McMillan, Franklin D; Duffy, Deborah L; Zawistowski, Stephen L; Serpell, James A
Abuse is an intentional act that causes harm to an individual. Dogs (Canis familiaris) with a known or suspected history of abuse were solicited for the study. A panel of 5 experts in canine behavior and abuse selected the dogs judged as having a certain or near certain history of being abused for inclusion in the study. Behavioral evaluations of the dogs were obtained using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire, which utilizes ordinal scales to rate either the intensity or frequency of the dog's behaviors. Sixty-nine dogs ultimately met the criteria for inclusion in the study. When compared with a convenience sample of 5,239 companion dogs, abused dogs were reported as displaying significantly higher rates of aggression and fear directed toward unfamiliar humans and dogs, excitability, hyperactivity, attachment and attention-seeking behaviors, persistent barking, and miscellaneous strange or repetitive behaviors. Delineating the behavioral and psychological characteristics of abused dogs provides the first step in identifying and distinguishing the risk factors and sequelae associated with abuse, which may inform the development of preventive and therapeutic programs for nonhuman animal abuse.
Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy
This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti
Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…
Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan
This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions.
Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati
This article reviews the clinical and psychological effects of children who suffer sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a forced sexual behavior toward a child, either from the opposite or same sex. The types of child sexual abuse include exhibitionism, vouyerism, kissing, fondling, fellatio and cunnilingus, sexual intercourse, and pornography. The psychological effects of child sexual abuse often last a long time, in the form of anger, anxiety, nightmares, insecure, confused, scared, sa...
Kim, Yi Jin; Burlaka, Viktor
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among emerging adults ages 18 to 25. To examine gender differences on the mediation effect of psychological distress between alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) and suicidal behaviors (ideation, plan, and attempt). The current study used the 2014 NSDUH public use data. Young adults aged 18 to 25 years (M = 21.02) old were selected as study participants. The three outcome variables were suicide ideation, plan, and attempt. AAD was an independent variable. As a mediation variable, psychological distress was used to test the research questions. The mediation effect was tested by using bootstrapping methods with the SPSS version of the macro (PROCESS version 2.16) developed by Preacher and Hayes. Six separate mediation analyses (three for a male and three for a female group) were conducted for different types of suicidal behaviors including ideation, plan, and attempt. Overall, psychological distress mediated the association between AAD and suicidal behaviors, except the relationship between AAD and suicide attempts among the male young adults group. The findings of the current study provide specific directions for practitioners to reduce suicide rates among young adults who are at risk for suicidal behavior.
Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Parfitt, C.; Alleyne, Emma
There is a lack of research examining the criminogenic factors related to animal abuse perpetrated by adults, despite the high prevalence of this type of offending. This paper presents a correlational study examining the factors related to two types of animal abuse proclivity. We found that childhood animal abuse, empathetic concern, and a proneness for human-directed aggression were significant correlates of direct forms of animal abuse (i.e., the animal was perceived to be the provocateur)....
Começanha, Rita; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Maia, Ângela
The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse. A total of 75% of men and 72% of women reported lifetime psychological victimization and no differences were found for sociodemographic factors, including gender. However, women reported significantly more instigations of psychological abusive acts (OR =5.41, 95% CI=1.88-15.55). Multivariate linear regression models revealed that post-traumatic stress symptoms-PTSS (β=.51; p<.001), depression (β=.34; p<.001) and anxiety (β=.22; p<.001)-were predicted by psychological IPV. The strongest relationship was established between psychological IPV and PTSS, and the final model accounts for 28.6% of the variance (F(6357)=23.86, p<.001). This article provides an empirical basis to recognize the unique and serious impact of psychological IPV on mental health, and recommends screening psychological IPV as part of the clinical routine, developing a gender-inclusive approach, and implementing evidence-based protocols tailored to the needs of these victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.
This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…
Hooper, P D
A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13...
Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane
The purpose of the present paper is to shed light on the questions: Do children, who are exposed to psychological maltreatment, have an increased risk for suicide attempts or contemplation? Will children’s suicidal behavior diminish when psychological maltreatment is reduced? Suicidal behavior...... as well as child abuse and neglect were analyzed on the basis of standardized questionnaires addressed to caseworkers assigned to these cases (N=1,055). Half of the children were exposed to abuse and neglect. More than one third of the children were exposed to psychological maltreatment. These children...... showed higher rates of suicidal tendencies, compared to those children who were not exposed to psychological maltreatment....
Follingstad, Diane R.
A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…
Yu, Zeng-Zhao; Zhang, Bei-Chuan; Li, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Ning; Shi, Tong-Xin; Chu, Quan-Sheng
To study the AIDS related high risk behaviors and psychological appearances among men who have sex with men (MSM) who ever experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Target sampling for a cross-sectional study was developed and valid anonymous questionnaires were adopted to compare the differences of high risk behaviors related to AIDS and psychological appearances between those with or without CSA experiences among 2147 MSM from nine cities. Compared to corresponding ones without CSA experience, CSA group had a significant larger numbers in the following events: total sexual partners, anal sex episodes with same sex, female sexual partners and anal sex in the previous six months, with the figures of median as 20.0, 10.0, 3.0, 3.0 respectively. In the previous year, 30.8% of them had ever participated in 'group sex', 19.2% ever exchanged money for sex, 36.7% bled while having sexual intercourse, 37.3% had sex with male partners away from his own region. All the above said figures were higher than non-CSA group, with significant differences. It also appeared that CSA experience had an impact on significant lower rate of condom use (67.3%) in the last anal sex. Those with CSA experience had more psychological problems which appeared as: 75.6% considered they would suffer from serious discrimination if their sexual orientation ever disclosed, 34.7% had a strong intention of suicide and 24.3% ever having had suicidal attempts. The differences of the two groups showed statistical significance. CSA experience not only increased the number of AIDS related high risk behaviors in adulthood, but also had negative impact on their psychological appearances. It is of urgent need to carry out psychological intervention approaches to target on MSM with CSA experiences while childhood sexual education and rights assurance towards juvenile population should also not be neglected.
Hooper, P D
A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13 women who had experienced oral, genital or anal penetration or attempted penetration had psychological morbidity recorded. There was no relationship, however, between sexual abuse and psychosexual or marital problems in later life. PMID:2107837
Foshee, Vangie Ann; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Ennett, Susan T
.... This longitudinal study examined the effects of psychological and physical (including sexual) dating abuse victimization on internalizing symptoms, substance use, academic aspirations and grades, and relationships with friends and family...
José Luis Carballo
Full Text Available The increase in the prescription of opioid analgesics is related to increased rates of opioid abuse and the negative consequences of medication misuse. Several international health organisations recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary patient assessment for the duration of the opioid treatment in order to identify and prevent medication abuse. Due to the lack of specific clinical guidelines in the Spanish National Health System, the aim of this paper is to present a proposal for psychological assessment based on the main psychological tools currently available for assessing opioid abuse. The assessment guidelines have been established based on the psychological variables that can predict and prolong the abuse, classifying all of the variables depending on the current stage of the therapeutic process for each patient. Although there are instruments with good psychometric properties, further research is necessary to adapt, translate and validate these instruments for use in the Spanish population. Future studies are also needed to investigate intervention and prevention strategies in depth in order to reduce the likelihood of abuse in patients treated with opioids.
The present study represents an attempt at contributing to literature by addressing an underresearched topic of considerable health concern. The study investigated the psychological consequences of wife abuse in three high density residential areas in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Ibadan. Four hundred and ...
Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.
This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…
Ribot, Victoria C; Rousseaux, Elena; García, Teresita C; Arteaga, Emilio; Ramos, Marta; Alfonso, Maritza
Globally, older adults are a population group that often suffers abuse by their caregivers. Along with women and children, they are among those most often reported as victims of abuse of any kind in Cuba. Characterize presence of domestic abuse of older adults in family doctor-and-nurse office No. 28 of the Carlos Manuel Portuondo University Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba, determining the main manifestations of abuse and help-seeking behavior by the older adults identified as victims. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥ 60 years; all those not diagnosed with dementia and who agreed to participate were interviewed. In a universe of 268 older adults, 29 were living outside the area, 24 declined to participate, and 18 had a diagnosis of dementia, leaving a study population of 197 individuals. Variables included: personal experience of abuse, type of abuse, perpetrator, help sought, and reasons for not seeking help. Statistical analysis was based on percentages. Of 197 older adults interviewed, 88 (44.7%) reported that they were victims of domestic abuse; 50 of these were women. The most common types of abuse were psychological abuse and disrespect for personal space, reported by 69 (78.4%) and 54 (61.4%) individuals, respectively. Sons- and daughters-in-law were identified as the abusers by 68 participants and grandchildren by 65. Of the 88 victims, 67 (76.1%) stated that they did not seek help. The finding that substantial numbers of older adults are victims of domestic abuse brings to light a hitherto insufficiently addressed issue in the community studied. More research is needed to deepen understanding of the scope and causes of the problem to inform prevention and management strategies, not only at the level of the polyclinic catchment area, but in the health system in general.
Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.
Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…
Cooper, Claudia; Barber, Julie; Griffin, Mark; Rapaport, Penny; Livingston, Gill
Family carers of people with dementia frequently report acting abusively toward them and carer psychological morbidity predicts this. We investigated whether START (STrAtegies for RelaTives), a psychological intervention which reduces depression and anxiety in family carers also reduces abusive behavior in carers of people living in their own homes. We also explored the longitudinal course of carer abusive behavior over two year. We included self-identified family carers who gave support at least weekly to people with dementia referred in the previous year to three UK mental health services and a neurological dementia service. We randomly assigned these carers to START, an eight-session, manual-based coping intervention, or treatment as usual (TAU). Carer abusive behavior (Modified Conflict Tactic Scale (MCTS) score ≥2 representing significant abuse) was assessed at baseline, 4, 8, 12, and 24 months. We recruited 260 carers, 173 to START and 87 to TAU. There was no evidence that abusive behavior levels differed between randomization groups or changed over time. A quarter of carers still reported significant abuse after two years, but those not acting abusively at baseline did not become abusive. There was no evidence that START, which reduced carer anxiety and depression, reduced carer abusive behavior. For ethical reasons, we frequently intervened to manage concerning abuse reported in both groups, which may have disguised an intervention effect. Future dementia research should include elder abuse as an outcome, and consider carefully how to manage detected abuse.
Rodríguez Carballeira, Álvaro; Saldaña, Omar; Almendros, Carmen; Martín-Peña, Javier; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Porrúa, Clara
The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the severity of the strategies through a Delphi study. Group psychological abuse was defined by the application of abusive strategies, their continued du...
Aizpurua, Eva; Copp, Jennifer; Ricarte, Jorge J; Vázquez, David
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to a broad range of negative consequences. Thus, early detection and prevention of behaviors associated with IPV is necessary to combat this global public health problem. Controlling behaviors (CBs) within the intimate context, including acts to constrain free mobility or access to friends and relatives, have been characterized as a moderate form of violence and may be an indicator of more severe IPV. Previous research in this field, however, has been primarily conducted in the United States. Accordingly, we lack knowledge of similar findings in other countries to draw more general conclusions about observed associations between these variables, and to identify underlying mechanisms. The current study analyzes the role of control within the Spanish context by examining its correlates, as well as the role and impact of CBs on psychological and physical violence. To achieve these objectives, we use data from the Spanish sample of the Violence Against Women Survey carried out by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights ( N = 1,520 adult women). The results indicated that young women, women with a previous history of physical/sexual abuse during childhood, and women who have resided in Spain for fewer years are at greater risk of experiencing control within the context of an ongoing relationship. Partner risk factors included frequent episodes of drunkenness and general violence (i.e., violence outside of the home). In addition, control was more frequently reported among couples where the man was older than the woman. As hypothesized, women who reported CB by their partners were more likely to experience psychological and physical violence. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing CBs to avert the most severe forms of violence, and provides relevant information about the groups that could most benefit from these efforts.
Background: Personality and other psychological variables have been suggested to be closely related to drug abuse. An understanding of such relationship could be beneficial in the management of patients with substance abuse. Aim: The study investigated psychological correlates of substance abuse psychiatric patients.
Foshee, Vangie Ann; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Ennett, Susan T
It is widely held that being victimized by a dating partner during adolescence has negative consequences, yet few longitudinal studies have examined those consequences. This longitudinal study examined the effects of psychological and physical (including sexual) dating abuse victimization on internalizing symptoms, substance use, academic aspirations and grades, and relationships with friends and family. This four-wave longitudinal study (N = 3,328), conducted in two rural North Carolina counties, spanned grades 8 to 12. Random coefficient analyses were used to examine prospective lagged effects of each type of dating abuse on each outcome and to examine sex and grade as moderators of lagged effects. Consequences varied by type of dating abuse experienced and sex. For both boys and girls, psychological victimization predicted increased alcohol use and physical victimization predicted increased cigarette use. For girls, physical victimization predicted increased marijuana use, and psychological victimization predicted increased internalizing symptoms; the latter effect was only marginally significant for boys. Physical victimization marginally predicted decreases in the number of close friends for boys. Neither type of victimization predicted increased family conflict or decreased academic aspirations or grades, nor was there evidence that consequences varied by grade. Although causation cannot be concluded with longitudinal designs, our findings suggest that being victimized by a dating partner may result in detrimental consequences for adolescents. The findings demonstrate the importance of identifying and implementing evidence-based interventions for preventing dating abuse, including efforts to prevent psychological abuse specifically. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…
Research on psychological abuse is still in the early stages; the nature of it renders it difficult to define, and even at times to detect. This thesis examines psychological abuse in a Namibian context using in-depth interviews with six women who experienced domestic violence. The aim was to examine the women‟s perceptions of psychological abuse and the response received from various networks of support. Additionally, I investigated whether Western theories of domestic violence could be usef...
Bickel, W K; Snider, S E; Quisenberry, A J; Stein, J S
Understanding the abuse liability of novel drugs is critical to understanding the risk these new compounds pose to society. Behavioral economics, the integration of psychology and economics, can be used to predict abuse liability of novel substances. Here, we describe the behavioral economic concept of reinforcer pathology and how it may predict the use of novel drugs in existing drug-users and initiation of use in the drug-naive. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Morris, Edward K.; And Others
Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)
Chaopricha, Supara; Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai
Child abuse is an important health issue but it is little known how abuse experiences in childhood and current health risk behaviors are related. To (a) study the prevalence and characteristics of child abuse experience, (b) test the hypothesis that youths with a history of child abuse would have more health risk behaviors compared to their non-abused counterparts and (c) study the associations between child abuse experience, family and social risk factors, and current health risk behaviors. A cross-sectional population survey was conducted on a sample of 488 young people aged 16-25, living in suburban community of Pathumthani Province. The standard questionnaires used consisted of (1) The Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) for child abuse experience (2) Health risk behaviors using Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), Alcohol-Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), sexual risk behavior screening test, modified Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire to measure substance use, alcohol, sexual risk behaviors, other risk behaviors respectively. Linear regression was performed to estimate the independent association of abuse experience with the risky behavioral outcomes. Prevalence of child abuse was approximately 30% of the sampled group. Childhood physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (15%) while sexual abuse was the second most common (12%). There were strong graded relationships between the number of abusive experiences and the health risk behaviors. Factors associated with having health risk behaviors included male gender older age, experiences of abuse, low level of parental education, friends who were involved with potential health risk activities, and no close relatives. Child abuse was not uncommon among Thai youths. Abusive experience and some family and social factors increased the risk of risky behaviors among youth.
Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.
Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…
MacDonald, Paul S
Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.
Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.
Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences...
The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975
The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.
Liu, Pi-Ju; Conrad, Kendon J; Beach, Scott R; Iris, Madelyn; Schiamberg, Lawrence B
Elder emotional/psychological abuse is the infliction of mental anguish on older adults through verbal or non-verbal acts. Using indicators based on existing literature, theoretically important abuser characteristics and victim vulnerabilities were collected using the Elder Abuse Decision Support System (EADSS) to test a theory of emotional/psychological abuse. Eight-hundred-and-ten alleged emotional/psychological abuse cases were investigated by caseworkers in six Illinois adult protective services (APS) agencies; 466 individuals endorsed at least one item on the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM). Bivariate ordinary linear regression results established that all abuser characteristics were predictive of emotional/psychological abuse scores. In the hierarchical regression model where abuser characteristics were entered after victim vulnerabilities, abuser characteristics predicted emotional/psychological abuse above and beyond victim vulnerabilities (ΔR2 = 0.349, p < .001). Abuser risk and abuser's negative attitudes towards victims remained as significant predictors in the final model. Post hoc analysis identified significant items of abuser risk and negative attitudes, including: an emotionally draining relationship between abuser and victim, abuser's poor temper control, and abuser's angry feelings towards victims. Abuser weaknesses and strengths as highlighted in the theoretical framework should be further investigated for future prevention and intervention in cases of emotional/psychological abuse.
Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian
We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…
Brian eJohnson; Brian eJohnson
AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...
The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...
Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato
To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This
Batchelder, Abigail W; Ehlinger, Peter P; Boroughs, Michael S; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Ironson, Gail H; O'Cleirigh, Conall
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can be associated with condomless sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the impact of moderating factors on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex is poorly understood. We examined whether PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex among MSM with CSA histories, and whether substance dependence, self-esteem, and distress tolerance moderated that relationship (n = 288). Notably, no direct relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex was found. Adjusted models indicated that condomless sex was differentially impacted by PTSD symptom severity among those without substance dependence (ΔR 2 = 0.03, p = 0.034) and, counterintuitively, those with high self-esteem (ΔR 2 = 0.07, p = 0.005). PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex across levels of distress tolerance. Findings indicate that substance use, self-esteem, and distress tolerance should be targeted in high-risk MSM with CSA even if they do not have PTSD.
Meyerson, Lori A.; Long, Patricia J.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Marx, Brian P.
A study examined contributions of sexual abuse, physical abuse, family cohesion, and conflict in predicting psychological functioning of 131 adolescents receiving residential vocational training services. In addition to child sexual abuse and physical abuse, family conflict and cohesion predicted development of psychological distress and…
Brassard, Marla R.; Gelardo, Mark S.
Psychological maltreatment is increasingly receiving attention as a prevalent and destructive form of child abuse and neglect that constitutes a mental health problem. This article discusses the current state of knowledge of psychological maltreatment; a rationale for its study; its impact on school readiness and academic achievement; and…
Crowley, M. Sue
Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…
Masci, B S Sandra; Sanderson, Sonya
Prior research has been limited in examining at what degree aggressive actions are initially perceived negatively. The present research examined whether anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were associated with prior abuse or with being attributed to past or present relationships. Scales such as the Dating Relationship Profile (DRP) and hypothetical scenarios of abuse perpetration were used. This study hypothesized that acceptability ratings from hypothetical scenarios would predict answers on DRP items measuring whether physical or psychological abuse is considered acceptable in relationships. Specifically, gender would be a predictor variable. Convenience sampling of undergraduate psychology students from a comprehensive, metropolitan university in north Georgia was used and resulted in 291 respondents (n = 227 [78%] female, n = 64 [22%] male) whose ages ranged from 18 to 54 years (M = 20.57 years, SD = 5.12 years). The present research used a 2 × 2 between-subjects design examining gender and type of hypothetical scenario violence with perceptions of abuse as the dependent variable. A significant association between experience of abuse and attribution of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms to past or present relationships and between experience of abuse and these symptoms was found. Results revealed a significant difference between acceptability ratings of psychological abuse and gender, with men perceiving psychological abuse as more acceptable.
Follingstad, Diane R; Rogers, M Jill
A detailed analysis of the occurrence of serious psychological abuse (PSYAB) in one's "worst relationship" was solicited from a nationwide sample of adults in the United States. To designate that they experienced any of the psychologically abusive behaviors, respondents had to have perceived malignant intent by the perpetrator. Respondents reported significant rates of the presence and frequency for 14 specified categories of serious PSYAB as well as for the 42 individual behaviors constituting these categories (i.e., 3 per category). The 3 behaviors within each category frequently co-occurred even though they represented distinct manifestations and increasing levels of severity for that type of PSYAB. Only some of the behaviors demonstrated a relationship between frequency of that behavior in a relationship and subsequent emotional and behavioral impact. Neither demographics nor social desirability were strongly related to report of partner PSYAB.
Antonio de Pádua Serafim
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A prática de abuso sexual contra crianças é um fenômeno universal. Ela ocorre em todos os tempos e lugares e atinge todas as classes socioeconômicas. Enquanto a maioria dos estudos investiga as vítimas, os poucos estudos sobre agressores se concentram principalmente em dados demográficos. OBJETIVO: Apresentar revisão da literatura quanto à classificação de molestadores sexuais de crianças, de acordo com o perfil psicológico e comportamental. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura e discussão do material utilizado. RESULTADOS: Apresentação das principais classificações dos criminosos sexuais contra crianças, identificando as tipologias mais utilizadas com suas possíveis contribuições à psiquiatria e à psicologia forense. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização do perfil psicológico em crimes sexuais é de fundamental relevância no contexto médico-legal, mas ainda carece de bases científicas mais sólidas.BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against children is a universal problem, occurring since ever, everywhere and regardless the socio-economic status. Whist most studies have been dedicated to the victim of such crime, there is little information regarding their perpetrators, which is largely limited to the description of demographic data. OBJECTIVE: Review the literature regarding children sexual aggressors according to psychological and behavioral profile. METHODS: Literature review and discussion. RESULTS: Presentation of the major classifications of offenders, pointing out the most widely used ones and the implications to forensic psychiatry and psychology. CONCLUSION: The psychological and behavioral profile use is very important for medico-legal practice, but still needs better scientific validation.
Kaplan, M L; Asnis, G M; Lipschitz, D S; Chorney, P
The present study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviors and histories of abuse in psychiatric outpatients. Two hundred fifty-one psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for history of abuse, suicidal behavior, demographics, and clinical characteristics using self-report instruments and a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis indicated that physical abuse (battering) in adulthood and histories of a combination of childhood and adulthood abuse were significant predictors of past suicide attempts and current suicidal ideation. Victims of abuse were more likely than nonvictim controls to have been suicidal at a younger age and to have made multiple suicide attempts. Among patients with a history of abuse, suicide attempters could be distinguished from nonattempters on the basis of higher levels of dissociation, depression, and somatization. Abusive experiences in adulthood appear to play an important role in suicidal behavior among psychiatric outpatients. High levels of specific symptoms (i.e., depression, somatization, and dissociation) among patients with a history of abuse can help to identify outpatients at risk for suicidal behavior.
José Luis Carballo; Ainhoa Coloma-Carmona; Dana Mrozowicz-Gaudyn; Verónica Vidal-Arenas; Carlos van-der Hofstadt; Jesús Rodríguez-Marín
The increase in the prescription of opioid analgesics is related to increased rates of opioid abuse and the negative consequences of medication misuse. Several international health organisations recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary patient assessment for the duration of the opioid treatment in order to identify and prevent medication abuse. Due to the lack of specific clinical guidelines in the Spanish National Health System, the aim of this paper is to present a proposal for psychol...
Işık Karakaya; Ayşen Coşkun; Belma Ağaoğlu; Şahika Gülen Şişmanlar; Özlem Yıldız Öç; Nursu Çakın Memik; Ümit Biçer
Child and adolescent sexual abuse have lifelong consequences. Sexual development, emotional effects, depressed mood, anxiety, behavioral effects and alteration of personality are some possible consequences of sexual abuse. In this article we evaluated psychiatric symptoms according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria in 21 sexually abused children and adolescents. Twelve girls and nine boys between 4 and 16 years of age were investigated. All the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata. The m...
Graham, Michael R; Evans, Peter; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S
The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity. PMID:18827854
Mega, L T; Mega, J L; Mega, B T; Harris, B M
Intimate partner violence occurs often in the United States; it involves an interrelated combination of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, usually directed against women. The psychological aspect deserves special attention because victims who lose their independence, self-esteem, and dignity tend to remain in abusive situations. The abuse is perpetrated by a domestic partner to maintain power and control in the relationship. To assert control, the abuser uses "brainwashing tactics" similar to those used on prisoners of war, hostages, or members of a cult. Common features of brainwashing include isolation, humiliation, accusation, and unpredictable attacks. The abusive environment produces real and anticipated fear, which contributes to the battered woman's belief that her situation is hopeless and that she must depend on her abuser. She develops coping strategies to deal with her oppressive environment, but eventually exhibits symptoms of "battering fatigue," similar to the battle fatigue of soldiers in combat who, like battered women, live in fear of being killed or severely injured. Recognizing the state of mind of these women can help us understand why it is difficult for them to flee their traumatic environment and why they may resort to suicide or homicide. For healthcare providers to screen and treat their patients adequately, it is imperative that they appreciate the complex and devastating psychological aspects of domestic violence.
Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Rosen, Abby; Fairman, Kimberly P; Anetzberger, Georgia J
Psychological abuse of older adults is a hidden and pervasive problem that is not well conceptualized nor well measured. Goals. The goals were to (a) conceptualize psychological abuse using three-dimensional concept maps, and (b) develop theoretical models. Methods. Statements describing the construct were generated by local and national panels. These were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software whereby the concepts were depicted as a map. Results. The concept maps guided development of theoretical hierarchies. Significance. Theoretical models may help to develop measures to estimate prevalence better and may enable more precise screening for triage into appropriate interventions. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David
.... Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide...
