ora; Kushnir, Jonathan; Bar, Mor; Kushnir, Talma
This study examined the relationship between perceived losses and gains of psychological resources and quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia. Thirty one adult daughters of mothers with schizophrenia (age range 30 to 50years) and thirty women of similar socio-demographic characteristics whose mothers were mentally healthy (the control group) participated in this study. (a) Resource loss was higher and resource gains were lower among daughters of women with schizophrenia, compared to the control group; (b) despite resource gains total score of quality of life was significantly lower among daughters of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the controls; (c) daughters of mothers with schizophrenia had lower levels of family functioning, a higher level of negative emotions and a lower level of positive emotions; (d) resource gains moderated the negative relationship between resource loss and quality of life; (e) the most significant predictor of quality of life was the group (i.e. daughters of women with schizophrenia compared with controls); (f) quality of life was more strongly associated with resource loss than with resource gain. The findings of this research underscore the importance of raising awareness of caregivers and healthcare authorities to the needs of the unique population of daughters of women diagnosed with schizophrenia for support and even treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although studies have shown that self-control skills (SCSs are positively linked to both personal and interpersonal outcomes in adolescent students, studies on the putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarce. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and previous studies, we theorized that the association between students’ SCSs and their subjective well-being (SWB in school may be mediated by students’ perceived satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The sample consisted of 1576 Israeli adolescent students (54% girls in grades 10–12 (mean age 16 enrolled in 20 schools. A mediation model was tested with structural equation modeling and a robust bootstrap method for testing indirect effects, controlling for school-level variance. The findings supported the hypothesized model and a post hoc multi-group comparison analysis yielded gender invariance in the model. The findings suggest that both girls and boys with high SCSs may perceive themselves as having greater needs satisfaction in school and consequently higher school-related SWB. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Viola, Vanda; Tosoni, Annalisa; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Galati, Gaspare; Mannetti, Lucia
The present study provides a neurobiological framework to the theory of epistemic motivation that has been extensively studied for the last three decades in the domain of social cognition. Epistemic motivations affect the way people generate and validate hypotheses, and ultimately form and modify knowledge. Strong dispositional measures such as need for cognitive closure (NCC), the desire for a quick firm answer (any answer) to a question, show gross and stable inter-individual differences. The cognitive mechanisms and neural underpinnings of such differences, however, remain largely unexplored. Here we show that high (compared to low) levels of NCC, measured with need for cognitive closure scale, are associated with reduced online adjustment in cognitive control, as indexed by behavioral conflict adaptation. This behavioral effect is mediated by dynamic changes in cortico-cortical functional connectivity between prefrontal regions involved in conflict monitoring and implementation of cognitive control. In particular, these regions show increased functional connectivity after exposure to conflict in low but not high NCC individuals. These results demonstrate that the level of flexibility of functional cortico-cortical connections can mediate stable psychological dispositions. PMID:24892718
Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wardle, J.; Chu, M.T.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.
Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy
Stok, F. Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T.; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D
Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu
The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…
Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults
Full Text Available The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire, psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire. The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores, a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.
Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms are associated with physical activity, food intake, eating behaviors, psychological health, and modeled change in body mass index in overweight/obese Caucasian adults.
Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G; Kotze, Maritha J; Senekal, Marjanne
The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085-rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.