Full Text Available Child and adolescent sexual abuse have lifelong consequences. Sexual development, emotional effects, depressed mood, anxiety, behavioral effects and alteration of personality are some possible consequences of sexual abuse. In this article we evaluated psychiatric symptoms according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria in 21 sexually abused children and adolescents. Twelve girls and nine boys between 4 and 16 years of age were investigated. All the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata. The most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders in these children were posttraumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and elimination disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents present various psychiatric symptoms. So, understanding the consequences of sexual abuse on children and adolescents is significant in assessment, prevention, and treatment. Key words: Child, adolescent, sexual abuse, psychiatric effects
Goodman, Gail S; Goldfarb, Deborah; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Alexandra
Tens of thousands of child sexual abuse (CSA) cases are reported to authorities annually. Although some of the child victims obtain psychological counseling or therapy, controversy exists about the potential consequences for the accuracy of victims' memory of CSA, both in childhood and adulthood. Yet, delaying needed therapeutic intervention may have detrimental effects on the victims' well-being and recovery. To address this controversy, this study examined whether psychological counseling during a CSA prosecution predicts accuracy or inaccuracy of long-term memory for CSA. Participants (N = 71) were CSA victims who took part in a longitudinal study of memory and legal involvement. Data regarding participants' counseling attendance during the prosecution and details of their CSA cases were gathered throughout legal involvement and shortly thereafter (Time 1). Ten to 16 years later (Time 2), participants were questioned about a range of topics, including the alleged abuse. Time 1 counseling attendance significantly predicted more correct answers to abuse-related questions and (for corroborated cases) fewer overreporting responses at Time 2. Counseling was unrelated to underreporting responses. These results held even with other potential influences, such as abuse severity, victim-defendant relationship, posttraumatic stress disorder criteria met, testifying in the case, and delay, were statistically controlled. Although further research is needed, this study provides evidence that psychological counseling received by CSA victims during or shortly after prosecutions may improve later memory for abuse-related information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Blackwood, G W
A case is reported in which a lady suffered long-term personality change, a paranoid psychosis of several months duration, and an acute delirium, secondary to abuse of Vicks Sinex Nasal Spray and Vicks Vaporub. The problems were reversible on withdrawal of these well used products which have not previously been reported to cause psychological disturbance.
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.
This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…
Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.
Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…
Pandiyan, Kasthuri; Chandrasekhar, H; Madhusudhan, S
Substance abuse may act as precursors and also can form outcomes of sexual behaviors. The confluence of drug use, mental stressors, poverty, sexually transmitted diseases, low self-esteem and high-risk partners forms a fertile ground for psychological morbidity. To assess the psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) who use alcohol and other substance abuse. One hundred consecutive CSWs with alcohol and drug abuse patients attending the psychiatric OPD at Victoria hospital were assessed clinically. Relevant investigations were also carried out. General health questionnaire and substance use disorder identification tests were administered. A total of 100 cases between 30-40 years of age were taken up for the study. All were abusing alcohol with tobacco chewing or smoking being (64). Eighty-seven were married. Fifty of them being illiterate. Seventy-eight were suffering from physical illness. Two were HIV patient on treatment. Seventy-eight were having psychological morbidity (depression and adjustment disorder). Preventive interventions, targeting substance abuse and stimulating healthier-environments and providing economically independent.
Pittenger, Samantha L; Schreier, Alayna; Meidlinger, Katie; Pogue, Jessica K; Theimer, Kate; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J
Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization-risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress-that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.
Khalily, Muhammad Tahir
We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.
Physical and Psychological Abuse: A Follow-up of Abused Delinquent Adolescents. This is a follow-up study of abused, very aggressive adolescent boys who had to be placed in an institution. A group of 252 boys were admitted between 1950 and 1977 in a limited freedom institution near Paris (France) because of delinquency or very difficult behaviour. Thirty-three of them had been abused either in their family or in other institutions during childhood. These adolescents proved to be three times more aggressive (i.e., they were involved in aggression episodes three times more often) as compared with their schoolmates who had not been abused previously. An inquiry about the subsequent life course of 22 of these 33 adolescents, made 3 to 30 years following their discharge, revealed that officially unlawful behaviour was recorded twice as often as in the life of their peers. The abused aggressive adolescents are therefore more difficult to rehabilitate than other non-abused adolescent with difficult behaviour. The author stresses this difference, which seems to be linked with a strong feeling of abandonment, and with an extreme difficulty to establish affective contacts with adults. The relationship with adults is always very fragile, and requires a large amount of tolerance regarding their aggressive behaviour.
“Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.
Michael R Graham
Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength
The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as...
Dimeff, Linda A; Linehan, Marsha M
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, "clear mind," and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies.
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P
This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect) and sexual risk behavior. Analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were associated with adult sexual risk behavior. Multivariate analyses that controlled for all other forms of child maltreatment showed that only CSA was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior (i.e., percentage of episodes of unprotected sex in the past 3 months and number of lifetime partners). The authors found little support for an additive or an interactive model of the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior; CSA alone was the best predictor of adult sexual risk behavior. Sexual risk reduction interventions are needed for women who were sexually abused as children. Continued research on the effects of multitype maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior is needed.
Gentry, Jacqueline; Bailey, Beth A
Although physical abuse during pregnancy has been linked to poor birth outcomes, the role of psychological abuse is less well understood. Associations between birth outcomes and types of psychological abuse during pregnancy (being threatened, screamed at, or insulted) were examined in 489 women with no history of physical abuse. Being threatened was significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes, with women reporting any instance during pregnancy twice as likely to deliver a low birth weight baby. These results remained after controlling for background factors. Finally, most of the variance between threats and birth weight was accounted for by mediating health behaviors (specifically prenatal care utilization and pregnancy weight gain), suggesting pathways for the negative effects of being threatened by an intimate partner during pregnancy.
Tenorio, Kimberly A; Lo, Celia C
In the United States, social stratification has generally led individuals occupying lower social locations to have more health problems than other individuals, even acknowledging that social groups are distinguished by their particular manifestations of health problems. This study examined whether two social integration factors, marriage and religiosity, mediate the relationship between social location and co-occurrence of substance abuse and psychological distress and the nature of this relationship. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted on data from a national sample of 34,650 adults mostly between the ages of 18 to 35, collected through the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. White males who were lesser educated and living in poverty were more likely to exhibit co-occuring substance abuse and psychological distress than their demographically similar counterparts. Additionally, being married and religious appeared to be protective factors within the overall study cohort with fewer co-occurring behaviors reported. The data generally confirm the hypothesis concerning mediating roles for religiosity and marriage. Confirmation that marriage and religiosity can protect adults against co-occurring substance abuse and psychological distress potentially provides the information necessary to better target health policy and interventions that serve to further enhance the population?s mental health.
Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer
This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000
Kang, Sung Yeon; Deren, Sherry; Goldstein, Marjorie F
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between childhood abuse/neglect experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect) and adult life functioning among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program (MMTP) drop-outs. 432 subjects who dropped out of MMTP were recruited in New York City in 1997-1999. Adult life functioning was measured by HIV drug and sex risk behaviors, Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores, and depression. The chi(2) tests, t tests, correlation, and multiple logistic regressions were performed to examine the relationships between abuse experiences and adult life functioning. The prevalence of child abuse/neglect history was high among MMTP drop-outs: sexual abuse-36%; physical abuse-60%; emotional abuse-57%; child physical neglect-66%; all four experiences-25%. As assessed via ASI composite scores, those who had been abused in childhood had significantly more medical, legal, relationship, and psychological problems than those who had not. Overall, several significant associations were found between the abuse experiences and HIV risk behaviors. Those who had experienced child neglect were more likely to be HIV positive. In multivariate analyses, childhood physical abuse was a significant predictor of having multiple sex partners while depression was significantly related to injection drug use in adulthood (psexual abuse and HIV sex risk behavior (ptreatment programs that include specialized therapies for those who suffered childhood abuse and neglect experiences.
Bartholow, B N; Doll, L S; Joy, D; Douglas, J M; Bolan, G; Harrison, J S; Moss, P M; McKirnan, D
From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending urban sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Sexual abuse was found to be significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV risk behavior including unprotected and intercourse and injecting drug use, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. Data suggest that sexual abuse may have a wide-ranging influence on the quality of life and health risk behavior of homosexual men. Increased awareness as to the potential outcomes of male sexual abuse is critically important to the design and implementation of medical and psychological services for sexually abused men.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the severity of the strategies through a Delphi study. Group psychological abuse was defined by the application of abusive strategies, their continued duration, and their ultimate aim, i.e., subjugation of the individual. The taxonomy showed adequate content validity. Experts’ judgments allowed for hierarchically organizing the strategies based on their severity, being the most severe those directed to the emotional area. Operationalizing, classifying, and organizing the strategies hierarchically contributes to a better delimitation of the phenomenon, which is useful for both the academic and applied fields. Se diseñó un estudio con el propósito de delimitar el abuso psicológico en grupos desde una aproximación psicosocial. A partir de una revisión de la literatura científica, se propuso una definición del fenómeno y una taxonomía de las estrategias de abuso psicológico en grupos. Un panel de 31 expertos evaluó el contenido de la taxonomía y juzgó la severidad de las estrategias a través de un estudio Delphi. El abuso psicológico en grupos es definido por la aplicación de estrategias abusivas, su duración continuada y su objetivo último, el sometimiento del individuo. La taxonomía mostró una adecuada validez de contenido. El juicio de expertos permitió jerarquizar las estrategias en función de su severidad, siendo las más severas aquellas que inciden en el ámbito emocional. Operativizar, clasificar y jerarquizar las estrategias contribuye a una mejor delimitación del fenómeno, útil tanto en el campo académico como en el aplicado.
Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R
This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.
Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.
Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.
This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress. PMID:19634364
Ginty, Annie T; Masters, Nicole A; Nelson, Eliza B; Kaye, Karen T; Conklin, Sarah M
Extreme cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress have been associated with traumatic life experiences. Previous studies have focused on the occurrence or frequency of abuse rather than type of abuse. We examined how occurrence, frequency, and the type of abuse history are related to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to acute psychological stress. The study consisted of between group and continuous analyses to examine the association between occurrence, type, and frequency of abuse with cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Data from 64 participants were collected. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during a standard mental arithmetic stress task. Individuals who experienced abuse showed diminished CVR to acute psychological stress; this was driven specifically by the history of sexual abuse. Frequency of abuse did not relate to stress reactions. These findings accord with previous work suggesting a relationship between traumatic life experience and hypoarousal in physiological reactivity and extend previous findings by suggesting the relationship may be driven by sexual abuse.
Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…
Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to new interventions that increase psychological ...
Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B
It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.
Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma
Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals' towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents.
Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.
Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…
father- daughter incest: Experiences of mothers following disclosure. Journal of Psychology in. Africa, 2007; 17 (1 & 2), 57-65. 16. Cohen, S., T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and. Social Behavior, 1983; 24,386-396. 17. Menon, A., B. Munalula& C. Glazebrook. Stress in.
Flett, Ross A; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Long, Nigel R; MacDonald, Carol; Millar, Michelle; Clark, Bronwyn; Edwards, Howard; Petrik, Alexandra M
In order to better understand the long-term impact of child sex abuse, this study examined the association between women's experience of abuse, health symptoms, and psychological distress in adulthood. There is limited information about child abuse outside the United States. Nine hundred sixty-one women participated in a structured interview. Participants who had experienced abuse (13%) were significantly more vulnerable to psychological distress in adulthood if they were younger, less satisfied with their standard of living, and resided in urban areas. Dissemination and evaluation of therapies for the treatment of sex abuse in the New Zealand context is warranted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The current study examines the utility of self-trauma theory for explaining the long-term impact of childhood psychological abuse on aggression. Specifically, the self-capacities of interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation are tested as mediators of the impact of psychological abuse on various types of aggression in adulthood.…
Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…
Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir
Many countries including Iran have a high rate of substance abuse. It is essential for public health and law enforcement strategies to know the causes and consequences of substance abuse and its relation to crimes. In a prospective case-control study, covering a period of one year starting from March 21, 2010, 125 cases with criminal behavior and 125 cases with no history of criminal behavior were studied. Eight percent of our studied population had a previous history of psychological disorder. Most of our cases were cigarette users (78.4%). Forty-two cases had a history of alcohol abuse (16.8%). Modern drugs were the most common type of drugs (56%) being used. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression revealed that criminal behavior was correlated with divorce (RR = 5.35; 95% CI = 1.59-16.01; P = 0.023), history of alcohol use (RR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.11-6.22; P = 0.027), history of psychological disorder (RR = 4.97; 95% CI = 1.44-17.20; P = 0.011), Modern drug use (RR = 4.86; 95% CI = 2.01-11.76; P = 0.001) and starting drug abuse at an early age (RR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.88-0.99; P = 0.03). Risk factors for criminal behavior among substance abusers include being divorced, history of alcohol abuse, history of psychological disorder, modern drug abuse and starting drug abuse at an early age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...
Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A
OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children.
This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.
Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.
This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…
Tiwari, A; Chan, KL; Fong, D; Leung, WC; Brownridge, DA; Lam, H; Wong, B; Lam, CM; Chau, F; Chan, A; Cheung, KB; Ho, PC
Objective The objective of this first population-based study in Hong Kong was to assess the impact of psychological abuse by an intimate partner on the mental health of pregnant women. Design Survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in seven public hospitals in Hong Kong. Population Three thousand two hundred and forty-five pregnant women. Methods The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) and demographic questionnaires were administered face-to-face at 32–36 weeks of gestation. At 1 week postpartum, the AAS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and SF-12 Health Survey were administered by telephone. Main outcome measures Intimate partner violence, postnatal depression and health-related quality of life. Results Two hundred and ninety six (9.1%) of the participants reported abuse by an intimate partner in the past year. Of those abused, 216 (73%) reported psychological abuse only and 80 (27%) reported physical and/or sexual abuse. Forty six (57.5%) in the physical and/or sexual abuse group also reported psychological abuse. Women in the psychological abuse only group had a higher risk of postnatal depression compared with nonabused women (adjusted OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.12–3.02). They were also at a higher risk of thinking about harming themselves (adjusted OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.49–8.20) and had significantly poorer mental health-related quality of life (P < 0.001). The higher risks of postnatal depression and thinking of harming themselves were not observed in the physical and/or sexual abuse group although significantly poorer mental health-related quality of life (P < 0.001) was observed. Conclusions Psychological abuse by an intimate partner against pregnant women has a negative impact on their mental health postdelivery. Furthermore, psychological abuse in the absence of physical and/or sexual abuse can have a detrimental effect on the mental health of abused women. The findings underscore the importance of screening pregnant women for abuse by an intimate partner and the
Suarez-Al-Adam, M; Raffaelli, M; O'Leary, A
This study investigated whether abuse and partner hypermasculinity influenced sexual behavior change among 46 Latinas (mean age = 34.5 years) who participated in an HIV prevention study. After completing a baseline interview, women were randomized to either an HIV prevention intervention or a health promotion control. Three months later, they took part in follow-up interviews, including an assessment of relationship characteristics. The majority (93%) of participants reported psychological abuse from their sexual partner during the study period, and over two fifths experienced physical abuse. Contrary to expectations, sexual behavior change was not related to abuse or partner hypermasculinity. However, women in the HIV prevention condition who gave their partner higher hypermasculinity ratings reported fewer conversations regarding condoms. Moreover, most of the sexual risk reduction observed at follow-up was the result of abstinence rather than consistent condom use. The findings provide insight into the reality that characterizes the relationships of many Latinas.
Dong, XinQi; Chen, RuiJia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa
Elder abuse and psychological distress are both important geriatric syndromes and are independently associated with premature morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances, there has been little systematic exploration of the association between elder abuse and psychological distress. This systematic review synthesizes the qualitative and quantitative studies on the relationship between elder abuse and psychological distress, namely psychological distress as a risk factor and/or a consequence of elder abuse. Moreover, through this review, future research directions for elder abuse and psychological distress and their implications for practice and policy to improve the health and aging of vulnerable populations are also highlighted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix
Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.
Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological…
Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Elmquist, JoAnna; Hecht, Michael; Miller-Day, Michelle; Stuart, Gregory L; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin
Existing literature indicates that acceptance of dating violence is a significant and robust risk factor for psychological dating abuse perpetration. Past work also indicates a significant relationship between psychological dating abuse perpetration and poor mental health. However, no known research has examined the relationship between acceptance of dating violence, perpetration of dating abuse, and mental health. In addition to exploring this complex relationship, the present study examines whether psychological abuse perpetration mediates the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and mental health (i.e., internalizing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility). Three waves of longitudinal data were obtained from 1,042 ethnically diverse high school students in Texas. Participants completed assessments of psychological dating abuse perpetration, acceptance of dating violence, and internalizing symptoms (hostility and symptoms of anxiety and depression). As predicted, results indicated that perpetration of psychological abuse was significantly associated with acceptance of dating violence and all internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, psychological abuse mediated the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and internalizing symptoms. Findings from the present study suggest that acceptance of dating violence is an important target for the prevention of dating violence and related emotional distress. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skirvin, W. J.; Berman, Mark L.
Article focuses upon the basic frame of reference and methodology of behavioral psychology, its relationship to architecture and the promise that synthesis of the two disciplines holds for education. (Author)
Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B
This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.
This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect) and sexual risk behavior. Analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were associated with adult sexual risk behavior. Multivariate analyses that controlled for all other forms of child maltreatment showed that only CSA was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior (i.e., percentage of episodes of unprotected sex in the past 3 months and number of lifetime partners). We found little support for an additive or an interactive model of the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior; CSA alone was the best predictor of adult sexual risk behavior. Sexual risk reduction interventions are needed for women who were sexually abused as children. Continued research on the effects of multi-type maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior is needed. PMID:20930181
Moran, Patricia M; Bifulco, Antonia; Ball, Caroline; Jacobs, Catherine; Benaim, Kate
Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating. The definition is clearly differentiated from other adverse experiences with emotionally abusive elements such as parental antipathy (hostile parenting), neglect, and role reversal. Examples are given. A community-based series of 301 women were interviewed using the extended CECA to gather a range of experiences of childhood maltreatment on which to devise the new measure. Interrater reliability was satisfactory, and several features of psychological abuse were examined, including its prevalence, frequency, and the characteristics of the abused child and perpetrator. The new scale is discussed in terms of its potential use not only by researchers but also by practitioners such as clinicians and social workers in the child protection field in order to more accurately identify and assess multiples of abuse in childhood. A companion article (Bifulco, Moran, Baines, Bunn, & Stanford, 2002) examines the relationship of psychological abuse to adult major depression.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Arabiat, Diana Hashem; Sato, Tokiko; Obaid, Batoul; Imoto, Atsuko
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital abuse and psychological well-being among women in the southern region of Jordan. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 915 women in the southern region of Jordan. Data collected were related to forms of marital abuse and six domains of psychological well-being. The analysis showed that women have moderate to high level of psychological well-being. The prevalence of ever being abused during the past 12 months ranged from 3.2% (n = 25) for being threatened with a knife to 45.1% (n = 348) for their husbands being unconcerned about them while they were sick. There were significant differences in marital abuse related to having ever had school education (χ(2) = 8.56, df = 2, p = .014). All forms of marital abuse were highly correlated (p < .01). Self-acceptance and environmental mastery domains of psychological well-being had negative and significant correlation with all forms of marital abuse (p < .01). DISCUSSION OF CONCLUSION: Health professionals in health care centers need to assess for marital abuse and its consequence on women's health. Interventions should emphasize promotion of psychological well-being and the factors that influence women empowerment.
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Smith, Roy H.; McCauley, Clark R.
College students (n=713) responded to questions about alcohol effects, their own alcohol use, and their beliefs about risks associated with alcohol use for college students in general and for themselves in particular. Knowledge did not predict reduced use or abuse patterns, nor did perceived risk of abuse for students in general. (Author/ABL)
would have the opportunity to conduct true interactionist research on leadership . Hollander’s (1978) transactional theory and Hersey and Blanchard’s...approach. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers. Kent,OH: Kent State University Press, 1975. 47 Hersey , P., & Blanchard , K. H...Interactional psychology organizational design organization theory person x situation interaction work socialization person-environment interaction
Elizabeth M. Saewyc; Lara Leanne Magee; Sandra E. Pettingell
...: Associations between pregnancy involvement, risk behaviors and sexual abuse were examined in sexually experienced teenagers from the Minnesota Student Surveys of 1992 (N=29,187) and 1998 (N=25,002...
Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Wright, Rosalind J.
Objectives. We examined the association between psychological abuse in a current relationship and current cigarette smoking among women, with and without the co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse. Methods. Women’s experience of psychological abuse, experience of physical or sexual abuse, and smoking status were ascertained through a survey of female nurses. A score of 20 or more on the Women’s Experience With Battering scale defined psychological abuse. We used logistic regression to predict current smoking, adjusting for demographic and social covariates. Analyses included women in a current relationship (n=54200). Results. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that women experiencing only psychological abuse alone were 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13%, 57%) more likely to smoke than nonabused women. Compared with nonabused women, psychologically abused women’s risk of smoking was greater if they reported a single co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; 95% CI=1.3, 1.8) or multiple co-occurrences (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.7, 2.3). Conclusions. Psychological abuse in a current relationship was associated with an increased risk of smoking in this cohort of largely White, well-educated, and employed women. The co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse enhanced that risk. Further research is needed to see if these associations hold for other groups. PMID:17600272
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Jumper, Shan A.
This meta-analysis found significant relationships between the experience of child sexual abuse and subsequent difficulties in psychological adjustment as measured by psychological symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem. Significant heterogeneity occurred across studies using different subject populations. Student samples consistently…
Rozhan Othman; Rasidah Arshad; Noor Azuan Hashim; Rosmah Md Isa
A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV) is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OC...
support to their children. INTRODUCTION. Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a pervasive travesty against the most vulnerable section of humanity, children. James and Gilliland have characterized it as a unique serious crime that threatens people of all ages and stations of life . Durand and Barlow characterize sexual abuse of ...
Ilie, Adina Carmen; Pîslaru, Anca Iuliana; Alexa, Ioana Dana; Pancu, Adriana; Gavrilovici, Ovidiu; Dronic, Aliona
Abuse of the elderly is a major issue debated worldwide. The most commonly identified form of abuse is the physical abuse. It is also the most frequently studied in the medical literature. However, at least six types of elder abuse are identified, and physical abuse is found in a small proportion of the cases. The consequences of abuse are frequent and, by prolonging hospitalizations, they will be associated with high costs of medical services, and patient's lack of self-confidence which, in time, may lead to social isolation, somatization, anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts. In this context, the identification and correction of psychological abuse becomes a desideratum of utmost importance for ensuring an optimal therapeutic response. This should be done by using a simple method that does not require qualified personnel, but allows the patient to be guided towards psychological consultation; this study was carried out with the help of the EASI EASI (The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index) questionnaire. We present the case of an 80-year old patient in a rural area, who has been hospitalized several times, admitted for numerous episodes of global cardiac decompensation (about four over the last year). The causes of cardiac decompensation were, systematically, non-compliance with treatment, regardless of all attempts to readjust and simplify the therapeutic schemes. The dynamic geriatric assessment showed a deterioration of the patient's mental and nutritional status and an accentuation of depression. The EASI questionnaire used during the last admission corroborated with the psychological consultation and detected several types of abuse: abandonment, negligence and financial abuse. Given that the complexity of care, the frequency of hospitalizations and the length of stay were reduced, therapeutic compliance increased and the mental and nutritional status improved after correcting the abuse.
The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga
Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie
This study examined the relations among women's experiences of abuse, forgiveness, revenge, psychological health, and physiological stress reactivity. Both dispositional (Study 1; N = 103) and state (Study 2; N = 258) forgiveness and vengeance were associated with psychological symptoms. However, the relation between revenge and greater depression was magnified among psychologically abused women, whereas-unexpectedly-the positive link between forgiveness and psychological health was strengthened among physically abused women. Moreover, while revenge coincided with increased cortisol reactivity following any relationship conflict, this was only evident for forgiveness following physical abuse. The complex interactions among these variables are discussed within a stress and coping framework.
Spinhoven, Philip; Bamelis, Lotte; Haringsma, Rimke; Molendijk, Marc; Arntz, Arnoud
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of decreasing, consistent and increasing reports of sexual and physical abuse after 12 months of long-term psychological treatment of personality disorders, to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of inconsistency of reporting abuse, and to explore whether autobiographical memory may account for this inconsistency. In 229 clinical participants with an SCID II diagnosed personality disorder, 180 (78.6%) reported the same instances of invasive sexual and/or physical abuse on a trauma questionnaire (SPAQ) at baseline and follow-up, 25 (10.9%) decreased and 24 (10.4%) increased their abuse reports. Consistency of reporting abuse did not differ between schema-focused therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy and treatment-as-usual. Current depressive episode (SCID-I) and decreased capacity to produce specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test were characteristic of decreasing abuse reporters, while increasing abuse reporters showed higher levels of Cluster A personality pathology (in particular schizotypal traits) on the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (ADP-IV). These results suggest that even in treatment procedures directed at exploring someone's personal past with abuse-related imagery consistency of reporting abuse is quite stable. However, certain clinical characteristics may make some persons more likely to change their trauma reports. Moreover, reduced negative memory specificity may represent an avoidant strategy associated with no longer reporting instances of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Butts, Hugh F.
The majority of models utilized in the formulation of the dynamics of child abuse rely upon an individual psychopathological frame of reference. Not only is this approach limited, but it renders primary preventive approaches virtually impossible. The author presents a social-psychological model, with the recommendation that it be applied among blacks. Essential to the model's applicability is the vulnerability of blacks to institutionalized racism and to the universal and destructive institutional abuse to which blacks are subjected. While often quite covert, this abuse is nonetheless extremely noxious, and serves to potentiate the view blacks have of themselves as undervalued individuals, and as individuals who have no alternative other than to commit abuse to others. Child abuse in blacks is viewed as reactive in nature—reactive to societal abuse. This adaptational model of child abuse, rather than precluding an individual psychopathological model, complements it. Use of this model should facilitate primary prevention with respect to child abuse. Current approaches to child abuse are comparable to “an ambulance service at the bottom of a cliff.” What is lacking is an approach that will “fix the road on the cliff that causes the accidents.” Only by examining the intricate interplay between individual and society can the factors that lead to child abuse be modified. PMID:501758
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso
This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Perry, Jennifer L; Carroll, Marilyn E
Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has recently been recognized as a factor contributing to enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present review, we focus on two facets of impulsivity (and tasks that measure them): (1) impulsive choice (delay discounting task) and (2) inhibitory failure (go/no-go, stop signal reaction time, and five-choice serial reaction time tasks). We also describe how performance on each of these tasks is associated with drug-related behavior during phases of drug abuse that capture the essential features of addiction (acquisition, escalation, and reinstatement of drug-seeking after drug access has terminated). Three hypotheses (H) regarding the relationship between impulsivity and drug abuse are discussed: (1) increased levels of impulsivity lead to drug abuse (H1), (2) drugs of abuse increase impulsivity (H2), and (3) impulsivity and drug abuse are associated through a common third factor (H3). Impulsivity expressed as impulsive choice or inhibitory failure plays a role in several key transition phases of drug abuse. There is evidence to support all three nonexclusive hypotheses. Increased levels of impulsivity lead to acquisition of drug abuse (H1) and subsequent escalation or dysregulation of drug intake. Drugs of abuse may increase impulsivity (H2), which is an additional contributor to escalation/dysregulation. Abstinence, relapse, and treatment may be influenced by both H1 and H2. In addition, there is a relationship between impulsivity and other drug abuse vulnerability factors, such as sex, hormonal status, reactivity to nondrug rewards, and early environmental experiences that may impact drug intake during all phases of addiction (H3). Relating drug abuse and impulsivity in phases of addiction via these three hypotheses provides a heuristic model from which future experimental questions can be addressed.
Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.
Results of clinical research involving specific subtypes of psychological disorders in elementary age children are reported. Compared to controls, emotionally disturbed children manifested greatest adaptive behavior deficits in socialization and maladaptive areas of functioning, with less predictable patterns of deficit in such areas as…
Hawkins, Russell; Teng Sze Wei, Stephanie
Experimental vignettes were used to investigate attributions relating to child sexual abuse with a focus on the degree of blame allocated to the family and to society, factors thought to be particularly relevant in a collectivist society. One hundred and sixty-two undergraduates in Singapore evaluated media reports describing a case of child sexual abuse. A 2 x 2 x 2 between-subjects design manipulated victim sex, perpetrator sex, and victim-perpetrator relationship. Participants rated the vignettes on degree of blame and prevention potential and rated the abusiveness of the case. Individualism and collectivism attitudes of the participants were also measured. While the highest blame ratings were attributed to perpetrators, significantly more blame was attributed to the family and to society than to the victim. The demonstration of the present attributions of blame to family and to society is a timely finding given recent recommendations to broaden approaches to child abuse prevention by moving away from a reliance on school based child protection programs, which leave the onus on the child to prevent and report abuse, toward a public health approach, which is particularly inclusive of parent and community education approaches . Allocation of some blame to victims, in spite of their status as children, while not a unique finding in victimology research, emphasizes the challenges still to be faced in encouraging the reporting of child sexual abuse.
Esser, Marissa B; Rao, Girish N; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Murthy, Pratima; Jayarajan, Deepak; Sethu, Lakshmanan; Jernigan, David H; Benegal, Vivek
In India, alcohol consumption per capita has increased in recent years, and child maltreatment is highly prevalent. We assess alcohol-related harms to children, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect, and correlates for men reporting these harms. We analysed data from household interviews collected in a cross-sectional, case-control study in five Indian states (n = 5026). Data were collected from October 2011 to May 2012. Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, we examined male adult's reports of five types of alcohol-related harm to children (respondents were not necessarily the perpetrators of the harms) and respondents' drinking patterns and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the reporting of these harms. In this sample, 43.2% of the men reported at least one alcohol-related harm to children in the past year; among them, 61.6% reported multiple. Among all men, 15.7% reported that a child experienced physical abuse from adults' drinking. Adjusting for respondents' drinking pattern and socio-demographics, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression showed that living in a rural area was associated with greater odds of reporting alcohol-related physical abuse, psychological harm and neglect to children. Compared with past-year abstainers, both non-heavy episodic and heavy episodic drinkers had significantly greater odds of reporting these harms. We found significant differences in the reporting of harms by location. This study suggests that adults' drinking is associated with physical and psychological abuse and neglect to children. Greater use of evidence-based alcohol policy interventions may help reduce alcohol-related harms to children in India. [Esser MB, Rao GN, Gururaj G, Murthy P, Jayarajan D, Sethu L, Jernigan DH, Benegal V, Collaborators Group on Epidemiological Study of Patterns and Consequences of Alcohol Misuse in India. Physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect: Evidence of alcohol-related harm
Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.
Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana
Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using the Child Maltreatment Scales for Adults, which assesses emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing family violence. Psychological adaptation was explored by the Trauma Symptom Checklist, which assesses anxiety/depression, sexual problems, trauma symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Strategies of coping with stress were explored by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Results Multi-type abuse in childhood was experienced by 172 participants (74%) and all types of abuse by 11 (5%) participants. Emotional and physical maltreatment were the most frequent types of abuse and mostly occurred together with other types of abuse. Significant association was found between all types of abuse (r = 0.436-0.778, P < 0.050). Exposure to sexual abuse in childhood and coping strategies were significant predictors of anxiety/depression (R2 = 0.3553), traumatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2299), somatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2173), and sexual problems (R2 = 0.1550, P < 0.001). Conclusion Exposure to multi-type abuse in childhood is a traumatic experience with long-term negative effects. Problem-oriented coping strategies ensure a better psychosocial adaptation than emotion-oriented strategies. PMID:20960590
Full Text Available The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate psychological prevention, timely and accurate identification of this phenomenon by psychologists. The author puts forward the problem of “starting point” of quantitative and qualitative transformations of child abuse syndrome in the family history, identifying possible problems and prospects for solving these problems. Particular attention is given to the time and the premises of origin acts attributed to manifestations of ill-treatment, in context of a specific family
Hartman, Georgia L.; And Others
Prosecuting and defense attorneys across Indiana were surveyed concerning the acceptability of specific behaviors associated with child abuse. Among respondents (n=154) prosecutors had more severe judgments than defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as an explanation for these findings. (Author/DB)
Smith, Noelle B; Monteith, Lindsey L; Rozek, David C; Meuret, Alicia E
Although childhood abuse is a well-known risk factor for suicide, no studies have investigated the role of interpersonal-psychological (Joiner, 2005), constructs in this association. This study examined whether childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse were associated with IPTS constructs, and whether depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Ninety-one participants completed self-report measures. Emotional abuse predicted perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Physical abuse predicted the acquired capability for suicide, although depression did not mediate this association. These findings suggest that specific types of abuse differentially predict IPTS components and underscore depression as a potential mechanism. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Myrick, Amie C
There is consensus that an integrated approach which addresses the clinical needs of individuals who have histories of substance abuse and psychological trauma concurrently is an acceptable and preferred approach to treatment. Several integrated models have emerged in recent years. In this paper we first define the concepts of substance abuse and psychological trauma, investigate the relationship between both and proceed to discuss why an integrated approach is most compelling. Finally, we review and critically examine the different integrated models that have been developed in terms of efficacy, effectiveness and empirical evidence. The paper concludes with suggestions on how the field can be improved.
Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Ma, Jingjing; Johnson, Russell E
The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nonetheless, not all caregivers are supportive of survivors; recent research findings, instead, show that incidents of CSA have debilitating psychological impact on survivors' caregivers which impair their functioning. This study explored whether a systematic link exists between an incident ofCSAand psychological changes ...
Spiller, Laura C.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A.
Objective Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women’s experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children’s disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers’ physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women’s sexual victimization and their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Method The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4–8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Results Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women’s experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children’s disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women’s experiences of sexual victimization and their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Conclusions This research suggests that physically abused women’s experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861
Bashirian, Saeid; Hidarnia, Alireza; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
Drug abuse is one of the important challenges in the field of mental health and adolescence health promotion. Because of the social and medical cost of drug abuse and its consequences among youth people, it is necessary to intervene effectively. This theoretical based study explained predictability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on drug abuse related behaviors among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hamadan City, western Iran, in 2011 among 650 male high school students, recruited randomly. All data were gathered by using self-report written questionnaires include attitudes, subjective, norms, perceived behavioral control and intention not to use drugs as theoretical constructs of TPB and drug abuse related behaviors. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude and subjective norms were the most influential predictors of intention to drug abuse. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse smoking experience (OR = 27.24 95% CI: 10.25, 72.40; P = 0.001), having parents of drug users (OR = 8.63 95% CI: 3.42, 21.81; P = 0.001), and having friends who had experienced drug (OR =1 1.06 95% CI: 4.24, 28.85; P = 0.001). Drug abuse preventative programs need to apply comprehensive theoretical based efforts for drug abuse preventative manipulations in school settings. Theory of planned behavior can be used properly and effectively for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.
Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.
Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Harper, Felicity W. K.; Austin, Amanda G.; Cercone, Jennifer J.; Arias, Ileana
This study determines the relationships between shame, anger, and men's perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships. The authors' hypothesize the connection between shame proneness and men's use of psychological abuse with a dating partner, with anger's mediating in this relationship. In addition, the authors' hypothesize that…
Research on child sexual abuse (CSA) suggest that support and protection from the caregiver provide the child an effective platform for quick recovery and improvement in mental health and social functioning. Nonetheless, not all caregivers are supportive of survivors; recent research findings, instead, show that incidents of ...
Igor ElmanDepartment of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USAI am grateful that about two years ago Dove Medical Press offered me the opportunity to edit the Journal of Psychology Research and Behavior Management. I find my work on the Journal to be a very gratifying experience and I particularly enjoy its eclectic multidisciplinary qualities that, by attracting contributions from a variety of perspectives and geographic locations, help to ease the artificial b...
Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.
Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.
Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants’ response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants’ estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming will be discussed. PMID:25455965
Porrúa-García, Clara; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Álvaro; Escartín, Jordi; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Almendros, Carmen; Martín-Peña, Javier
In the context of intimate partner violence, psychological abuse (PA) has progressively gained scientific relevance. Even so, a greater effort is needed to define and evaluate psychological intimate partner abuse. A new exhaustive and operative taxonomy of PA strategies leads to the contribution of a new evaluation instrument. Participants were 101 women between 24 and 82 years old, who were abused by their partners and attended to in different municipal Catalan services, specialized in the topic. The analyses have shown the suitability of a 19-item instrument divided into two factors: (1) direct PA strategies and (2) indirect PA strategies. The former includes strategies that affect the emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimension of the victim. The latter includes items that measure the amount of control and domination over the victim’s context. This scale has adequate psychometric properties in terms of score reliability and the validity of the relationship with other women’s health variables. The EAPA-P, created based on a new definition and taxonomy of the forms of PA, is presented as a valid instrument to detect and measure intimate partner PA.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Giordano, James; Boswell, Mark V; Fellows, Bert; Manchukonda, Rajeev; Pampati, Vidyasagar
Psychopathology (depression, anxiety, somatization disorder) and substance abuse (opioid misuse and illicit drug use) are common in patients with chronic pain and present problems for public health and clinical management. Despite a body of literature describing various methods for identifying psychopathology, opioid misuse, and illicit drug use in chronic pain patients, the relationship between psychopathologies, substance abuse, and chronic pain has not been well characterized. This report describes a total of 500 consecutive pain patients prescribed and receiving stable doses of opioids. The patients were evaluated for psychopathology, opioid abuse, and illicit drug use during the course of regular pain management treatment. The relationships between psychopathology and drug abuse and/or illicit drug use in chronic pain patients were examined, and psychological evaluation for depression, anxiety, and somatization disorder was performed. Depression, anxiety, and somatization disorder were documented in 59, 64, and 30 percent of chronic pain patients, respectively. Drug abuse was significantly higher in patients with depression as compared to patients without depression (12 percent with depression versus 5 percent without). Current illicit drug use was higher in women with depression (22 percent) than women without depression (14 percent) and in men with or without depression (12 percent). Current illicit drug use was also higher in men with somatization disorder (22 percent) than men without (9 percent). This study demonstrated that the presence of psychological features of depression and somatization disorder may be markers of substance abuse diathesis in chronic pain patients.
Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A; Murphy, Megan J
The purpose of the current study was to build on the existing literature to better understand young women's leaving processes in abusive dating relationships using a prospective design. Two social psychological models-the investment model and theory of planned behavior-were tested. According to the investment model, relationship continuation is predicted by commitment, which is a function of investment, satisfaction, and low quality of alternatives. The theory of planned behavior asserts that a specific behavior is predicted by an individual's intention to use a behavior, which is a function of the individual's attitudes toward the behavior, the subjective norms toward the behavior, and the individual's perceived behavioral control over the behavior. College women (N = 169 young women in abusive relatinships) completed surveys at two time points, approximately 4 months apart, to assess initially for the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a current relationship and investment model and theory of planned behavior variables; the purpose of the 4-month follow-up session was to determine if women had remained in or terminated their abusive relationship. Path analytic results demonstrated that both the theory of planned behavior and investment models were good fits to the data in prospectively predicting abused women's stay/leave decisions. However, the theory of planned behavior was a better fit to the data than the investment model. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…
Rowsell, A. C.; Clare, I. C. H.; Murphy, G. H.
Background: In other populations, the psychological impact of abuse has been conceptualized as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994), but little is known about whether this is appropriate for adults with severe intellectual disabilities and very limited communication skills. Methods: An…
Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.
Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.
This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…
Mirza Maria Pedrosa Porto de Mendonça
Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the opinion of professionals in law and health areas on the profile of the sexual abuser of children within the family and the effectiveness of the type of penalty he suffers. The offender is someone who probably does not enjoy enough sanity to control its inclination to unlawful and may or may not be classified as mentally ill. The research covers the incidence and effects of this event on intra-family life. Deals with this issue in order to establish a new legal paradigm in the context of the penalties in the most private sphere of criminal law. The work aims to demonstrate the social relevance of the topic and the need for an effective regulatory sweater for sexual abusers, especially the intra-family and makes a clear proposal for legislative changes with regard to this type of crime, arguing the need to adapt the law the objective reality. It argues that psychoanalytic treatment of offenders as a means of punishment is more important than the simple deprivation of liberty. It argues that the current legislation is incipient and inadequate for such cases and this opinion supported by a significant number of experts. This is not to defend this criminal who practice sexual abuse, but to seek solutions to impunity and respect for the principle of individualization of punishment.
Wyatt, Gail E; Loeb, Tamra B; Williams, John K; Davis, Teri D; Zhang, Muyu
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adult sexual abuse (ASA) and intimate partner violence (IVP) are documented risk factors for HIV infection and are often implicated in the presentation of mental health disorders in both males and females, including those who are vulnerable to HIV-infection (African-Americans; trauma survivors). As such, these issues may contribute to health-related challenges among couples, particularly if the individuals are impacted by histories of trauma and HIV. Presented here is a case study of one couple with self-reported histories of CSA and clinically significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This couple was selected from a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study of 535 African-American HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples (see El Bassel, 2010). The study couple completed 8 sessions of an HIV sexual risk reduction intervention program to increase condom use. Although the couple reported an initial increase in condom use at the immediate post intervention assessment, condom use decreased to baseline assessment levels at the 12-month post intervention assessment. The decrease in HIV-transmission protective behaviors over time (i.e., condom use), in part, may be attributable to the clinically significant psychological distress symptoms of PTSD and depression that were maintained from baseline, throughout the trial, and at follow-up assessments. We propose that the success of sexual risk reduction interventions may be attenuated and compromised over time by the presence of sexual trauma histories and the residual mental health issues. We discuss clinical implications for health care professionals in their work with couples, especially those from racially diverse groups.
DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine
This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…
Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John
The goal was to develop an empirically derived typology for sexually abused children exhibiting sexual behavior problems to assist practitioners in differential assessment, treatment, and case planning. Data were systematically gathered from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused children, aged 3 years to 7 years, enrolled in two treatment programs. Twelve indexes were created corresponding to major areas of child and family history, functioning, and treatment response. After initial sorting into subgroups based on the presence or absence of interpersonal sexual behavior problems, further subdivision was based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Five distinctive sexual behavior profiles emerged: (1) developmentally expected; and developmentally problematic (2) interpersonal, unplanned, (3) self-focused, (4) interpersonal, planned (noncoercive), and (5) interpersonal, planned (coercive). Elements of the child's sexual abuse experience, opportunities to learn/practice problematic sexual behavior, and familial variables best differentiated between the types. The five types differed not only in child sexual behavior but in most areas of child and family functioning, including treatment outcome. The findings offer support for the development of an empirically-based typology for children with sexual behavior problems utilizing a range of variables which go beyond typical classification systems based on offender and victim characteristics.
Landgraf, Steffen; von Treskow, Isabella
Hardly any subjects enjoy greater - public or private - interest than the art of flirtation and seduction. However, interpersonal approach behavior not only paves the way for sexual interaction and reproduction, but it simultaneously integrates non-sexual psychobiological and cultural standards regarding consensus and social norms. In the present paper, we use script theory, a concept that extends across psychological and cultural science, to assess behavioral options during interpersonal approaches. Specifically, we argue that approaches follow scripted event sequences that entail ambivalence as an essential communicative element. On the one hand, ambivalence may facilitate interpersonal approaches by maintaining and provoking situational uncertainty, so that the outcome of an action - even after several approaches and dates - remains ambiguous. On the other hand, ambivalence may increase the risk for sexual aggression or abuse, depending on the individual's abilities, the circumstances, and the intentions of the interacting partners. Recognizing latent sequences of sexually aggressive behavior, in terms of their rigid structure and behavioral options, may thus enable individuals to use resources efficiently, avoid danger, and extricate themselves from assault situations. We conclude that interdisciplinary script knowledge about ambivalence as a core component of the seduction script may be helpful for counteracting subtly aggressive intentions and preventing sexual abuse. We discuss this with regard to the nature-nurture debate as well as phylogenetic and ontogenetic aspects of interpersonal approach behavior and its medial implementation.
María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ
Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.
Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon
The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J
Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.
Wilsey, Barth L; Fishman, Scott M; Tsodikov, Alexander; Ogden, Christine; Symreng, Ingela; Ernst, Amy
We attempted to identify psychological comorbidities that are associated with the propensity for prescription opioid abuse. Patients presenting to an emergency department seeking opioid refills for chronic pain were evaluated with five validated self-report instruments and structured clinical interviews. The potential for prescription opioid abuse was modeled with multiple regression analysis using depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorder, and addiction as independent variables. Of the 113 patients studied, 91 (81%) showed a propensity for prescription opioid abuse as determined by scores on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain instrument. Depression, anxiety, and a history of substance were common and panic attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders were also found, albeit less frequently. Panic attacks, trait anxiety, and the presence of a personality disorder accounted for 38% of the variance in the potential for prescription opioid abuse. Patients in chronic pain should be assessed for psychological and addiction disorders because they are at increased risk for abusing opioids. They should also be referred for psychosocial treatment as part of their care, where appropriate.
Vitaro, F; Rorive, M; Zoccolillo, M; Romano, E; Tremblay, R E
This article examines coocurrence of three types of problems of adaptation during adolescence : abuse of psychotropic drugs, behavioral disorder (oppositional and behavioral disorders) and feelings of depression (depression and dysthymia). The study also examines behavioral, social as well as family characteristics which, during childhood, distinguish youths with many adaptation problems from those with only one or no problem. More than 1600 youths from all regions of Quebec participated in the study. These youths were around 15,7 years old when they completed an interview aiming at determining the possible presence of abusive use of psychotropic drugs, behavioral problems and feelings of depression. Their behavioral and sociofamilial characteristics had been previously evaluated (between the ages of 6 and 12) with questionnaires answered by parents and teachers. Results reveal that almost 10 % of youths experience two or three adaptation problems. These youths distinguish themselves from those with only one problem on various personal and sociofamilial dimensions in the course of childhood. Those with one problem represent a little more than 25 % of the sample. They also distinguish themselves from the group of youth with no problem on several variables. However, the group of youths with a problem of substance abuse only, is an exception. The discussion underlines the importance of knowing if there is simultaneous presence of several problems and proposes to intervene in a preventive fashion with youths who risk experiencing many problems.
Miley, W M
This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.
Fox, K M; Gilbert, B O
Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood incest (CI), and parental alcoholism (ACOA) were completed by 253 college women from introductory psychology classes at a large midwestern university. The relationship between these variables and the level of depression, self-esteem and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners was assessed. Support was found for an additive model of trauma that predicted a relationship between number of childhood traumas and adult outcomes. Limited support was found for a specificity model of trauma that predicted that specific childhood trauma would be predictive of parallel negative adult outcomes.
Coleman, Christopher Lance
Little is known about abuse experienced among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) who are 50 years and older. A series of focus groups were conducted to examine perspectives of seropositive African American MSM age 50 years and older who reported experiencing some form of psychological or physical abuse. Thirty African American MSM were divided into four focus groups and four themes emerged: "Fear Being Gay," "No One Else to Love Me," "Nowhere to Turn," and "Sexual Risk & Control." The data suggest there is a need to develop culturally tailored interventions for this population.
Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J
Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse.
Salo, Ruth; Fassbender, Catherine; Buonocore, Michael H.; Ursu, Stefan
Background The goal of this study was to extend our previous findings of abnormal prefrontal function in methamphetamine (MA) abusers and controls and to link the imaging data to behavioral, demographic and drug use variables. Methods We employed a fast-event related fMRI design to examine trial to trial reaction time (RT) adjustments in 30 MA abusers and 30 controls. A variant of the Stroop task was employed to measure influence of response conflict on RT, including the level of trial-to-trial RT adjustments seen after conflict trials. Results Compared to control subjects, MA abusers exhibited reduced RT adjustments and reduced activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after conflict trials. RT adjustment correlated negatively with PFC brain activity in the MA group, while a trend for a positive correlation was observed in controls. No correlations were observed between task performance or brain activity and age, education or drug use variables. Conclusions These data support our previous findings that the ability to adapt a behavioral response based on prior experience is compromised in MA abusers. Interestingly, these impairments do not appear to be linked to drug use patterns or to educational levels. PMID:23149023
Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T
Recent literature on exposure to domestic violence (DV) highlights the need for increased understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). The current aims were to explore whether two separate dimensions, physical and psychological DVA, were evident in adult children's reports of their exposure to DVA in their family of origin, and whether these dimensions affected psychological well-being and perceived satisfaction with emotional support (hereafter referred to as social support satisfaction). Young adults ( N = 465, aged 17-25, 70% female) reported their experiences of DVA as perpetrated by their parents/caregivers, as well as psychological well-being and social support satisfaction, in an online survey. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we verified the presence of a two-factor model (physical and psychological DVA). Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated the differing impact of these two factors: Specifically, although exposure to psychological DVA (domestic abuse [DA]) was related to reduced psychological well-being, there was no significant effect of exposure to physical DVA (DV). However, mediation analysis suggested the presence of a suppression effect; there was a magnification of the negative relationship between exposure to psychological DA and social support satisfaction when exposure to physical DV was accounted for. Although findings are preliminary, they provide strong evidence to support theoretical arguments regarding the need for future research to conceptualize exposure to DVA in terms of both physical and psychological dimensions. Our findings also highlight that to improve service response and provide effective interventions, it is essential to include exposure to psychological DA in risk assessments of such young adults.
and includes depression, bulimia and anorexia , anxiety, and alcohol and drug abuse. The second category consists of psychological problems related to... adolescents being at higher risk (Salter, 1992). Nationwide, child abuse reports, for all forms of abuse, increased 31% from 1985 to 1990 (Daro & McCurdy...Rowan & Foy, 1993), and bulimia nervosa (Pope & Hudson, 1992) in adults sexually abused as children. Watkins and Bentov.im (1992), in a comprehensive
Koby, Danielle G; Zirakzadeh, Ali; Staab, Jeffrey P; Seime, Richard; Cha, Steven S; Nelson, Cindy L; Sengem, Susan; Berge, Randy; Marshall, Eric A; Varner, Jean E; Vickers, Kristin S; Trenerry, Max R; Worrell, Gregory A
Past sexual trauma is frequently linked to the development of behavioral spells, present among 30% of patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring. Current attempts to verify and explore mechanisms in this reported association revealed that patients with epilepsy (n=58) and those with behavioral spells (n=38) did not differ in their self-report of past sexual trauma (among approximately 38% in each group). Ninety percent (90%) of men with behavioral spells endorsed past physical abuse, however, compared with 45% of men with epilepsy, and 40% of men with spells likely met current criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Among all patients, the presence of past physical, but not sexual, abuse positively predicted the diagnosis of spells rather than epilepsy. Current findings do not support a preponderance of sexual trauma in behavioral spells, yet within the subset of men with spells, greater exposure to physical abuse and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder may be important etiological and sustaining factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L; Bressi, Sara K
Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) are known to be at an increased risk of committing elder abuse, with much of this abuse occurring toward women. However, there is no evidence available speaking to the extent of this problem. The objective of the present study is to explore rates of abuse committed against older women by a relative with PD. In conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania, 217 women residing across the United States who are at least 55 years of age and who have a relative with PD completed an online survey. Analyses found that in the past 6 months 15% of survey respondents experienced physical abuse committed by their relative with PD, 20% experienced financial abuse, and 42% experienced psychological abuse. Given these high rates of abuse it is imperative that research into factors predicting abuse be conducted, as such information would help target and determine the nature of interventions.