Kim, S; Noh, D; Park, S I
What is known on the subject? Despite the increase of studies into the predictors of psychological distress, few have attempted to address the mediation of stress in the relationship between early trauma and psychological distress. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? In this study, college students with trauma exposure before the age of 18 years reported high levels of college life stress and psychological distress. In addition, of the subcategories of early trauma, emotional abuse was most highly correlated with current stress and psychological distress. This paper confirmed the partial mediating effect of stress between early trauma and psychological distress among Korean college students. In other words, this study found a direct effect of early trauma on current psychological distress and an indirect effect of early trauma on psychological distress mediated through life stress. What are the implications for practice? Early trauma and stress should be considered when developing interventions for college students' mental health, although individuals with trauma exposure have difficulties disclosing their traumatic event. Therefore, we suggest that stress management may be easier to apply and more effective in promoting college students' mental health than trauma-focused interventions. Research has shown that early trauma and stress may affect current psychological distress. However, few studies have attempted to address the mediation of stress between early trauma and psychological distress. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to examine the mediating effects of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students. Participants included 216 college students (51.4% male) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing early trauma, college life stress, and psychological distress. Early trauma, stress, and psychological distress were significantly correlated. Of the subcategories of early
Vuotto, Stefanie C; Ojha, Rohit P; Li, Chenghong; Kimberg, Cara; Klosky, James L; Krull, Kevin R; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M
To examine the potential mediating role of body image dissatisfaction on the association between treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Participants included 1714 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean [SD] age at evaluation = 32.4 [8.0] years, time since diagnosis = 24.1 [8.1] years) enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Survivors completed measures of body image, emotional distress, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Body image dissatisfaction (BID) was categorized into 2 groups (cancer-related and general) based on factor analysis. Using causal mediation analysis, we estimated the proportion of psychological distress associated with treatment-related scarring/disfigurement that could be eliminated by resolving BID through a hypothetical intervention. Among survivors with scarring/disfigurement of the head, a sizable proportion of the relative excess of psychological distress could be eliminated if BID was successfully treated (males: [cancer-related BID: depression: 63%; anxiety: 100%; PTSS: 52%]; [general BID: depression: 70%; anxiety: 100%; PTSS: 42%]; females: [cancer-related BID: depression: 20%; anxiety; 36%; PTSS: 23%]; [general BID: depression: 32%; anxiety: 87%; PTSS: 38%]). The mediating effect of BID was less pronounced for the association between scarring/disfigurement of the body and psychological distress for both males and females. Body image dissatisfaction mediates the association treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer, particularly among survivors with scarring/disfigurement of the head and male survivors. Successful treatment of body image dissatisfaction has the potential to eliminate a substantial proportion of psychological distress related to scarring/disfigurement among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; E Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; de Rocha, Lourdes Maria Leitão Nunes; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Medeiros, Nilzângela Lima; Costa, Danielle Cristina Silva; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio
Violence against pregnant women has been associated with gestational and perinatal disorders. Psychological violence is the type least investigated and its associated factors have been little studied. The present study was conducted in order to estimate prevalence rates and analyze the factors associated with exclusive and recurrent psychological violence in the municipality of São Luís, Brazil. Data regarding 982 pregnant women, aged from 14 to 45 years, interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in a prenatal cohort were used. A self-applied questionnaire was used to screen for violence. Pregnant women submitted to physical and sexual violence were excluded from the analysis of factors associated with exclusive psychological violence. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by a Poisson regression model with a hierarchical approach at three levels. At level 1 of the theoretical-conceptual model, we analyzed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and variables that express gender inequalities; at level 2, we analyzed social support received by the women, and at level 3, the life experiences of the pregnant women. Prevalence rate of exclusive psychological violence was 41.6% and of recurrent violence was 32.6%. Exclusive psychological violence was associated with pregnant women's age of 14 to 18 years (PR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.70), pregnant women's schooling superior to that of her intimate partner (PR: 1.54 95% CI: 1.09 - 2.16), inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.34 95% CI: 1.11 - 1.62), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 1.80 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.81) and having had six or more intimate partners in life (PR: 1.52 95% CI: 1.18 - 1.96). Recurrent exclusive psychological violence was associated with inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.15 - 1.87), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 2,28 95% CI: 1,40 - 3,71) and having had six or more intimate
Background Violence against pregnant women has been associated with gestational and perinatal disorders. Psychological violence is the type least investigated and its associated factors have been little studied. The present study was conducted in order to estimate prevalence rates and analyze the factors associated with exclusive and recurrent psychological violence in the municipality of São Luís,