Full Text Available Drug use remains today one of the health problems of greatest concern to society. According to the most recent state epidemiological data, women's consumption continuously increases, becoming more and more similar to that of men. However, this same trend does not occur in terms of access to treatment, and when women seek treatment, there is a marked difficulty in adherence to treatment as abandoning it is often the case. Such is the importance of meeting the specific needs of substance-abusing women, that it is even highlighted as a priority and an integral element of the latest Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 (Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas, 2013a. In this sense, at the empirical level, researchers have started to study the possible differences men and women may present in drug treatment, as well as the development of a gender-specific treatment. The aim of this theoretical review paper is to analyze the elements that characterize drug dependent women, establishing what aspects should be taken into account in the intervention with women from previous research or from on-going research, suggesting its implementation and future research directions.
Full Text Available The results of the joint psychiatric-psychological examination of 175 victims of child sexual abuse (CSA are presented. A complex of methods and techniques was used, including semi-structured interview for detection of posttraumatic stress in children, inventories for quality of life and maladjustment assessment, a battery of methods applied in the forensic psychiatric-psychological expertise, statistical methods. In the framework of the clinical and psychological (non-clinical levels psychological consequences of CSA in accordance with the psychic state of victims were revealed. 4 groups of consequences with different intensity are described: psychogenic state in form of disorder (1 and psychogenic state in form of reaction (2 (clinical level; unfavorable psychological state (3 and minimally unfavorable state (4 (psychological level. It was stated that the more severe is the victim’s psychic disturbance, from minimally unfavorable to psychic disorder, the broader is the range of psychological, personality spheres involved the bigger is the number and the intensity of symptoms of posttraumatic reactions. Psychological consequences displayed by mentally healthy victims of CSA indicate, though, their quality of life impairment.
Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes
Annerbäck, E-M; Sahlqvist, L; Svedin, C G; Wingren, G; Gustafsson, P A
To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in 2 different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (n=7,262). The response rate was 81.8%. The pupils were asked among other things about their exposure to child physical abuse, exposure to parental intimate violence, bullying, and exposure to being forced to engage in sexual acts. Adjusted analyses were conducted to estimate associations between exposure and ill-health/risk-taking behaviors. Child physical abuse was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.6 to 6.2. The associations were stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse with OR ranging from 2.0 to 13.2. Also experiencing parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with the same graded relationship to repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse and the associations increased with the number of concurrent abuse. This study provides strong indications that child abuse is a serious public health problem based on the clear links seen between abuse and poor health and behavioral problems. Consistent with other studies showing a graded relationship between experiences of abuse and poor health/risk-taking behaviors our study shows poorer outcomes for repeated and multiple abuse. Thus, our study calls for improvement of methods of comprehensive assessments, interventions and treatment in all settings where
Romans, S E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; O'Shea, M L; Mullen, P E
The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE 'case' or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes. In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother-father and parent-child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome. Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure. A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.
Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja
The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of multiple interpersonal traumas on psychiatric diagnosis and behavior problems of sexually abused children in Korea. With 495 children (ages 4-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Korea, we found significant differences in the rate of psychiatric diagnoses (r = .23) and severity of behavioral problems (internalizing d = 0.49, externalizing d = 0.40, total d = 0.52) between children who were victims of sexual abuse only (n = 362) and youth who were victims of interpersonal trauma experiences in addition to sexual abuse (n = 133). The effects of multiple interpersonal trauma experiences on single versus multiple diagnoses remained significant in the logistic regression analysis where demographic variables, family environmental factors, sexual abuse characteristics, and postincident factors were considered together, odds ratio (OR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.25, 0.77], p children with multiple interpersonal traumas are clearly at a greater risk for negative consequences following sexual abuse. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Cepeda, M Soledad; Fife, Daniel; Kihm, Mary A; Mastrogiovanni, Greg; Yuan, Yingli
This study compared the risks of opioid shopping behavior and opioid abuse between tapentadol immediate release and oxycodone immediate release and, to validate the definition of shopping, examined the association between opioid shopping and opioid abuse further. This retrospective cohort study using linked dispensing and diagnosis databases followed opioid-naive patients for development of shopping behavior and/or opioid abuse during 1 year after initial exposure to tapentadol or oxycodone. Shopping was defined by having overlapping opioid prescriptions from >1 prescriber filled at ≥3 pharmacies; abuse by having International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision diagnoses reflecting opioid abuse, addiction, or dependence. To determine their association, we cross-tabulated shopping and opioid abuse and calculated odds ratios. Risks of developing each outcome were estimated using logistic regression. Among 277,401 participants initiating opioid use with tapentadol (39,524) or oxycodone (237,877), 0.6% developed shopping behavior, 0.75% developed abuse. Higher proportions of patients in the oxycodone group developed shopping behavior and abuse than in the tapentadol group (shopping: adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.45 [0.36-0.55]; abuse: 0.44 [0.37-0.54]). Shopping behavior and abuse were associated; of those with shopping behavior, 6.5% had abuse. Age (18 to 64 y), sex (male), prior benzodiazepine use, paying cash, and history (mood disorders, abuse of nonopioid medications, and back pain) were risk factors for developing either outcome. Shopping behavior and abuse measure complementary, but associated, constructs, which further validates the current definition of shopping. The risk of developing either is lower among patients who initiate opioid use with tapentadol than those who initiate opioid use with oxycodone.
Choi, Hyungin; Yamashita, Tatsuhisa; Wada, Yoshihisa; Narumoto, Jin; Nanri, Hiromi; Fujimori, Akihito; Yamamoto, Haruka; Nishizawa, Susumu; Masaki, Daiki; Fukui, Kenji
This study was conducted to examine factors associated with postpartum depression and abusive behavior in mothers with infants. Data were collected from baby check-ups in Japan and 413 participants were included in an analysis using: (i) an Original Questionnaire; (ii) the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS); (iii) the Parental Bonding Instrument; and (iv) the Childcare Anxiety Scale (CAS). Covariance structural analyses were performed to examine interconnections among the Parental Bonding Instrument subscales, CAS subscales ('worry about parenting', 'burden of nursing time', 'difficulty of bonding'), ZSDS, 'fear of being abusive', and 'abusive behavior'. Of the 413 mothers, 14.5% showed higher than moderate levels of depression (ZSDS > or = 50). In covariance structural analyses, 'depression' was strongly influenced by 'worry about parenting' in all variances, but was not associated with 'abusive behavior'. 'Worry about parenting' also had a strong influence on 'fear of being abusive', but did not affect 'abusive behavior'. Low 'maternal care' had most influence on 'difficulty of bonding', and 'difficulty of bonding' only affected 'abusive behavior'. The outcome of this study suggests that excessive worrying related to postpartum depression, 'fear of being abusive', and bonding difficulty are primary predictors of child abuse. Postpartum depression was not a predictor for abusive behavior after exclusion of the impact of bonding difficulties on abusive behavior. Therefore, the correlation between postpartum depression and abusive behavior identified in previous reports may have been influenced by bonding difficulties.
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Background: In view of the estimation that around one fifth of individuals abused in childhood will develop psychological difficulties which require professional input there is a high chance that counselling psychology trainees will encounter adult survivors in their practice. Counselling psychology trainees are continuously faced with philosophical and practical challenges when they seek to integrate psychological models into their practice. The critical literature review discusses the conte...
Full Text Available Taking a psychosocial perspective this study analyses the components of psychological abuse in intimate adult partner violence against women. Following a review of studies on the subject the main objective that emerged was the need for a new taxonomy of psychological abuse strategies, one which should include their corresponding operational definitions. The proposed new classification was then evaluated by means of a Delphi study involving 32 experts from the academic and professional worlds. These experts were asked to assess the suitability of the system categories and to rate the severity of the impact made by each of the strategies on the global phenomenon of psychological abuse in couples. The results show that the experts ratified the new classification of strategies and the corresponding operational definitions, thereby endorsing their content and construct validity. When rating the strategies according to the severity of their impact, those of an emotional nature were considered the most severe, followed by those related to the immediate context, those of a cognitive nature and, finally, behavioural strategies. We discuss the results and their implications.
Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.
Gilan, Nader Rajabi; Zakiei, Ali; Reshadat, Sohyla; Komasi, Saeid; Ghasemi, Seyed Ramin
The harmful effects of sedative medications and substances in conjunction with limited research regarding predictive psychological constructs of drug abuse necessitate further investigation of associated factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the roles of perceived stress, alexithymia, and psychological health as predictors of sedative abuse in medical students. In this cross-sectional study, 548 students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were obtained using the Perceived Stress Scale, an alexithymia scale (Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), and a General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological health. Data were analyzed using discriminant analyses. The results demonstrated that the user and non-user of sedative substances groups had significantly different predictive variables (except for social function disorder) (P>0.05). Physical complaints, alexithymia, and perceived stress, which had standard coefficients of 0.80, 0.60, and -0.27, respectively, predicted sedative drug use. The results of the present study indicate that perceived stress, alexithymia, physical complaints, anxiety, and depression are associated with sedative drug abuse.
Vukomanovic Ivana Simic
Full Text Available Abuse in younger populations has been an issue of growing concern globally since youth already face various life situations that can heighten the occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and psychological abuse and its correlation with depressive and anxiety symptoms among students.
Cepeda, M. Soledad; Fife, Daniel; Kihm, Mary A.; Mastrogiovanni, Greg; Yuan, Yingli
Objectives: This study compared the risks of opioid shopping behavior and opioid abuse between tapentadol immediate release and oxycodone immediate release and, to validate the definition of shopping, examined the association between opioid shopping and opioid abuse further. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study using linked dispensing and diagnosis databases followed opioid-naive patients for development of shopping behavior and/or opioid abuse during 1 year after initial ex...
Full Text Available A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. It is argued that the antecedents of PCV lead to a sense of injustice. These will then create the emotional response that is indicative of PCV. It is also argued that an outcome of this PCV experience is reduced OCB and the emergence of a new outlook towards employment relationship. Data was collected from a Malaysian company that initiated a voluntary separation scheme as part of an effort to downsize its work force. The finding of this study provides partial support for the model.
Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between experiencing household dysfunction and substance abuse in adulthood among Jamaican university students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which consisted of university students who were 18 years or older. Systematic sampling techniques were utilized to identify participants spanning across all faculties of a single university. The questionnaire utilized for this study included questions from several standardized scales: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission/Organization of American States (CICAD/OAS drug use questionnaire and the household dysfunction scale from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE questionnaire. Results:A total of 382 students participated in the study (279 females and 103 males. More than a third of the students (38.9% reported substance use, with 13.6% being substance abusers. Seven of every ten respondents were raised in a dysfunctional household. A significant positive relationship was observed between household dysfunction and substance abuse, where higher levels of household dysfunction were found to be associated with substance abuse: χ2 (2, n = 382 = 7.685, p < 0.05. Additionally, witnessing a mother or caregiver being violently treated, living with an alcoholic family member or a household member who attempted suicide was found to be associated with substance abuse during adulthood. Conclusion:These findings highlight the role of household dysfunction as a serious risk factor for adult drug abuse and can be used to help guide and inform drug prevention and intervention strategies.
Full Text Available Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS (N = 9,316. Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women’s mental health.
Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan
Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health.
Greenwald, Evan; And Others
Comparison of psychological and sexual functioning of 54 women sexually abused as children and 54 nonabused women found no differences in self-esteem, but abused women reported more symptoms of distress and psychological symptoms previously associated with sexual abuse. No differences in self-reported sexual satisfaction or dysfunction were found.…
Mokhber, Naghmeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Bananaj, Atiolreza
Background Drug abuse is a disorder associated with unhealthy pattern of drug consumption and is a widespread social delinquent both in society and at home. There have only been a few studies conducted on the frequency and types of harmful behaviors among drug abusers. Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of harmful behaviors in people who are suffering from drug abuse. Patients and Methods The population was comprised of all the patients with drug abuse diso...
Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel
Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.
Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T
The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.
Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; O'Leary, K Daniel; Pryor, Aurora D; Vivian, Dina
The present study evaluated the importance of multimodal assessment of childhood verbal abuse (CVA) in pre-bariatric surgery psychological evaluations, and the role of CVA as a predictor of depression. Data from the psychological evaluations of 184 pre-bariatric surgery patients were retrospectively examined. Using two self-report measures and an interview-based screen, 52.2 % of participants reported experiencing some form of CVA; conversely, assessments of CVA based on only one measure yielded significantly lower prevalence rates. Endorsement of CVA on multiple measures was associated with more severe depressive symptomatology and greater likelihood of mood disorder diagnosis. Based on these data, a self-report measure and interview-based screen for CVA should be included in pre-bariatric psychological evaluations; either of these assessments may be conducted via a single-item screen. Lastly, patients who endorse CVA on multiple measures should be monitored closely for symptoms of depression post-surgery.
Valente, Sharon M
Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.
Dong, X.Q.; Simon, M.A.; Beck, T.T.; Farran, C.; McCann, J.J.; Mendes de Leon, C.F.; Laumann, E.; Evans, D.A.
Background Elder abuse is a pervasive human right and public health issue. Objectives We aimed to examine the mortality associated with elder abuse across levels of psychological and social factors. Methods The Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is a prospective population-based cohort study that began in 1993. A subset of these participants enrolled between 1993 and 2005 had elder abuse reported to social services agencies (n = 113). Mortality was ascertained during follow-up and with the National Death Index. Psychosocial factors (depression, social network and social engagement) were assessed during the CHAP interview. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the mortality of elder abuse across levels of psychosocial factors using time-varying covariate analyses. Results The median follow-up time for the cohort (n = 7,841) was 7.6 years (interquartile range 3.8–12.4 years). In multivariate analyses, those with highest (hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% CI 1.58–4.28) and middle levels (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.19–3.99) of depressive symptoms had an increased mortality risk associated with elder abuse. For social network, those with lowest (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.62–3.87) and middle levels (HR 2.65, 95% CI 1.52–4.60) of social network had increased mortality risk associated with elder abuse. For social engagement, those with lowest (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.47–3.68) and middle levels (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.65–5.45) of social engagement had increased mortality risk associated with elder abuse. Among those with lowest levels of depressive symptoms, highest levels of social network and social engagement, there was no significant effect of reported or confirmed elder abuse on mortality risk. Conclusion Mortality risk associated with elder abuse was most prominent among those with higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social network and social engagement. PMID:21124009
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David
Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.
Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K
Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.
Katz, C; Barnetz, Z
The aim of the current study is to identify how children describe their behavior during abuse and to explore their behavior further with respect to the type of the abuse (physical or sexual), frequency of abuse (single or multiple incidents), familiarity with the suspect, and children's age and gender, with the assumption that this information may have a significant effect on the children's recovery process. The study involved 224 transcripts of interviews with alleged victims aged 5-14 in Israel. The sample was randomly selected from all of the forensic investigations with children that were conducted in Israel in 2011. The results show that abuse type has a strong effect on children's behavior, with children in the sexual abuse group reporting more fight and flight behavior and children in the physical abuse group reporting more self-change behavior. This finding was interacted with the severity of abuse variable, with children in the sexual abuse group reporting less flight behavior and an increase in the self-change behavior with the highest level of severity of abuse (touch under the clothes and penetration). Investigative interviews with children can be a significant source of information for practitioners within the clinical context. The current study stresses the consequences that abuse can have on children's behavior during these incidents and the implications for the therapy process with the children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stover, Carla Smith; Hall, Chelsea; McMahon, Thomas J; Easton, Caroline J
The relationship between fatherhood and both psychiatric distress and severity of substance abuse (SA) among men entering SA treatment has not been well explored. This study was designed to (a) examine differences in symptoms of men presenting for SA assessment based on fatherhood status and (b) determine how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and severity of SA were associated with parenting for men who were fathers. PTSD symptoms, severity of SA, and parenting data reported on structured questionnaires were collected from 126 men presenting for an SA evaluation at a forensic drug diversion clinic. There were no differences in severity of alcohol or drug use between fathers and nonfathers; however, fathers with more PTSD symptoms reported greater severity of alcohol and drug use. Among the fathers, PTSD symptoms correlated significantly and positively with negative parenting behaviors, whereas SA did not. Fathers with more significant PTSD symptoms were more likely to want help with parenting. Further exploration of the impact of trauma-related symptoms on the parenting behaviors of substance-abusing men is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Using data from Argentina's National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women's vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less "formal" long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.
Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.
Saeid Bashirian; Alireza Haidarnia; Hamid Allahverdipour; Ebrahim Hajizadeh
Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students ...
Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Mankowski, Eric; Bloom, Tina; Campbell, Jacquelyn
This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors…
Trezza, V.; Baarendse, P.J.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917
Rationale Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is
Brodsky, Beth S.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara; Tin, Adrienne; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Zelazny, Jamie; Burke, Ainsley Keller; Melhem, Nadine; Brent, David
Background Self-reported childhood sexual abuse is associated with major depression and with suicidal behavior. The current study investigates the relationship between reported childhood abuse and the familial transmission of suicidal behavior and other related risk factors. Method 507 offspring of 271 parent probands with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were compared according to the reported childhood abuse history on demographic, diagnostic, and clinical variables related to risk for suicidal behavior. Both self-report and clinical interview measures assessed history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. The study was conducted from May 1997 to February 2004. Results Reported childhood sexual abuse, but not physical abuse, in the proband correlated with suicide attempts, posttraumatic stress disorder, earlier onset of major depressive disorder, higher levels of impulsivity, and greater likelihood of childhood sexual abuse in the offspring and was rarely perpetrated by the affected parent. A reported history of childhood physical abuse was related to more lifetime aggression in the offspring. Conclusions Reported childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for suicidal behavior in parent and offspring. Transmission of suicide risk across generations is related to the familial transmission of sexual abuse and impulsivity. Sexual abuse is not directly transmitted by the victim to the next generation and may be related to family dynamics related to sexual abuse. PMID:18373384
Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack; Luke, Carter; Ascione, Frank
Criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, results show an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behavior, but not violence alone. Implications of these findings…
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C
The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.
Ganz, D; Sher, L
Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems.
Diploma thesis "Behavioral symptoms in sexually abused children, families access and response of social workers" focuses on clarifying the issue of child sexual abuse and its course. The introductory chapters deal with explaining the concept of sexual abuse and the possible occurrence. It characterized by potential victims, offenders and the possible risks. The work focuses on social and psychosomatic manifestations of children who are victims of sexual abuse. It compares the responses of chi...
... situations (like the loss of a job or marriage problems) may lash out at others inappropriately. Also, ... and learn ways to stop. What Are the Effects of Abuse? When people are abused, it can ...
Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez
Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.
Wardecker, Britney M; Edelstein, Robin S; Quas, Jodi A; Cordon, Ingrid M; Goodman, Gail S
Traumatized individuals are often encouraged to confront their experiences by talking or writing about them. However, survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) might find it especially difficult to process abuse experiences, particularly when the abuse is more severe, which could put them at greater risk for mental health problems. The current study examined whether CSA survivors who use emotion language when describing their abuse experiences exhibit better mental health. We analyzed the trauma narratives of 55 adults who, as children, were part of a larger study of the long-term emotional effects of criminal prosecutions on CSA survivors. Abuse narratives were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. We examined whether positive and negative emotion language in participants' abuse narratives were associated with self- and caregiver-reported mental health symptoms and whether these associations differed according to the severity of the abuse. As hypothesized, participants who used more positive and negative emotion language had better psychological outcomes, especially when the abuse was severe. Our findings suggest that survivors of more severe abuse might benefit from including emotion language, whether positive or negative in valence, when describing the abuse.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Narcotics addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychological disorder, which is associated with severe motivational disorders and loss of behavioural control. Addiction and abuse of narcotic substances have various predisposing factors in the areas of attitude, environment, and society. On the other hand, previous researches have shown that addiction causes transformation in the perception of social issues and type of attitude toward this problem. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between abuse of narcotic substances and psychological obstinacy, quality of life, and self-concept in the addicts. Methods: This research was a correlational study. Statistical population included individuals covered by addiction withdrawal centers of Qom city, who were selected (250 subjects by convenience sampling. Data collection was performed using drug screening, self-concept, psychological obstinacy and quality of life questionnaires. To analyse the data, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression tests, were used. Results: There was a significant negative correlation at the 0.05 level, between narcotics abuse and psychological obstinacy (-0.531. On the other hand, there was a significant negative correlation at the 0.05 levels, between narcotics abuse and quality of life (0.285. Also, there was a significant negative correlation at the 0.05 levels, between narcotics abuse and self-concept (-0.475. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there is significant correlation (in 0.05 levels between narcotics abuse and psychological obstinacy, life quality, and self-concept, and individuals with higher narcotic abuse have lower psychological obstinacy, quality of life, and self-concept.
Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause
The article is devoted to individual differences in psychological characteristics, the influence of genotype and environment on individual diff erences in evoked potential of brain related to the execution of motor action, the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual characteristics of the parameters of sensorimotor activity, genetic and environmental factors in development of psychological traits.
Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E
Background This exploratory study examined the psychological and substance abuse symptoms and motivations associated with adolescents’ medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. We compared three groups of adolescents: 1) those who never used an opioid analgesic; 2) those who used a prescribed opioid analgesic (medical users); and 3) those who used someone else’s opioid analgesics (nonmedical users). Nonmedical use was defined as using someone else’s opioid analgesic medication. Comparisons among the groups were made on psychological and substance abuse symptoms as well as motivations to engage in nonmedical use. Methods A web-based survey, the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS) was administered to a sample of students who attended one of five secondary schools in southeastern Michigan. The sample included 2,627 respondents and was evenly distributed by sex and grade. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) were White/Caucasian and 29.5% African-American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD=1.9). Results Seventy percent (70.4%, n=1850) reported never using opioid analgesics in their lifetimes. Of the remaining 24.5% (n=644) of opioid analgesic users, most were medical users. However, 3.5% (n=92) were classified as nonmedical users who used someone else’s medication for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n=41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g. to get high). In contrast to never users, both medical users and nonmedical users reported more substance abuse symptoms and symptoms associated with pain. Further, those nonmedical users who used opioids to sensation seek had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. Conclusions These data: 1) provide additional support for the existence of distinct subgroups of adolescent opioid analgesic users; 2) provide evidence of psychological symptoms associated with nonmedical use; and 3) highlight the psychological differences among nonmedical users who self-treat for pain versus
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R.
Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research…
Creech, Suzannah; Davis, Kristina; Howard, Margaret; Pearlstein, Teri; Zlotnick, Caron
Research on psychological violence has suggested it is common among perinatal women and is predictive of later physical violence. Psychological violence is also a strong correlate of negative mental and physical health outcomes and may influence engagement in health services. Both physical and mental health care are of critical importance for perinatal women who may be especially vulnerable to psychological violence and its deleterious effects. This study examined the clinical records of 299 perinatal patients who received treatment in a psychiatric partial hospital program to determine whether there were differences in utilization of care between those women with and without current interpersonal psychological abuse. More women than expected who reported current psychological abuse left treatment early compared to those without such reports.
Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter
Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6...
Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274
Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and
Merrick, Melissa T; Litrownik, Alan J; Everson, Mark D; Cox, Christine E
This study sought to broaden research findings linking maltreatment to sexualized behaviors by investigating whether maltreatment experiences other than sexual abuse predict such behaviors. The sample included 690 children without reported sexual abuse histories who are participants in the LONGSCAN Consortium, a prospective multisite investigation of childhood maltreatment. Child Protective Service reports before age 8 years and caregiver reports on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory-II at age 8 years were used to examine the relationship between maltreatment timing and type, and sexualized behaviors. Logistic regression analyses suggested that early (abuse were associated with more sexualized behaviors (odds ratios = 1.9-2.6). The pattern differed by gender, with physical abuse predicting sexual intrusiveness and displaying private parts in boys, and boundary problems in girls. Findings suggest that maltreatment other than sexual abuse, and the developmental periods in which it occurs, may be linked to the development of sexualized behaviors.
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…
Eklund, A.; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.
Background: Psychological, behavioral and social factors have long been considered important in the development of persistent pain. Little is known about how chiropractic low back pain (LBP) patients compare to other LBP patients in terms of psychological/behavioral characteristics. Methods......: The data show statistically significant overall differences across samples for the subgroups based on psychological and behavioral characteristics. The cluster classifications placed (in terms of the proportions of the adaptive copers and dysfunctional subgroups) sample A between B and the two secondary...... care samples C and D. Conclusions: The chiropractic primary care sample was more affected by pain and worse off with regards to psychological and behavioral characteristics compared to the other primary care sample. Based on our findings from the MPI-S instrument the 4 samples may be considered...
Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Morris, Edward K
Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a ...
Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L
A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey
Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…
Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.
We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...
K A Ivanenko
Full Text Available This article reviews the current models of the voter behavior and proves the need in creating a new overarching conceptual framework, finding the integral social-psychological factor of the voter decision making. The public opinion is regarded as such a factor. The article presents the findings of the latest psychological research, devoted to the analysis of the connection between the different components of public opinion and electoral behavior.
Mustafa, M.; Martin, L; Hughes, M.
Despite the importance of middle managers’ entrepreneurial behavior for corporate entrepreneurship, there is still a lack of knowledge about its determinants. Knowledge of the role of individual psychological states and work attitudes remains particularly thin. Through an empirical investigation into 136 middle managers in a large Singapore telecommunications firm, this study finds that psychological ownership is positively related to entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction within these...
Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla
This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.
Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India.
Serafim, Antonio de Pádua; Saffi, Fabiana; Rigonatti, Sérgio Paulo; Casoy, Ilana; Barros, Daniel Martins de
CONTEXTO: A prática de abuso sexual contra crianças é um fenômeno universal. Ela ocorre em todos os tempos e lugares e atinge todas as classes socioeconômicas. Enquanto a maioria dos estudos investiga as vítimas, os poucos estudos sobre agressores se concentram principalmente em dados demográficos. OBJETIVO: Apresentar revisão da literatura quanto à classificação de molestadores sexuais de crianças, de acordo com o perfil psicológico e comportamental. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura e discussã...
Al-Anani, Hanan Abd Al-Hameed
The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of parental abuse and psychological security of the child, as well as the degree differences of these variables, based on the gender, the age and place of residency. The aim of this study also was to detect the relationship between parental abuse and the psychological security of the child. The…
Priebe, Kathlen; Steil, Regina; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Dyer, Anne S; Krüger, Antje; Bohus, Martin
There is an ongoing debate how to treat posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse. In Germany patients mostly receive a psychodynamically oriented treatment with a long-lasting stabilization before the use of exposure-based interventions. The number of randomized controlled trials on posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse is quite limited. The results of these studies show that cognitive-behavioral trauma-focussing interventions are very efficacious with large effect sizes. 2 controlled studies on psychodynamically oriented treatment found only small improvements in posttraumatic symptoms. The high dropout rates in prolonged exposure especially in patients with co-occurring personality disorders point towards the need of a emotion regulation training before the exposure phase. Future studies should include subgroup-analyses and the assessment of adverse effects during therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kussin-Shoptaw, Alexandra L; Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J
Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse. Participants were African American/Black (33.3%), Caucasian/White (28.3%), or Hispanic/Latina (24.2%). Average age was 35 years (standard deviation [SD] = 9), and 37.4% of participants self-reported an HIV-positive status. Most (84.9%) participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lifetime, and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) among those who reported abuse were more severe than those observed in cisgender psychiatric in-patient populations. After controlling for participant sociodemographics, prior experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased psychological and emotional distress across all measured symptom domains except psychoticism [χ 2 (9) = 17.56; p < 0.05]. Given these associations as well as the high prevalence of physical and/or sexual abuse among transgender women, mental health professionals and social service providers working with this population should be sensitive to the abuse history and mental health needs of the transgender women with whom they work.
Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E
Approximately 18% of US adolescents engaged in prescription opioid abuse in 2013. However, this estimate may be misleading because it includes both medical misusers and nonmedical users, and there is evidence that these are 2 groups that differ relative to substance abuse and criminal risk. Thus, this study does not combine medical and nonmedical users; rather, it seeks to better understand the characteristics of nonmedical users. This was a school-based, cross-sectional study that was conducted during 2009-2010 in southeastern Michigan with a sample of 2627 adolescents using a Web-based survey. Three mutually exclusive groups were created based on responses regarding medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. Group 1 had never used an opioid analgesic, Group 2 used an opioid analgesic only as prescribed, and Group 3 nonmedically used an opioid analgesic. In addition, Group 3 was divided into 2 mutually exclusive subgroups (self-treaters and sensation-seekers) based on reasons for nonmedical use. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine if the groups differed on the presence of pain, psychological symptoms (e.g., affective disorder, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), and drug abuse. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) of the sample was white/Caucasian and 29.5% was African American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.9). Seventy percent (70.4%; n = 1850) reported no lifetime opioid use, 24.5% (n = 644) were medical users, 3.5% (n = 92) were nonmedical users who used for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n = 41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g., to get high). Both medical users and nonmedical users reported more pain and substance abuse symptoms compared with never users. Those nonmedical users who used opioids for sensation-seeking motivations had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. These data support the need to further consider subgroups of
Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa
Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students in four high schools in different regions of Hamedan. The survey was carried out via random cluster sampling of 650 students. Data were collected using the standard self-report questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16, chi-squared test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study, 11.1% had the experience of cigarette smoking, 3.4% had the experience of drug abuse, and 12% had the experience of intention to abuse drugs. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse and the following variables: smoking experience (p value =0.001, OR=27.238; having drug user parents (p value =0.001, OR=8.630; having friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value =0.001, OR=11.060; having best friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=11.931; family with drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=4.311; and having a sibling who abused drugs (p value=0.001, OR=15.815. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control were the most influential predictors of intention to abuse drugs.Conclusion: The use of TPB is beneficial in the predicting and planning for high-risk behaviors. TPB can be used for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
Hall, D K; Mathews, F; Pearce, J
To identify variables associated with the presence of sexual behavior problems in young sexually abused children. Data were gathered from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls ages 3-7 years enrolled in two treatment programs. Information was coded systematically on approximately 350 areas related to the child and family's history and functioning, the sexual abuse experience, and treatment outcome. The children were grouped and compared according to their presenting sexual behavior into three categories: (1) developmentally "expected"; (2) "sexualized/self-focused"; and (3) problematic "interpersonal" sexual behavior. Bivariate and multivariate analyses highlighted five variables which were predictive of sexual behavior problems among sexually abused children. Sexual arousal of the child during his/her sexual abuse, the perpetrator's use of sadism, and a history of physical and emotional abuse differentiated between those children with and without "interpersonal" sexual behavior problems. Who the child blamed for his/her sexual abuse further contributed to the distinction between children whose sexual behavior was exclusively "self-focused" (sexualized) versus "interpersonal." The five major predictor variables, as well as other variables identified in this study, have potential utility in assessing child risk for negative outcomes and determining referral priorities for sexual abuse treatment. Given that sexual arousal and who the child blames for the abuse are prominent variables associated with sexual problems and self-blame, clinicians will need to ensure that sexually abused children and their caregivers are given specific opportunities to deal with these areas in the supportive context of treatment. Children with sexual behavior problems differ not only in the type and level of sexual behavior they exhibit but in most other areas as well, suggesting a need for differential assessment and individualized treatment approaches.
Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Noh, Yeon-Keun; Jung, Ho-Sang; Han, Soon-Young; Park, Chan-Hye; Choi, Byung Moon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong
The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of propofol abuse based on the results of a survey analysis of abusers among non-healthcare professionals in Korea. Thirty-eight propofol abusers were questioned between October and December 2010, and were enrolled and voluntarily participated in a structured survey consisting of an interview and completing a previously prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three distinct parts: part 1 dealt with the history of propofol abuse; part 2 highlighted the problems caused by propofol abuse; and part 3 enquired regarding demographics of abusers. Thirty-one (81.6%) of the 38 interviewees abused propofol for more than one year. During the last 12 months, 34 (89.0%) received propofol at two or three times a week. The minimum and maximum amounts of propofol (median, range) administered each time were 500 (100, 1000) and 2000 (500, 4000) mg, respectively. Stress relief and the maintenance of a sense of well-being were quoted the most important reasons for the first-time administration of propofol and its subsequent abuse, respectively. The majority of abusers (36.0, 97.3%) reported a sense of pleasure or euphoria at the time of their propofol injection. Withdrawal symptoms occurred in five abusers (13.2%). Thirteen (36.1%) reported disruptions in their work life. None of the respondents had previously admitted to and or reported abuse of any other controlled substances. These results provided reference data for the regulation of propofol in Korea as a controlled substance and may also be of interest to international agencies in other countries.
Michael A. Andrykowski
Full Text Available Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation impact of false positive (FP OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of “normal” results was also considered. This research suggests that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.
Andrykowski, Michael A
Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC) was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress) and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation) impact of false positive (FP) OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of "normal" results was also considered. This research suggests that a "normal" screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.
Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P
Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L
Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle.
Lara Lages Gava
Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.
Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh
Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected thro...
Mahdi Moshki; Tahere Hassanzade; Parvaneh Taymoori
Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected ...
Estévez Gutiérrez, Ana; Herrero Fernández, David; Sarabia Gonzalvo, Izaskun; Jáuregui Bilbao, Paula
The way emotions are regulated might affect the engagement on risk behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, studying the relationship between these variables could be of great importance. Some of the less studied risky behaviors are pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse. This research aims to analyze the existing relationship between such risky behaviors, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional psychological symptomatology (depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism). In addition, it also looks to assess whether emotional regulation plays a mediating role between pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse, and psychological symptomatology. The sample was composed of 1312 young adults and adolescents, aged between 12 and 30, recruited from scholar centers, universities and free time groups, and from associations and centers associated with FEJAR (Spanish Federation of Rehabilitated Gamblers). Participants completed measurements of impulsive behavior, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional symptomatology. Results showed that there is generally a positive and significant relation between these variables. Moreover, it has been pointed out that emotion regulation mediates the association between impulsive behavior and dysfunctional symptomatology among those young adults and adolescents who engage in these impulsive behaviors, except for the relation between videogame abuse and depressive symptomatology. Training in emotional regulation skills could be useful in dealing with and treating this type of behaviors in adolescents and young adults.
Hursh, S R
The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abus...
Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Larson, Sandra; Buttar, Aliya; Dermid-Gray, Lindsey
Research has shown that childhood maltreatment is associated with sexual risk taking among female juvenile offenders; however, the mechanisms by which maltreatment influences sexual risk remain poorly understood. We assessed whether substance abuse, psychological distress, and dating violence mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex. Sexually active female juvenile offenders (13-17 years of age) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (n = 232). Logistic regression with a risk decrement approach, the Sobel test, and the Goodman I test were used to evaluate mediation. Maltreatment before sixth grade was common in our sample, including physical abuse (48.7%), sexual abuse (14.7%), supervision neglect (57.3%), and physical neglect (18.5%). Cumulative childhood maltreatment was also high with 42.2% reporting two or more types. In the fully adjusted model, cumulative childhood maltreatment remained associated with unprotected sex (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.27, 4.65). The percent of the total effect in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex that was mediated by substance abuse was 16.4% (Sobel = 2.54 [p = .01]; Goodman I = 2.49 [p = .01]) and psychological distress accounted for 23.7% (Sobel = 2.55 [p = .01]; Goodman I = 2.51 [p = .01]). Dating violence was not a significant mediator in our analyses. We found a strong relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex among female juvenile offenders that was partially mediated through substance abuse and psychological distress. These findings can be used to develop public health strategies to increase condom use among female juvenile offenders. Trauma-informed approaches to sexual health promotion that address substance abuse and psychological distress are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In order to facilitate use of daylighting in architectural design, we tried to measure the suitability of luminous environment for various behavior, including not only visual work but also refreshing and rest. An experiment was conducted with 7 luminous conditions including daylighting. The suitability of a luminous environment was measured by asking the subjects to select suitable activities and unsuitable behaviors from a given list of possible activities. The result showed the selection of unsuitable behaviors was more useful than the selection of suitable behaviors. Furthermore, lighting installations offering a steady luminous environments, were not suitable for many behaviors including refreshing and rest. The luminous environments which were bright but had some fluctuation and some non-uniformity of brightness, obtained by use of direct sunlight, were judged to be suitable for negotiating, refreshing, and meeting.
Lee, Hsing-Feng; Liu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Yen-Po; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang
Both sexual and physical abuse history have been reported to be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Western countries. The impact of abuse history in IBS patients in Asia remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of abuse history, its associated psychological profiles, and sleep problems among IBS patients in Taiwan. In total, 194 Rome III-defined IBS patients were invited to participate. Age- and sex- matched healthy carriers of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C without chronic abdominal symptoms were identified as disease-controls. We administered a validated questionnaire to evaluate bowel symptoms, physical/sexual abuse history, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and sleep quality. IBS patients had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse history than the disease-control group both before (16.5% vs 6.7%, P < 0.05) and after (16.0% vs 6.6%, P < 0.05) adolescence. These significant differences were mainly observed in women (13.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted in history of physical abuse between the 2 groups. IBS patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly higher HADS scores and higher frequencies of sleep difficulty than those without. In Taiwan, sexual abuse history was more prevalent in female IBS patients than controls. Sexual abuse history may contribute to higher anxiety/depression levels and sleep difficulties, which are commonly experienced in IBS patients. In Asia, abuse history should be obtained when approaching IBS patients to facilitate better management.
Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.
Bempechat, Janine; And Others
Drug and alcohol abuse and teenage pregnancy are two behaviors manifested by at-risk children that are both a cause and a result of their lack of success in school and possible subsequent dropping out. The distinction between substance use and abuse may be determined using the following criteria: (1) age of onset; (2) physiological responses; (3)…
Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They
Jones, Karyn Dayle
Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.
Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…
Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena
This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…
Hébert, Martine; Boisjoli, Cyndi; Blais, Martin; Oussaïd, Essaïd
Understanding factors influencing mental health of sexually abused teenagers is essential to orient treatment with this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to explore alexithymia as a mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological distress using a representative sample of teenagers, while considering gender as a potential moderator. Teenagers participating in the Quebec Youths' Romantic Relationships Survey completed measures evaluating a history of child sexual abuse and alexithymia at baseline while psychological distress was evaluated 6 months later. A moderated mediated model revealed a partial mediation effect of alexithymia in the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological distress. Gender acted as a moderator as the conditional indirect effects of child sexual abuse on mental health via alexithymia were stronger for boys. Findings underscore the relevance of assessing and targeting sexually abused victims' capacity to identify and communicate emotions to promote well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of emotional abuse in the workplace and applies relevant findings and concepts to psychological harassment as defined in the legislation enacted in Quebec beginning June 1, 2004. It is noted that the terms are highly related by definition and that a clear similarity exists. Accordingly, a prospective look is taken at the challenges involved in the understanding and application of psychological harassment based on seven dimensions commonly studied and referred to in the academic literature on emotional abuse. The conclusion is that the determination of psychological harassment involves a multidimensional consideration of factors and that this gives rise to several challenges in applying the new legislation.Cet article s’intéresse au concept d’abus émotif au travail et à son application à des problèmes de harcèlement psychologique, tel que défini par la législation promulguée au Québec en juin 2004. Les définitions des deux termes sont rapprochées ce qui suggère qu’il s’agit de problèmes similaires. À des fins de prospective, l’article étudie les implications pratiques de l’application au harcèlement psychologique des sept dimensions associées à l’abus émotif dans la littérature scientifique. L’article arrive à la conclusion qu’un diagnostic de harcèlement psychologique requiert la prise en compte de facteurs multidimensionnels, ce qui soulève des difficultés multiples en ce qui a trait à l’application de la législation récente.Este artículo se interesa al concepto de abuso emotivo en el trabajo y a su aplicación a los problemas de acoso psicológico, según la definición que figura en la legislación promulgada en Québec en junio del 2004. Las definiciones de los dos términos son próximas lo que sugiere que se trata de problemas similares. Con fines prospectivos, el artículo estudia las implicaciones prácticas de la aplicación de siete dimensiones asociadas al
Todd, James T.; Morris, Edward K.
Behavior analysts have recently expressed concern about what appear to be misrepresentations of behaviorism in psychology textbooks. This paper presents an analysis of currently used textbooks in the areas of introductory, social, cognitive, personality, and developmental psychology that confirms this. Topics on which behavior analysis is most often misrepresented relate to the role of animal learning research, environmentalism, the “empty organism,” language, and the overall utility of the approach. Because textbooks are often a major medium of interaction between the public and behaviorism, behavior analysts must work to correct these errors and to prevent possible negative consequences of widespread misunderstanding. Several potential solutions to these problems are presented that take into account current publishing practices and the monetary contingencies which support them. PMID:22478585
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Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.
To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…
Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others
Compared eight lower socioeconomic status abusive mothers with eight matched controls and eight middle class controls on three measures of emotional and somatic distress. Abusive mothers showed far greater depression and physical distress than controls and used more physical punishment. (BH)
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.
An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…
Carr, John E
Concerns for the integrity of psychology as an independent discipline have caused some psychologists to object to introducing any knowledge from the biological sciences into the training of psychologists. However, calls for the greater incorporation of the behavioral sciences in medical education, increased attention to research on the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, and initiatives in translational medical research and clinical care, have prompted increased interest in interdisciplinary research, health care, and teaching. These changes, in turn, are resulting in a re-conceptualization of the structure of academic medicine with increasing emphasis upon multidisciplinary knowledge and interdisciplinary collaboration, and less emphasis upon disciplinary insularity and competitiveness. If clinical health psychology is to play a role in this evolving concept of academic health care, it must adequately prepare its trainees to function in interdisciplinary academic health care settings. This will require not only expertise in the role of behavioral factors relevant to medical disorders, but also some basic familiarity with the biological processes to which those behavioral factors relate. With the evolution of its fund of knowledge, clinical health psychology has the potential to utilize its science to discover, describe, interpret, teach and clinically apply knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction between biological functions and behavioral, learning, cognitive, socio-cultural and environmental processes. By failing to seize this initiative, clinical health psychology risks becoming irrelevant to the evolving model of medical research, education and health care.
Psychological and Personality Undercurrents of a Drug User. Student Drug Use and the Hang-Loose Ethic. Students and Drug Use: A Study of Personality Characteristics and Extent of Drug Using Behavior. A Report on Drug Abuse in the City of Edmonton to the Mayor's Executive Committee on Drug Abuse.
Paterson, John G.; And Others
These 4 papers were presented at the Canadian Guidance and Counselling Convention, 1971. (1) Hughes used a questionnaire to show that marihuana users were more likely to subscribe to the "hang-loose ethic," i.e., a personal and social ethic antagonistic to the ideas of the Protestant ethic, as manifested in their behaviors; self-concepts;…
Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Human, Anja; Hiss, Donavon
.... Additionally, the results of the hierarchical regression analysis suggest that maternal psychological control, compared to paternal psychological control, was a stronger predictor of antisocial behavior...
Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand
.... We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of the three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America...
Mahdi Moshki; Tahere Hassanzade; Parvaneh Taymoori
.... Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods...
Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh
.... Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors...
Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.
Wan, Yuhui; Liu, Wan; Sun, Ying; Hao, Jiahu; Tao, Fangbiao
To study the relationship between various forms of childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors among middle school students. A total of 14 221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study, involving students from junior and senior middle schools in Guangzhou, Xinxiang, Shenyang and Chongqing. Information related to the demographic characteristics, types, number, timing and perpetrators of exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships of each form of childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors. Number of cases (rates) of childhood abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts among middle school students appeared as 7 246 (51.0%), 5 824 (41.0%), 5 409 (38.0%), 1 039 (7.3%), 2 042 (14.4%), 1 174 (8.3%) and 548 (3.9%), respectively. Boys reported more physical abuse than girls, while girls reported more emotional abuse and suicide ideation than boys (P0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, experiences on childhood abuse were significantly associated with suicidal ideation (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.72-2.40) and suicidal planning (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.57-2.37) among boys but significantly associated with suicidal ideation (OR= 2.45, 95% CI: 2.12-2.82), suicidal planning (OR=2.46, 95% CI: 2.02-3.00) and attempted suicide (OR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.61-2.78) among girls. RESULTS from multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially with continuous exposure, was significantly associated with suicidal behaviors. A significant graded-relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and suicidal behaviors. Students that had been maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in suicidal behaviors. The findings suggest that the experience of any form of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.
McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget
Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grilo, Carlos M
Several psychological and behavioral treatment options exist for patients who have been diagnosed with binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are the most strongly supported interventions for BED, but they do not produce weight loss; behavioral weight loss therapy, a more widely available "generalist" intervention, achieves good outcomes for BED plus produces modest weight loss over the short-term. Relatively little is known about reliable predictors or moderators of treatment outcomes, but research has generally supported 2 significant predictors: (1) the presence of overvaluation of body shape and weight and (2) the occurrence of rapid response to treatment. Clinicians should train to provide patients with evidence-supported psychological and behavioral treatments and follow these intervention protocols faithfully to increase the chances of good outcomes. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Batten, S V; Follette, V M; Aban, I B
While many long-term correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been identified, theories to explain the development of these correlates have received little empirical validation. The process of experiential avoidance is one theory that has been proposed to account for many of the correlates of CSA. The purpose of the current study was twofold: (1) To attempt to develop a more complex measure of experiential avoidance in women with and without a CSA history, and (2) to explore variables related to two of the long-term correlates of CSA, general psychological distress and high risk sexual behavior. Levels of current distress, high-risk sex, and experiential avoidance were examined in 257 undergraduate females (mean age 20.0) using self-report questionnaires. The results of the current study indicate that CSA survivors report higher levels of experiential avoidance and high-risk sexual behavior with persons other than their primary partners. Implications of these findings for theory development, therapy with CSA survivors, and HIV prevention programs are discussed.
Digangi, Julia A; Jason, Leonard A; Mendoza, Leslie; Miller, Steve A; Contreras, Richard
Wisdom is theorized to be an important construct in recovery from substance abuse. In order to explore the role of wisdom in substance abuse recovery behaviors, the present study had two goals. First, it sought to examine the factor structure of a wisdom scale, the Foundational Value Scale (FVS) in a community sample of women in recovery from substance abuse. Second, the study examined how wisdom predicted the women's beliefs about their ability to abstain from future substance use. 116 women in recovery from substance abuse disorders were recruited from self-run recovery homes and a substance abuse recovery convention. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that a modified version of the FVS has good internal consistency reliability and is composed of three wisdom-related dimensions. The three factors were then used to create a higher-order wisdom factor in a structural equation model (SEM) that was used to predict abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. Results from the SEM showed that the wisdom factor was predictive of greater abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. The FVS was found to be a reliable measure with women in recovery from substance abuse. In addition, wisdom predicted beliefs about self-efficacy such that those who reported higher levels of wisdom felt more confident in their abilities to abstain from alcohol. The results of this study indicate that wisdom is an important construct in the abstinence behaviors of women who are in recovery from substance abuse disorders.
Jones, Raya A
The behavioral sciences and Jung's analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung's scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the "science versus art" debate on Jung's stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Methods Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0–11) processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 41). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Past year HIV-risk sexual behavior was assessed via self-reports during 2003–2004 (N = 800). Logistic regression was used to examine differences in sexual risk behavior between the abuse and neglect and control groups, and latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test mediator models. Results Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in middle adulthood (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.74 - 4.64, p ≤ .001), and this relationship was mediated by criminal behavior and risky romantic relationships in young adulthood. When both factors were included in SEM, only risky relationships remained a significant mediator (indirect β = .07, p abuse and neglect for physical health, particularly sexual risk, and point to romantic relationships as an important focus of intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:21355638
Bahrke, Michael S.
This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…
Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others
Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…
Devries, Karen M; Mak, Joelle Y T; Child, Jennifer C; Falder, Gail; Bacchus, Loraine J; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H
Self-inflicted injuries are one of the major causes of disease burden and death globally. Understanding the extent to which this is associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exposure can help inform prevention strategies. We aimed to quantify to what extent CSA was associated with incident suicide attempts in men and women. We searched 20 health and social science databases from first record until February 2009 and updated the search in Medline from February 2009 to February 1, 2013. Longitudinal studies and cotwin analyses from twin studies in any population from any year were eligible for inclusion. Of 22 235 abstracts screened as part of a series of reviews, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Characteristics, effect estimates, and quality data were extracted. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Seven longitudinal and 2 twin studies with 8733 participants met the inclusion criteria. The overall pooled estimate for longitudinal studies was OR = 2.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.94-3.05), I(2) = 87.5%, P analysis was 2.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.82-4.49, I(2) = 0%, P = .867). Studies adjusted for a range of confounders, but baseline suicidal behavior was not well-controlled. Too few studies met the inclusion criteria to quantitatively examine sources of heterogeneity. CSA exposure is associated with suicide attempts when a range of different confounders are controlled for, but the temporality of the association is not well established, and the association is highly heterogeneous. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Fergusson, D M; Horwood, L J; Lynskey, M T
The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence. A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective reports of CSA were obtained from sample members. Over the course of the 18 year study information was gathered on: (a) childhood, family, and related circumstances; and (b) the young women's history of sexual experiences from 14 to 18 years. Young women reporting CSA, and particularly severe CSA involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault after the age of 16. Logistic regression analyses suggested that the associations between CSA and sexual outcomes in adolescence arose by two routes. First, exposure to CSA was associated with a series of childhood and family factors including social disadvantage, family instability, impaired parent child relationships, and parental adjustment difficulties that were also associated with increased sexual vulnerability in adolescence. Second, there appeared to be a causal chain relationship between CSA and sexual experiences in which CSA was associated with early onset sexual activity which, in turn, led to heightened risks of other adverse outcomes in adolescence. The findings of this study suggest that those exposed to CSA have greater sexual vulnerability during adolescence. This appears to arise because: (a) the childhood and family factors that are associated with CSA are also associated with increased sexual risks during adolescence; and (b) exposure to CSA may encourage early onset sexual activity which places those exposed to CSA at greater sexual risk over the period of adolescence.
Psychology's obsession with control, with manipulating the experimental situation and the behavior of participants, has often been criticized. Mainstream, experimental psychology, it is said, abuses its power in the laboratory to artificially create docile participants who fit its experimental
Staats, Arthur W.
"A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Piper, Jeanna M; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra; Korte, Jeffrey E
Little is known about the relationship between minority adolescent's experiences of sexual or physical abuse and the pathology of gynecological symptoms that might have an impact on the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease (STD) or risk for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of sexual or physical abuse to the pathology of genitourinary symptoms that impact diagnoses of STD and risk for PID among Mexican American and African American adolescent women with a current STD. Mexican American and African American adolescent women (n = 373) with an STD underwent a targeted physical exam and questioning regarding sexual or physical abuse, current genitourinary symptomatology, and risk behaviors known to be associated with PID to determine the relationship of sexual or physical abuse to the pathology of genitourinary symptoms that impact diagnoses of STD and risk for PID. Bivariate comparisons found that abused adolescents (n = 232) reported more behaviors associated with increased risk for PID, including earlier coitus, more sex partners, higher STD recurrence, and delayed health-seeking behavior. Multivariate comparisons found that abused adolescents were more likely to report pathologic genitourinary symptomatology than those who were not abused. Clinicians reported more abnormal physical exams but did not make any more presumptive diagnoses of PID for abused than nonabused adolescents. Delayed treatment for PID dramatically worsens future fertility and chronic pelvic pain. These findings demonstrate that abused adolescent women are at high risk for PID. Because of its considerable impact on risk for PID, an assessment for abuse is essential in clinical management of adolescent women with STD and diagnosis of PID.
Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja
The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0-11) processed during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 41). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Past year HIV-risk sexual behavior was assessed via self-reports during 2003-2004 (N = 800). Logistic regression was used to examine differences in sexual risk behavior between the abuse and neglect and control groups, and latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test mediator models. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in middle adulthood, odds ratio = 2.84, 95% CI [1.74, 4.64], p ≤ .001, and this relationship was mediated by risky romantic relationships in young adulthood. Results of this study draw attention to the potential long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect for physical health, in particular sexual risk, and point to romantic relationships as an important focus of intervention and prevention efforts. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.
Trezza, Viviana; Baarendse, Petra J J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J
Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is altered. This study aimed to provide an overview of our current understanding of the interaction between drugs of abuse and juvenile/adolescent social behavior. We first provide evidence that a characteristic form of juvenile and adolescent social behavior, i.e., social play behavior, has reinforcing properties and is affected by drugs of abuse. Next, social risk factors for drug use and addiction are described, including antisocial personality traits and early social insults. Last, we discuss research that investigates social influences on drug use, as well as the consequences of perinatal drug exposure on later social interactions. Social play behavior is highly rewarding in laboratory animals, and it is affected by low doses of opioids, cannabinoids, ethanol, nicotine, and psychostimulants. In humans, antisocial personality traits, most prominently in the form of conduct disorder, are a prominent risk factor for drug addiction. Preclinical studies have consistently shown altered sensitivity to drugs as a result of social isolation during post-weaning development. The social environment of an individual has a profound, but complex, influence on drug use, and perinatal drug exposure markedly alters later social interactions. The studies reviewed here provide a framework to understand the interaction between drugs of abuse and adolescent social interaction, at the preclinical and the clinical level.
Holifield, Joseph E.; Nelson, W. Michael, III; Hart, Kathleen J.
Explored psychological effects of sexual abuse in adolescents by comparing Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles of sexually abused adolescents with those of nonabused adolescents with behavior problems. Found significant differences on four of the scales. Sexually abused adolescents revealed more severe pychopathology than the…
Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin
Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.
Objectives: the specific objectives of the study are identified as follows: 1) to determine the influence of impulsivity on alcohol abuse, (2) to determine the peer group influence on alcohol abuse, (3) To determine the interplay of gender on alcohol abuse and (4) to determine whether interaction between impulsivity, peer group influence and gender has any an effect on alcohol abuse. Method: data was collected from three hundred (300) student participants randomly selected. ...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the data and the experience of the victim support service VDS info and victim support service in regard to the issue of psychological abuse at the work place. Data relates to the period from January 1st until December 31st 2008. The data presented in this paper refer to victims' characteristics as well as the ways of providing them assistance and support.
Banihashemian, Kourosh; Pour, Razieh Etesami; Moazzen, Mansour
To compare the scores from the Iranian version of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FSBS) with the norms collected for the American, English-speaking population and to examine the ability of the FSBS to discriminate between acquired brain injury and addiction. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni tests. 120 subjects (41 patients with frontal acquired brain injury [FABI], 47 abstinent Substance Abusers (SA), and 32 healthy controls from the Iranian population) were selected. An Iranian version of the FSBS was administered to all participants. Patients with FABI and SA had higher scores than the control group on the FSBS total score; patients with FABI scored significantly higher than SA, and SA significantly higher than controls. While SA had greater subscales of executive dysfunction than controls, patients with FABI had higher scores than SA and the control group in the subscales of disinhibition, apathy, and executive dysfunction. Two clinical samples of Iranian participants had detective behavioral problems associated with frontal systems dysfunction based on Iranian version of the FSBS, which makes this scale a useful instrument for the detection of behavioral problems.
Morris, Edward K
Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001)Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology-past and present-as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present.
Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and…
Volery, M; Bonnemain, A; Latino, A; Ourrad, N; Perroud, A
The psychological assessment of the patient with obesity aims to identify the factors of maintenance of excess weight, such as eating disorders or anxio-depressive disorders. Psychotherapy helps a better weight management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity. New psychotherapeutic approaches are explored. The hypnosis and mindfulness are proposed for the management of emotions and stress. A targeted approach on the body image disorder decreases body dissatisfaction. When post-traumatic stress syndrome is involved, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) is better than other types of therapies. Family therapy is indicated when the entourage is impacted. Psychological difficulties should be the subject of specific care.
Caldwell, Diana H; Jan, Gryczynski
Individuals entering substance abuse treatment are at elevated risk for HIV infection, and clinicians must generally rely on patient self-report to gauge their involvement in risk behaviors. Strategies to improve accurate reporting of personally sensitive or stigmatizing risk behaviors are needed. This study compared computerized and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting self-disclosure of HIV risk behaviors among a high-risk sample of urban African Americans entering substance abuse treatment (N = 146). Participants completed a standardized HIV risk behavior screening as a face-to-face interview. Several days later, the same participants completed a computerized self-interview with the same measure, covering the same time frame. Disclosure rates for many sensitive risk behaviors were considerably higher on the computerized interview. Participants had significantly higher odds of disclosure on the computerized interview compared to the face-to-face interview on 2 of 6 drug risk behaviors examined (ORs between 2.75 and 3.15) and 9 of 13 sex risk behaviors examined (ORs between 1.60 and 6.45). The advantage of the computerized interview was most evident for highly stigmatized behaviors, such as unprotected sex with someone other than a spouse or main partner (OR = 3.93; p behavior assessment with African Americans entering substance abuse treatment. Computerized assessment of HIV risk behaviors may be clinically useful in substance abuse treatment and other healthcare venues serving high-risk populations.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected through a quota random sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two case and control groups. A Questionnaire that involved demographic factors and Preventive behaviors, whichwere caused as the result of drug abuse, was used for data collection. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity was assessed before and after educational intervention, and as a follow-up, 4 years after educational intervention. The Data was analyzed using T-Test and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of the mean of the scores in scale Preventive behaviors caused by drug abuse in post-test of two case and control groups had a significant difference (p<0/01 that remained stable 4 years after the end of the intervention. There was a significant difference between some of the demographic factors and Preventive behaviors that had been caused by drug abuse (p<0/01. Conclusion: Life skills training are effective in strengthening Preventive behaviors of substance abuse in university students. Therefore, life skills training programs should be integrated into university courses in order to comprehensively and consistently the effect of drug abuse on the educational level of students
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.
Murray, David J; Kilgour, Andrea R; Wasylkiw, Louise
At the turn of the 20th century, European psychologists found themselves in conflict situations with respect to the role that private mental states should play in a scientific psychology. Out of this conflict arose 3 of the best-known schools of the 20th century: psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and Gestalt psychology. Each of these schools is discussed with respect to two characteristics. First, the authors discuss the attitude of each school on the meaning of the word unconscious as it was understood around 1900. Second, the authors discuss the influence of each school on the reception accorded to books written around 1900 espousing viewpoints that did not cohere with the school's beliefs. Such books may be considered "missed signals" in the history of psychology. "Hits" associated with each school are also highlighted.
Neitzke, Alex B
I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.
Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane C; Qin, Min; Vlachantoni, Athina
This study examines the association between elder abuse and psychological distress among older adults in India and explores whether this association varies by the level of psychosocial and material resources. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. The data are drawn from a representative sample of 9589 adults aged 60 and above in seven Indian states-Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu-in 2011. Secondary analysis, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, is conducted using the United Nations Population Fund project Building Knowledge Base on Ageing in India survey. Elder abuse (physical and/or emotional) emanating from family members in the previous month before the survey is examined. Multivariate models are run on the total analytical sample and for men and women separately. The overall prevalence of psychological distress among persons aged 60 and over living in the seven Indian States is 40.6%. Among those older persons who experienced some form of physical or emotional abuse or violence in the last month, the prevalence of psychological distress is much higher than that in the general older population, at 61.6% (p<0.001). The results show that the experience of abuse is negatively associated with the mental health of older adults, and this relationship persists even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.09). The findings also suggest that household wealth has an inverse relationship with mental health, with the association between experiencing elder abuse and reporting poor mental health being strongest among older people in wealthy households. Elder abuse in India is currently a neglected phenomenon, and greater recognition of the link between abuse and mental health is critical to improve the well-being of vulnerable older adults, some of whom may be 'hidden' within well-off households. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless
Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Kawachi, Ichiro
The field of behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to investigate how individuals actually behave as opposed to how they would behave if they were being perfectly rational (as in the sense of maximizing their utility). Although initial applications focused on consumer behavior, such as explaining why people failed to save adequately for retirement, the field has moved increasingly into the area of explaining health behaviors as well as the design of lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and smoking-cessation programs. This article provides an overview of several important behavioral economics concepts of relevance to public health and health behavior change. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donald W. White
Full Text Available Since evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology have much in common despite their using different objects for their study, one might expect these disciplines to share a common conceptual framework with associated definitions. Unfortunately, such agreement does not entirely exist. To address the problem, we propose a common, conceptual framework, the Adaptive Behavioral System (ABS, which organizes behavior within an evolutionary framework around an organism's life history tasks. An ABS includes strategies that use decision rules and employs tactics administered by a hypothesized construct, the Evolved Processing Unit (EPU. The ABS also includes observed or predicted behavior which can be tested experimentally – the ultimate test of construct validity. Use of the proposed framework should help the two disciplines focus on their common, core business of behavior and, ultimately, be to the benefit of both.
Gomez-Marin, Alex; Paton, Joseph J; Kampff, Adam R; Costa, Rui M; Mainen, Zachary F
Behavior is a unifying organismal process where genes, neural function, anatomy and environment converge and interrelate. Here we review the current state and discuss the future effect of accelerating advances in technology for behavioral studies, focusing on rodents as an example. We frame our perspective in three dimensions: the degree of experimental constraint, dimensionality of data and level of description. We argue that 'big behavioral data' presents challenges proportionate to its promise and describe how these challenges might be met through opportunities afforded by the two rival conceptual legacies of twentieth century behavioral science, ethology and psychology. We conclude that, although 'more is not necessarily better', copious, quantitative and open behavioral data has the potential to transform and unify these two disciplines and to solidify the foundations of others, including neuroscience, but only if the development of new theoretical frameworks and improved experimental designs matches the technological progress.
Morris, Edward K
Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology—past and present—as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present. PMID:20354604
Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disrupti...
Objectives: A commonly cited risk factor for sexually intrusive behavior (SIB) among children and adolescents is a history of abuse. Based on a large and non-clinical nationwide sample of children who were investigated as abuse victims and suspects of SIBs in Israel over a decade, the present study examines the rate of abuse history among child…
Lee, Seungyoon; Foote, Jeremy; Wittrock, Zachary; Xu, Siyu; Niu, Li; French, Doran C
Adolescents' social cognitive understanding of their social world is often inaccurate and biased. Focusing on peer groups, this study examines how adolescents' psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics influence the extent to which they accurately identify their own and others' peer groups. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 1481 seventh- and tenth-grade Chinese students who are embedded with 346 peer groups. Overall, females and older students had more accurate perceptions. In addition, lower self-esteem, higher indegree centrality, and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of one's own groups, whereas higher academic performance and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of others' groups. Implications for understanding the connection between adolescents' psychological and behavioral traits, social relationships, and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The psychotic exacerbation prior to this incident was accompanied by an increase of khat intake. Co-morbid khat abuse can lead to the deterioration of psychotic disorders, can facilitate aggressive acts and complicates treatment. The medical and legal system of the countries where khat use reaches highest levels are not ...
Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.
Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of…
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar
This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar
Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243
Eklund, A.; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.
: In this cross-sectional study, the aim was to investigate patients with LBP as regards to psychosocial/behavioral characteristics by describing a chiropractic primary care population and comparing this sample to three other populations using the MPI-S instrument. Thus, four different samples were compared. A...... care samples C and D. Conclusions: The chiropractic primary care sample was more affected by pain and worse off with regards to psychological and behavioral characteristics compared to the other primary care sample. Based on our findings from the MPI-S instrument the 4 samples may be considered...
Brown, L K; Kessel, S M; Lourie, K J; Ford, H H; Lipsitt, L P
To investigate the associations between sexual abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related attitudes and behaviors of adolescents with a psychiatric disorder. HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were examined by self-report assessment of adolescents admitted to a psychiatric hospital (N = 100). A subsample (n = 30) completed a role-playing exercise regarding HIV-preventive behavior that was scored for the degree of effective communication by raters blind to the subjects' abuse history. HIV-related risk behaviors were prevalent, including unprotected sexual intercourse (67%) and multiple partners (27%) among the sexually active (71% of the total). Also frequent were alcohol and drug use (25%) and sharing cutting instruments (22%) among those engaged in self-cutting behavior (62%). The 38% of the sample identified as having a history of sexual abuse indicated significantly poorer self-efficacy concerning condom use than their peers. Abused females scored significantly lower on the self-efficacy of condom use scale and reported significantly more frequent alcohol use than nonabused females (p = .003). A hierarchical multiple regression that controlled for consistency of condom use and tolerance of people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome found that abuse history uniquely accounted for 16% of the variance in condom use self-efficacy. Analysis of the videotaped role-play found that abused adolescents were significantly less competent and had more difficulty in effective communication than their peers (p = .003). A history of sexual abuse is associated with impaired safe sexual decision-making and HIV-preventive communication skills, even in this already at-risk group. This study also underscores the importance of actively addressing these issues in the context of clinical care.
Nakaike, Ryuichi; Miwa, Kazuhisa
In the present study, we show a simulated experiment environment, VPL(Virtual Psychology Laboratory), for visualizing user's exploratory experimental behavior, and present two main modules of the environment: (1) a cognitive simulator and (2) a system for automatically describing experimenter's behavior based on EBS (Exploratory Behavior Schema) proposed by the author. Users use this environment as an experimental psychologist who investigates human collaborative discovery. They experience many trials of conducting experiments using the simulated environment, and analyze by themselves their experimental processes based on the description of their behavior by EBS. It is expected that learners can notice their errors of experimental planning and refine various types of knowledge related to the experimental skills by repeating the experimental activities in this environment.
Gava, Lara Lages; DellAglio, Debora Dalbosco
.... Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation...
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Tajima, Emiko A; Whitney, Stephen D; Huang, Bu
The study investigated protective factors (school commitment/importance, parent/peer disapproval of antisocial behavior, positive future orientation, and religion) hypothesized to lower risk for antisocial behavior among adolescents who, as children, had been physically abused. Protective factors also were investigated for comparison, nonabused children, and for children at risk on abuse and other factors: low socioeconomic status and early antisocial behavior. Analyses used a two-step hierarchical regression approach. In step 1, age, gender, and early antisocial behavior were entered as controls. In step 2, each protective factor was entered separately as a predictor. A final regression model in each case examined the additive (combined) effect of all protective factors on a given outcome. Tests of predictor-by-group interactions were used to examine group differences. Among abused and nonabused children, having a strong commitment to school, having parents and peers who disapprove of antisocial behavior, and being involved in a religious community lowered rates of lifetime violence, delinquency, and status offenses. Having a positive future orientation appeared less powerful as a protective influence. Exposure to an increasing number of protective factors was for each outcome associated with a diminution in risk for antisocial behavior. Protective factors represent targets for preventive intervention that are viable for children as they enter adolescence. The fact that protective factors were predictive of lower antisocial behavior in both the abuse and comparison groups suggests that protective effects are more universal than they are unique to a given group of children.
Sprigg, Christine A; Armitage, Christopher J; Hollis, Kate
Aim To investigate the prevalence, perceived causes and relationship to psychological well‐being of verbal abuse in a National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service control room (ASCR). Method Questionnaire survey with ASCR personnel (n = 48). Results 7% of calls per shift were verbally abusive; the most common sources were patients or emergency callers. Verbally abusive calls were associated with staff having poorer mental health and the desire to leave. Conclusion Support from managers in the form of clear protocols to deal with abusive callers and training in verbal de‐escalation techniques are recommended. PMID:17384383
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
Olofsson, N; Lindqvist, K; Danielsson, I
To assess the association between fear of crime and/or psychological and/or physical abuse in relation to self-reported physical and psychological health, using a large representative sample of elderly women and men in Sweden. Cross-sectional national survey. Data were taken from a nationwide representative public health survey (2006). Men and women between the ages of 65 and 84 years were selected for the present analyses (4386 men and 4974 women). The response rate for this age group was 59% for men and 70% for women. Psychological and physical abuse against elderly women and men led to higher odds ratios for negative health outcomes, independently of socio-economic status. Strong correlation was found between psychological abuse and negative health outcomes in both men and women, while the correlation was less strong for physical abuse, especially among women. The men had high odds ratios for suicidal thoughts and even for attempted suicide in connection with physical and psychological abuse and fear of crime. The study provides representative results addressing an extensive negative health outcome panorama caused by fear of crime and exposure to abuse. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.
Hébert, Martine; Langevin, Rachel; Oussaïd, Essaïd
Child sexual abuse is associated with a plethora of devastating repercussions. A significant number of sexually abused children are likely to experience other forms of maltreatment that can seriously affect their emotion regulation abilities and impede on their development. The aim of the study was to test emotion regulation and dissociation as mediators in the association between cumulative childhood trauma and internalized and externalized behavior problems in child victims of sexual abuse. Participants were 309 sexually abused children (203 girls and 106 boys; Mean age = 9.07) and their non-offending parent. Medical and clinical files were coded for cumulative childhood trauma. At initial evaluation (T1), parents completed measures assessing children's emotion regulation abilities and dissociation. At Time 2 (T2), parents completed a measure assessing children's behavior problems. Mediation analyses were conducted with emotion regulation and dissociation as sequential mediators using Mplus software. Findings revealed that cumulative childhood trauma affects both internalized and externalized behavior problems through three mediation paths: emotion regulation alone, dissociation alone, and through a path combining emotion regulation and dissociation. Both emotion regulation and dissociation were assessed at T1 and thus the temporal sequencing of mediators remains to be ascertained through a longitudinal design. All measures were completed by the parents. Clinicians should routinely screen for other childhood trauma in vulnerable clienteles. In order to tackle behavior problems, clinical interventions for sexually abused youth need to address emotion regulation competencies and dissociation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.
Cruz, Marcelo; Marinho, Valeska; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Laks, Jerson
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an insidious presenile neurodegenerative disorder presenting with personality changes, compulsive behaviors, psychosis, apathetic, aberrant, and elated mood and behavior. No psychopharmacologic strategy has proven to be efficacious in the treatment of FTD yet. This is a case report of FTD in a 53-year-old male engineer whose alcohol abuse, but not other compulsive behaviors, responded to topiramate. Alcohol exerts reinforcing effects on cortico-mesolimbic dopamine pathways through the disinhibition of the inhibitory effects of gamma-amino-butyric acid-A neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted fructopyranose derivative that may antagonize the reinforcing effects associated with the abuse liability of alcohol by modulation of cortico-mesolimbic dopamine function. On the basis of the mechanism of action of topiramate, we discuss the possible specificity of action of topiramate to control abusive drinking, but not to treat other clinical symptoms of FTD.
Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória; Sérgio Antonio Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento Fajardo; Maurício Nasser Ehlke
Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (ran...
Lilian Paula D. Bérgamo
Full Text Available Verificou-se em que medida variáveis cognitivas e afetivas/emocionais diferenciariam cuidadores notificados por abusos físicos (G1 de cuidadores sem esse histórico (G2. O Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP foi utilizado para avaliar fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores. Um Questionário de Caracterização sócio-demográfica e outro econômico também foram empregados para equiparar os grupos. G1 apresentou um potencial de risco superior a G2, e maiores níveis de Angústia, Rigidez, Problemas com a Criança e Consigo, Problemas com os Outros, e um menor nível de Força do Ego. Essas variáveis se articulam para compor o risco de abuso físico, pois segundo o Modelo do Processamento da Informação Social, remeteriam a processos básicos cognitivos/afetivos subjacentes a percepções e avaliações/interpretações, associados ao comportamento parental abusivo.It was verified to what extent cognitive and affective/emotional variables could distinguish caregivers accused of committing physical abuse (G1 from those without physical abuse records (G2. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP, which is an instrument designed to assess psychological risk factors in caregivers, was used. A questionnaire on socio-demographic characterization and another on economic classification were also employed to equate the groups. G1 presented a greater potential risk than G2, higher levels of Distress, Rigidity, Problems with the Child and with Themselves, Problems with Others, and a lower level of Ego Strength. These variables contribute with the composition of physical abuse risk, since, in agreement with the Social Information Processing Model, they would be related to cognitive and affective basic processes which are veiled to the perceptions and evaluation/interpretations, associated to abusive parental behavior.
Full Text Available The article adduces a research of psychological characteristics of information security of adolescents with deviant and normative behavior. 46 people from two Moscow schools were examined with a complex of four methods, one of which was the “Information Security Questionnaire" - is used for the first time. In addition, two experimental subgroups viewed videos about Internet security rules and then it was assessed how much it had influenced the responses of adolescents to spam mailing. A conclusion based on the obtained results was made, that adolescents with deviant behavior are less likely (in comparison with adolescents with normative behavior to be exposed to negative information because of their personal characteristics and distrust of others. However, for the same reason, they are less susceptible to persuasive educational impact, including those related to information security on the Internet. Thus, it is teenagers with normative behavior who are the ones who need information security education, and the effectiveness of such education should be tested with various psychological methods.
Юлия Владимировна Смирнова
Full Text Available The number of people, suffering from non-chemical addictions - workaholism, gambling, shopaholism etc. - is greatly increased during last decades. Due to the large variety of these addictions, the questions of the reasons of such behavior and its effective prevention became very urgent. Usually, these questions are tried to be solved in the field of special psychology, while the author tries to look at the problem from the position of general psychology. The paper offers the data of workaholics' addictive behavior research from the position of cultural-historical methodology and the theory of play activity's development. The goal of these study was the analysis of relations between problematic development of play in preschool age and later formation of workaholism in adult age. By using the methods of interview and writing of essay, as well as correlation and content analysis of workaholics' and non-addicts' answers, author shows that workaholics had significant underdevelopment of play in child age and also don't able to realize and/or control their play behavior in adult age. Thus, author concludes that the underdevelopment of child's play may lead to the establishment of addictive behavior and formation of addictive personality's features. Acquired data allows to provide the workaholism' prevention by the development of play in preschool age and psychotherapy of work addiction by the development of subject of play activity in adult age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-57
Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian
Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…
Fox, Kathleen M.; Gilbert, Brenda O.
Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse, childhood incest, and parental alcoholism were completed by 253 college women. Analysis of level of depression; self-esteem; and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners revealed support for an additive model of trauma that…
Paludi, Michele A., Ed.
The 13 papers in this book deal with issues concerning sexual harassment on college campuses including the abuse of power and ways to set up policy statements and develop effective grievance procedures. Part 1 examines legal, methodological, and conceptual issues of harassment; Part 2 considers issues of abuse of the power of the professoriate and…
Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.; Weston, Rebecca; Marshall, Linda L.
Possible mediators of sexual abuse severity were tested on the basis of D. Finkelhor and A. Browne's (1985) traumagenic dynamics model with 178 low-income African American, European American, and Mexican American community women interviewed for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women. This subsample reported contact sexual abuse before the age of 18…
Geddis, D C; Turner, I F; Eardley, J
The use of the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test is described and illustrated by three examples of child abuse. This test should be considered in the investigation of definite or suspected cases of abuse and as part of the preparation of court evidence. PMID:921320
Francis, Carolyn R.; And Others
A typology of physically abusive parents was developed based upon personality characteristics measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Cluster analysis revealed five distinct patterns, with differences among clusters in age, education, number of children, number of parents involved in abuse, and other variables. Possible treatment…
Brooks, Audrey; Meade, Christina S.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Calsyn, Donald A.; Greenfield, Shelly F.
This study examined gender differences in the rates and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 1,429 clients participating in multi-site trials throughout the United States between 2001 and 2005 as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Clinical Trials Network. Women engaged in higher risk sexual behaviors. Greater alcohol use and psychiatric severity were associated with higher risk behaviors for women, while impaired social relations were associated with decreased risk for men....
Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John
Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Follmer Greenhoot, Andrea; Sun, Shengkai; Bunnell, Sarah L; Lindboe, Katherine
This study explored the connections between multiple measures of meaning making and psychological adjustment in people with and without histories of abuse. Young adults (n =177), recollected their three most stressful memories and rated them on importance and emotional and sensory qualities. We analysed the narratives for lexical markers of meaning making and explicit references to meaning or meaning-making attempts. There was little overlap between self-reported qualities and narrative content, and they were differentially predictive of psychological symptoms and transient emotional reactions. Consistent with the PTSD literature, more salient self-report memory characteristics (e.g., visceral emotions), and negative emotion and sensation terms predicted more symptoms. The narrative indices provided the best prediction to psychological adjustment, with several meaning indices (e.g., references to positive impact) predicting reduced symptoms, particularly for the Abuse group. Contrary to meaning-making models, resolutions predicted more symptoms, suggesting that aversive feelings during memory telling may trigger on-the-spot sense making to cope with distress.
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark
This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims.
Morris, Edward K.
Both J. R. Kantor's interbehavioral psychology and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism represent wellarticulated approaches to a natural science of behavior. As such, they share a number of similar features, yet they also differ on a number of dimensions. Some of these similarities and differences are examined by describing their emergence in the professional literature and by comparing the respective units of analysis of the two approaches—the interbehavioral field and the three-term contingency. An evaluation of the similarities and differences shows the similarities to be largely fundamental, and the differences largely ones of emphasis. Nonetheless, the two approaches do make unique contributions to a natural science of behavior, the integration of which can facilitate the development of that science and its acceptance among other sciences and within society at large. PMID:22478612
Full Text Available This article describes the meaning of the terms „aggression“, „aggressive“ and „aggressive behavior“. It specifies the nature and basic principles of psychological counseling. It aims to present techniques and best practices for overcoming the consequences of aggressive behavior. It describes a number intervention methods such as separation of the role functions from the personal reactions; progressive muscle relaxation, pragmatism to the manifestations of undesirable behavior, breathing techniques, visualization of positive images, method of biological feedback, meditation, neuro-linguistic programming, realistic approach to events, situations and persons involved in them, clear definition of their capabilities and competencies. These ways of influence are illustrated by describing two specific cases. They are suitable for both individual and group counseling. An examination of the symptoms and consequences of the aggressive behavior provides essential information on the experiences of the counselor’s clients as well as their relationship to the past, present and future.
Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Waldron, Holly B; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W; Brody, Janet L; Barrera, Manuel
Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk.
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Cossette, Louise
Maltreated children show poor emotion regulation competencies compared to non-maltreated children. Emotion regulation has been found to mediate the association between maltreatment and behavior problems in children. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion regulation (ER), and internalized and externalized behavior problems in preschoolers using conditional process analyses. ER competencies were assessed in 127 children aged 41-79 months (62 abused, 65 non-abused) by their parents (N=124) and early childhood educators (N=88) using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (Shields & Cicchetti, 1995, 1997). Behavior problems were evaluated by parents using the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000, 2001). ER was found to completely mediate the relation between CSA and internalized behavior problems and partially mediate the relation between CSA and externalized behavior problems. Parents' and educators' evaluations of ER were also found to differ as a function of child gender. The discussion focuses on the relationships among CSA, ER, behavior problems, and child gender. The clinical implications of these findings are also examined. Promoting the optimal development of ER could prevent the emergence and exacerbation of behavior problems in these at-risk children and, in turn, foster resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine
Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was determination of the role of metacognition and negative emotions on prediction of abuse behaviors. Method: In correlational research design which is categorized as descriptive research design, 200 participants selected by available sampling in abandonment clinics in Shahrod city. Out of 200 participants, 128 were addicted and 72 were non addicted persons. Metacognition, anxiety, depression, and stress questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Results: The results of regression analysis showed both variables could be significant predictors in prediction of abuse behaviors. Of metacognition subscales, negative believes about not controlling and risk, and cognitive confidence also of negative emotion subscales depression and anxiety were significant predictors. Conclusion: By consideration of results it could be said by intervention of significant variables the probability of suffering of substance abuse and its relapse could be down.
Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.
Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele
We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.
Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. Methods. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Results. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post–September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post–September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusions. Perceived post–September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans. PMID:20019301
Zajac, Rachel; Garry, Maryanne; London, Kamala; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Hayne, Harlene
Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness.
Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Tudiver, Fred; Brewster, Scott; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Hagaman, Angela; Pack, Robert P
Interpersonal communication is inherent in a majority of strategies seeking to engage prescriber and pharmacist health care professionals (HCPs) in the reduction and prevention of prescription drug abuse (PDA). However, research on HCP PDA communication behavioral engagement and factors that influence it is limited. This study quantitatively examined communication behaviors and trait-level communication metrics, and qualitatively described prescription drug abuse-related communication perceptions and behaviors among primary care prescribers and community pharmacists. Five focus groups (N = 35) were conducted within the Appalachian Research Network (AppNET), a rural primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) in South Central Appalachia between February and October, 2014. Focus groups were structured around the administration of three previously validated trait-level communication survey instruments, and one instrument developed by the investigators to gauge HCP prescription drug abuse communication engagement and perceived communication importance. Using a grounded theory approach, focus group themes were inductively derived and coded independently by study investigators. Member-checking interviews were conducted to validate derived themes. Respondents' trait-level communication self-perceptions indicated low communication apprehension, high self-perceived communication competence, and average willingness to communicate as compared to instrument specific criteria and norms. Significant variation in HCP communication behavior engagement was noted specific to PDA. Two overarching themes were noted for HCP-patient communication: 1) influencers of HCP communication and prescribing/dispensing behaviors, and 2) communication behaviors. Multiple sub-themes were identified within each theme. Similarities were noted in perceptions and behaviors across both prescribers and pharmacists. Despite the perceived importance of engaging in PDA communication, HCPs reported
Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Larcan, Rosalba; Romeo, Carmelo; Turiaco, Nunzio; Dominici, Tiziana
To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychological preoperative program in reducing preoperative anxiety and in promoting compliance of pediatric participants with surgical procedures. Fifty children and their mothers were subjected to two conditions of treatment to investigate whether psychological preparation activities and psychologist's support during all phases of the operatory iter (group 1) were as efficient in reducing mothers' and child's anxiety and in increasing the child's compliance as distraction activities (group 2). The observed child anxiety was assessed using mYPAS; compliant behaviors with Induction Compliance Checklist; and mothers' anxiety with Amsterdam Pre-operative Anxiety and Information Scale. Children of the first group were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during anesthesia induction than in the other condition. The psychological program was also more efficient in reducing mothers' anxiety. Finally, the mothers of group 1 showed a significantly higher satisfaction and judged as significantly more effective the program proposed to prepare their children than the mothers of group 2. Preparing children through playful dramatization of the operative procedure, manipulation of medical instruments and psychologist's support may be useful in pediatric surgery structures. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.
Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)—the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…
Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Tremblay, Richard E.
Using a prospective design spanning 17 years, the authors studied in a sample of 231 boys and girls the predictive links of verbal abuse by the teacher during childhood to high-school graduation and behavioral and emotional problems in young adulthood, as well as the putative mediating role of individuals' generalized and domain-specific…
Solakoglu, Ozgur; Driver, Nichola; Belshaw, Scott H
Drawing from Robert Agnew's General Strain Theory, the purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sexual abuse on deviant behaviors, such as suicide, smoking, drinking, drug use, violent crime, and property crime, among Turkish adolescents. The article also aims to understand the mediating role of negative emotions, including depression and anger, as well as gender differences in this relationship. Findings from a series of analyses demonstrate that the experience of sexual abuse is significantly related to the likelihood of engaging in most of the deviant behaviors. In addition, the mediating role of negative emotions, particularly anger, was highlighted in the findings. Furthermore, the effect of sexual abuse on deviant behaviors was relatively greater for Turkish males compared with Turkish females. The current study contributes to the literature on the consequences of sexual abuse by considering them within the unique Islamic-Western cultural context of Turkey. Overall, findings suggest that this particular form of strain has a substantial impact on deviant behaviors among Turkish adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016.
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing
Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
Hsieh, Sumin; Hollister, C. David
This study investigates gender differences in adolescent substance abuse behavior, treatment effectiveness, and the associated relationships with pre-, during-, and post-treatment groups of variables. Analyses were performed using 6-month post-treatment follow-up data from over two thousand subjects. T-test analysis showed that females exhibited…
Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian
Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae
Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.
Lub, X.D.; Blomme, R.J.; Bal, P.M.
This research aims to shed light on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of different generations of hospitality workers in relation to their psychological contract. The psychological contract, which describes employees' implicit expectations of their employer, is related to a range of
Okami, P; Shackelford, T K
Because age and sex constitute the only distinct anatomical and physiological morphs (types) of the human species, universal sex differences ought to be expected. According to Darwinian theory, the most numerous sex differences are likely to be found in the domains of sexuality and reproduction. We first briefly review the basic model of the adaptationist program of modern Darwinian psychology. We then present evidence suggesting substantial sex differences in the following domains of sexual behavior: Mate preferences, interest in casual sex, interest in partner variety, jealousy, fantasy, sexual "plasticity," and magnitude of intrinsic sexual motivation. We then propose a program for research and explanation of sex differences that invokes both proximate and ultimate variables where appropriate. This program is based in modern Darwinian theory, neuroendocrinology, human genetics, and social and behavioral sciences. We conclude by considering sociopolitical implications of research on sex differences.
LaVerne McQuiller Williams
Full Text Available A survey of 222 Deaf or hard of hearing college students in an upstate New York university provided a unique opportunity to explore possible differences between Deaf students’ and hard of hearing students’ experiences and risk factors of psychological and physical abuse in their intimate relationships. Previous research has indicated that Deaf and hard of hearing college students in the aggregate were significantly more likely to experience abuse than were hearing students. A comparison of Deaf students with hard of hearing students revealed that hard of hearing individuals were significantly more likely to experience physical abuse than were Deaf students but not more likely to experience psychological abuse. Findings also revealed that in most cases, traditional risk factors for partner violence (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, living on campus used in hearing college samples were not significant. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Elizabeth C Hersch
Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms
Cui, Naixue; Liu, Jianghong
It has been well established that child physical abuse is a risk factor for cognitive deficits and behavioral problems. However, the possible link between cognitive deficits and behavioral problems placing children at a higher risk of physical abuse has been overlooked. Using a prospective design, the present study aims to examine whether previously measured cognition indicated by intelligence quotient (IQ), including performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ), and behavioral problems reported by multiple informants (i.e. mothers, teachers, and children) predict later child physical abuse (which may include minor and severe forms of abuse inflicted separately by mothers and fathers) in Chinese children. A school-based survey was conducted to collect data from 265 Chinese children (52.8 % boys, mean age 13.71 ± 0.60 years) in the Wave II of China Jintan Cohort study. When they were in the last year of elementary school, children completed the Chinese version of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised that measured VIQ and PIQ during 2010-2012 when their behaviors were self-assessed. Mothers and teachers of these children used the Chinese versions of the youth self report, the child behavior checklist and the teacher report form, respectively, to assess the children's behaviors. These children reported minor and severe physical abuse experiences in the previous 12 months from mothers and fathers separately using the Chinese version of parent-child conflict tactics scale in 2013 when children were in grades 7 and 8 of middle school. The present study found that after controlling for the sociodemographic and other cognitive and/or behavior variables, high scores of child externalizing behavior rated by their mothers or teachers were associated with increased risks of experiencing maternal and paternal severe physical abuse, while a high score of self-reported externalizing behavior was associated with a decreased risk of paternal severe physical abuse
BROOKS, AUDREY; MEADE, CHRISTINA S.; POTTER, JENNIFER SHARPE; LOKHNYGINA, YULIYA; CALSYN, DONALD A.; GREENFIELD, SHELLY F.
This study examined gender differences in the rates and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 1,429 clients participating in multi-site trials throughout the United States between 2001 and 2005 as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Clinical Trials Network. Women engaged in higher risk sexual behaviors. Greater alcohol use and psychiatric severity were associated with higher risk behaviors for women, while impaired social relations were associated with decreased risk for men. Specific risk factors were differentially predictive of HIV risk behaviors for women and men, highlighting the need for gender-specific risk-reduction interventions. Limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:20536356
Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.
Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Liuqin; Shing Chan, Darius Kwan
Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the relations between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion and intent to leave were examined, as well as the gender differences in these relations. Moreover, the moderating effect of self-esteem was tested in an integrated model stipulating that the gender-moderating effect was mediated by the abusive supervision × self-esteem interaction. Data were collected from 264 employees (111 men; M age = 32.0 years; M tenure = 9.2 years). Results of regression analyses indicated that abusive supervision was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion and intent to leave. Women reported higher emotional exhaustion and intent to leave than men. The relations of interest were stronger among employees with higher self-esteem (emotional exhaustion: β = 0.44; intent to leave: β = 0.53). The interaction of abusive supervision × self-esteem mediated the gender-moderating effect. Women's stronger responses to abusive supervision may be related to their higher self-esteem, possibly because of the importance of employment to Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2016.
Drawing from the positive psychology, organizational leadership and organizational behavior literature, this study explores the relationship between positive leadership behaviors, psychological capital (PsyCap), employee work engagement, as well as destructive workplace deviant behavior in Australian firms. Data were collected from Australian organizations across different industries (n=441). In the first model, the relationship between servant leadership and employee engagement as mediat...
SS Mazloomi mahmodabad
Full Text Available Introduction: Drug abuse and addiction is expanding and is not restricted to a specific social class and age in Iran. Students as a talented and chosen group and are community creators in country. Therefore detection of related factors on the prevention of drug abuse in these people is necessary. One of the most effective and comprehensive explanation of the relationship between attitudes and behavior is Theory of Planned Behavior. This study was conducted by aimed to determine predictors of drug abuse in Yazd University of Medical Sciences students, based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed by simple randomized sampling among 120 students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire in self report, consisted of two parts, 31 demographic and background questions and items relating to the theory of planned behavior consisted, attitude 10 items (α=0.83 score range 10-50, subjective norms 4 items (α=0.75 score range 4-20, perceived behavioral control 2 items (α=0.81 scores range 2-10 and behavioral intention 4 items (α=0.89 score range was 4-20. Data were analyzed by SPSS-18 and with the help of descriptive statistics and analytical tests such as independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis at α=0.05. Results: The average age of participants was 23.49 ±3.27 with range of 18-35 years. 73.3 percent were female and 26.7 percent were male. 8.3 percent had smoking history and 6.7 percent had a history of drug abuse. The attitude score mean respectively were 24.8±6.15, subjective norms 11.10±2.52, perceived behavioral control 6.85±1.86, and behavioral intention 10.95±3.35. Women attitudes (p=0.016 and behavioral intention (p=0.013 in substance use were more positive than men. Married subjective norms (p=0.04 behavioral intention (p=0.042 in substance use were higher than single. Attitudes, subjective norms and
of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...
Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein
Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by
Escribà-Agüir, V; Royo-Marqués, M; Artazcoz, L; Romito, P; Ruiz-Pérez, I; Martín-Baena, D
To describe the incidence and risk factors of psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the first year after childbirth. Longitudinal cohort study. Nine primary care centers in the Valencia Region (Spain). A consecutive sample of 1400 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, attending the prenatal programme in the Valencia Region of Spain in 2008, with follow-up in the third trimester of pregnancy, and at 5 and 12 months postpartum. A total of 888 women (66.5%) participated in all four phases. A logistic regression model was fitted using generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of previous partner violence, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs and social support on subsequent psychological partner violence. Psychological IPV during follow-up. We observed an increase in the incidence of psychological IPV after birth, particularly at 5 months postpartum. The strongest predictor of psychological IPV was having experienced abuse 12 months before pregnancy (OR 10.46, 95%CI 2.40-45.61). Other predictors were consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs by the partner or a family member (OR3.50, 95%CI 1.38-8.85) and lack of affective social support (OR2.83, 95%CI 1.31-6.11). Previous abuse and psychosocial risk factors predict partner psychological abuse after birth. Monitoring psychological IPV and effective interventions are needed not only during pregnancy but also during the postpartum period. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.
Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah
Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced…
Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of
Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne
Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with
Reissig, Chad J; Harrison, Joseph A; Carter, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Roland R
Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, and 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, and 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a crossover design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9-h sessions. Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer-lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 min after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., "drug liking") were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance), the routes were equipotent. The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low.
Kelley, J L; Petry, N M
Antisocial personality disorder (ASP) is common in male substance abusers and may be associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors. In this study, 91 male substance abusers were recruited from the community, and 42% met diagnostic criteria for ASP. Although ASP and non-ASP subjects demonstrated equivalent knowledge about HIV, subjects with ASP participated in more risky behaviors. On a lifetime measure of drug risk behaviors, ASP subjects reported higher rates of intravenous drug use (IVDU), frequency of needle-sharing, and number of equipment-sharing partners and lower rates of needle-cleaning. On a measure of past-month risk behaviors, ASP subjects reported higher rates of IVDU and lower rates of needle-cleaning. Subjects with ASP also reported greater participation in lifetime sexual risk behaviors, including number of sexual partners and frequency of anal sex. These findings suggest that clients entering substance abuse treatment programs should be screened for ASP, and clients identified with ASP should be provided risk-reduction interventions early in treatment.
Johnson, Scott A.
Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)
The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…
Ni Ning; Li Zhaoyi
We explored the effect of psychological contract breach on employees' unethical behavior and examined the mediating and moderating roles of organizational disidentification and organizational ethical...
Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and
Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.
This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…
Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis
Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie
The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…
Full Text Available This study analyzed the importance of exercise frequency on eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being and the ability of various exercises, individual, and psychological variables to predict eating disordered behaviors. The following characteristics were measured: eating disordered behaviors, dieting habits, physical activity, goal orientation, social physique anxiety, and self-esteem. The results showed that regular exercise was reported more frequently by males, those with high attraction towards exercise, and adolescents with fewer dieting behaviors. Moreover, adolescents who exercised regularly showed fewer eating disordered behaviors and had more positive psychological functioning. The results also confirmed the importance of various exercises, individual, and psychological variables in predicting eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, this study validates the importance of regular exercise for promoting psychological well-being and preventing eating disordered behaviors in adolescence.
Judd, Lewis L; Schettler, Pamela J; Brown, E Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Sternberg, Esther M; Bender, Bruce G; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y M; McEwen, Bruce S; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as ways to prevent and treat these disturbances. An illustrative case vignette is presented describing a patient's experience of cycles of manic-like behavior and depression while on high-dosage prednisone, with long-term cognitive disorganization, vulnerability to stress, and personality changes. Severe neuropsychiatric consequences (including suicide, suicide attempt, psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and delirium, confusion, or disorientation) have been reported to occur in 15.7 per 100 person-years at risk for all glucocorticoid courses, and 22.2 per 100 person-years at risk for first courses. The majority of patients experience less severe but distressing and possibly persistent changes in mood, cognition, memory, or behavior during glucocorticoid treatment or withdrawal. Although prediction of such effects is difficult, risks vary with age, gender, dosage, prior psychiatric history, and several biological markers. Key mechanisms thought to underlie these risk factors are briefly described. Recommendations are given for identifying individual risk factors and for monitoring and managing adverse neuropsychiatric effects of glucocorticoids.
Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.
Brausch, Amy M; Holaday, Tara C
Multiple studies have found correlations between history of abuse and self-harm behaviors, but few have examined potential mediators. Studying suicide-related concerns as a mediator in this relationship could inform the interpersonal theory of suicide by identifying acquired capability as a necessary component in self-harm behavior. This study examined the link between childhood physical abuse, self-injurious behaviors, and suicide-related concerns in young adults. It was hypothesized that more physical abuse and fewer suicide-related concerns would predict self-harm behaviors, and that suicide-related concerns would mediate this relationship. A sample of 212 university students completed self-report measures that assessed self-harm behavior history, reasons for living, and childhood physical abuse. Results supported the hypothesis that more instances of abuse and less concern about pain and death were significantly associated with greater self-harm history. Suicide-related concerns also mediated the relationship between physical abuse and self-harm behaviors. These results support recent theories that habituation to painful and provocative events is an important mechanism in explaining why people engage in self-injurious acts, and provides initial evidence for cognitive mediators between physical abuse and self-harm.
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model
Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.
This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…
Reilly, Patrick M.; Shopshire, Michael S.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Campbell, Torri A.
This manual and workbook set focuses on anger management. The manual was designed for use by qualified substance abuse and mental health clinicians who work with substance abuse and mental health clients with concurrent anger programs. The manual describes a 12-week cognitive behavioral anger management group treatment. Each of the 12 90-minute…
Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.
Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…
Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott
Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…
Ana Estevez; Irache Urbiola; Itziar Iruarrizaga; Jaione Onaindia
.... The present study was carried out with a sample of 535 young university students in order to analyze emotional dependency in dating relationships and the psychological consequences of Internet and mobile use...
Chan, Ya-Fen; Passetti, Lora L; Garner, Bryan R; Lloyd, Jacqueline J; Dennis, Michael L
This study estimated prevalence of HIV risk behaviors and its association with substance use and mental health problems among adolescents in treatment. A pooled dataset of 9,519 adolescents admitted to substance abuse treatment programs between 2002 and 2006 was analyzed. HIV risk behaviors, substance use, and mental health problems were assessed at treatment intake. Sixty percent of adolescents were engaged in at least one sexual or needle use risk behavior in the year prior to entering treatment. Sex with multiple partners, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sex were the most prevalent HIV risk behaviors. Several gender differences were found for specific types of sexual and needle use behaviors. Adolescents with substance dependence or other comorbid mental health problems were at increased odds for HIV risk. Findings suggest treatment programs may benefit adolescents better by screening them consistently for HIV risk behaviors and incorporating tailored interventions.
Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R
Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.
Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian
Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.
Esteves, Kyle; Gray, Sarah A O; Theall, Katherine P; Drury, Stacy S
This study investigated the multigenerational impact of mothers' own exposure to physical maltreatment on internalizing symptoms in her child after accounting for her parenting practices, depression, and the child's own exposure to stressful life events. Children (n = 101, ages 5-16), predominantly African American, were recruited into this cross sectional study using ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling for high-risk neighborhoods. Mothers reported retrospectively on their own exposure to physical maltreatment in childhood, their parenting practices, as well as current depressive symptoms. Maternal report of her child's exposure to stressful life events and child behavior was also collected. Maternal childhood exposure to physical maltreatment was significantly associated with her child's internalizing symptoms (p = .004); this effect remained after accounting for child sex, maternal depressive symptoms, harsh parenting practices, and the child's own exposure to stressful life events. Formal tests of mediation through these pathways were non-significant. Findings suggest mothers' experience of childhood maltreatment contributes uniquely to children's internalizing symptoms, potentially through previously uncharacterized pathways. Examination of additional behavioral, psychosocial and biological pathways may help better describe the multi-generational effects of child maltreatment.
Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Dai-Jin
This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. This study suggests that there are differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral
Amado, Bárbara G.; Arce, Ramón; Herraiz, Andrés
In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA) on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met t...
Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.
We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%…
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers
José Jonas Alves Correia
Full Text Available Psychology of Economics addresses issues far beyond market research. Thus, studies in this area also observe variables such as work, unemployment, decisions about purchases and savings, investments, financing, responses to advertising, among others. The present research was carried out with the objective of analyzing, through the fundamentals of consumer behavior, its relation to the propensity for compulsive or superfluous consumption. This quantitative study relates, using as means of phenomena and variables a description of the consumers behavior through the statistical tool Propensity Score Matching of Stata software. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was applied online from April to August in 2016. Data analysis was performed by the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression with controlled dummy variables (dependent variable, whether or not it belongs to the consumer group Compulsive by the set of explanatory (independent variables. The results showed that the average monthly spending of compulsive consumers increases, and the higher the income of individuals, the greater the spending on unnecessary or superfluous consumption. Considering the gender variable, male individuals have higher levels of unnecessary spending and are prone to superfluous consumption. Thus, consumption is composed of influences for purchase and that the consumer determines consumption, according to economic position (income factor and cultural factors (customs, needs, impulsivities within the society.
Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian
Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.
Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James Rp; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E
There is a growing body of research investigating the relationship between child sexual abuse and a range of adverse outcomes. However, very little is known about the long-term co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems among this vulnerable population, or the interaction between characteristics of the abuse, such as the nature and timing of the child sexual abuse, and the extent of subsequent adversities. This study aimed to determine the rate and co-occurrence of mental health morbidity, criminal justice system contact, and fatal self-harm among medically confirmed victims of child sexual abuse, and to identify abuse variables associated with a greater likelihood of cumulative adverse experiences. The forensic medical records of 2759 cases of child sexual abuse assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with public psychiatric, criminal justice and coronial administrative databases between 13 and 44 years following abuse. Cases were compared to 2677 matched comparisons from the general population. Abuse victims were more likely (odds ratio = 7.2, 95% confidence interval = [4.9, 10.4], p mental illness. Relative to comparisons, female victims demonstrated the largest increase in odds for cumulative outcomes (odds ratio = 9.8, 95% confidence interval = [5.8, 16.8], p Sexual abuse, particularly during adolescence (ages 12-16 years), appears to be a risk factor for co-occurring adverse experiences. This study identifies particular groups of child sexual abuse victims as at-risk and requiring targeted intervention.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara dukungan sosial dengan psychological well-being pada remaja korban kekerasan seksual. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif korelasional. Populasi penelitian adalah remaja korban kekerasan seksual di kabupaten Langkat yang diketahui berjumlah 32 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah total sampling yaitu seluruh anggota populasi dijadikan sampel penelitian. Pengumpulan data penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan skala psikologi, yaitu skala psychological well-being dan skala dukungan sosial yang dikembangkan peneliti berdasarkan teori yang relevan. Analisa terhadap data penelitian yang terkumpul dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik analisa korelasi pearson product moment.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif yang signifikan antara dukungan sosial dengan psychological well-being pada remaja korban kekerasan seksual. Semakin tinggi dukungan sosial yang diterima oleh remaja korban kekerasan seksual maka akan semakin tinggi psychological well-being yang mereka miliki. Sebaliknya, semakin rendah dukungan sosial yang diterima oleh remaja korban kekerasan seksual maka akan semakin rendah psychological well-being yang mereka miliki.
Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Warda, Umme; Longshore, Douglas; Rivkin, Inna; Chin, Dorothy; Liu, Honghu
Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to enhance risk for HIV infection and other adverse outcomes. However, most studies examine the effects of a single incident of CSA rather than the full burden of abuse over the life span in predicting these adverse outcomes. A multi-dimensional approach was used in this study to examine the severity of abuse as a predictor of post-traumatic stress, depression, sexual symptoms, and risky sexual behaviors in a multi-ethnic sample of 147 HIV-positive women. Multivariate models indicated that experiencing both intrafamilial and extrafamilial CSA, adult sexual abuse (ASA) and Latina ethnicity predicted PTSD symptoms. ASA also predicted sexual trauma symptoms. Also, CSA and adult re-victimization contributed independently to risk for PTSD and sexual trauma symptoms, but not for risky sexual behaviors. The results support the need for interventions for HIV-positive women that address the full burden of abuse experienced and its sequelae.
Tebbett, Alison A; Brown, Elissa J; Chaplin, William F
A common critique of empirically supported treatments for abuse-related psychopathology is attrition during critical phases of therapy (i.e., exposure). The goal of this study was to examine whether child and caregiver symptoms were predictive of attrition among families in abuse-specific cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs). Children ( N = 104) and their caregivers completed baseline assessments of internalizing symptoms, externalizing problems, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and were enrolled in abuse-specific CBTs. Logistic regressions were conducted with baseline symptoms as predictor variables and treatment status (attrition vs. completion) as the criterion variable. Caregiver report of child internalizing symptoms showed the predicted quadratic relation to attrition. Caregiver report of child externalizing symptoms at moderate and high (vs. low) levels was associated with attrition. Child self-report and caregiver self-report of symptoms were not associated with the dyad's attrition. These results underscore the importance of attending to caregivers' initial perceptions of children's symptoms in abuse-specific therapy.
Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.
Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça
This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Malpani, Suruchi; Arora, Jatin; Diwaker, Gunjeeta; Kaleka, Priyajeet Kaur; Parey, Aditi; Bontala, Parinita
Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a significant global problem with a serious impact on the victims throughout their lives. Dentists have the unique opportunity to address this problem. However, reporting such cases has become a sensitive issue due to the uncertainty of the diagnosis. The authors are testing the knowledge of the dentists toward CAN and also trying to question the efforts of the educational institutions to improve this knowledge for the better future of the younger generation. Questionnaire data were distributed to 1,106 members regarding their knowledge, professional responsibilities, and behavior concerning child abuse. There were 762 responses to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 68.9%. Although dentists consider themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage of the participants correctly identified all signs of abuse and 76.8% knew the indicators of child abuse. Most of them were willing to get involved in detecting a case and about 90% believed that it is their ethical duty to report child abuse. Only 7.2% suspected an abuse case in the past. The numbers indicate a lack of awareness about CAN in these participants. No differences were observed between sexes, year of graduation, types of license, frequency at which children were treated, and formal training already received. A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. The data showed that not all dental care providers and students were prepared to fulfill their legal and professional responsibilities in these situations. There should be modifications in the dental school curriculum focusing on educational experiences regarding child abuse to strengthen their capability to care and protect children.
Oh, Insoo; Song, Jiyeon
The current study examined the mediating effects of emotional/behavioral problems and academic competence between parental abuse/neglect and a child's school adjustment by investigating 2070 student surveys from the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS). A path analysis yielded the following key findings. Firstly, childhood abuse and neglect showed a significant negative and direct effect on school adjustment. It is particularly important to note that the effect of neglect was bigger than that of abuse in this study. Secondly, emotional/behavioral problems were found to partially mediate between abuse/neglect and school adjustment. Thirdly, academic competence partially mediated the effect of neglect on school adjustment, while it did not mediate the effect of abuse on school adjustment. The indirect effect of parental neglect via emotional/behavioral problems and academic competence was stronger than that of parental abuse. The influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's school adjustments was discussed in terms of emotional/behavioral problems and academic competence considering unique Korean cultural context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Badura Brack, Amy; Huefner, Jonathan C; Handwerk, Michael L
This study examined the relationship between gender, abuse history, and clinical change in a residential treatment program for youth with emotional and behavioral disturbance. Admission data and data collected after 1 year of treatment or at discharge were examined for 1,303 youth. Measures included the Suicide Probability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Data also included medication count, demographic data, and history of sexual or physical abuse or both. At intake, girls scored significantly more pathologically than boys on 9 out of 12 measures. At intake, abused youth indicated more hostility, anxiety, and mood disorder symptoms as well as psychotropic medication usage than nonabused youth. Youth improved significantly on all outcome measures with treatment, although interaction effects indicate some differing treatment responses by abuse history or gender. After treatment, girls still scored significantly higher than boys on 6 of 8 outcome measures, and abused youth, especially youth experiencing both sexual and physical abuse, had significantly higher anxiety, affective, behavior, and eating disorder symptom counts and were on more psychotropic medications than nonabused youth. Although behaviorally focused treatment was associated with improvement on every measure, the most important implication of our study is that a singular treatment approach does not fit all youth completely as reflected by continuing treatment needs in our most troubled youth. Additional symptom-focused treatment and research attention must be given to girls and abused youth in residential care to maximize their therapeutic outcomes. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Current research on cigarette smoking has largely been focused on identifying the relationship between psychological attributes and the onset or initiation of smoking behavior. Few data are available on the psychological predictors of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents. This study examined the prevalence of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents, revealed factors affecting their smoking behavior, and identified the relationship between smoking behavior and psychological variables. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to assess adolescents' smoking behavior and their psychological attributes: Smoking Habit Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Scale, Self-efficacy Scale, and Self-esteem Scale. Frequency, Chi-square, ANOVA, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to analyze the data obtained in the study. The results indicate that smoking problem in the Korean adolescents is a crucial factor that might adversely affect their overall health. Forty-three percent of adolescents responded that they had smoked a cigarette in their lifetime and 26% are current smokers. Male adolescents were more likely to smoke in their lifetime and have currently smoked a cigarette than females. The adolescents aged 17-18 years had smoked more cigarette than those in other age groups. Among the five psychological variables, IHLC and self-efficacy significantly differentiated adolescents at different smoking status. Furthermore, IHLC, self-esteem, and self-efficacy were significantly correlated with smoking behavior and those psychological constructs had a significant linear relation to account for smoking behavior. Psychological variables have a meaningful influence on smoking behavior of adolescents.
Bárbara G. Amado
Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.
Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon; Welch, Chiquitia; Wall, Ariana; Wiggins, Pam
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach in changing the behavioral and cognitive skills of incarcerated girls participating in a substance abuse treatment program. A repeated measures design was used. The findings of this study revealed that the behaviors (i.e., self-monitoring,…
Petrović Nikola M.
Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.
Carr, John E
For over a century, researchers and educators have called for the integration of psychological science into medical school curricula, but such efforts have been impeded by barriers within medicine and psychology. In addressing these barriers, Psychology has re-examined its relationship to Medicine, incorporated psychological practices into health care, and redefined its parameters as a science. In response to interdisciplinary research into the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, Psychology evolved from an ancillary social science to a bio-behavioral science that is fundamental to medicine and health care. However, in recent medical school curriculum innovations, psychological science is being reduced to a set of "clinical skills," and once again viewed as an ancillary social science. These developments warrant concern and consideration of new approaches to integrating psychological science in medical education.
Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar
Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems. This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version. In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%), perceived burden on family (29.5%), refusing a safety plan (26.1%), and sexual abuse (11%). Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%), fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%), and spirituality (92%) were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01) revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model, none of the independent variables contributed significantly to any suicidal and self-injurious behavior, any suicidal ideation, or protection from them (P > 0.05). Our preliminary results suggest that there are some socioclinical correlates of any suicide ideation, suicidal and self-injurious behavior, and protection from risky behavior, but which of them contributes significantly to the risk and protective
Ensink, Karin; Berthelot, Nicolas; Bégin, Michaël; Maheux, Julie; Normandin, Lina
The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using structural equation modeling, a theoretical model in which dissociation is a core process mediating the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and internalizing, externalizing, and sexualized behaviour difficulties in children. A total of 290 children aged 2-12 participated in this study in Québec, Canada from 1998 to 2004, including 138 children with histories of CSA and 152 non-abused children. To assess child dissociative symptoms, internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as sexualized behaviour difficulties, the Child Dissociative Checklist, the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Child Sexualized Behaviour Inventory were completed by parents. Dissociation mediated the relationship between CSA and internalizing, externalizing, and sexualized behaviour difficulties, with the model explaining respectively 42.5%, 49.9% and 33.9% of the variance of these difficulties. Findings are consistent with a model where dissociation is a common pathway linking CSA and child psycho-sexual difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten
Suicide behavior is relatively common in families with alcohol problems. This study explores associations between suicide behavior in parents with alcohol abuse problems and suicide behavior in their offspring. It aims to expand our understanding of the varied experiences of treatment-seeking young adults who grew up in families with alcohol problems. 344 young adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) entering a Danish center for ACA counseling were surveyed about their childhood experiences regarding their own and their parents' attempted, threatened and completed suicide behavior. Parental suicide behavior was strongly associated with parental drinking; 46% of ACAs reported parental threatened, attempted or completed suicide behavior during their childhood, 13% of ACAs reported threatening suicide themselves, 15% of ACAs reported attempting suicide themselves. At least 54% of ACAs who had attempted suicide had done so without previously threatening suicide. There was a significant association between ACAs whose parents had committed suicide and ACAs who had attempted suicide during their childhood. There was also a significant association between ACAs where both parents had suicide behavior and ACA childhood suicide behavior. The study stresses the importance of addressing and assessing the family history of suicidal behavior in ACAs seeking counseling.
Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education
Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…
Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum
This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.
Silvia Susana Robles Montijo
Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.
Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie
, psychological and social processes that explain how celebrities influence people's health behaviors. With a better understanding of this phenomenon, medical professionals can work to ensure that it is harnessed for good rather than abused for harm. Physicians can discuss with their patients the validity of celebrity advice and share more credible sources of health information. Public health practitioners can debunk celebrities offering unsubstantiated advice or receiving inappropriate financial compensation, and should collaborate with well-meaning celebrities, leveraging their influence to disseminate medical practices of demonstrated benefit.
Brown, T; Morgan, Kad
Current epidemiological research indicates that HIV/AIDS endures and continues to be a significant vulnerability among adolescents and youths despite the increased access to antiretroviral drugs and the reduction in the global progression of the disease. This study examined the association between substance use and psychological distress within the Jamaican population of youths coping with the illness. This is a cross-sectional survey that utilized a correlational design. The sample population consisted of 62 youths, age range 15-25 years, living with HIV/AIDS. Sociodemographic information was gathered through interviews and self-report scales were used to measure depression, anxiety, stress and substance use. Chi-square was used to assess the relationship between the variables under study: psychological distress and substance use. More than half the sample were heterosexuals who contracted the virus through consensual intercourse. The average age of respondents was 21.29 years and slightly more than half were female (56.5%). The majority of respondents were single (54.8%), unemployed (73%), heterosexual (69.4%) youths with a secondary level education (63%). There was a statistically significant relationship between psychological distress and substance use (χ2 = 7.3959, df = 3, p = 0.047). The emotional needs of youths living with HIV/AIDS are just as important as their medical needs.
Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.
Full Text Available Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods: A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS were used for data collection. Results: The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009. Conclusion: Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. Keywords: Internet, drug abuse, adolescence, addiction, behavior
Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Klassen, Brian; Murdoch, William; Thakur, Elyse R; Wright, Brandy E; Morris, Pierre
Family medicine residents increasingly work collaboratively with psychology trainees. One type of collaborative experience involves dual interviewing of clinic patients. The goal of this observational study was to provide an initial description of what occurs during dual interviews as it relates to behavioral health assessments and interventions. Psychology trainees provided detailed descriptions of 550 collaborative patient encounters involving 348 patients from the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency clinic. Psychology trainees coded the frequency of behavioral health assessments and interventions by the resident, psychology trainee, or both. Eighty percent of the encounters contained a behavioral health assessment, and 29% contained a behavioral health intervention. Most of these clinical activities were collaboratively done. Interestingly, residents and psychology trainees tended to provide different behavioral health interventions. Moreover, residents provided different behavioral health interventions in repeat dual interviews (n=202) as opposed to first-time visits (n=348), while psychology trainees did not. Little is known about the process of dual interviewing, and this study is an important first step in describing how residents and psychology trainees actually interact during these encounters. More research is needed about the impact of dual interviewing on residents' behavior.
Engstrom, Malitta; Winham, Katherine; Gilbert, Louisa
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often considered an important distal factor in HIV sexual risk behaviors; however, there are limited and mixed findings regarding this relationship among women experiencing substance use problems. In addition, research with this population of women has yet to examine differences in observed CSA-HIV sexual risk behaviors relationships by CSA type and characteristics. This study examines relationships between CSA coding, type, and characteristics and HIV sexual risk behaviors with main intimate partners among a random sample of 390 women in methadone treatment in New York City who completed individual interviews with trained female interviewers. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicate that CSA predicts substance use with sexual activity, with variations by CSA coding, type, and characteristics; however, the role of CSA is more limited than expected. Having a main partner with HIV risk mediates some relationships between CSA and drinking four or more drinks prior to sex. Intimate partner violence is the most consistent predictor of sexual risk behaviors. Other salient factors include polysubstance use, depression, social support, recent incarceration, relationship characteristics, and HIV status. This study contributes to understanding of relationships between CSA and HIV sexual risk behaviors and key correlates associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among women in methadone treatment. It also highlights the complexity of measuring CSA and its association with sexual risk behaviors and the importance of comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention that address psychological, relational, situational, and substance use experiences associated with sexual risk behaviors among this population.
Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping
Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.
Boudewyn, A C; Liem, J H
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a predictor of depression and self-destructive behaviors in adulthood was examined relative to other traumatic stressors in childhood and adulthood with special attention to sex differences. In a college sample of 173 men and 265 women, 16% of male (n = 28) and 24% of female respondents (n = 63) reported having been sexually abused as children. CSA, ranging from unwanted kissing and fondling to unwanted sexual intercourse, predicted depression, chronic self-destructiveness, self-harm ideation, acts of self-harm, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts, for both men and women. The more frequent and severe the sexual abuse and the longer its duration, the more depression and self-destructiveness reported in adulthood. Other stressors predicted these effects less consistently but their occurrence in combination with CSA contributed to the negativity of long-term outcomes. Study results affirm previous findings of a relationship between CSA and depression and self-destructiveness in adult females and extend them to males.
Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Decoste, Cindy; Suchman, Nancy E
As a group, substance-abusing parents are at risk for maladaptive parenting. The association between substance abuse and parenting may result, in part, from parents' emotional disengagement from the parent-child relationship, which makes perceiving and responding to children's cues more challenging. In this study, we examined whether substance-abusing mothers' levels of disengagement from their relationship with their children (ages 2-44 months), operationalized in two different ways using parenting narratives (representational and linguistic disengagement), prospectively predicted children's engagement and disengagement cues during a structured mother-child interaction. Within a sample of 29 mothers, we tested the hypotheses that greater maternal disengagement at Time 1 would predict a decrease in children's engagement and an increase in children's disengagement at Time 2. Results indicated that representational disengagement predicted a decrease in children's engagement cues whereas linguistic disengagement predicted an increase in children's disengagement cues. Results provide partial support for a reciprocal, iterative process in which mothers and children mutually adjust their emotional and behavioral disengagement with one another. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Liddle, Howard A; Dakof, Gayle A; Turner, Ralph M; Henderson, Craig E; Greenbaum, Paul E
To examine the efficacy of two adolescent drug abuse treatments: individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT). A 2 (treatment condition) x 4 (time) repeated-measures intent-to-treat randomized design. Data were gathered at baseline, termination, 6 and 12 months post-termination. Analyses used latent growth curve modeling. Community-based drug abuse clinic in the northeastern United States. A total of 224 youth, primarily male (81%), African American (72%), from low-income single-parent homes (58%) with an average age of 15 years were recruited into the study. All youth were drug users, with 75% meeting DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence and 13% meeting criteria for abuse. Five outcomes were measured: (i) substance use problem severity; (ii) 30-day frequency of cannabis use; (iii) 30-day frequency of alcohol use; (iv) 30-day frequency of other drug use; and (v) 30-day abstinence. Both treatments produced significant decreases in cannabis consumption and slightly significant reductions in alcohol use, but there were no treatment differences in reducing frequency of cannabis and alcohol use. Significant treatment effects were found favoring MDFT on substance use problem severity, other drug use and minimal use (zero or one occasion of use) of all substances, and these effects continued to 12 months following treatment termination. Both interventions are promising treatments. Consistent with previous controlled trials, MDFT is distinguished by the sustainability of treatment effects.
Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina
This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.
Ma. Asunción Lara
Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.
Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M
Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.
Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E
Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge; Ciftci-Demirci, Arzu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of life-time tobacco, alcohol, and substance use on psychological and behavioral variables among 10th grade students in Istanbul/Turkey. This study employed a cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul. The questionnaire featured a section about use of substances, including tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The depression, anxiety, anger, assertiveness, sensation seeking and impulsiveness subscales of the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) were used. The analyses were conducted based on 4957 subjects. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with each school with the related and behavioral variables as the dependent variables. Gender, tobacco, alcohol, and drug use being the independent variables. All four independent variables predicted the dependent variables. Lifetime tobacco and drug use had significant effects on all the subscale score, whereas lifetime alcohol use had significant effects on all the subscale scores other than lack of assertiveness, and male gender was a significant covariant for all the subscale scores. Drug use showed the highest effect on dependent variables. Interaction was found between effects of tobacco and alcohol on anxiety, whereas interactions were found between effects of tobacco and drugs on lack of assertiveness and impulsiveness. The findings suggested that male students with lifetime tobacco, alcohol or drug use have particularly high risk of psychological and behavioral problems. The unique effects of substance clusters on these problems may be useful in developing secondary preventive practices for substance use and abuse problems in Istanbul.
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are from i...
Palmer, L; Farrar, A R; Valle, M; Ghahary, N; Panella, M; DeGraw, D
Identification and evaluation of child sexual abuse is an integral task for clinicians. To aid these processes, it is necessary to have reliable and valid psychological measures. This is an investigation of the clinical validity and use of the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective drawing, a widely used diagnostic tool, in the assessment of child sexual abuse. HTP drawings were collected archivally from a sample of sexually abused children (n = 47) and a nonabused comparison sample (n = 82). The two samples were grossly matched for gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. The protocols were scored using a quantitative scoring system. The data were analyzed using a discriminant function analysis. Group membership could not be predicted based on a total HTP score.
Johnson, Russell E; Venus, Merlijn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Mao, Changguo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang
Drawing from identity-based theories of leadership, we examined relations of leader identity with leader behavior and perceived effectiveness. To do so, we employed multiwave methodology to examine the differential impact of leaders' chronic collective, relational, and individual identities on the frequency and consistency of their subsequent transformational, consideration, and abusive behaviors over a 3-week period. We also examined the relative importance of these leadership behaviors for predicting perceived leader effectiveness as rated by subordinates and peers. Results indicated that leaders' collective and individual identities were uniquely related to transformational and abusive behaviors, respectively. We also observed a significant collective by individual identity interaction, such that abusive behaviors were most frequent when a strong individual identity was paired with a weak collective identity. Frequency of transformational behaviors accounted for the largest proportion of variance in perceived leader effectiveness, followed by frequency of abusive behaviors and consistency of transformational behaviors. We discuss the implications of these findings for leadership theory and development. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Kef, S.; Bos, H.
In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological
Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy
Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosario Josefa Marrero; Mónica Carballeira; Sabrina Martín; Miriam Mejías
The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning...
Jing-Yu Zhang; Ming Nie; Bing-Sheng Yan; Xing-Dong Wang
Based on social exchange theory, we examined the relationship between network embeddedness and the brand-related behavior intentions of community members from the perspective of psychological ownership...
Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M
This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.
Satapathy, Sujata; Choudhary, Vandana; Sagar, Rajesh
Absence of visible physical symptoms and limited capacity to express trauma directly, pose significant challenges in assessment of its exact nature of trauma and its correlates in child sexual abuse. There are numerous assessment tools however, deciding upon the appropriateness is often challenging in Asian socio-cultural and health care set up. A review would provide a ready reference to the practioner regarding the exact clinically utility of the tools and also would guide them in the direction of culture specific modifications. Computerized databases namely Medline, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and Social Sciences Citation Index were used. 52 scales were obtained and analysed in terms of scale characteristics, reference to theory and DSM, and cultural competency. Despite of a wide variety of methods, and newer instruments, many of the traditionally used techniques of child's internal thinking and emotional assessment appear outdated while reviewing the recent theories of CSA related psychological trauma. An integrated format, incroporating child-parent-clinicain rating, with multiple domain speciafic items and verbal and non-verbal tasks, is the current need in the Asian region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H; Bradshaw, Kelsey; Van Hasselt, Vincent B; Cross, Chad L; Urgelles, Jessica; Romero, Valerie; Hill, Heather H; Allen, Daniel N
Approximately 50% of child protective service (CPS) referrals abuse drugs; yet, existing treatment studies in this population have been limited to case examinations. Therefore, a family-based behavioral therapy was evaluated in mothers referred from CPS for child neglect and drug abuse utilizing a controlled experimental design. Seventy-two mothers evidencing drug abuse or dependence and child neglect were randomly assigned to family behavior therapy (FBT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 10 months postrandomization. As hypothesized, intent-to-treat repeated measures analyses revealed mothers referred for child neglect not due to their children being exposed to illicit drugs demonstrated better outcomes in child maltreatment potential from baseline to 6- and 10-month postrandomization assessments when assigned to FBT, as compared with TAU mothers and FBT mothers who were referred due to child drug exposure. Similar results occurred for hard drug use from baseline to 6 and 10 months postrandomization. However, TAU mothers referred due to child drug exposure were also found to decrease their hard drug use more than TAU mothers of non-drug-exposed children and FBT mothers of drug-exposed children at 6 and 10 months postrandomization. Although effect sizes for mothers assigned to FBT were slightly larger for marijuana use than TAU (medium vs. large), these differences were not statistically significant. Specific to secondary outcomes, mothers in FBT, relative to TAU, increased time employed from baseline to 6 and 10 months postrandomization. Mothers in FBT, compared to TAU, also decreased HIV risk from baseline to 6 months postrandomization. There were no differences in outcome between FBT and TAU for number of days children were in CPS custody and alcohol intoxication, although FBT mothers demonstrated marginal decreases (p = .058) in incarceration from baseline to 6 months postrandomization relative to TAU mothers
Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla
To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.
Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah
Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced self-esteem. Involvement in youth programs moderated the direct effect. Community service moderated the indirect effect. Results indicate 2 hours per week of involvement in youth programs and 2 hours per week of community service mitigated suicide attempt risk associated with abuse. Providing avenues for youth experiencing abuse to increase their community service and involvement is recommended. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.
Raineki, Charlis; Cortés, Millie Rincón; Belnoue, Laure; Sullivan, Regina M.
Abuse during early life, especially from the caregiver, increases vulnerability to develop later life psychopathologies such as depression. Although signs of depression are typically not expressed until later life, signs of dysfunctional social behavior have been found earlier. How infant abuse alters the trajectory of brain development to produce pathways to pathology is not completely understood. Here we address this question using two different but complementary rat models of early-life abuse from postnatal days (PN) 8–12: a naturalistic paradigm, where the mother is provided with insufficient bedding for nest building and a more controlled paradigm, where infants undergo olfactory classical conditioning. Amygdala neural assessment (c-Fos), as well as social behavior and forced swim tests were performed at preweaning (PN20) and adolescence (PN45). Our results show that both models of early life abuse induce deficits in social behavior, even during the preweaning period; however, depressive-like behaviors were observed only during adolescence. Adolescent depressive-like behavior corresponds with an increase in amygdala neural activity in response to forced swim test. A causal relationship between the amygdala and depressive-like behavior was suggested through amygdala temporary deactivation (muscimol infusions), which rescued the depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Our results indicate that social behavior deficits in infancy could serve as an early marker for later psychopathology. Moreover, the implication of the amygdala in the ontogeny of depressive-like behaviors in infant abused animals is an important step toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of later life mental disease associated with early-life abuse. PMID:22649253
Olga L. Obando S
Full Text Available Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r: the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. Methodology: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, women’s identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. Results: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the p a r, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.
Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa
This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults' views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+) participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.
Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.
Valois, R F; Dunham, A C; Jackson, K L; Waller, J
To examine the relationship between adolescents' after-school and weekend employment and substance abuse behaviors in a cross-sectional sample of public high school students in South Carolina. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to secure usable data from 4800 subjects. Logistic regression adjusting for age and using SUDAAN were performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from the regression analyses. Thirty percent of white males, 29% of white females, and 20% of black males and females worked at a job for pay during the academic year. For white males employment, ranging from 11 to 15 h and 26 to > or =31 h was associated with cigarette smoking, working from 11 to > or =31 h was associated with alcohol use, working > or =31 h was associated with binge drinking, working from 26 to > or =31 h was associated with marijuana use, and working from 26 to 30 h was associated with cocaine use. For white females, working from 16 to 20 h was associated with alcohol use, working from 21 to 30 h was associated with binge drinking, and working from 26 to 30 h was associated with marijuana and cocaine use. Youth who work above 15 h/week at a job for pay during high school appear to have an increased risk for substance abuse and its consequences.
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Mills, Chmaika P; Hill, Hope M; Johnson, Joshua A D
Few studies have assessed the individual symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as separate mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse (IPA). This study examined the role of coping strategies associated with symptoms of PTSD in a community sample of African American women who have experienced abuse ( N = 128). The results revealed that nonphysical abuse was more prevalent than physical abuse. Specific symptoms of PTSD expressed depended on the type of abuse experienced and the type of coping strategies utilized. The findings have multiple implications on how IPA is studied as well as its clinical screening and treatment processes.
Matto, Holly; Miller, Keith A; Spera, Christopher
There is growing consensus across literatures that more than individual motivation and "will to change" influence whether a client will be able to make and sustain recovery-related changes to prevent drug relapse post-treatment. New areas of inquiry in the substance abuse field have proposed conceptual models that promote an integration of both individual and social context factors, which offer the opportunity for important developments in clinical practice. This study examined the influence of social context referents on clients' intention to change substance abusing behaviors. The Ecological Assessment of Substance abuse Experiences (EASE), an instrument that measures the influence of social context referents on addiction and recovery behaviors, was administered to 302 inpatient and outpatient adults in treatment for substance abuse. Results showed that the number of people in his/her social network favorable towards recovery (Beta=.222); the extent to which one personally identifies with being in recovery (Beta=.339); the perceived importance of people in the client's social network encouraging recovery-related behaviors (Beta=.369); weak beliefs that drugs will lead to positive outcomes (Beta=-.220); and strong beliefs that recovery will lead to positive outcomes (Beta=.307) were all associated with intention to change substance abusing behavior.